S N O S S E L H S E R IN 15 F
1. utgave 2010 © Kunnskapsforlaget H. Aschehoug & Co. (W. Nygaard) A/S og Gyldendal ASA, Oslo 2010 Bokens originaltittel er Rock your English. Den ble først utgitt i 2009 av forlaget Spectrum B.V. i Nederland. Forfatter: Buffi Duberman Lay-out og omslag: Jaap Lunenburg (www.blauwzuur.nl), i samarbeid med Jac Schalk Grafisk design. IIllustrasjoner, tidslinjer og tegnete samtaler: Monica Knaapen (www.moonillustraties.nl) Oversettelse til norsk: Elly Van Goor Trykk og innbinding: Livonia Print SIA, Latvia Trykt i Latvia www.rockyourenglish.no ISBN 978-82-573-2117-8 Materialet er vernet etter åndsverkloven. Uten uttrykkelig samtykke er eksemplarfremstilling, som utskrift og annen kopiering, bare tillatt når det er hjemlet i lov (kopiering til privat bruk, sitat o.l.) eller avtale med Kopinor (www.kopinor.no). Utnyttelse i strid med lov eller avtale kan medføre erstatnings- og straffeansvar. www.kunnskapsforlaget.no
TABLE OF CONTENTS Rock Your English! - Introduction
The Present Tenses Chapter 1: Chapter 2:
Present Simple Present Continuous
The Past Tenses Chapter 3: Chapter 4: Chapter 5: Chapter 6: Chapter 7: Chapter 8:
Past Simple Past Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous
30 38 46 56 66 74
The Future Tenses Chapter 9: Chapter 10: Chapter 11:
Will Going to The Present Tenses used for the future
82 92 102
Conditionals Chapter 12: Chapter 13: Chapter 14:
Conditionals 1 Conditionals 2 Conditionals 3
112 120 130
Now Itâ€™s Your Turn Chapter 15:
Creative Writing And Basic Songwriting Starters
If Not For You...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Th These are some of our featured artists in this chapter. Can you identify who is who? Find The Rolling Stones, Keith Sweat, ABBA, Luther Vandross, David Bowie, and Lyle Lovett. Good luck!
Who won 4 Grammy awards in 2004, and has won ‘Best Male R&B Vocal Performance’ 4 times? (And do you know what R&B stands for?)
Where is ABBA from, and what does the name ABBA mean?
Who has sold over 200 million albums worldwide?
Who is from Harlem, New York?
What is David Bowie’s real name? And why did he change it to David Bowie?
Who was married to the actress Julia Roberts from 1993 to 1995?
answers on www.rockyourenglish.no
EAR CANDY! Have a listen to this classic song, paying attention to the grammar form highlighted. You will have a few questions to answer at the end of the song, so make sure your ears are clean!
I’ve been holding out so long I’ve been sleeping all alone Lord I miss you I’ve been hanging on the phone I’ve been sleeping all alone I want to kiss you Well, I’ve been howling in my sleep You’ve been starring in my dreams Lord I miss you child I’ve been waiting in the hall I’ve been waiting on your call When the phone rings It’s just some friends of mine that say, ‘Hey, what’s the matter man? We’re gonna come around at twelve With some Puerto Rican girls that are just Dying to meet you We’re gonna bring a case of wine We’re gonna mess and fool around You know, like we used to’
Oh baby why you wait so long Oh baby why you wait so long Won’t you come home! Come home! I’ve been walking in Central Park Singing after dark People think I’m crazy Scuffing on my feet Shuffling through the street Asking people, ‘What’s the matter with you boy?’ Sometimes I want to say to myself Sometimes I want to say I won’t miss you child I guess I’m lying to myself It’s just you and no one else Lord I want to kiss you child
M.Jagger/K.Richards Copyright © EMI Music Publishing Ltd Trykt med tillatelse av EMI Music Publishing Scandinavia AB
Miss You, the Rolling Stones
Questions about the song: 1 What does ‘I’ve been holding out so long’ mean? 2 What does ‘howling’ mean? 3 Where is Central Park? 4 What does ‘shuffling’ mean? The highlighted grammar form is the Present Perfect Continuous. To find out about how to make the Present Perfect Continuous, check out the charts section in the back of the book. Compare these 2 sentences: 1 Bert: I have worked for this company for 25 years. 2 Ernie: I have been working here for 25 years and I still don’t have my own paperclip holder! What is the difference between these 2 sentences? Where would you rather work - where Bert works, or where Ernie works? Personally, I would rather work where Bert works. (I like paperclips. A lot.) You can see from the 2 sentences above that Ernie sounds frustrated. He uses the Present Perfect Continuous, which focuses on the action – the working - in the sentence. Bert, on the other hand, is just
stating how long he has worked at the company and doesn’t focus on the actual action itself. He uses the Present Perfect tense for this. This Present Perfect Continuous form is mostly used to focus on an action that started before now, and is still going on. You can think of it as the ‘active’ form of the Present Perfect. However, it’s not for an action that you are only doing at this moment (that’s the Present Continuous, see Chapter 2) or an action that you were doing in the past (that’s the Past Continuous, see Chapter 4), but for an action that you have been doing up to the present moment.
