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User Survey 2012


Contents

Preface 1 Introduction Reading Guide 2 Main Results 2012 3 Main Results 2009 to 2011 4 Who Are the Users? 5 The Users’ Assessment of the Experience 6 The Users’ Motivation and Learning Behaviour 7 The Users’ Attitudes, Cultural and Media Habits 8 Kompas Analysis 9 Survey Method

1 3 6 7 17 21 33 37 51 75 81

Appendix 1 State owned and state approved museums Appendix 2 Museums in the survey Appendix 3 Questionnaire

86 87 91


Preface

The museums’ role in society is changing. The User Survey is a tool that contributes to collaboration between citizens, museums and the Danish Agency for Culture on assuming shared responsibility for the development of professional and relevant cultural institutions in Denmark. Both in Denmark and internationally, cultural and educational institutions are focusing on knowledge sharing and knowledge production. This development is sparked by an ongoing paradigm shift in the understanding of, access to, dealing with and definitions of knowledge in a complex, globalised society where sustainability is on the agenda. The transformation includes both a rethink of where and how knowledge production takes place and the question of knowledge relevance. The User Survey for 2012 is part of a three-year project period from 2012 to 2014. From 2013, 40 new cultural institutions will participate in the survey, including art galleries and university museums. This creates new opportunities for learning partnerships between citizens and cultural institutions. The User Survey establishes strong alliances between citizens and cultural institutions. It contributes to co-ownership and citizenship. Internationally, Danish museums’ and cultural institutions’ collaboration with the Danish Agency for Culture about the User Survey is attracting great interest. In this case, Denmark is a pioneer country. In connection with the publication of the User Survey’s results, the Danish Agency for Culture is hosting an international seminar. The seminar focuses on how museums can provide a framework for social learning spaces and knowledge-producing processes. In this way, the survey supports professional development that is based on learning from local initiatives as well as on including significant international experience and knowledge. The User Survey is a tool for transforming museums and cultural institutions into democratic general education institutions in the 21st century’s knowledge society. Ole Winther, Danish Agency for Culture

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User Survey 2012


User Survey 2012

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1

Introduction

User Survey 2012 This publication presents the results of the User Survey conducted at the state-owned and stateapproved museums for 2012 as well as the main results of the User Surveys from 2009 to 2011. The User Survey for 2012 is different in relation to the three former surveys. The concept for the User Survey from the first project period from 2009 to 2011 has been assessed in close collaboration between representatives from the museums, the Danish Agency for Culture, researchers at Danish and foreign universities and TNS Gallup. The experience gathered from the first project period has resulted in a new survey design, in which the questionnaire has been reduced, while at the same time the User Survey now provides knowledge about the users’ learning and motivation behaviour at the museums. The User Survey provides knowledge about who the museums’ users are, how the users use the museums, and the users’ assessments of the museums. The combined results of the User Survey are published in a report each year. This is the fourth year running that the results have been published, which makes it possible to compare the results over a

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User Survey 2012

number of years. The User Survey thus serves as a tool for following up on objectives and strategies in accordance with the survey’s results. In addition to the report with the combined results, each participating institution receives an individual report with the results for the specific institution. The User Survey gives the museums a tool for working strategically with exhibitions, activities and events for and with their users. The results can also be used to launch new initiatives with user groups who are underrepresented at the museums. The purpose of the User Survey is to give the museums tools for professionalising dissemination and communication at the museums. The User Survey contributes to qualifying practice, and at the same time it enables the museums to collaborate and learn from each others’ experience. In 2013, the number of participating institutions in the User Survey has been expanded by 40, including art galleries and university museums as well as a number of cultural institutions that do not receive direct government support. Furthermore, a new question has been added to the User Survey for 2013 to shed light on the users’ cultural affiliations.


THE EDUCATIONAL PLAN

The user survey is a central part of the Danish Ministry of Culture’s Educational Plan, which is to contribute to qualifying and developing the museums’ educational role through the following seven action points: „„ Development of the educational role of

­museums „„ Research into education „„ Training and competence development „„ International experience exchange „„ Museums and Education „„ User surveys „„ Collection and knowledge-sharing

As a part of the Educational Plan, the Danish Agency for Culture has conducted and published a user survey about the museums’ presence online, entitled ‘The Museums’ Web Users – A User Survey of the Museums’ Websites’ from 2010. The Danish Agency for Culture has also conducted a user survey of the museums’ young users and non-users under the title ‘Young People’s Use of Museums’ from 2012. This survey was conducted on the basis of the results from the nationwide user survey, which showed that young users are the group that is most underrepresented at the Danish museums. The User Surveys can be downloaded from www.kulturstyrelsen.dk

The Educational Plan is a part of the Danish government’s strategy, which is to give all sections of the public in Denmark equal access to culture. The action point ‘user surveys’ includes – in addition to the nationwide quantitative user survey – a pool from which the museums can apply for funding for qualitative user surveys that include the results from the quantitative User Survey.

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COMMUNICATION OF THE USER SURVEY’S RESULTS

TARGET GROUPS

The results of the user survey are presented in three different ways:

The results of the user survey are primarily directed at the following four target groups:

„„ In this publication, which presents nationwide

„„ Museums and cultural institutions

results for all state-owned and state-approved museums. „„ In individual branch reports with each of the participating museums’ own results for each six-month period. „„ An online portal where museums can find more detailed results and compare results.

„„ Political decision-makers

In addition, the Danish Agency for Culture will be holding an international seminar on 13 and 14 May 2013, which will focus on social learning spaces and knowledge-producing processes. The seminar will take its starting point in the survey’s results, using four museums’ branch reports as cases. The intention with the seminar is that staff from the museums along with international experts can discuss the user survey’s results and how the results can be implemented in a new practice.

„„ Educational and research institutions „„ Citizens and journalists

Museums and cultural institutions can use the results to gain knowledge about the individual institution’s users and position in the overall Danish museum landscape. Museums and cultural institutions gain tools to help them continue creating access to cultural heritage for all citizens in Denmark and bring the institutions’ knowledge into play in society. The results in this publication supplement the museums’ individual branch reports. The results of the user survey provide relevant background knowledge for political decisionmakers. The publication’s results may give rise to municipal, regional and national initiatives that qualify museums’ and cultural institutions’ management and dissemination of knowledge. The User Survey’s results give researchers and students at Denmark’s educational and research institutions unique knowledge about the users’ assessment of the country’s museums, the users’ motivation and learning behaviour, and knowledge about who the users of Denmark’s museums are. The user survey’s data from all of Denmark’s stateowned and state-approved museums are unique at an international level and can thus contribute to providing greater understanding of museum users globally. The user survey gives citizens and journalists insight into which citizen groups use the Danish museums and into the users’ assessments of the museums. It is the intention that the results of the user survey are to form the basis for creating common involvement in and a common responsibility for a professional development of the museums’ dissemination of knowledge.

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Reading Guide

The report is structured so that it can be read as a whole, but also selectively – depending on which target group the reader belongs to, his/her specific needs, and which results are of particular interest. Chapter 2 presents the survey’s main results and ­recommendations based on the results of the User Survey for 2012. Chapter 3 summarises the main results from the user surveys for the first project period from 2009 to 2011. Chapter 4 presents the results about who the museums’ users are, distributed across gender, age groups, education and place of residence. Chapter 5 shows the users’ overall assessment of their museum experience and the users’ assessments of a number of core services, including exhibitions, the possibility of participating actively, and service. The chapter also presents an analysis of what the users give highest priority to in relation to a good museum experience. Chapter 6 analyses the users based on their motivation and learning behaviour. Chapter 7 gives a detailed description of Gallup­ Kompas’ nine segments, including the segments’ cultural and media habits. Chapter 8 analyses the users based on GallupKompas. Chapter 9 describes the user survey’s method and data basis. Then follows a list of the participating museums and the questionnaire that forms the basis for the user survey’s results.

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2

Main Results 2012

WHO ARE THE USERS?

USERS WHO LIVE ABROAD

This chapter presents the main results from the User Survey for 2012 and gives a number of recommendations based on the survey’s results.

23% of the users at the Danish museums live abroad. The largest group of users who live abroad comes from Germany. German users make up 37% of the museums’ foreign users.

USERS WHO LIVE IN DENMARK

The proportion of users who live in Denmark is on a par with the previous three years’ results, and in 2012, it makes up 77% of the users. Women and elderly users continue to be overrepresented at the museums, while users in the age group 14 to 29 years are underrepresented. 15% of the users at the museums are young people, while in the entire Danish population, this group generally makes up 23%. From 2009 to 2012, the proportion of young users at the museums has increased from 12% to 15%. There is an overrepresentation of highly educated people among the users. 26% have a long higher education as compared to 7% of the Danish population as a whole. Users who live in the Capital Region are overrepresented, while users who live in Region Zealand are underrepresented. 29% of the users come from a holiday address when they visit the museums.

Users who live in Germany mainly visit museums in the Region of Southern Denmark and the Region of Central Denmark. The Capital Region and Region Zealand have notably more users who live in other European countries and the rest of the world. There is also a majority of women among the foreign users, although not at the museums of natural history. Users who live abroad are generally younger than users who live in Denmark. 63% of the users are under 50 years of age, as compared to 44% of the users who live in Denmark. The educational level is higher than among Danish users. 47% have a long higher education as compared to 26% of the Danish users. 84% of the users who live abroad come from a holiday address.

The target group for the survey is all users aged 14 and above who can complete a questionnaire. A ’user’ is a visitor at the physical museum or someone who has participated in an event at or ­outside the museum, which has been organised by the museum.

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77%

live in Denmark

Women are overrepresented.

26% have a long higher education as compared to 7%

15% are aged 14 to 29,

of the Danish population as a whole.

while this group makes up 23% of the Danish population.

Elderly people are overrepresented. Users who live in the Capital Region are overrepresented. users who live in Region Zealand are underrepresented.

29%

come from a holiday address.

37% come from Germany

84% come from a holiday address. 47% have a long higher education.

23%

live abroad User Survey 2012

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THE USERS’ ASSESSMENT OF THE MUSEUM EXPERIENCE

ACTIVITY AND REFLECTION

On a scale from 1 to 10, the users rate their overall museum experience at 8.35. This is a higher assessment than the one given during the user surveys from 2009 to 2011. The parameters related to the visit that the users give the highest assessment are information at ticket sales, and service and assistance. The areas that are given the lowest rating are the possibility of participating actively and suitability for children. This is a trend that also characterised the three previous years’ user surveys.

Another important factor for the users’ overall assessment of the visit is the questions about activity and reflection. The users want to participate in activities at the museum, share knowledge and participate in events. They request settings for socialising across generations, including that the museum is suitable for children. They want differentiated learning options. The users also want space for reflection and contemplation.

The User Survey shows that the older the users are, the more positively they assess the museum, and that women assess the exhibitions more positively than men do. Conversely, young men generally assess the museums most negatively. Practically all users would recommend their experience to others. Young users are the group in which the fewest people would recommend the museum experience. The three factors that are of greatest significance to the users’ overall assessment are: the Exhibition, Activity, and Reflection and Service. THE EXHIBITION

The thing that is of greatest significance to the users’ overall assessment of the visit is their experience of the exhibitions. That which matters in order for the users to experience that the exhibition is good is that it features relevant themes, that the exhibition design works, the atmosphere and the possibility of learning something new. This means that the higher the user rates the questions about the exhibition, the higher the user’s overall assessment of the visit.

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SERVICE

The third factor that is of importance to the museum visit is service. The users appreciate service and assistance from the museum’s staff. They value good information at ticket sales, signage that makes it easier to find their way around the museum, and information about the exhibitions. It is significant that all factors matter in the overall experience, but that some matter more than others.


THE USERS’ MOTIVATION AND LEARNING BEHAVIOUR

23% of the users are Experience seekers.

The User Survey 2012 provides knowledge about the users’ motivation and learning behaviour. The users have answered questions about the context in which they visit the museum. The results from the users’ responses are shown below:

Facilitator: I am here to give those I am with a good experience. The most important thing is that the people I am with find it interesting to be here. 10% of the users are Facilitators.

Recharger: I am here to recharge my batteries and to find peace and quiet for contemplation. I am seeking aesthetic experiences in the exhibits, architecture and surroundings of this exhibition venue. 14% of the users are Rechargers. Professional/hobbyist: I am here because I have a specific professional interest. I am taking a critical look at the exhibition(s) and the professionalism of the presentation. 13% of the users Professionals/ hobbyists. Experience seeker: I am here to experience and concentrate on what is most eye-catching. I do not have to see everything to get to know the place.

Explorer: I am curious and interested. I am here today to gain new knowledge and inspiration. 33% of the users are Explorers. Tag-along: I am here because I am accompanying others. 7% of the users are Tag-along. There is a great variation in the average overall assessment of the experience depending on the user’s motivation for the visit. The motivation segment which on average gives the experience the highest rating is the recharger, who on average rates the museum experience at 8.71. The tag-along motivation segment gives the museum experience the lowest assessment with an average rating of 7.6.

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The recharger segment is the motivation segment that has the highest proportion of users with a higher education. 68% of the users in the segment have a medium-length or long higher education. The explorer motivation segment has the highest proportion of users with a lower secondary school education; they make up 22% of the segment. THE USERS DISTRIBUTED ACROSS GALLUPKOMPAS

GallupKompas is a tool that divides the population into segments with the same attitudes, values and lifestyle. Using GallupKompas, it is possible to compare the segment composition among the users at the museums with the segment composition of the entire Danish population. OVERREPRESENTED SEGMENTS

Four segments are overrepresented at the museums in relation to the Danish population as a whole: „„ The modern community-orientated „„ The community-orientated „„ The traditional community-orientated „„ The modern

UNDERREPRESENTED SEGMENTS

Four segments are underrepresented at the museums in relation to the Danish population as a whole: „„ The traditional „„ The traditional individual-orientated „„ The modern individual-orientated „„ The individual-orientated

As a whole, the overrepresented segments are characterised by being major consumers of cultural offers. This means that they are users who frequently visit museums and exhibitions, and who also make extensive use of other cultural offers such as libraries, cinemas, concerts, theatres etc. The modern community-orientated segment makes up the largest proportion of museum users, i.e. 19% of the Danish users, while the segment as a whole only makes up 12% of the Danish population.

