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Issue 6

April 2013

Obesity……. 4 Siamese Crocodile……. 7 Sundar Pichai……. 12 Modi Vs Gandhi……. 16 Narcotics……. 20 Creativity Myths……. 23 Ben 10……. 26 Harappan Culture……. 30

Photo By: Mihir Bhatt


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Editor’s Page You might have noticed that there is change in the Cover page of the magazine. Instead of photo of endangered animal there is some another picture. Yes there is change. From this issue onward we are going to make one contest on our Facebook fan page. The Photo getting maximum votes will be selected as the cover page of the Protyle magazine. If you’ve missed the chance in this issue, don’t worry get yourself ready for the next issue. The Theme of next issue cover page contest is “Animals of Neighborhood”. In this theme you are supposed to send photographs of animals of our neighborhood which so common in past but their numbers are decreasing continuously, For example the sparrow was so common but it is decreasing due to extensive use of the mobile phones. The Squirrels were common too and they are decreasing too. There is a Hugh list of such animals so get yourself ready for some Snap shooting. You can post your Photographs at our fanpage : https://www.facebook.com/Protylemag The contest will be open from 1April 2013, and the last date of submitting photo will be 15 April 2013. The voting will be closed on the 20 April 2013. I am pleased to announce that we have started one more program too which is named as “ Recycle for Knowledge”. Under this we are going to collect the used materials made up of plastic or paper. We are going to recycle those items and then going to sell them. The money obtained from that “not so important” material will be spent to print eco-friendly copy of Protyle magazine. The copy will be given to the society, School or college from where the waste was provided. So by reducing the waste and plastic we are going to spread the knowledge. So Help us in this Nobel cause and Help in shaping a better future for us. We will collect the plastic and paper waste from your place once you provide us your contact details on the above mentioned page. We still are not getting response from your side as a mail. We request you to send us your response as mail on our email address: bookbored@gmail.com


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You can submit your article for the magazine by mailing us you article as MS word file. Don’t forget to write your Name, contact number and City in your mail. Here are some new faces which just recently joined our team :

Vivek Parekh

Jyotindra Rajan

Keyur Jadav

Mihir Bhatt

Chetan Patel

We are on facebook. Like our official page by following the link:https://www.facebook.com/Protylemag

Editor Kuldeep K Sarvaiya Protyle magazine


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Issue 6

Obesity

April 2013

Disease

Introduction Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. People are considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of the person's height in meters, exceeds 30 kg/m2.

Classification BMI < 18.5 18.5–24.9 25.0–29.9 30.0–34.9 35.0–39.9 ≥ 40.0

Classification underweight normal weight overweight class I obesity class II obesity class III obesity

BMI is calculated by dividing the subject's mass by the square of his or her height:

Effect on Health Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility, although a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications or psychiatric illness. Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited; on average obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.


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Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Obesity is stigmatized in much of the modern world (particularly in the Western world), though it was widely perceived as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times in history, and still is in some parts of the world.

Causes At an individual level, a combination of excessive food energy intake and a lack of physical activity is thought to explain most cases of obesity. A limited number of cases are due primarily to genetics, medical reasons, or psychiatric illness. In contrast, increasing rates of obesity at a societal level are felt to be due to an easily accessible and palatable diet, increased reliance on cars, and mechanized manufacturing. A 2006 review identified ten other possible contributors to the recent increase of obesity: (1) insufficient sleep, (2) endocrine disruptors (environmental pollutants that interfere with lipid metabolism), (3) decreased variability in ambient temperature, (4) decreased rates of smoking, because smoking suppresses appetite, (5) increased use of medications that can cause weight gain (e.g., atypical antipsychotics), (6) proportional increases in ethnic and age groups that tend to be heavier, (7) pregnancy at a later age (which may cause susceptibility to obesity in children), (8) epigenetic risk factors passed on generationally, (9) natural selection for higher BMI, and (10) assortative mating leading to increased concentration of obesity risk factors (this would increase the number of obese people by increasing population variance in weight).


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Pathophysiology Flier summarizes the many possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of obesity. This field of research had been almost unapproached until leptin was discovered in 1994. Since this discovery, many other hormonal mechanisms have been elucidated that participate in the regulation of appetite and food intake, storage patterns of adipose tissue, and development of insulin resistance. Since leptin's discovery, ghrelin, insulin, orexin, PYY 3-36, cholecystokinin, adiponectin, as well as many other mediators have been studied. The adipokines are mediators produced by adipose tissue; their action is thought to modify many obesity-related diseases.