Present Perfect Continuous bruker du om situasjoner og handlinger som har begynt i fortiden og som fortsetter til nå.
In this chapter we are going to focus on using this form for 2 situations: • the ‘active’ feeling of a verb, compared to the ‘completed’ feeling of a verb • an action that started in the past and is still continuing
The ‘active’ feeling of a verb, compared to the ‘completed’ feeling of a verb
Compare these sentences: a I am a writer. I have written 4 books so far. b I have been writing a new book on the history of pole dancing. It’s going to be a bestseller! c My brother is a painter. He has painted 2 houses this week. d He has been painting my kitchen for me. I think it’s nice, but I have to get used to the purple stripes. Each first sentence focuses on the ‘completed’ feeling of the verb. They show the result of an action. For these types of situations, the Present Perfect form is often followed by a number (4 books, 2 houses, etc). The completed result of the action is the focus here, and that is why the Present Perfect tense is used. Each second sentence highlights the action itself. Since the action is important here, we use the Present Perfect Continuous form to highlight the ‘active’ feeling of the verb. The ‘ing’ form of the verb makes this sound more active, and the action started in the past, but is still continuing at the moment of speaking. The action hasn’t finished, and that is why the Present Perfect Continuous is used. Ved å bruke ing-formen i present perfect continuous legger du vekt på handlingen som en har vært opptatt med en stund og som fortsatt foregår.
I’ve been working on my new English project all morning.
Don’t Believe the Hype! Many people mix these 2 forms up. Make sure you know that if you want to focus on a specific or special action that started in the past and is still going on now, you should use the Present Perfect Continuous. For example, it’s wrong to say ‘I have been going to 3 concerts this month’. You should say ‘I have gone to 3 concerts this month’, because what is important here is not the going to the concerts, but how many concerts you have gone to so far. Are the following sentences right or wrong? Please correct the ones that are wrong. 1 She has been watching her husband play football for over an hour. 2 He has been writing 4 articles this week on his web blog. 3 We have been waiting for the bus for over 20 minutes now, and we are getting very cold! 4 They have saved their money to buy a new car for over a year now. 5 My sister has been playing 3 songs with her new band in the studio today. Here are some lyrical examples of the Present Perfect Continuous. Please identify the verbs in the Present Perfect Continuous tense, and do the assignment or answer the question underneath. 1 I just can’t sleep at night Ooh, you’ve been cheating on me Tell me it’s a lie ‘Something Just Ain’t Right’, Keith Sweat
Translate this lyric into Norwegian.
2 So I blew it again just like I always do For the things that I did I’m saying sorry to you But I did what I did and I paid my dues I’ve been missing you ‘I’ve Been Missing You’, UB40
In this lyric, they use the Past Simple (I blew, I did, I paid) but they end with the Present Perfect Continuous (I’ve been missing...). Why do you think they wrote the song in this way? How would it feel different if they said ‘I missed you’, in the last line instead?
3 I’ve never had someone That knows me like you do, No one like you, The way you do So long before I finally found What I’ve been looking for ‘What I’ve Been Looking For’, Ashley Tisdale
What do you think she means in this lyric?
4 Who keeps on trusting you When you’ve been cheating And spending your nights on the town And who keeps on saying that he still wants you When you’re through running around And who keeps on loving you When you’ve been lying ‘God Will’, Lyle Lovett
What do you think ‘spending your nights on the town’ means? And what does it mean to be ‘through’ with someone or something?
An action that started in the past and is still continuing
Another way to use the Present Perfect Continuous tense is to highlight situations that have been going on up to the present moment. For example, if you have arranged to pick some friends up from the airport, and you are a few minutes late, it is wrong to say ‘Have you waited long?’ when you finally arrive at the airport. The right thing to say is ‘Have you been waiting long?’, because the action - the waiting - has not finished until you have picked them up. That is why the Present Perfect Continuous is used. ‘Have you waited’ would be used for completely different situations – like ‘Have you ever waited for a train for more than an hour?’ Here the Present Perfect form is used, because you are not focussing on the active feeling of the verb, because it’s not important for this situation.
Don’t Believe the Hype! Another mistake people tend to make is to say something like ‘How long are you working here?’, or ‘How long are you living here?’ These are wrong. If you say ‘are you living, are you working, etc’ then it’s only used for what you are doing at this moment (see Chapter 2, the Present Continuous). It’s not about how long you have been doing something. For those situations, the Present Perfect Continuous is used. Check this out: ‘I’m sorry I can’t meet you now. I’m studying for an exam.’ (Here someone is talking only about what she or he is doing at this moment.) ‘Oh, poor you! Have you been studying long?’ (Now they want to know how long it has been going on.) ‘Yeah, I’ve been studying for over 2 hours. Wish me luck on my test tomorrow!’ And now some lyrical examples for you (I love this part)! Please identify the verbs in the Present Perfect Continuous, and do the assignment or answer the question underneath. 5 And finally it seems my lonely days are through I’ve been waiting for you Oh, I’ve been waiting for you’ ‘I’ve Been Waiting for You’, ABBA
Translate this lyric into Norwegian.