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Knowledge and value The museums are in the middle of a transformation process in relation to their dissemination of knowledge. Today, the museums’ role is to present different possibilities and bring knowledge into play. This is a development of multi-voice reflection spaces where knowledge is up for negotiation. The museums’ dissemination of knowledge is a joint project between institution and citizen and between the institutions and the surrounding society. The museums’ new role demands new professional competences and new research into the knowledge production that takes place and could take place at museums. The state-owned and state-approved museums are under obligation to comply with the Danish Museum Act, which has five pillars: collection, registration, preservation, research and education. The new demands on and expectations to the museums mean that the professional standards for research and education are in focus with a view to ensuring that the museums’ research-based knowledge become an active resource by means of professional pedagogical and didactic competences. The objective is to develop new methods based on the User Survey’s results about which factors constitute a meaningful museum visit and insight into the users’ different motivation and learning


­ ehaviour forms. The results document the comb plex and ambiguous factors that create a relevant museum visit to the individual citizen. The museum visit is conditioned by the relation between people and the physical settings. In other words, that which takes place between objects and people in rooms. The survey focuses on how physical settings affect people’s well-being and behaviour forms. The atmosphere is decisive for learning and education. The concept of atmosphere can open up to an understanding of what takes place between users and the museum. The user survey provides new tools for creating settings for experience, development and learning. This means settings that take individual and collective experience and knowledge into account. The scientific-theoretical starting point for studies of the atmosphere concept in relation to material culture is phenomenological. That is, the physical, sensory experience that is not necessarily concrete and verbal. The phenomenologist Merleau Ponty has described how the body and the senses are the starting

point for the encounter with a room / an exhibition. The user survey documents that it is relevant to work with a didactic design where the atmosphere contributes to the development of potentials for social learning spaces and knowledge-producing processes. Learning partnerships are a central tool for the development of the museums’ relevance in society, where social and cultural complexity is a basic condition. It is necessary to develop an intercultural practice that creates space for the potentials in social and cultural diversity. German sociologist Georg Simmel (1858-1918) reflected on the potentials in intercultural communication and described the challenges in his article, ‘Der Fremde’ (1908). Simmel defined the stranger as the person who comes today and stays tomorrow and who has not been there from the beginning. This implies another interpersonal relation for the stranger between proximity and distance. A relation that is characterised by the fact that the stranger is physically close, but socially distant. An individual

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may be a part of a system in a spatial sense, but not be included in a social sense. It is due to this position that a stranger in the system can add new value to it. Georg Simmel’s schematic sociological deliberations describe the mechanisms that learning partnerships are based on. And with the museums’ architecture and collections as tools and knowledge resources, the museums can create room for people to find meaning and direction through encounters that build on a great variety of knowledge and experience and on emerging and being formed in interaction with others. The Danish Agency for Culture supports strategic work to include citizen groups in a progressive development process that challenges the museums’ possibility space. Learning partnerships with institutions and citizen groups with different social and cultural backgrounds are a prerequisite for the development of museums that can contribute to sustainable development with competence and relevance. The initiatives are to contribute to ensuring that the museums live up to their democratic

responsibility as knowledge institutions and learning environments in society. QUALITY ASSURANCE AND DEVELOPMENT

The user surveys constitute a tool that can promote framework conditions for the creation of inclusive museums that contribute to the development of cultural democracy. The results of the user surveys challenge the museums’ self-perception as it is expressed in the organisation and its employees. The results of the survey call for new professional methods and new content in dialogue and learning partnerships with citizens and institutions in society. The Danish Agency for Culture has prepared a set of recommendations that are based on a rethink of the museum institution and build on continual quality assurance and development. The recommendations focus on the museums’ potentials as knowledge centres and learning environments. The intention is that they are to contribute to setting new professional standards for knowledge sharing and knowledge production. The recommendations include three categories: institution, citizens and society, which are dialectically related to each other.

INSTITUTION

CITIZENS

SOCIETY

„„ To develop a learning

„„ To generate new know-

„„ To address vital issues and

organisation that builds on strategic resource development of staff diversity. „„ To develop the staff’s

specialised knowledge, including their pedagogical and didactic competences. „„ To challenge the staff’s insti-

tutional assumptions. „„ To create learning part-

nerships with citizens and private and public institutions, including educational institutions.

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ledge that is of relevance to and has a connection to the citizens’ everyday life. „„ To stimulate curiosity and

personal reflection as well as the ability to think critically. „„ To create opportunities

for studying and clarifying values that contribute to bolster and challenge identities. „„ To contribute to handling

complexity and uncertainty and promote motivation and action.

possibilities in society. „„ To facilitate meetings bet-

ween different social groups that promote debate and social interaction. „„ To procure long-term col-

laboration relations that create meaning in society. „„ To create awareness about

global influence on local conditions and decisions.


The regional distribution of museums

ART CULTURAL HISTORY NATURAL HISTORY

NORTH DENMARK REGION

CENTRAL DENMARK REGION

CAPITAL REGION OF DENMARK

REGION OF SOUTHERN DENMARK

REGION ZEALAND

User Survey 2012

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15

User Survey 2012


User Survey 2012

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3

Main Results 2009 to 2011

This chapter contains the main results from the User Survey’s first project period from 2009 to 2011.

Users who live abroad During the period 2009 to 2011, the proportion of foreign users at the Danish museums remained more or less stable between 22% and 24%. In all three years, users living in Germany made up the largest group of foreign users. During the period, users living in Germany increased from a proportion of 34% to 39%. During the same period, the proportion of users living in Norway and Sweden decreased from 18% in 2009 to 13% in 2011. The proportion of users living in the rest of Europe and the rest of the world remained stable throughout all three years. Users from the UK, the Netherlands and France made up 17%, while other European countries made up 13% of users living abroad. In addition, 13% of the foreign users came from the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, and 4% came from the rest of the world.

Users who live in Denmark GENDER

During the period 2009 to 2011, the proportion of women and men, respectively, at the Danish museums remained stable, with women making up 60% of the users and men 40%.

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Women were overrepresented at the art museums in particular, while men were least underrepresented at the museums of natural history, where in 2011 they made up 43% of the users. AGE

The age distribution among the museum users did not change significantly during the period 2009 to 2011. Users in the age group 14 to 29 years were underrepresented and stayed between 12% and 13%, while in the Danish population as a whole, this group makes up 23%. At the same time, users aged 65 and above were overrepresented in 2011 with a proportion of 26%. EDUCATION

The museum users’ distribution in relation to their educational background did not change significantly during the survey period from 2009 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of users who had a lower/ upper secondary school education made up 17%, while the largest group were users with a short or medium-length education. The group of users who had a long higher education made up 27%, which made them the most overrepresented group. In Denmark as a whole, this group only makes up 6% of the population. The most underrepresented group were users with a vocational education, who in 2011 only made up 15% of the users, while in general, they make up 33% of the Danish population.


THE MUSEUM VISIT

61% of the users stated that they came to see the museum, while 30% of the users stated that they came to see a particular special exhibition. The results of the User Survey showed that the museum visit is a social event. Only 7% of the users came to the museums alone. On the whole, the users rated their museum experience highly, giving an average score of 8.2 on a scale from 1 to 10. The factor that the users gave the lowest rating was the possibility of participating actively. This factor was given an average rating of 6.7 on a scale from 1 to 10.

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VISITING PATTERNS MUSEUM CATEGORIES

The distribution of users across the three museum categories was not directly proportional. 75% of the museums in the survey were cultural history museums, while they only received 53% of the users. The art museums had relatively most users in relation to the number of museums in the survey. 44% of all the museums’ users visited the art museums, which only make up 21% of the total number of museums. The museums of natural history make up 4% of all museums and had a ­corresponding 4% of all users.

FIRST-TIME USERS AND USERS WHO HAD VISITED THE MUSEUM BEFORE

The distribution of first-time users and users who had visited the museum before also remained stable during the period 2009 to 2011. 61% of the users had visited the museum before, while 39% were first-time users. The museums of cultural history and natural history had the largest proportions of first-time users, i.e. 45% and 49%, respectively, while only 31% of the art museums’ users stated that they were visiting the museum for the first time.

Summary The User Survey for 2009 to 2011 documented that the Danish museums were used like never before. The User Survey also showed that the users of the Danish museums were generally very satisfied with their museum experiences. The results of the User Survey revealed that the museums in Denmark continue to face great challenges in relation to being relevant to all groups of the population. Thus, a great social inequality is still evident in relation to the users of the Danish museums. Based on the results of the surveys, it has also become clear that a museum visit is a social event and that it is therefore relevant to focus on how the museums can create settings for social learning spaces and knowledgeproducing processes.

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User Survey 2012


Users who live in Denmark

61% WOMEN

Art

36%

Cultural history

64%

40%

60%

Natural history

43%

57%

AGE GROUPS 14-29 YEARS

30-49 YEARS

50-64 YEARS

65+ YEARS

15%

29%

30%

27% User Survey 2012

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4

Who Are the Users?

Here follows a description of the museums’ users. The chapter is divided into users who live in Denmark and users who live abroad. The survey does not use the concept of tourist, but sheds light on how many users come from a holiday address when they visit a museum. The results in the section about users who live in Denmark are compared to data from Statistics Denmark for the entire population of Denmark aged 14 years and above. The following questions are analysed based on users who live in Denmark and users who live abroad, respectively: „„ What is the gender distribution

among the users? „„ What is the age distribution

among the users? „„ What is the education-related

distribution among the users? „„ Where do the users live?

FIGURE 4.1 DENMARK (77%) NORWAY (1%) SWEDEN (2%) GERMANY (8%) OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES (7%) OTHER (4%)

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PLACE OF RESIDENCE

Figure 4.1 shows the distribution of the users’ places of residence. 77% of the users in the user survey live in Denmark, while users who live abroad make up 23% of the users at the museums. The largest group of users who live abroad comes from Germany. German users make up 8% of all users at the museums in Denmark. 7% of the users who live abroad come from other European countries, while Norwegian and Swedish users make up 1% and 2%, respectively, of the users at the museums.


FIGURE 4.2

USERS WHO LIVE IN DENMARK, DISTRIBUTED ACROSS GENDER 39%

USERS WHO LIVE IN DENMARK

61% 49%

DANISH POPULATION

51%

36%

ART

64%

40%

CULTURAL HISTORY

60%

43%

NATURAL HISTORY

57%

MAN

FIGURE 4.3

USERS WHO LIVE IN DENMARK, DISTRIBUTED ACROSS AGE GROUPS 23%

USERS WHO LIVE IN DENMARK

33%

15%

DANISH POPULATION ART

WOMAN

29%

13%

USERS WHO LIVE IN DENMARK

CULTURAL HISTORY NATURAL HISTORY

28% 54%

23% 17%

30-49

50-64

12%

65+

USERS WHO LIVE IN DENMARK, DISTRIBUTED ACROSS EDUCATIONAL LEVELS 10%

7%

15%

9%

34%

DANISH POPULATION ART

34%

32%

14-29

FIGURE 4.4

27%

33%

18%

NATURAL HISTORY

21%

30%

20%

16%

CULTURAL HISTORY

23%

7%

6%

14% 8%

11% 7%

7%

12%

8%

33%

8% 18%

26%

33% 4%

34% 10%

8%

LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

14% 33%

31% 32%

7%

20% 33%

SHORT HIGHER EDUCATION MEDIUM-LENGTH HIGHER EDUCATION LONG HIGHER EDUCATION

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Users who live in Denmark 77% of the users at the Danish museums live in Denmark. This section takes a closer look at who these users are.

with just 29% of the users being 50 years old or above. 51% of the cultural history museums’ users are 50 years older or above.

GENDER

EDUCATION

Figure 4.2 shows the gender distribution among ­users compared to the population of Denmark. It also shows the users’ distribution across gender for the three museum categories.

Figure 4.4 shows the users’ educational levels as compared to the educational levels of the Danish population as a whole. Reservations must be made for the fact that Statistics Denmark’s specification of educational levels differs from the specification of educational levels in the user survey. In the User Survey, users aged 14 years or above are registered on the basis of their ongoing or completed education. In Statistics Denmark’s figures for the Danish population, citizens aged 15 years or above are registered on the basis of their highest completed education.

The results show that women are overrepresented at the museums. This result has been found in all of the User Surveys from 2009 to 2011. 61% of the users are women, while 39% are men. In the Danish population, women make up 51% and men 49%. At the art museums, the proportion of women is 64%, while the proportion of women at the museums of cultural history is 60%. At the museums of natural history, 57% of the users are women. AGE

Figure 4.3 shows users who live in Denmark distributed across age groups and across the three museum categories. There is a marked overrepresentation of users aged 50 to 64 in relation to this age group’s proportion in the Danish population. The 50 to 64-year-olds make up 30% of the users at the museums, while they only make up 23% of the Danish population. Young people aged between 14 and 29 make up 15% of the users at the museums, while they make up 23% of the Danish population. This means that young people aged between 14 and 29 are the most underrepresented age group at the museums. However, a positive development has been seen over the four years where the survey has been conducted, as the proportion of young users at the museums in Denmark has increased from 12% to 15%. The art museums have the oldest users, with 67% of the users being 50 years old or above. The museums of natural history have the youngest users,

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The educational level among the users at the museums is higher than in the Danish population in general. 68% of the users have a medium-length or long higher education as compared to 26% of the Danish population in general. Similarly, people who have a long higher education make up 26% of the users, which is an overrepresentation in comparison to the Danish population, where they only make up 7%. At the same time, users with a short education are underrepresented at the museums. 17% of the users have a lower/upper secondary school educational background as compared to 42% of the population. All three museum categories have most users with a short or medium-length higher education. The art museums and the museums of natural history have a relatively large proportion of users with a long higher education, i.e. 33% of their users, and a relatively small proportion of users with a vocational education. They make up 11% and 12%, respectively. The museums of cultural history have relatively many users with a lower/upper secondary educational background, i.e. 21%, and users with a vocational education make up 18%.