OBESITY DUE TO GENETIC REASONS

Management The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower food energy diet a permanent part of a person's lifestyle. Success rates of long-term weight loss maintenance with lifestyle changes are low, ranging from 2â&#x20AC;&#x201C;20%. One medication, orlistat (Xenical), is current widely available and approved for long term use. Weight loss however is modest with an average of 2.9 kg (6.4 lb) at 1 to 4 years. Its use is associated with high rates of gastrointestinal side effects and concerns have been raised about negative effects on the kidneys. The most effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery. Surgery for severe obesity is associated with long-term weight loss and decreased overall mortality. One study found a weight loss of between 14% and 25% (depending on the type of procedure performed) at 10 years, and a 29% reduction in all-cause mortality when compared to standard weight loss measures.


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Siamese Crocodile Siamese Crocodile is a freshwater crocodile native to Indonesia (Borneo and possibly Java), Brunei, East Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam. The species is critically endangered and already extirpated from many regions

Endangered

Status :Critically Endangered Population : Around 300 Individuals Scientific Name : Crocodylus siamensis Weight : 150-350 kg

Characteristics The Siamese crocodile is a small, freshwater crocodilian (a group that also includes alligators, caimans and the gharial), with a relatively broad, smooth snout and an elevated, bony crest behind each eye. Overall, it is an olive-green color, with some variation to dark-green. Young specimens measure 1.2–1.5 m (3.9–4.9 ft) and weigh 6–12 kg (13–26 lb), growing up to 2.1 m (6.9 ft) and a weight of 40–70 kg (88–150 lb) as an adult. The largest female specimens can measure 3.2 m (10 ft) and weight 150 kg (330 lb) Large male specimens can reach 4 m (13 ft) and 350 kg (770 lb) in weight. It is one of the most endangered crocodiles in the wild, although it is extensively bred in captivity.

MOTHER EATING PREY WITH YOUNGER ONES


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Habitat Siamese crocodiles occur in a wide range of freshwater habitats, including slow-moving rivers and streams, lakes, seasonal oxbow lakes, marshes and swamplands. Most adults do not exceed 3 m (10 ft) in length, although hybrids in captivity can grow much larger. Pure, unhybridised examples of this species are generally unaggressive towards humans, and unprovoked attacks are unknown.

Biology Adults feed mainly on fish, but may also eat amphibians, reptiles and small mammals. Very little is known about the natural history of this species in the wild, but females do appear to build mound-nests constructed from scraped-up plant debris mixed with mud. In captivity, these crocodiles breed during the wet season (April to May), laying between 20 and 50 eggs, which are then guarded until they hatch. After incubation, the female will assist her young as they break out of their eggs and then carry the hatchlings to the water in her jaws.

SIAMESE CROCODILE IN DIFFERENT POSES


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Threats Siamese crocodiles are under threat from human disturbance and habitat occupation, which is forcing remaining populations to the edges of their former range. Extinct from 99% of its original range, the Siamese crocodile is considered one of the least studied and most critically endangered crocodilians in the world. Although few wild populations remain, more than 700,000 C. siamensis are held on commercial crocodile farms in Southeast Asia. In 1992, it was believed to be extremely close to or fully extinct in the wild. Since then, a number of surveys have confirmed the presence of a tiny population in Thailand (possibly numbering as few as two individuals, discounting recent reintroductions), a small population in Vietnam (possibly less than 100 individuals), and more sizable populations in Burma, Laos and Cambodia. In March 2005, conservationists found a nest containing juvenile Siamese crocodiles in the southern Lao province of Savannakhet. There are no recent records from Malaysia or Brunei. A significant population of the crocodiles is known to be living in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Conservation & Management Status surveys and development of crocodile management and conservation programs in Cambodia and Lao PDR: These two countries appear to be the remaining stronghold of the species. Identifying key areas and populations, and obtaining quantitative estimates of population size as a precursor to initiating conservation programs is needed. â&#x20AC;˘ Implementation of protection of habitat and restocking in Thailand: Thailand has the best-organized protected-areas system, the largest source of farm-raised crocodiles for restocking, and the most-developed crocodile management program in the region. Although the species has virtually disappeared from the wild, re-establishment of viable populations in protected areas is feasible. â&#x20AC;˘ Protection of crocodile populations in Vietnam: A combination of habitat protection and captive breeding could prevent the complete loss of the species in Vietnam. Surveys, identification of suitable localities and the implementation of a conservation program coordinated with the captive breeding efforts of Vietnamese institutions is needed. Investigation of the taxonomy of the freshwater crocodiles in Southeast Asia and the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago: The relationships among the freshwater crocodiles in the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago are poorly understood. Clarification of these relationships is of scientific interest and has important implications for conservation. â&#x20AC;˘