6 I’ve been looking For a woman To save my life ‘I’ve Been Waiting for You’, David Bowie
Why do you think he wrote ‘I’ve been looking’ and not ‘I have looked’ in this lyric?
7 If you’re wondering why I’ve not been speaking my mind sir It took so long Since I could call this my home ‘My Life’, Oasis
What does it mean to ‘speak your mind’?
8 I’ve been working I’ve been all day working And I need somebody ‘I’ve Been Working’, Luther Vandross
Here in the second line we see that ‘all day’ comes in the middle of the sentence. This is not grammatically correct, as we should say ‘I’ve been working all day’. This construction is something you sometimes see in lyrics. When you write songs, you have a lot more flexibility, so you can get away with a lot more than when you speak. That’s called poetic freedom, and let freedom ring! Why would it be wrong to say ‘I am working all day’ at the end of a day?
Now it’s time for you to fill in the blanks. Enjoy! 1 2 3
If I see you and you are out of breath, sweaty, and wearing sneakers, I might just ask you: ‘Have you _________?’ If I see you and you look very sad and your eyes are wet, I might just ask you: ‘Have you _________?’ If I am in the car with you, and I see that you don’t seem to feel very comfortable about driving and you keep forgetting how to actually drive, I might just ask you: ‘Have you _________ long?!’ John looks outside and sees that it’s raining. He’s very disappointed, as today he was planning a picnic. He calls up his friends and says: ‘I think I have to cancel our picnic because it _________ for over an hour.’ If I came home and found my children sitting like zombies in front of the TV, I would ask them: ‘_________ you _________ TV all day?!?’
THE REMIX: the PRESENT PERFECT and the PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS mixed! Let’s see how much you remember from this chapter. Fill in the correct form of the verb. You will need either the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous form. Good luck! 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
I’m sorry to hear your sister is in the hospital. How long _________ (be) there? I _________ (write) 3 articles so far this month. I _________ (work) on a new article about bungee jumping. That jacket is so old and smelly! How long _________ you _________ (have) it? Bob is a really good friend of mine. I _________ (know) him for 15 years now. She gave up smoking a long time ago. She _________ (not smoke) for years. He has such an interesting job. I’d love to be a Formula 1 driver. I wonder if he _________ (drive) for a long time. The Beatles _________ (have) many number 1 hits over the years. I’m really hungry. I _________ (not eat) breakfast yet this morning. He is a deep-sea diver. He _________ (prepare) for a new dive in Greece. It sounds fantastic! Lindsay is a film producer. She _________ (produce) 5 films so far in her career. She _________ (work) on a new film that will be released next year.
Now let’s practise this some more. Please fill in the blanks. You can choose between the Present Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous. Have fun! 1 a b
My cousin is a drummer in a heavy metal band. She _________ (rehearse) all afternoon for her next gig. She _________ (do) 4 shows so far this month.
2 a b
Susie is a doctor. She _________ (work) at the hospital for 7 years. She _________ (train) for a new position as a surgeon.
3 a b
Henry works in a flower shop. He _________ (look) for new colleagues because it’s so busy at his shop. He _________ (made) 5 lovely bouquets so far today.
4 a b
Bart is a taxi driver. He _________ (drive) 12 people to the hospital this morning. He _________ (look) for a new car, because his car is so old.
EAR CANDY! Now listen to the song from the beginning of this chapter again, and fill in the blanks! Check back ck tto o the beginning of this chapter to see if you’ve done it correctly!
Miss You, the Rolling Stones I’ve been _________ out so long I’ve been sleeping all _________ _________ I miss you I’ve been hanging on the _________ I’ve been _________ all alone I _________ to kiss you Well, I’ve been _________ in my sleep You’ve been _________ in my dreams Lord I _________ you I’ve been _________ in the hall I’ve been waiting on your _________ When the _________ rings It’s just some friends of _________ that say, ‘Hey, what’s the _________ man? We’re gonna come _________ at twelve With some Puerto Rican _________ that are just _________ to meet you We’re gonna _________ a case of wine We’re gonna mess and _________ around You _________, like we used to’
Oh _________ why you wait so long Oh baby why you _________ so long Won’t you _________ home! Come home! I’ve been _________ in Central Park _________ after dark People think I’m _________ _________ on my feet _________ through the street Asking people, ‘What’s the _________ with you boy?’ Sometimes I want to say to _________ _________ I want to say I won’t miss you _________ I _________ I’m lying to myself It’s just _________ and no one else Lord I want to kiss you _________