FIGURE 4.5

USERS WHO LIVE IN DENMARK, DISTRIBUTED ACROSS REGIONS 31%

USERS WHO LIVE IN DENMARK

15%

34%

DANISH POPULATION

11%

42%

ART

12%

CAPITAL REGION OF DENMARK REGION ZEALAND

FIGURE 4.6

10%

24%

9%

20%

11%

27% 16%

8%

REGION OF SOUTHERN DENMARK CENTRAL DENMARK REGION

8% 20%

8%

NORTH DENMARK REGION

USERS WHO LIVE IN DENMARK WHO VISIT MUSEUMS FROM A HOLIDAY ADDRESS 29%

USERS WHO LIVE IN DENMARK

71%

26%

ART

74%

32%

CULTURAL HISTORY NATURAL HISTORY

17% 28%

53%

NATURAL HISTORY

23%

22% 11%

26%

CULTURAL HISTORY

22%

68%

14%

YES

RESIDENCE

Figure 4.5 shows in which regions the users live as compared to the Danish population as a whole. 34% of the users live in the Capital Region of Denmark as compared to 31% of the Danish population, while 9% of the museum users live in the North Denmark Region as compared to 10% of the population in general. There are relatively few users from Region Zealand, only 11% by comparison to the 15% of the population who live in this region. 42% of the users who visit an art museum and 53% of the users who visit a museum of natural history come from the Capital Region of Denmark. Users who live in the Capital Region of Denmark are thus overrepresented at art museums and museums of natural history. This may be due to the fact that 40% of all art museums are located in the Capital Region of Denmark. By contrast, only 30% of the

86%

NO

natural history museums are located in the Capital Region of Denmark, which does not explain the large number of users who live in the Capital Region of Denmark who visit the museums of natural history. HOLIDAY ADDRESS

Figure 4.6 shows the distribution of users who visit the museums from a holiday address. Overall, 29% of the users who live in Denmark come from a holiday address. The picture varies between the three museum categories. Especially the museums of cultural history receive visitors who come from a holiday address. 32% of the cultural history museums’ users come from a holiday address. Only 26% of the art museums’ users come from a holiday address, and 14% of the users at the natural history museums come from a holiday address.

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FIGURE 4.7 USERS WHO LIVE ABROAD ART

USERS WHO LIVE ABROAD, DISTRIBUTED ACROSS MUSEUM CATEGORIES 4%

10%

37%

6%

20%

CULTURAL HISTORY

3% 5%

NATURAL HISTORY

9%

30%

16%

21%

36%

48% 14%

27%

25%

NORWAY SWEDEN

CAPITAL REGION OF DENMARK

4%

REGION ZEALAND

3% 6%

REGION OF SOUTHERN DENMARK

2% 4%

16%

15%

OTHER

38%

24%

27%

38%

29%

64%

6% 3% 16%

20%

54%

26%

16%

NORWAY SWEDEN

FIGURE 4.9

12%

GERMANY OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

USERS WHO LIVE ABROAD, DISTRIBUTED ACROSS REGIONS

NORTH DENMARK REGION

18%

41%

FIGURE 4.8

CENTRAL DENMARK REGION

19%

37%

20%

GERMANY OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

9% 11% 11%

OTHER

USERS WHO LIVE ABROAD, DISTRIBUTED ACROSS GENDER 47%

USERS WHO LIVE ABROAD

53%

44%

ART

56%

48%

CULTURAL HISTORY

52%

55%

NATURAL HISTORY

MAN

45%

WOMAN

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Users who live abroad The users who live abroad have a different profile from the users who live in Denmark. The foreign users make up 23% of the users in the survey. Residence

Figure 4.7 shows users who live abroad distributed across museum categories. The largest group of foreign users comes from Germany and makes up 37% of the users who live abroad. Then follows other European countries, which make up 30% of the foreign users. 19% of the foreign users come from countries outside Europe, while 10% come from Sweden, and 4% come from Norway. Users from Germany particularly visit the museums of cultural history. 48% of the foreign users at the museums of cultural history come from Germany. 27% of the foreign users at the museums of cultural history come from other European countries. The art museums are the category that proportionally attracts most users who live outside Europe, i.e. 21% of their foreign users come from countries outside Europe. 36% of the art museums’ foreign users come from other European countries. 41% of the foreign users at the museums of natural history come from other European countries, and 25% of the foreign users come from Germany. Regions

Figure 4.8 shows users who live abroad distributed across regions. The foreign users are distributed differently across the five regions. The Region of Southern Denmark and the Central Denmark Region have notably more users who live in Germany than the rest of the country with 64% and 54%, respectively, of their foreign users.

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The Capital Region of Denmark and Region Zealand have notably more users who live abroad who come from other European countries. In both regions, they make up 38% of the foreign users. The two regions also have a higher proportion of users who come from countries outside Europe. 27% of the Capital Region of Denmark’s foreign users and 29% of Region Zealand’s foreign users come from countries outside Europe. Out of the users who live abroad, the North Denmark Region has the largest proportion of users from Norway, i.e. 16%. Furthermore, 16% of the North Denmark Region’s foreign users come from Sweden, as is also the case for the Capital Region of Denmark. Users who live in Germany make up 37% of the North Denmark Region’s foreign users, which makes it the largest group of foreign users in the region. Gender

Figure 4.9 shows the gender distribution among users who live abroad. There is a slight majority of female users among the users who live abroad. Thus, 53% of the users are women and 47% are men. The gender distribution is different when the foreign users are distributed across the three museum categories. At the art museums, there is a majority of female users, as 56% of the users at the art museums who live abroad are women, while 44% are men. At the museums of cultural history, the figures are close to the overall result. 52% of the users are women, while 48% are men. At the museums of natural history, the gender distribution is different, as 55% of the foreign users are men and 45% are women.


FIGURE 4.10

USERS WHO LIVE ABROAD, DISTRIBUTED ACROSS AGE GROUPS 23%

USERS WHO LIVE ABROAD

40%

22%

ART

31%

17% 22%

45% 34%

NATURAL HISTORY

12%

30%

24%

CULTURAL HISTORY

25%

44%

14-29

30-49

16%

50-64

USERS WHO LIVE ABROAD, DISTRIBUTED ACROSS EDUCATIONAL LEVELS

USERS WHO LIVE ABROAD

4%

ART

8%

7%

2% 7% 3% 7%

CULTURAL HISTORY

5%

NATURAL HISTORY

6%

15% 6%

13%

22% 58%

8%

21%

11%

15%

LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

FIGURE 4.12

47%

23% 10%

5%

65+

FIGURE 4.11

12%

9%

41% 49%

SHORT HIGHER EDUCATION MEDIUM-LENGTH HIGHER EDUCATION LONG HIGHER EDUCATION

USERS WHO LIVE ABROAD WHO COME FROM A HOLIDAY ADDRESS 84%

USERS WHO LIVE ABROAD 75%

ART

25% 89%

CULTURAL HISTORY

83%

NATURAL HISTORY

YES

16%

11% 17%

NO

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AGE

Figure 4.10 shows users who live abroad distributed across age groups and across the three museum categories. The average foreign user is quite a bit younger than the users who live in Denmark. Making up 40%, the largest group of foreign users are aged between 30 and 49. Just as the case is for users who live in Denmark, the art museums attract most foreign users. The younger users are found at the museums of natural history, where 34% are in the age group 14 to 29 years. EDUCATION

Figure 4.11 shows foreign users’ distribution across educational levels across the three museum categories. 47% of the users who live abroad have a long higher education as compared to 26% of the users who live in Denmark. All three categories have most users with a long higher education. The art museums have 58% and thus the highest proportion, followed

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by the museums of natural history with a proportion of 49% of foreign users who have a long higher education, while the museums of cultural history have the smallest proportion, i.e. 41%. Correspondingly, the museums of cultural history have relatively many users who live abroad who have a lower/upper secondary school education background, as they make up 20% and 29%, respectively, of the users who have a short or medium-length education. HOLIDAY ADDRESS

Figure 4.12 shows users who live abroad who come from a holiday address, distributed across the three museum categories. 84% of the users who live abroad come from a holiday address. It is particularly the cultural history museums’ foreign users who come from a holiday address, a total of 89%. With 75%, the art museums have the fewest foreign users who come from a holiday address. At the natural history museums, 83% of the foreign users come from a holiday address, which corresponds to the overall result for foreign users.


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Figure 5.1

THE USERS’ ASSESSMENT OF THE OVERALL EXPERIENCE AND THE INDIVIDUAL PARTS OF THE EXPERIENCE

Overall assessment of the experience

8.35

ART

8.43

CULTURAL HISTORY

8.31

NATURAL HISTORY

8.13

EXHIBITIONS

8.37

ATMOSPHERE

8.65

SUITABILITY FOR CHILDREN

7.06

POSSIBILITY OF LEARNING SOMETHING NEW

8.27

EXHIBITION SUBJECTS

8.30

PRESENTATION OF EXHIBITIONS

8.36

POSSIBILITY OF PARTICIPATING ACTIVELY

6.46

EVENTS

7.53

SPACE FOR REFLECTION AND INTROSPECTION

7.85

VARIATION IN COMMUNICATION

7.55

SERVICE AND ASSISTANCE

8.74

INFORMATION AT TICKET SALES

8.83

AVERAGE 2011

8.21

AVERAGE 2010

8.19

AVERAGE 2009

8.35

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

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5

The Users’ Assessment of the Experience

Chapter 5 analyses the users’ assessment of the museums. The following questions are analysed: „„ How do the users assess the overall experience? „„ How do the users assess the museums’ core

services and assistance? „„ Which users do generally give the museums a

high rating? „„ Which factors are of greatest importance to the

users’ overall assessment of the visit?

the users give the highest ranking, i.e. 8.43. The cultural history museums’ exhibitions are given an average assessment of 8.31, and the natural history museums’ exhibitions are rated at 8.13. The parameters that the users give the highest assessment are information at ticket sales at 8.83, and service and assistance at 8.74. The area that the users give the lowest assessment is the possibility of participating actively, rated at 6.46, and the museum’s suitability for children, rated at 7.06. This is also a trend that has been seen over the four years where the user surveys have been conducted.

THE OVERALL EXPERIENCE

This section presents the users’ assessment of the overall experience and the museums’ core services. Figure 5.1 shows the users’ average assessment of the overall experience on a scale from 1 to 10, where 10 is the highest. The overall assessment is at 8.35. This rating is higher than ratings given in the previous user surveys. The overall assessment of the experience has risen each of the four years where the user survey has been conducted. In 2011, the overall assessment was at 8.21. Just as the results from the previous user surveys have shown, it is the art museums’ exhibitions that

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WHICH USERS GIVE THE MUSEUMS THE HIGHEST ASSESSMENT?

The users that give the museums the highest assessment are the oldest users. The analysis shows that the older the users are, the more positively they assess the museum. The analysis also shows that women assess the exhibitions more positively than men do. Conversely, young men generally assess the museums most negatively. In order to get a clearer picture of who give the museums the highest assessment, statistical analysis models have been used, i.e. factor analysis and ordinal regression.


Three factors

ACTIVITY AND REFLECTION

The users have assessed their experience via 12 questions about different aspects of the visit. In general, these aspects can be grouped into three general factors: Exhibition, Activity and Reflection, and Service.

The factor that is of second-most significance to the overall assessment of the visit is the questions about activity and reflection. The users want to participate in activities at the museum, share knowledge and participate in events. They request settings for socialising across generations, including that the museum is suitable for children. They want differentiated learning options. They also want space for reflection and contemplation.

EXHIBITION

The thing that is of greatest significance to the users’ overall assessment of the visit is their experience of the museums’ exhibitions. That which matters in order for the users to experience that the exhibition is good is that it features relevant themes, that the exhibition design works, the atmosphere of the exhibition, and the possibility of learning something new. This means that the higher the user rates the questions about the exhibition, the higher the user’s overall assessment of the visit.

SERVICE

Service is the third factor in the overall assessment of the visit. The users appreciate service and assistance from the museum’s staff. They value good information at ticket sales and information about the exhibitions.

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Figure 5.2 Factors that are important to the users’ overall assessment of the experience

EXHIBITION „„ „„ „„ „„ „„

2

Exhibitions Atmosphere Learning options Exhibition subjects Exhibition design

1

ACTIVITY AND REFLECTION

Suitability for children Possibility of participating actively Events Space for reflection and contemplation „„ Variation in dissemination og knowledge „„ „„ „„ „„

Service

3

„„ Service and assistance „„ Information at ticket sales

Figure 5.2 shows the questions, which are categorised under factors, and the categorisation is numbered in accordance with the impact degree. Factor 1 has the greatest impact on the users’ overall assessment of the visit, and factor 3 has the least impact. The analysis shows that the museums’ traditional core services are of greatest significance to the overall assessment of the museum visit. If the assessment of the exhibition is positive, the overall assessment of the visit becomes more positive. It is significant that all factors matter in the overall experience, but that some matter more than others.

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6

The Users’ Motivation and Learning Behaviour

The survey focuses on the users’ motivation and learning behaviour. I.e. why the users visit the museums, and how they use the museums’ exhibitions. The survey points out how the users acquire knowledge at the museum.

It is significant that this is a specific role that the individual museum user accepts on this particular day in this particular situation. In other words, it is possible to visit the museum as a recharger one day and as a facilitator the next.

Museologist John Falk has conducted research into the questions of why citizens visit museums, what they do at museums, and what they gain from experiences at museums. Based on these questions, John Falk has developed a theory that can give museums and cultural institutions tools for developing their institutions in relation to the citizens’ motivation and learning behaviour.

The result about the users’ motivation and learning behaviour segmentation provides knowledge about:

The users in the survey are divided into six different types, each with their own motivation and learning behaviour. John Falk’s theory has been applied to Danish conditions in close collaboration between staff at Danish museums, TNS Gallup, the Danish Agency for Culture and John Falk himself. John Falk’s studies and research show that the motivation for a museum visit is decisive for what the users actually do at the museum, and what sense the user subsequently makes of the experience. For instance, the type that is called the facilitator in the survey is motivated for the museum visit by wanting to give his/her child a good and educational experience. This is decisive for the facilitator’s behaviour at the museum. Thus, the facilitator will do everything to make it a good and educational day for the child. What the facilitator will subsequently take home from the visit to the museum is whether he/she succeeded in creating a good and educational day for the child.

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„„ Which motivation the user has for visiting a

museum. „„ Which settings for exchange of knowledge the

museum should develop. „„ How museums should differentiate their commu-

nication to the different motivation and learning behaviour types. „„ Which motivation and learning behaviour types do not visit the museum. The results of the user survey give the museums knowledge about their users’ motivation composition and thereby their communication needs. The museums can use the results to assess whether their communication and dissemination is optimum in relation to the users’ motivation for visiting the museum.

The motivation segments Here follows a brief review and the characteristics of the motivation segments and the different learning behaviour forms that are related to the segments.


“I am curious and interested. I am here today to gain new knowledge and inspiration.”

Explorer The explorer usually visits out of a general ­interest for that which can be found at the ­museums. The explorer is driven by curiosity and would like to be informed about everything. The explorer is interested in learning and seeks new knowledge. The segment is attracted by new exhibitions, primarily because this appeals to their desire to expand their horizon while at the same time they enjoy immersing themselves in details.

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Facilitator

“I am here to give those I am with a good experience. The most important thing is that the people I am with find it interesting to be here.�

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The facilitator is motivated by a social ­learning process. The facilitator visits the museum to create a good experience for others. The motivation of the facilitator is to stage a social event that works. The facilitator is not personally interested in seeking knowledge.


“I am here to experience and concentrate on what is most eye-catching. I do not have to see everything to get to know the place.”

Experience seeker The experience seeker is motivated by the idea of being in a culturally important place. They seek highlights and mustsees, e.g. blockbuster exhibitions. The experience seeker is motivated by fulfilling others’ expectations of what is important to experience. They aim for individual and popular objects, buildings or environments.

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“I am here because I have a specific professional interest. I am taking a critical look at the exhibition and the professionalism of the presentation.�

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Professional/hobbyist The professional/hobbyist citizen visits the museum with a specific target in mind and is orientated towards seeking professional insight. They relate critically and reflectively to everything in the ­exhibition. They often come alone and most often visit the museum when there are not a lot of other users present.


Recharger The citizens who would like to use the ­museum to recharge their batteries will experience the museum as an oasis away from everyday life. Rechargers do not like places with a lot of people and do not want to be disturbed. They seek aesthetic experiences, beautiful views and architecture that facilitate peace and contemplation. The rechargers use the museum for mental relaxation and inspiration.

“I am here to recharge my batteries and to find peace and time for contemplation. I am seeking aesthetic experiences in the exhibits, architecture and surroundings of this exhibition venue.�

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“I am here because I am accompanying others.”

Tag-along The citizens who visit museums as tagalongs come because others have brought them along. They are not particularly interested in the exhibitions’ content or the institution. This segment has been added to the ­Danish version of motivation segments, and it stands out notably from John Falk’s other five segments.

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FIGURE 6.1

MOTIVATION SEGMENTS, DISTRIBUTED ACROSS THE THREE MUSEUM CATEGORIES 33%

ALL USERS

10%

32%

ART

5%

34%

CULTURAL HISTORY

29%

EXPLORER FACILITATOR EXPERIENCE SEEKER

FIGURE 6.2

13%

22% 12%

23%

NATURAL HISTORY

23% 13% 24%

14%

7% 5%

23% 13%

25%

9% 10%

6%

8% 7%

PROFESSIONAL/HOBBYIST RECHARGER TAG-ALONG

MOTIVATION SEGMENTS, DISTRIBUTED ACROSS GENDER

ALL USERS

41%

59%

EXPLORER

41%

59%

FACILITATOR

41%

59%

EXPERIENCE SEEKER

38%

62%

PROFESSIONAL/HOBBYIST

48%

52%

RECHARGER

36%

64% 43%

TAG-ALONG

MAN

57%

WOMAN

The target group for the survey is all users aged 14 and above who can complete a questionnaire. A ’user’ is a visitor at the physical museum or someone who has participated in an event at or outside the ­museum, which has been organised by the museum.

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The users motivation and learning behavior MOTIVATION SEGMENTS

Figure 6.1 shows the distribution of motivation segments as a whole and across the three museum categories. The user survey’s overall distribution of motivation segments shows that the users are most often motivated to visit museums because they are interested and curious. 33% of the users in the survey characterise themselves as being explorers. The smallest motivation segment of 7% is those who have no motivation for the museum visit, but who characterise themselves as being tag-alongs. The user survey shows a great variation among the motivation segments in relation to the three museum categories. At the natural history museums, the facilitator makes up the largest proportion, i.e. 29%, of all users, while the facilitator makes up the smallest proportion of users at the art museums, i.e. only 5%. Conversely, the recharger is notably overrepresented at the art museums, where they make up 23% of the users, while the rechargers only make up 6% of the users at the natural history museums.

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User Survey 2012

The distribution of the motivation segments at the cultural history museums more or less follows the overall results for all three museum categories. GENDER

Figure 6.2 shows the gender distribution among the six motivation segments. As shown earlier in the survey, there is an overrepresentation of women visiting the museums as compared to their total proportion of the Danish population. In total, the survey shows that 39% of the users of the museums are men, while 61% are women. The motivation segments also have different distributions according to gender. Among the users that characterise themselves as being explorers or facilitators, the gender distribution corresponds to the average gender distribution for all museum users in the survey. The segment that has relatively most women is the recharger. 64% of the segment that characterises itself in this role are women. The segment in which there are relatively most men is the type that is called professional/hobbyist. Men make up 48% of this segment.


FIGURE 6.3

MOTIVATION SEGMENTS, DISTRIBUTED ACROSS AGE GROUPS 16%

EXPLORER

30%

12%

FACILITATOR

39%

16%

EXPERIENCE SEEKER

33%

28%

24%

22%

30-49

21%

50-64

65+

MOTIVATION SEGMENTS, DISTRIBUTED ACROSS EDUCATIONAL LEVELS 22%

EXPLORER

13%

17%

FACILITATOR

7%

8%

13%

9%

EXPERIENCE SEEKER

8%

7%

14%

9%

PROFESSIONAL/HOBBYIST

9%

RECHARGER

24%

35%

14-29

FIGURE 6.4

22%

28%

27%

TAG-ALONG

24%

27%

27%

10%

RECHARGER

24%

25%

35%

21%

PROFESSIONAL/HOBBYIST

30%

7%

7%

7%

9%

TAG-ALONG

15% 10%

8%

8% 29%

34%

34% 10%

8% 13%

18%

22%

29% 33%

25%

32% 9%

36% 30%

31%

LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SHORT HIGHER EDUCATION MEDIUM-LENGTH HIGHER EDUCATION LONG HIGHER EDUCATION

FIGURE 6.5

MOTIVATION SEGMENTS, DISTRIBUTED ACROSS KNOWLEDGE LEVELS

EXPLORER

4%

FACILITATOR

3%

EXPERIENCE SEEKER PROFESSIONAL/HOBBYIST RECHARGER TAG-ALONG

38% 36%

5% 1%

42% 39% 48%

16%

3%

20% 37%

38%

2%

11%

44% 55%

1%

10% 1%

33%

30% 13%

15%

20% 19%

3% 11% 1%

I KNOW NOTHING I'M INTERESTED IN THIS FIELD AND HAVE SOME KNOWLEDGE I KNOW QUITE A LOT I HAVE PROFOUND KNOWLEDGE AT A PROFESSIONAL LEVEL I KNOW ONLY A LITTLE

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age

Figure 6.3 shows the age distribution across the six motivation segments. The distribution among the motivation segments and users’ age shows that the role as recharger appeals to a higher degree to older users. 63% of the rechargers are aged 50 or above. The role as facilitator has the highest representation in the age group 30 to 49 years. 39% have characterised themselves in this role. Here, there will typically be a lot of parents with children. Out of those who characterise themselves as tag-alongs, 33% are aged between 14 and 29. EDUCATION

Figure 6.4 shows the educational level of the users distributed across the six motivation segments. The average educational level among the users at the museums is very high in relation to the Danish population in general. Among all of the motivation segments, the users who have a long higher educa-

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User Survey 2012

tion make up a significant proportion. In relation to motivation, a pattern can be seen in what is the primary motivation for the different users. Among the rechargers, you find the highest level of education, where 68% have a medium-length or long higher education. The motivation segment that has most users with lower secondary school as their highest level of education is the explorers. KNOWLEDGE LEVEL

Figure 6.5 shows the users’ knowledge within the field that the museum deals with, distributed across the six motivation segments. The motivation for the citizens’ use of museums is influenced, among other things, by the users’ knowledge of contents at the museum. The motivation segment that has the highest proportion of knowledge within the field is the professionals/hobbyists. It is in this group that you find specialists and hobby enthusiasts who have a high level of professional knowledge and who wish to be stimulated professionally.


FIGURE 6.6

THE MOTIVATION SEGMENTS' OVERALL ASSESSMENT OF THE MUSEUM EXPERIENCE

EXPLORER

8.45

FACILITATOR

8.36

EXPERIENCE SEEKER

8.26

PROFESSIONAL/HOBBYIST

8.39

RECHARGER

8.71

TAG-ALONG

7.60

AVERAGE

7

7.5

Among the rechargers, there is also a high level of knowledge about the contents of the museums. 67% of the rechargers are interested in the field and know something or have a high level of professional knowledge. The lowest knowledge level about the contents of the museum is found among the segments that characterise themselves as tag-alongs and experience seekers. OVERALL ASSESSMENT

Figure 6.6 shows the motivation segments’ overall assessment of their museum experience. There is a great variation in the average overall assessment of the museum experience depending on the user’s motivation for the visit. The motivation segment which on average gives the experience the highest ranking is the recharger. On a scale from 1 to 10, where 1 is very bad and 10 is very good, the rechargers give the experience an average rating of 8.71. The motivation segment that gives the experience the lowest rating is those who characterise themselves as tag-alongs. The tag-along segment gives the experience an average assessment of 7.6. The results of the users’ overall assessment distributed across motivation segments may give

8

8.5

9

rise to paying particular attention to how museums can create settings that promote interaction in the exhibitions that include different motivation and learning behaviour forms.

SUMMARY The survey’s results about the users’ motivation and learning behaviour confirm and document that the more knowledge the users have about the museums’ areas of responsibility and object fields, the more relevant and meaningful their experiences and experience with the museums. The present results therefore indicate challenges to our public museums in relation to creating possibilities for differentiated learning options and thereby recognition of different knowledge paradigms. Along with the results from previous years about what the users consider a good museum visit and the users’ visiting patterns, the present results provide additional material for focusing on how museums can both facilitate social learning spaces and be institutions for knowledge-producing processes.

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7

The Users’ Attitudes, Cultural and Media Habits

A segmentation of the Danish citizens based on socio-economic background variables – i.e. age, gender, education and place of residence – is no longer sufficient information for understanding different citizens’ cultural and media habits. Today, new tools are needed in order to be able to adequately develop descriptions that can form the basis for unambiguous profiles of citizens in Denmark. This is because the population composition is becoming increasingly complex and fragmented. At the same time, it is characteristic of citizens in modern society that attitudes and values are gaining ground at the expense of traditions. Knowledge about attitudes, values and lifestyles therefore gives a greater overall understanding of the citizens, revealing a clearer discrimination among Danish citizens.

GallupKompas GallupKompas is a lifestyle segmentation tool that divides the Danish population into nine homogeneous groups. Segmentation based on lifestyle takes its starting point in value and attitude questions related e.g. to ‘the technological development in society’, ‘society’s organisation’ and ‘Denmark’s international position’. The GallupKompas tool is constructed on the basis of eight main values, each of which is made up of a combination of attitude questions that express one attitude. Based on the attitude questions, the citizens are placed in relation to two main dimensions: modern contra traditional and individual contra community. Based on the points given, each individual citizen is placed in one of the model’s nine segments, where, for instance, people with a high individual-orientated score, and a neutral score in the dimension modern contra traditional, belong to the segment ‘individualorientated’. The nine segments are: „„ The modern community-orientated segment „„ The modern segment „„ The modern individual-orientated segment „„ The individual-orientated segment „„ The traditional individual-orientated segment „„ The traditional segment „„ The traditional community-orientated segment „„ The community-orientated segment „„ The centre segment

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DESCRIPTION OF THE SEGMENTS

The nine Kompas segments are based on Index Danmark/Gallup, which continually measures the Danes’ media and branded goods consumption as well as lifestyles, behaviour, interests, activities and attitudes. The segment descriptions focus particularly on the citizens’ attitudes, cultural and media habits. GallupKompas is a general analysis, which is based on where the different segments stand out from the rest of the population. For the analysis, variables have been selected that are related to interests and activities as well as media habits, including use of the Internet and mobile telephony. The analysis’ focus is the ‘deviating’ or marginal behaviour, e.g.

‘always reads’ Berlingske Tidende (Danish daily) in relation to ‘never reads’ Berlingske Tidende. Table 7.1 shows the segments’ distribution across selected demographic and geographic variables compared to the distribution of the population as a whole. Green figures express that the proportion is higher within the segment as compared to the proportion in the population. Similarly, the red figures indicate that the proportion is smaller than in the population in general. The black figures indicate figures that are the same as for the population in general. Data should be read as vertical per cents, except for the segment distribution, which indicates the segments’ proportion of the population.

The modern

The modern community-orientated

The modern individual-orientated

The communityorientated

The individualorientated

The traditional community-orientated

The traditional individual-orientated

The traditional

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Age

Type of dwelling

Region

Traditional individual-orientated

Traditional

Traditional community-orientated

Community-orientated

Modern community-orientated

Centre group

10%

11%

13%

10%

11%

12%

12%

70%

61%

51%

40%

35%

39%

48%

47%

51%

46%

30%

39%

50%

60%

65%

62%

52%

53%

25%

34%

42%

32%

15%

14%

11%

20%

24%

35%

30-59 years

47%

56%

48%

48%

43%

35%

40%

52%

63%

44%

60 years or older

27%

11%

9%

20%

42%

51%

49%

28%

13%

21%

House

67%

65%

65%

72%

70%

70%

64%

64%

59%

71%

4%

3%

4%

6%

6%

4%

3%

2%

2%

4%

30%

33%

31%

23%

25%

27%

34%

33%

39%

25%

72%

75%

75%

75%

73%

69%

65%

70%

73%

76%

28%

25%

25%

25%

27%

31%

35%

30%

27%

24%

Labourer

12%

7%

10%

20%

22%

14%

12%

9%

6%

13%

Salaried employee

37%

51%

46%

32%

22%

20%

27%

44%

58%

32%

4%

5%

5%

6%

3%

2%

2%

4%

5%

3%

Apprentice/trainee/student

20%

27%

31%

22%

10%

10%

8%

17%

20%

31%

Pensioner or similar

25%

7%

7%

18%

40%

51%

49%

23%

8%

19%

Farm Block of flats / room

Self-employed

Unemployed

3%

3%

2%

2%

3%

3%

3%

3%

3%

3%

The Capital

31%

39%

33%

24%

19%

21%

29%

37%

45%

29%

Zealand

15%

11%

14%

17%

17%

17%

16%

14%

12%

16%

Southern Denmark

22%

20%

23%

26%

25%

25%

22%

17%

16%

21%

Central Denmark

23%

21%

22%

22%

25%

24%

22%

23%

20%

24%

North Denmark

11%

9%

9%

13%

13%

13%

11%

9%

7%

10%

City of Copenhagen

13%

19%

12%

7%

5%

6%

14%

18%

24%

10%

Copenhagen’s environs

9%

10%

12%

8%

7%

7%

8%

8%

13%

10%

North Zealand

8%

9%

9%

8%

7%

7%

7%

10%

8%

8%

Bornholm

1%

1%

0%

1%

1%

1%

1%

1%

0%

1%

West and South Zealand

4%

5%

4%

5%

4%

4%

4%

5%

4%

4%

11%

7%

10%

12%

13%

13%

12%

9%

7%

12%

9%

10%

9%

8%

10%

9%

9%

9%

8%

8%

Southern Jutland

13%

10%

14%

18%

16%

16%

13%

8%

8%

13%

Eastern Jutland

15%

15%

15%

13%

15%

14%

15%

17%

16%

14%

Western Jutland

8%

6%

7%

8%

10%

10%

6%

6%

4%

10%

Northern Jutland

11%

9%

9%

13%

13%

13%

11%

9%

7%

10%

Funen

53

13%

Woman

East Zealand Province

9% 54%

12-29 years

Owner-occu- Owner-occupied / cooperative housing pied / rented housing Rented housing

Occupation

Individual-orientated

Gender

49%

Modern individual-orientated

Distribution of the population Man

Modern

Table 7.1

User Survey 2012


The modern segment Citizens in the modern segment are primarily from the younger part of the population. Salaried employees and apprentices/trainees/students are overrepresented in the segment. The political standpoint is the Social Liberal Party, the Conservative People’s Party and Liberal Alliance. The segment is overrepresented in Copenhagen. Citizens in the segment are well-educated and well paid. They have the highest income level among all nine Kompas segments. Citizens in the segment are in the process of building a career and therefore leave their marks on the business community. This means long workweeks – many people in this segment work 40 hours or more per week.

Career-orientated Financially well off Quality-conscious

ATTITUDES

In terms of attitudes, the citizens in the modern segment are versatile. They are enthusiastic about new technology and deliberately aim for success, but at the same time they do not consider money a measuring rod for success. They find it unacceptable if environmental pollution is a prerequisite for growth. ACTIVITIES

Citizens in the modern segment buy quality products. They focus on new trends and lifestyle products and find inspiration e.g. in magazines. Business trips in Denmark or abroad are more common among citizens in this group than in the other segments. Exercise is also given priority, and both team sports and individual sports are practised. CULTURAL AND MEDIA HABITS

The citizens in this segment spend most money on culture. They go to the theatre and visit museums more than the average of the Danish population. They also go to pop or rock concerts and spend time at discos and bars. The citizens spend a relatively large amount of time reading fiction and

journals as compared to the Danish population as a whole. A large number of the citizens who belong to this segment use a PC at home in connection with their work and for reading non-fiction and journals. The business sections in newspapers and magazines are given greater attention than is the case in the other segments. The citizens in the modern segment are large-scale consumers of Berlingske Tidende, Børsen and Jyllands-Posten – both in analogue and in digital form. Among monthly magazines, the segment mainly reads professional and technology-orientated magazines, e.g. Ingeniøren, Dagens Medicin and Ugeskrift for Læger. They use the Internet for TV, radio and telephony, just as they are active participants in social networks. Their interest in the Internet and new technology is also expressed in their use of mobile telephony and tablets and the fact that they play computer games / console games to a greater extent than the general population.

User Survey 2012

54


Name:

Jacob Sørensen Age:

36 years Education:

CBS

Job:

Own communication business Political standpoint:

Liberal Alliance Home:

Terraced house in Ă˜sterbro, Copenhagen

55

User Survey 2012


The modern individualorientated ­segment Citizens in the modern individual-orientated segment make up the largest group of young people under 30 years of age, and there is a larger proportion of men. There are many apprentices/trainees/ students in the segment. Politically, they orientate themselves towards Liberal Alliance, the Conservative People’s Party and the Liberal Party. The young people in the segment are dynamic and career-orientated and willing to make the necessary effort to get to the top of the career ladder. It is not necessarily an academic education that paves the way for their success and the overrepresentation of high income among the citizens in the segment. ATTITUDES

The citizens in the modern individual-orientated segment want to decide for themselves, without interference from public authorities. They believe that it is too easy to get money from public authorities. The attitude among the citizens in the segment is that Denmark should solve its own problems before the country can offer financial support to other countries. The segment’s citizens are interested in business and tax conditions, car/motor issues and hi-fi / new technology, while domestic issues are of little interest.

CULTURAL AND MEDIA HABITS

The citizens in the segment spend less time on cultural activities, go to church less, and visit museums, galleries and libraries less than the population in general. The segment is interested in new technology, IT, cars and stereos/hi-fi, and in business issues. The media choice among the modern individualorientated citizens Jyllands-Posten, Dagbladet Børsen, Børsens Nyhedsmagasin, Erhvervsbladet, Penge & Privatøkonomi, M! and Tipsbladet. Various car magazines are also on their preference list. A particularly large number of the segment listen to the radio program P3, while TV3+ is their favourite TV channel. The citizens in the segment are frequent users of PCs and the Internet, both at work and at home, and they use smartphones or mobile phones to a greater extent than the other segments. They also like to participate in competitions on the web and click on banner ads; they play poker/casino, bet/ play online, watch web TV, listen to web radio, use IP telephony, and they use social networks and online dating to a higher degree than the population in general.

ACTIVITIES

The citizens who belong to the modern individualorientated segment buy ready-made meals or takeaway food. A lot of them have not settled down with a family. They are visible at cafés, restaurants and bars, at stand-up shows and in cinemas. Their appearance is important to them, which is why they practice sports. Although their everyday life is busy, they take the time to be with friends and family. They go on city breaks, sports holidays, skiing holidays or long weekends abroad. They trade in shares/bonds/securities, just as they play and buy computer/console games to a much higher degree than the other segments.

Dynamic Liberal views Finance and ­business User Survey 2012

56


Name:

Christian Nielsen Age:

28 years Education:

Qualified shipping assistant and studying business administration Job:

Shipping manager Political standpoint:

The Liberal Party Home:

Rents a flat in Aarhus

57

User Survey 2012


The individual-orientated segment Citizens in the individual-orientated segment are geographically overrepresented on the island of Bornholm and in South Jutland. A large proportion of the segment lives on farms. The individual-orientated citizens have a vocational education, while at the same time, self-employed people are heavily overrepresented in the segment. The Danish People’s Party and the Liberal Party have many voters in the segment, and the proportion of voters who cast blank votes is greater than in the population in general.

ATTITUDES

Citizens in the segment feel that Denmark should take care of domestic affairs before offering help to other countries. They are interested in their immediate environment and largely concentrate on their own lives and success. ACTIVITIES

Shopping is done at discount shops or supermarkets. Traditional Danish cooking is practised in the individual-orientated citizens’ kitchens, unless the meal consists of a shop-bought ready-made dinner. Leisure interests include everything to do with cars and engines. The interest in DIY is also great among the citizens in the segment.

Interest in immediate environment Domestic affairs Traditional Danish values

CULTURAL AND MEDIA HABITS

The individual-orientated segment includes the largest proportion of citizens who never make use of cultural offers such as theatres and museums. The young people in the segment often go to discos, whereas the rest of the group prefer a cosy night in, watching films they have bought on their flat-screen TVs. The citizens in the segment read regional, local and free weekly newspapers. Magazines such as Se og Hør, Her og Nu and Den Blå Avis have a larger number of readers among the individual-orientated than among the population as a whole. They listen to commercial radio stations such as Nova FM, The Voice, Radio 100 and local radio to a higher degree than other segments. When they watch TV, they also choose the commercial TV stations, such as TV3, TV3+, Kanal 5 and Discovery. TV2 Zulu also has a large number of viewers in the segment. Their Internet use is on a par with the use among the population in general.

User Survey 2012

58


Name:

Dennis Møller Age:

27 years Education:

Vocationally trained electrician Job:

Electrician with the local electrical contractor Political standpoint:

The Danish People’s Party Home:

Own house in Østervrå

59

User Survey 2012


The traditional individualorientated segment Citizens in the traditional individual-orientated segment are primarily in the age group 60 years and older. The proportion of labourers and pensioners is overrepresented in the segment. They have low incomes and often have no education or a short education. The citizens in the segment live in the provincial municipalities – especially to the west of the Great Belt – where they live mainly on farms or in other rural properties. The Danish People’s Party have a lot of voters in the segment, while the proportion that does not remember, or does not wish to answer, which party they voted for is larger among citizens in the traditional individual-orientated segment than in the population in general.

DIY and garden work Technology-sceptical Danish traditions and values

ATTITUDES

The traditional individual-orientated segment has a large proportion of pensioners who are characterised by cultivating Danish traditions and values. Patriotism, technology-scepticism and DIY are the framework for the segment’s life practice. Citizens in the segment believe that Denmark should look after itself, solve domestic issues, and be reticent about participating on the international stage. ACTIVITIES

In the kitchen, traditional Danish food and homebaking are favoured. The women also occupy themselves with sewing, embroidering, crocheting or reading the latest romantic short story in their weekly magazine. The men’s domain is the garden or the hobby room. A lot of people in the segment play the lottery.

CULTURAL AND MEDIA HABITS

The citizens who belong to the traditional individualorientated segment prefer activities at home and are therefore not visible at cultural institutions. They are not citizens who spend money on entertainment. They are largely interested in entertainment on TV, and they are particularly keen viewers of TV2, Charlie, Kanal4, Kanal5, TLC Danmark and Discovery. Radio listening includes P4 or local radio. Local news items in papers are of great interest, just as supermarket leaflets and free district papers or local papers make up their primary media choice. Weekly magazines such as Familie Journalen, Hjemmet, Ude og Hjemme, Se & Hør, and Her og Nu also feature as reading material for the citizens in the segment along with Landbrugsavisen and Den Blå Avis. The Internet is not a place where the citizens in the segment spend time or money.

User Survey 2012

60


Name:

Kresten Hansen Age:

66 years Education:

Machinist Job:

Has his own tractor station Political standpoint:

The Danish People’s Party Home:

Smallholding in Grindsted

61

User Survey 2012


The traditional segment The traditional segment mainly consists of citizens from the older part of the population, and they live in provincial municipalities on either side of the Great Belt. Most often, the citizens in the segment no longer work, but among those that are still active in the labour market, a lot are unskilled workers.

society,” are statements that find support among citizens in the traditional segment. The attitude towards international involvement and refugee issues is that Denmark should solve its own problems before attempting to help others. ACTIVITIES

The segment consists of the largest proportion of citizens who do not know which party they will vote for in the next general elections.

Domestic pursuits and garden work characterise everyday life – in the case of the women, this involves needlework, including sewing, embroidering and crocheting.

ATTITUDES

CULTURAL AND MEDIA HABITS

Among the citizens in the traditional segment, there is scepticism about technological developments. They believe that the development in society is alienating and they are afraid that the traditional family values will disappear. “It is necessary to have a social safety net such as the Danish,” and “more should be done for the elderly and the weak in

The citizens in the segment visit museums or galleries approx. four times a year. The segment has more citizens who go to church than the population in general. The segment has the largest proportion of people who go to the cinema at least once a month. Furthermore, citizens in the segment attend evening classes / hobby courses.

Traditional family values Technology-­sceptical Afraid of ­ development

Local newspapers and district papers as well as BT, Ekstra Bladet and Kristeligt Dagblad find a lot of readers in the traditional segment. Gossip magazines as well as weeklies such as Hjemmet, Ugebladet Søndag or Familie Journalen and Ud og Se also have a lot of readers in the segment. They are large-scale consumers of TV, watching TV2 Charlie and Kanal 5 in particular. They also like to read teletext. The largest proportion of P4 listeners is found in the traditional segment, but they also listen to other local radio stations. Their scepticism towards new technology means that only a few use digital media.

User Survey 2012

62


Name:

Anna Jensen Age:

69 years Education:

Lower secondary school Job:

Pensioner Political standpoint:

The Social Democrats Home:

Detached house in Tønder

63

User Survey 2012


The traditional communityorientated segment The traditional community-orientated segment includes the largest proportion of pensioners. Women aged 50 or above are overrepresented in the segment. These are citizens who have left or are about to leave the labour market. Politically, they orientate themselves towards the Social Democrats, the Socialist People’s Party or the Red-Green Alliance. ATTITUDES

The citizens who belong to the traditional community-orientated segment are interested in nutrition and health and in a well-run society that takes care of the weakest. They support increased social equality and do not think that public intervention in the individual’s everyday life should be reduced. They wish to promote integration of refugees into the Danish society. Technological development, e.g. in digital media, seems scary to citizens in the segment. They are afraid that traditional family values will disappear. They prefer to avoid goods with artificial additives and therefore most often buy eco-friendly products and would, if possible, like to buy more organic goods. ACTIVITIES

The proportion of people who participate in associations is large in the traditional communityorientated segment. They spend time baking their own bread and cakes and attend evening classes. They spend money on scratch cards and on horse racing games.

CULTURAL AND MEDIA HABITS

Their primary leisure interests are fiction, evening classes and library visits. They spend more time on cultural offers such as museums, theatre and church than the average of the population. They read newspapers, local papers, weeklies and magazines. Magazines such as Helse, Samvirke, Ældresagen, Hjemmet, Ugebladet Søndag and Billed Bladet are read by this segment. Citizens in the segment also like to listen to the radio, and it is particularly P1 and P4 that are heard in the homes of the traditional community-orientated. When they watch TV, they prefer to switch on DR2 or TV2 Charlie, but they also use teletext to keep updated. They are not familiar with digital media or the Internet, and they prefer to stick to the media channels that they know and to which they are loyal.

Health food and ecology Supports the welfare ­society IT and technologysceptical User Survey 2012

64


Name:

Asta Pedersen Age:

72 years Education:

Nurse Job:

Retired Political standpoint:

The Social Democrats Home:

Sheltered housing for the elderly in Haslev

65

User Survey 2012


The community-orientated segment Citizens in the community-orientated segment primarily live to the east of the Great Belt. The segment largely consists of female citizens in the age group 40 to 59 years. Citizens who belong to the segment are predominantly left-wing and vote for the Social Democrats, the Socialist People’s Party or the Red-Green Alliance. ATTITUDES

The keywords that characterise citizens in the segment’s value base are humanism, social responsibility, care, ecology and health. The segment’s citizens are interested in environmental and pollution issues, labour market conditions and consumer issues.

The segment consists of the consumer group that has the greatest preference for eco-friendly products and would like to have the opportunity to buy more organic products as well as products without artificial additives. Citizens in the community-orientated segment support Denmark’s openness and presence on the international, political stage. They wish to direct greater focus towards the integration of refugees into the Danish society. ACTIVITIES

They listen to jazz and classical music, if they are not busy playing their own musical instrument. The community-orientated citizens also have a large proportion who attends evening classes / hobby courses. CULTURAL AND MEDIA HABITS

Social ­responsibility Humanism Political and green consumer

Citizens who belong to the community-orientated segment make use of a wide range of cultural offers. They visit museums and galleries, and they like ballet, opera and theatre. They also like to use the library. They read both fiction and non-fiction. They prefer to read analogue media such as Politiken, Information, Weekendavisen and Samvirke in order to stay updated about developments on both the political / consumer-political and the cultural front. The publications Ud & Se and Danske Kommuner also have many readers in the community-orientated segment. When the segment’s citizens listen to the radio, they particularly like P1 and Radio24syv. The community-orientated citizens use the Internet, especially to search for entertainment offers. They also use both mobile phones and tablets more frequently than the average citizen.

User Survey 2012

66


Name:

Nanna Godtfredsen Age:

57 years Education:

Nurse with a diploma in prevention and health Job:

Head of Health at a prevention centre in Copenhagen Political standpoint:

The Socialist People’s Party Home:

Cooperative housing flat in Valby

67

User Survey 2012


The modern communityorientated segment The modern community-orientated segment consists of a large proportion of self-employed people and salaried employees. Many of the segment’s citizens live in the Capital Region of Denmark. Politically, they are orientated towards the Social Liberal Party, the Socialist People’s Party and the RedGreen Alliance. The segment is mainly represented in the age group 20 to 49 years, and most often they have a family of their own. Citizens in the segment have or are in the process of getting an academic education. Citizens in the segment work in the public sector with education, administration and healthcare.

Culture consumers Humanism Involvement in society

ATTITUDES

Citizens in the modern community-orientated segment are socially engaged and participate in the public, political debate, e.g. about pollution and environmental issues and about issues related to the EU and business conditions. Social and societal responsibility, openness towards the surrounding world, tolerance and compassion are keywords that characterise the segment – particularly in relation to Denmark’s involvement on the international stage, or in relation to helping developing countries or the integration of refugees into the Danish society. ACTIVITIES

They care about health and ecology and experiment with new recipes in their cooking. The segment listens to jazz and classical music, and several people in the segment play a musical instrument themselves.

CULTURAL AND MEDIA HABITS

Citizens who belong to the modern communityorientated segment are large-scale consumers of culture. Theatre, cinema, museum and library visits are popular, and the segment’s citizens also favour cultural institutions such as art galleries. Professional journals such as Magister Bladet, DJØF bladet, Gymnasieskolen and Dagens Medicin are popular among the segment’s citizens. Dailies such as Information, Politiken and Berlingske Tidende also have many readers in the segment. Citizens in the segment use new technology such as tablets and smartphones, and they also use game consoles as media centres. They watch less TV than the average population. P1 is the preferred radio channel. They are also frequent users of PCs and the Internet, including web TV and Internet radio. Their presence on the Internet is centred on searching for news, job advertisements and entertainment and cultural offers.

User Survey 2012

68


Name:

Hilde Berthelsen Age:

34 years Education:

MA in comparative literature and philosophy Job:

Upper secondary school teacher at ­Christianshavn Upper Secondary School Political standpoint:

The Social Liberal Party Home:

Cooperative housing in Ă˜sterbro, Copenhagen

69

User Survey 2012


The centre segment The centre segment mainly consists of young citizens. They have no particular political affiliation, although a minor proportion votes for the Danish People’s Party, the Red-Green Alliance and the Liberal Alliance. The centre segment’s citizens cannot be placed on the traditional scale. ATTITUDES

Citizens in the centre segment orientate themselves locally and hold on to quite traditional values. They are not visible in the public debate and they do not involve themselves in society issues. ACTIVITIES

They are interested in new technology and often have a console or a media centre. The segment’s citizens play computer or console games and often play for money online. CULTURAL AND MEDIA HABITS

The segment’s citizens are interested in reality TV. They navigate with ease on the Internet, via either their smartphone or their tablet. When they listen to the radio, they prefer commercial radio channels, e.g. Radio 100. When they read, which they do not do very often, they prefer Donald Duck or Motormagasinet. When the segment goes out for the night, they are not afraid to pay for it.

Apolitical Consumer Digital native

User Survey 2012

70


Name:

Mia Louise Christoffersen Age:

22 years Education:

Lower secondary school Job:

Works in a supermarket Political standpoint:

None

Home:

Lives with her parents

71

User Survey 2012


User Survey 2012

72


73

User Survey 2012


Figure 8.1 THE DISTRIBUTION OF USERS ACROSS SEGMENTS COMPARED WITH THE DANISH POPULATION

Modern

Modern community-orientated

Modern individual-orientated 19% 12% 13%

9%

12%

8%

Community-orientated

17%

11%

7%

10%

Individual-orientated

6% 7%

10%

11%

14% 13%

Traditional individual-orientated

Traditional community-orientated

Traditional

11%

12%

Centre group

User Survey

Danish population

User Survey 2012

74


8

Kompas Analysis

The Kompas segments are based on data about citizens in Denmark, which means that only users who live in Denmark respond to questions about Kompas questions when they complete a questionnaire. The segments that are overrepresented in the user survey are modern sommunity-orientated, community-orientated and traditional communityorientated.

75

User Survey 2012


FIGURE 8.2

DISTRIBUTION OF KOMPAS SEGMENTS ACROSS MUSEUM CATEGORIES 40%

MODERN MODERN INDIVIDUALORIENTATED

52%

35%

INDIVIDUAL-ORIENTATED

59%

33%

TRADITIONAL INDIVIDUALORIENTATED

6%

63%

27%

TRADITIONAL

8%

4%

69% 36%

TRADITIONAL COMMUNITYORIENTATED

4% 59%

47%

4% 48%

5% 6%

COMMUNITY-ORIENTATED

48%

45%

MODERN COMMUNITYORIENTATED

49%

42%

CENTRE GROUP

37%

57%

CULTURAL HISTORY

ART

FIGURE 8.3

13%

MODERN INDIVIDUALORIENTATED

11%

INDIVIDUAL-ORIENTATED

11%

11%

TRADITIONAL INDIVIDUALORIENTATED

11%

12%

15%

12%

29%

12%

29% 27%

NATURAL HISTORY

25%

12%

25%

13%

25%

COMMUNITY-ORIENTATED

18%

13%

23%

MODERN COMMUNITYORIENTATED

18%

13%

24%

13%

RECHARGER PROFESSIONAL/HOBBYIST EXPERIENCE SEEKER

28%

8%

12%

27%

9%

28%

12%

18%

12%

11%

12%

TRADITIONAL COMMUNITYORIENTATED

CENTRE GROUP

6%

KOMPAS SEGMENTS, DISTRIBUTED ACROSS MOTIVATION SEGMENTS

MODERN

TRADITIONAL

8%

28%

10%

29% 12% 11% 12% 11% 12%

12% 28%

7%

25%

8%

28%

5%

27%

6%

27%

8%

FACILITATOR EXPLORER TAG-ALONG

User Survey 2012

76


KOMPAS SEGMENTS

MOTIVATION SEGMENTS

Figure 8.2 shows the Kompas segments distributed across the three museum categories.

Figure 8.3 shows how the motivation segments are distributed across the Kompas segments.

The community-orientated segment has the highest proportion of visits to art museums. The segment that proportionally has the least visits to art museums is the traditional individual-orientated.

The Kompas segments that have the largest proportion of rechargers are the community-orientated segments with a proportion of 18%. The experience seekers are most notable in the modern segments, with 29%, and in the centre group segment, with 28%.

The cultural history museums, on the other hand, attract most citizens from the traditional individualorientated segment. With the exception of the community-orientated segments, the cultural history museums are the museums that appeal to all Kompas segments to the greatest extent. The modern and the modern community-orientated segments have the largest proportion of visits to natural history museums.

77

User Survey 2012

The facilitator is almost equally notable in all Kompas segments with a proportion of 11% and 12%. The roles as explorer and tag-along are most notable in the traditional individual-orientated segment, with 29% and 12%, respectively. The fewest tag-alongs are found among the community-orientated and modern communityorientated segments with 5% and 6%, respectively.


The overrepresented segments Here, the four overrepresented segments’ ­characteristics are summarised. The overrepresented segments are those that visit the museums most frequently.

THE MODERN COMMUNITY-ORIENTATED SEGMENT

THE COMMUNITY-ORIENTATED SEGMENT

„„ Makes up 19% of the users who live in

„„ Makes up 17% of the users who live in

­Denmark and is the largest segment. „„ Gives the overall experience an average

­assessment of 8.3.

­Denmark and is the second-largest segment. „„ Gives the overall experience an average

assessment of 8.4.

„„ Is the strongest represented segment at art

„„ Visits the cultural history museums most often,

­ useums, with 23% of all users, and the m cultural history museums, with 17% of all users, and the natural history museums, with 26% of all users. „„ Is the segment that has the greatest preference for art museums, with 49% of the visits. „„ In relation to the other segments, this segment has the greatest proportion of rechargers, i.e. 18% of the segment.

i.e. 48% of the visits, but also has a preference for visiting art museums, i.e. 45% of the visits. „„ In relation to the other segments, this segment has the largest proportion of rechargers, i.e. 18%, and the smallest proportion of tagalongs, i.e. 5%.

THE TRADITIONAL COMMUNITY-ORIENTATED SEGMENT

THE MODERN SEGMENT

„„ Makes up 14% of the users who live in

„„ Makes up 12% of the users who live in

­Denmark and is the third-largest segment. „„ Gives the overall experience an average

­assessment of 8.4. „„ Visits the cultural history museums most

­frequently, i.e. 59% of the visits. „„ In relation to the other motivation segments,

this segment has the largest proportion of ­rechargers, i.e. 18%, and the smallest ­proportion of explorers, i.e. 25%.

­Denmark and is the fourth-largest segment. „„ Gives the overall experience an average

­ ssessment of 8.2, which is the lowest among a all segments. „„ Visits the cultural history museums most ­frequently, i.e. 52% of the visits. „„ In relation to the other segments, this segment has the greatest proportion of experience ­seekers, i.e. 29% of the segment.

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The underrepresented segments THE CENTRE SEGMENT

Here, the four underrepresented segments’ characteristics are summarised. The underrepresented segments are those that visit the museums least frequently.

THE TRADITIONAL INDIVIDUAL-ORIENTATED SEGMENT „„ Includes least users, i.e. 6% of all users.

With a proportion of 11% of the users, the centre segment is almost on a par with the proportion of the Danish population as a whole, where the segment makes up 12%. This segment gives the overall ­experience an average ­assessment of 8.3. The centre group prefers to some degree to visit the cultural history museums, i.e. 57% of the visits, rather than art ­museums, i.e. 37% of the visits.

„„ Gives the overall experience an average

­ ssessment of 8.6, which is the highest among a all segments. „„ Is the segment that has relatively most users who visit the cultural history museums, i.e. 69%. „„ Visits the art museums most infrequently, i.e. 27% of the visits. „„ In relation to the other segments, this segment has the greatest proportion of explorers, i.e. 29% of the segment, and tag-alongs, i.e. 12%.

THE INDIVIDUAL-ORIENTATED SEGMENT „„ Includes 7% of all users. „„ Gives the overall experience an average

­assessment of 8.4. „„ Prefers the cultural history museum, i.e. 63%

of the visits. Only 33% of the visits take place at art museums. „„ In relation to the other motivation segments, this segment has the greatest proportion of rechargers, i.e. 11%.

THE TRADITIONAL SEGMENT

THE MODERN INDIVIDUAL-ORIENTATED SEGMENT

„„ Includes 7% of all users.

„„ Includes 8% of all users.

„„ Gives the overall experience an average

„„ Gives the overall experience an average

­assessment of 8.4.

­assessment of 8.2.

„„ Prefers to a very high degree to visit the cultural

„„ Prefers to some degree to visit the cultural

history museums, i.e. 59% of the visits, rather than art museums, i.e. 36% of the visits. „„ The segment does not deviate notably from the other Kompas segments in relation to ­motivation.

­ istory museums, i.e. 59% of the visits, rather h than art museums, i.e. 35% of the visits. „„ In relation to the other segments, this segment has the greatest proportion of experience ­seekers, i.e. 29%.

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9

Survey Method

Method

The User Survey is a questionnaire survey. This publication contains the results from 2012. It is the first year of a three-year project period, which runs from 2012 to 2014. The first project period ran from 2009 to 2011. The survey was developed in collaboration between museums, cultural institutions, the Danish Agency for Culture and TNS Gallup. An advisory board composed of representatives from museums and cultural institutions, universities and ODM (the Organisation of Danish Museums) has contributed to the development of the survey. Furthermore, the survey has been tested by 10 institutions in a pilot phase.

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The museums in the survey are divided into three categories: art, cultural history and natural history. The survey for 2012 has been conducted at all state-owned and government-approved museums in Denmark, i.e. at those of their branches that have more than 7,000 users per year. In 2012, the survey has been conducted at 188 exhibition places in Denmark. Appendix 1 shows which museums have participated in the survey. The target group for the survey is all users aged 14 and above who can complete a questionnaire. A user is a visitor at the physical museum or someone who has participated in an event at or outside the museum, which has been organised by the museum.


Figure 9.1

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF museums IN THE SURVEY Total

Art

Cultural history

Natural history

188

39

142

7

Capital Region of Demark

49

14

33

2

Region Zealand

22

4

17

1

Region of Southern Denmark

51

10

39

2

Central Denmark Region

44

8

34

2

North Denmark Region

22

3

19

0

Denmark, total

FIGURE 9.2

DISTRIBUTION OF MUSEUMS ACROSS THE THREE MUSEUM CATEGORIES, BY REGIONS 21%

DANISH POPULATION ALL USERS

40%

CAPITAL REGION OF DENMARK REGION ZEALAND

18%

NORTH DENMARK REGION

20% 18% 14%

ART

4% 55%

29%

REGION OF SOUTHERN DENMARK CENTRAL DENMARK REGION

76%

5%

67%

4%

77%

5%

76%

4%

77%

5%

86%

CULTURAL HISTORY

NATURAL HISTORY

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Museum categories and regions

DATA IN THE SURVEY

Figures 9.1 and 9.2 show the regional distribution of state-owned and government-approved museums in the survey, and the distribution across the three museum categories. 76% of the participating museums are cultural history museums, 21% are art museums, and 4% are natural history museums.

The numbers in the survey’s figures are rounded off to whole per cent. This means that the rounded numbers do not necessarily add up to exactly 100%, and that minor differences between the proportions or in the comparisons of the numbers may be due to the rounding off.

With 86%, the North Denmark Region has the ­largest proportion of cultural history museums, while 29% of the cultural institutions in the Capital Region of Denmark are art museums.

When analysing the data, the essential thing is that differences in results are statistically significant. This means that differences that can be concluded are real and do not occur randomly. The use of a stringent method and a sufficiently large data basis prevents random differences. The data basis in the User Survey 2012 consists of 41,728 completed questionnaires. The survey’s data basis is sufficiently large to ensure that even minor differences express real differences and development tendencies.

THE QUESTIONNAIRE

Following the first project period from 2009 to 2011, the questionnaire has been altered so that it is now shorter and focuses more on the themes that are of greatest value to the museums. The evaluation and development of the question frame has been carried out in collaboration with the advisory board. The survey focuses on the following: „„ The users’ level of satisfaction „„ The users’ motivation and learning behaviour „„ The users’ knowledge about the exhibitions „„ The users’ socio-economic background variables „„ The users’ value segmentation

The questionnaire can be answered in Danish, ­English or German. In digital form, the users have the option of completing the questionnaire in ­Danish, English, German, Spanish, Polish, Russian, Chinese or Arabic.

The user survey includes data from Statistics Denmark that were updated in January 2013. Reservations must be made for the fact that Statistics Denmark’s specification of educational levels differs from the specification of educational levels in the user survey. In the user survey, users aged 14 years or above are registered on the basis of their ongoing or completed education. In Statistics Denmark’s figures for the Danish population, citizens aged 15 years or above are registered on the basis of their highest completed education.

The questionnaire is included as Appendix 2.

The target group for the survey is all users aged 14 and above who can complete a questionnaire. A ’user’ is a visitor at the physical museum or someone who has participated in an event at or outside the museum, which has been organised by the museum.

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COLLECTION

All museums in the survey handle the task of distributing and collecting questionnaires on their own. The process of collecting and forwarding questionnaires to TNS Gallup takes place as illustrated in the figure below:

TNS Gallup

THE MUSEUM

1

2

Sends out questionnaires along with instructions and a schedule

Receives questionnaires for completion

3

Distribute and collect ­questionaires to the users

5

4

Receives completed questionnaires

Forwards completed ­questionnaires to Gallup every quarter, and updates electronic diary weekly

6

Data processing and reporting

Based on an individually calculated frequency, the museums have collected between 100 and 800 questionnaires depending on their number of visitors. On the collection days, the museums must collect the questionnaires in accordance with a specific frequency. The frequency is calculated on the basis of the museum’s number of visitors as stated to Statistics Denmark. Based on this, the museum receives a schedule with the number of collection days and the number of questionnaires that the museum needs to collect in the course of one year. The frequency ensures that seasonal variations are taken into account, as the number of questionnaires that are handed out will follow the fluctuations in numbers of visitors. In order to give consideration to

deviations across different weekdays, the collection days change from one collection to the next. The first collection day starts on the museum’s first opening day in the week; the second collection day is on the place’s second weekly opening day, and so on. Thus, the survey’s design makes allowance for weekly and seasonal variations. The selection criteria are based on the assumption that there is no particular system to what visitor number a person is. This method is known as ‘systematic random sampling’, and if the assumption is correct, it will be a case of statistically random selection. This makes it possible to make a statistical generalisation and comparison without any particular reservations.

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Appendix 1

State owned and state approved museums

State owned museums State approved museums The dots show the museums’ main addresses

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Appendix 2

Museums in the survey Museum

Branch

The Workers' Museum Arken – Museum of Modern Art ARoS – Aarhus Museum of Art Billund Museum Bornholm Art Museum Bornholm's Museum Bornholm's Museum Bornholm's Museum Bornholm's Museum DAC – Danish Architecture Centre The Media Museum Danish Museum of Science and Technology Danish Museum of Hunting and Forestry Danish Jewish Museum Danish Agricultural Museum The Danish Royal Collections The Danish Royal Collections The Old Town, National Open Air Museum of Urban History and Culture The Hirschsprung Collection Design Museum Denmark Djursland's Museum and the Danish Fishery Museum The Energy Museum Esbjerg Art Museum The Danish Maritime Museum Fuglsang Art Museum Faaborg Museum (of Paintings from Funen) Gammel Estrup, the Manor Museum Give Museum Glud Museum Greve Museum HEART – Herning Museum of Contemporary Art Helsingør Municipality's Museums

The Workers' Museum Arken – Museum of Modern Art ARoS – Aarhus Museum of Art The Museum Farm Karensminde, Grindsted Bornholm Art Museum Erichsen's Farm, Rønne Hjorth's Factory, Rønne Museum of Cultural History, Rønne Melstedgård, Gudhjem DAC – Danish Architecture Centre The Media Museum Danish Museum of Science and Technology Danish Museum of Hunting and Forestry Danish Jewish Museum Danish Agricultural Museum The Amalienborg Museum, Copenhagen Rosenborg Castle, Copenhagen The Old Town, National Open Air Museum of Urban History and Culture The Hirschsprung Collection Design Museum Denmark Djursland's Museum and the Danish Fishery Museum The Energy Museum Esbjerg Art Museum The Danish Maritime Museum Fuglsang Art Museum Faaborg Museum (of Paintings from Funen) Gammel Estrup, the Manor Museum Give Museum Glud Museum Greve Museum HEART – Herning Museum of Contemporary Art Helsingør City Museum The Flynderupgård Museum, Espergærde Skibsklarerergaarden The Shipbuilding Museum Herning Museum, Herning The House of History, Ringsted Museum Open-air Museum Hjerl Hede Gilleleje Museum, Gilleleje Holstebro Art Museum, Holstebro

Helsingør Municipality's Museums Helsingør Municipality's Museums Herning Museum The House of History, Ringsted Museum Open-air Museum Hjerl Hede Cultural History Centres of Holbo District Holstebro Art Museum

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Museum

Branch

Holstebro Museum Holstebro Museum Horsens Art Museum Horsens Museum Horsens Museum Hørsholm Regional Museum Frederiks Værk Museum of Industry The Danish Museum of Industry, The Museum for WorkingClass, Tradesman and Industrial Culture J. F. Willumsen's Museum Kalundborg Museum The Kastrupgård Collection Kroppedal, Museum for Astronomy, Modern History and Archaeology Randers Museum of Cultural History KUNSTEN Museum of Modern Art Aalborg Trapholt Art Museum The Women's Museum in Denmark Museum of Copenhagen Køge Museum KØS – Museum of Art in Public Places Langeland Museum Langeland Museum Langeland Museum Lemvig Museum The Limfjordsmuseum and the Maritime Experience Centre Louisiana Læsø Museum Læsø Museum Marstal Maritime Museum Middelfart Museum Moesgård Museum Moesgård Museum Moesgård Museum Morsland Historical Museum Morsland Historical Museum Morsland Historical Museum The Museums in Brønderslev Municipality Fredericia Museums The Museums in Ærøskøbing Municipality The Museums in Ærøskøbing Municipality The Museums in West Funen Museum of Photographic Art Holbæk District Museum Museum of Contemporary Art Syddjurs Museum Maritime Museum of Denmark Thy and Vester Hanherred Museum Varde Town and District Museum Varde Town and District Museum

Holstebro Museum, Holstebro Shipwreck Museum, Ulfborg Horsens Art Museum Horsens Museum The Prison Museum in Horsens The Museum, Hørsholm The Powder Works Museum, Frederiksværk The Danish Museum of Industry, The Museum for WorkingClass, Tradesman and Industrial Culture J. F. Willumsen's Museum Kalundborg Museum The Kastrupgård Collection Kroppedal, Museum for Astronomy, Modern History and Archaeology Kejsergaarden Crafts Museum, Randers KUNSTEN Museum of Modern Art Aalborg Trapholt Art Museum The Women's Museum in Denmark Museum of Copenhagen Køge Museum KØS – Museum of Art in Public Places Cold War Museum Langelandsfort Skovsgaard – Carriage, Forestry and Servant Museum Østergade Jens Søndergård's Museum, Lemvig The Limfjordsmuseum, Løgstør Louisiana ‘På Lynget’ Museum Farm, Læsø The Maritime Museum, Læsø Marstal Maritime Museum Psychiatric Collection Moesgård Museum, Højbjerg Viking Event Skovmøllen Dueholm Priory, Nykøbing Mors The Moclay Museum, Hesselbjerg, Nykøbing Mors Skarregaard, Sejerslev, Nykøbing Mors Dorf Mill and Møllegård, Dronninglund Fredericia Urban Museum Bottle Peter's Collection, Ærøskøbing Søbygaard, Søby West Funen Open-air Museum, Hjemstavnsgård, Gummerup Museum of Photographic Art Holbæk District Museum Museum of Contemporary Art The Town Hall and the Siamese Collection, Ebeltoft Maritime Museum of Denmark Heltborg Museum, Hurup Thy Varde Museum Nymindegab Museum, Nørre Nebel

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Museum

Branch

Varde Town and District Museum Varde Town and District Museum Koldinghus Museum Sønderskov Museum Amager Museum Museum Jorn, Silkeborg Lolland-Falster Museum Salling Museum Salling Museum Salling Museum Salling Museum Museum of Southern Jutland Museum of Southern Jutland Museum of Southern Jutland Museum of Southern Jutland Museum of Southern Jutland Museum of Southern Jutland Museum of Southern Jutland Museum of Southern Jutland Museum of Southern Jutland East Jutland Museum National Museum of Denmark National Museum of Denmark National Museum of Denmark National Museum of Denmark National Museum of Denmark National Museum of Denmark Naturama – Modern Natural History Natural History Museum Nivaagaard Collection of Paintings North Jutland Historical Museum North Jutland Historical Museum North Jutland Historical Museum Coastal Museum of Northern Jutland Coastal Museum of Northern Jutland Coastal Museum of Northern Jutland Coastal Museum of Northern Jutland Coastal Museum of Northern Jutland New Carlsberg Glyptotek Næstved Museum Odder Museum Odense City Museums Odense City Museums Odense City Museums Odense City Museums Odense City Museums Odense City Museums Odsherred Museum of Cultural History Ordrupgaard Randers Art Museum Reventlow

The Amber Museum, Oksbøl Tirpitz Battery, Blåvand Koldinghus Museum Sønderskov Museum The Amager Museum, Dragør Museum Jorn, Silkeborg Open-air Museum, Maribo Fur Museum, Fur Skive Art Museum, Skive Skive Museum, Skive Spøttrup Museum Archaeology Haderslev, Haderslev Cathrinesminde Brickworks, Broager Hjemsted Iron Age Park, Skærbæk Højer Mill, Højer Cultural History Sønderborg, Sønderborg Cultural History, Aabenraa, Aabenraa Cultural History / Art Tønder, Tønder Brundlund Castle Art Museum, Aabenraa Natural History Gram, Gram Randers Museum of Cultural History, Randers Museum of Danish Resistance, Copenhagen The Open-air Museum, Lyngby Brede Works, Kgs. Lyngby Kommandørgården, Rømø Royal Jelling, Vejle The Prince's Mansion, Copenhagen Naturama – Modern Natural History Natural History Museum Nivaagaard Collection of Paintings Hals Museum, Hals Lindholm Høje Museum, Nørresundby Aalborg Historical Museum, Aalborg Bangsbo Fortress, Frederikshavn Bangsbo Museum, Frederikshavn The Powder Magazine, Frederikshavn Skagen Urban and District Museum, Skagen Sæby Museum, Sæby New Carlsberg Glyptotek Helligåndshuset, Næstved Odder Museum Møntergården Urban Museum, Odense Carl Nielsen Museum, Odense Funen Village, Odense S Funen Art Museum, Odense Hans Christian Andersen's Childhood Home, Odense Hans Christian Andersen Museum, Odense Odsherred Museum of Cultural History Ordrupgaard Randers Art Museum Pederstrup Museum

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Museum

Branch

Ribe Art Museum Ringkøbing Ringkøbing Ringkøbing Ringkøbing Roskilde Museum Roskilde Museum Roskilde Museum Roskilde Museum Rudersdal Museums Silkeborg Museum Skagen's Museum Skanderborg Museum Skanderborg Museum The Skovaard Museum Sophienborg, North Zealand People's Museum Sorø Art Museum The Royal Danish Arsenal Museum The Royal Danish Arsenal Museum National Gallery of Denmark Natural History Museum of Denmark Natural History Museum of Denmark The Storm P. Museum Struer Museum Svendborg Museum Sydhimmerland Museum South West Jutland Museums South West Jutland Museums South West Zealand Museum South West Zealand Museum The Theatre Museum at the Court Theatre Thorvaldsen's Museum Vejen Art Museum Vejle Museum of Art Vendsyssel Historical Museum Vendsyssel Museum of Art Vesthimmerland Museum, Museum Centre Aars Viborg Museum The Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde Øhavsmuseet (South Funen Archipelago Museum) Øhavsmuseet (South Funen Archipelago Museum) Samsø Eco Museum Museums of Eastern Funen Museums of Eastern Funen Museums of Eastern Funen Eastern Zealand Museum Eastern Zealand Museum Eastern Zealand Museum Museum of Aarhus

Ribe Art Museum Abeline's Farm, Hvide Sande Bork Viking Harbour, Hemmet Bundsbæk Mill, Skjern Fahl Inn Museum, Hemmet Færgegården Museum Main Exhibition, Skt. Olsgade, Roskilde Merchant Lützhøft's House, Roskilde Tadre Mill, Hvalsø Mothsgården, Søllerød Silkeborg Museum Skagen's Museum Skanderborg Museum, Skanderborg Øm Priory Museum, Ry The Skovaard Museum The Museum in Frederiksgade, Hillerød Sorø Art Museum The Royal Danish Naval Museum, Copenhagen The Royal Danish Arsenal Museum, Copenhagen National Gallery of Denmark Geological Museum, Copenhagen Zoo Museum, Copenhagen The Storm P. Museum Struer Museum Viebæltegård Social Welfare Museum, Svendborg Fyrkat Viking Centre, Hobro Esbjerg Museum, Esbjerg The Museum Ribe's Vikings, Ribe Sorø Museum, Sorø The Viking Fortress Trelleborg, Hejninge The Theatre Museum at the Court Theatre Thorvaldsen's Museum Vejen Art Museum Vejle Museum of Art Vendsyssel Historical Museum, Hjørring Vendsyssel Museum of Art Vesthimmerland Museum, Museum Centre Aars Viborg Museum, Viborg The Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde Court and Jail Museum, Faaborg Øhavsmuseet Faaborg Welcome Centre / Samsø Museum, Tranebjerg Johannes Larsen Museum, Kerteminde Ladby Viking Museum, Kerteminde Nyborg Castle, Nyborg Geo Museum Faxe, Faxe Stevnsfort Cold War Museum, Lille Heddinge Stevns Museum, St. Heddinge The Occupation Museum

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Appendix 3

Questionnaire

Hvad me ner

du?

Du kan h bedre, h jælpe os med a t vis du u dfylder gøre vores kult spørgesk u emaet rinstitutioner

ink? What do you th us to e, you can help the questionnair tions. By completing titu ins our cultural further improve

ie? S n e n ei Was m

tun inrich . n ulture ere K n ausfülle s n u ei, ge s d a b n Fr a g e b o n u n tütze m Sie de nters Sie u sern, inde s e b r e v

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User Survey 2012

g zu


Sådan udfylder du spørgeskemaet (Brug en kuglepen)

1

5

Rigtige tal

Giv en samlet vurdering af din oplevelse på en skala fra 1 til 10

‘1’ betyder meget dårlig og ‘10’ betyder meget god.

2

Korrekt kryds Rettet Kryds

Meget dårlig 1

Meget god

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Bedøm din oplevelse i dag på en skala fra 1 til 10

‘1’ betyder meget dårlig og ‘10’ betyder meget god.

7

Meget dårlig 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Meget god Ved ikke/

8

9

10

ikke relevant

Udstillingerne

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Atmosfæren

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Egnethed for børn

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Mulighed for at lære noget nyt

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Udstillingernes emner

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Udstillingernes præsentation

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Muligheden for at deltage aktivt

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Arrangementer

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Rum til reflektion og fordybelse

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Variation i formidlingen

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Service og betjening

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Information i billetsalget

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

3

6

10

8

9

Hvilken beskrivelse passer bedst med, hvorfor du er på udstillingsstedet i dag?

13

Vælge den beskrivelse, som kommer nærmest.

‘1’ Et k

Oplader – Jeg er her for at få ny energi og for at finde ro og tid til fordybelse. Jeg søger æstetiske oplevelser i stedets udstillinger, arkitektur og omgivelser.

Alti

Fagligt interesseret – Jeg er her på grund af en specifik faglig interesse. Jeg forholder mig kritisk til udstillingen/-erne og den faglige formidling.

Det

Oplevelsesjæger – Jeg er her for at opleve og koncentrerer mig om det mest iøjnefaldende. Jeg behøver ikke se alt for at lære stedet at kende.

Hvis

Vært – Jeg er her for at skabe en god oplevelse for dem, jeg er sammen med. Det vigtigste er, at de mennesker, jeg er sammen med, synes her er interessant at være.

Det

Det

Der

IT o

Videbegærlig – Jeg er nysgerrig og interesseret. Jeg er her i dag for at få ny viden og inspiration.

Jeg

Vedhæng – Jeg er her, fordi jeg følges med andre.

4

Hvor stor er din viden inden for det område, du har beskæftiget dig med her i dag?

14

Jeg ved ingenting Jeg ved lidt Jeg interesserer mig for området og ved noget Jeg ved en hel del Jeg har viden på højt fagligt niveau

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5

Vil du anbefale din oplevelse her i dag til andre?

Hvor bor du?

10

Danmark Norge Sverige Tyskland Andre europæiske lande Andet

Ja Nej Ved ikke

od

6

Ankom du hertil fra en ferieadresse? Ja Nej

7

Har du nogen kulturel tilknytning til et eller flere lande uden for Danmark? Hvis ja, hvilket/hvilke områder?

11

Hvad er din alder?

Sæt gerne flere krydser.

Afrika/Sub-Sahara Asien Australien Det arktiske område Stillehavet Europa Mellemøsten/Maghreb Nordamerika Norden Rusland Sydamerika

nt

8

Hvilket køn er du? Mand Kvinde

9

Hvad er din højeste gennemførte uddannelse eller niveauet på din igangværende uddannelse? Folkeskole Gymnasial eller erhvervsgymnasial uddannelse Erhvervsfaglig uddannelse Kort videregående uddannelse, under 3 år Mellemlang videregående uddannelse, 3-4 år Lang videregående uddannelse, over 4 år

13

Hvad er din holdning til følgende udsagn?

‘1’ betyder Helt enig og ‘7’ betyder Helt uenig. Et kryds i den midterste boks betyder, at du er neutral.

Helt enig 1

2

3

4

Helt uenig Ved

5

6

7

ikke

Alting ændrer sig for hurtigt i dag

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Det er for let at få penge fra det offentlige

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Det bør være frivilligt, hvorvidt man vil være medlem af en fagforening

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Hvis vi ikke passer på, tager den moderne teknologi magten fra menneskene

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Der gøres for lidt for flygtninge i Danmark

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Det er vigtigt for mig at have succes

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

IT og moderne teknologi giver mig mange fordele i min hverdag

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Jeg køber helst økologiske fødevarer, hvis jeg kan få det

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

14

Må Kulturstyrelsen henvende sig til dig i forbindelse med andre undersøgelser om kulturinstitutioner en anden gang? Ja Nej

93

Hvad er dit postnummer?

12

User Survey 2012

Mobil-nr.


How to complete the questionnaire (Please, use a ballpoint pen)

1

Correctly written numbers

Very poor 1

Very good 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

6

10

Please evaluate your experience today on a scale from 1 to 10

‘1’ means Very poor and ‘10’ means Very good.

7

Very poor 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Very good Don’t know/

8

9

10

irrelevant

The exhibitions

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

The atmosphere

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Suitability for children

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Offering ways of learning new things

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

The exhibitions’ topics

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

The exhibitions’ presentation

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Offering ways of active participation

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Events

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Room for reflection and immersion

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Variation in communication

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Service

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Information at the box office

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

3

5

Please give an overall assessment of your experience on a scale from 1 to 10

‘1’ means Very poor and ‘10’ means Very good.

2

Correctly ticked Amended tick

8

9

Which description best sums up why you attended the exhibition venue today?

Choose the description that comes closest.

Recharger – I am here to recharge my batteries and to find peace and quiet and time for introspection. I am seeking aesthetic experiences in the exhibits, architecture and surroundings of this exhibition venue. Professional/Hobbyist – I am here because I have a specific professional interest. I am taking a critical look at the exhibition(s) and the professionalism of the presentation. Experience seeker – I am here to experience and concentrate on what is most eye-catching. I do not have to see everything to get to know the place. Facillitator – I am here to give those I am with a good experience. The most important thing is that the people I am with find it interesting to be here. Explorer – I am curious and interested. I am here today to gain new knowledge and inspiration. Tag-along – I am here because I am accompanying others.

4

How extensive is your knowledge of the field that you have been occupied with today? I know nothing I know only a little I’m interested in this field and have some knowledge I know quite a lot I have profound knowledge at a professional level

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5

Would you recommend others to come and see what you have experienced here today?

10

Yes No Don’t know

od

6

Did you arrive from a holiday destination address? Yes No

7

How old are you?

w/

8

What is your gender? Male Female

9

What is your highest level of completed or current education? Primary or Lower secondary school (< 9 years) Upper secondary school (< 12 years) Basic/final vocational training Higher education, less than 3 years Higher education, 3-4 years Higher education, 4 years +

95

User Survey 2012

Where is your home address? Denmark Norway Sweden Germany Other European country Other

11

Do you have any cultural attachment to one or more countries outside Denmark? If so, which area(s)?

Multiple answers allowed.

Africa/Sub-Sahara Asia Australia Arctic Pacific Ocean Europe Middle East and Maghreb North America Scandinavia/Nordic region Russia South America


COLOphON TITEL

User Survey 2012 Publisher

Danish Agency for Culture Photos

Cover, Holbæk Museum • page 1, Klaus Holsting, Kulturstyrelsen • page 2, Mark Gry Christiansen, ARKEN • page 4, Mark Gry Christiansen, ARKEN • page 6, Mark Gry Christiansen, Den Gamle By • Page 9, Kim Hansen, Louisiana • Page 10, Mark Gry Christiansen, Frilandsmuseet • page 12, Naturama • Page 15, Mark Gry Christiansen, ARKEN • page 16, Mark Gry Christiansen, ARKEN • page 18, Thorsten Overgaard, Den Gamle By • page 25, Mark Gry Christiansen, Den Gamle By • page 29, Museum Østjylland • page 30, Museum Østjylland • page 34, Lærke Posselt, Louisiana • page 36, Thorsten Overgaard, Den Gamle By • page 45, Arbejdermuseet • page 47, J. F. Willumsens Museum • page 49, Mark Gry Christiansen, AROS • page 50, Mark Gry Christiansen, ARKEN • page 72, Mark Gry Christiansen, AROS • page 75, Chipper Lillemark, Københavns Museum • page 77, Kim Hansen, Louisiana • page 80, Københavns Museum • page 82, Museum Østjylland • page 96, Arbejdermuseet Drawings

Claus Bigum has supplied all drawings for the report. Editors

Danish Agency for Culture Sofie Bruun, Jacob Thorek Jensen Ida Brændholt Lundgaard (Editor-in-chief) Text

Ida Brændholt Lundgaard and Jacob Thorek Jensen, Danish Agency for Culture Anne Maria Foldgast, TNS Gallup TNS Gallup has supplied data for the survey. Graphic design

Mark Gry Christiansen Translation into ENGlish

Avanti Gruppen Printing

Prinfo Holbæk Hedehusene 1500 printed Danish versions 1500 printed English versions Thank you

The Danish Agency for Culture wishes to thank all of the state owned and state approved museums for their contributions to the User Survey 2012.

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User Survey 2012 The museums are being used like never before. And in general, the users are very satisfied with their museum experience. However, the results of the User Survey show that the museums continue to face great challenges in relation to being relevant to all groups of the population. The user surveys are an important professional tool for changing social inequality among museum users in Denmark. The museums are currently busy with a development work that focuses on knowledge sharing and knowledge production in relevant and qualified settings for modern dayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s citizens with a view to ensuring that the museums remain central players in the development of cultural democracy in ­Denmark.


User survey 2012  

The User Survey is a tool that contributes to collaboration between citizens, museums and the Danish Agency for Culture on assuming shared r...

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