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Other projects include: Coordination of captive breeding, trade and conservation in the South east Asian region: Several countries in the region are already deeply involved in captive breeding programs for commercial use. Integration of this activity with necessary conservation actions for the wild populations (including funding surveys and conservation) could be a powerful force for conservation. A long term aim could be the rere -establishment of viable wild populations and their sustainable use by ranching. â&#x20AC;˘

Maintain a stock of pure C. siamensis in crocodile farms: The bulk of the captives worldwide are maintained in several farms in Thailand where extensive interbreeding with C. porosus has taken place. Hybrids are preferred for their superior commercial qualities, but the hybridization threatens the genetic integrity of the most threatened species of crocodilians. Farms should be encouraged to segregate genetically pure Siamese crocodiles for conservation, in addition to the hybrids they are promoting for hide production.

â&#x20AC;˘

Survey and protection of Siamese crocodiles in Indonesia: Verification of the presence of C. siamensis in Kalimantan and Java is a first step to developing protection for the species within the context of the developing crocodile management strategy in Indonesia.

YOUNG CROCODILE WITH EGGS

SIAMESE CROCODILE TAKING REST UNDER SHADE


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Sundar Pichai

April 2013

Technology

At Google Sundar Pichai served as the Head of the Chrome Browser and Computer Operating System at Google Inc. He also served as Senior Vice President of Chrome of Google Inc. since April 2011 to March 2013. He served as Vice President of Product Management at Google Inc. He leads the product management and innovation efforts for a suite of Google's search and consumer products, including iGoogle, Google Toolbar, Desktop Search and Gadgets, Google Pack, and Gears. He joined Google in 2004. Now, He leads the Android smartphone OS too, as the founder Andy Rubbin stepped down from the post to start a new chapter at Google.

Before Joining Google Before joining Google, he held various engineering and product management positions at Applied Materials, and was a Management Consultant with McKinsey & Company, Inc. for a variety of software and semiconductor clients. He has more than 15 years of experience developing high-tech consumer and enterprise products.He has been a Director of Jive Software, Inc. since March 2011. He served as a Member of Board of Advisors at Ruba, Inc.


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Education Originally from Chennai,India. B.tech(Metallurgy)-IIT kharagpur. M.S. in Engineering and Materials Science from Stanford University. MBA from the Wharton School of University of Pennysalvania.

Timeline at Google It wasn't long before Pichai's name was attached to some key initiatives — back before there was Chrome, there was the Google Toolbar, Toolbar Pichai's first project at the company and one that helped increase consumer reliance on Google's vast wealth of data. This was the first time in Pichai's career at Google that he was tasked with finding a way to bring the company's services to the various clients consumers used to access the web, and it would help shape his path at Google for the better part of the next decade. The success of the Toolbar helped propel the next major phase of Pichai's career — Google noticed that it increased the number of searches users made, and this led Google to the conclusion that its own browser would be even more effective at keeping users in the company's burgeoning ecosystem. Finally, Chrome was launched in July,2009. Google's strategy seemed pretty clear at that point: Chrome would be its window into the world of desktop users, while Android would help Google get a piece of the booming smartphone marketplace. Pichai played a major role in Google's apps, both native mobile and web apps. For the latter, he's helped fully build up Google Docs (including last year's addition of full offline support) and the Google Drive launch. He's also appeared as a major speaker at the last three Google I/O conferences, giving updates on Chrome and Google's ecosystem of web apps — particularly Docs and Drive.

Twitter wanted to hire Him, But! Pichai was so important to Google that the company reportedly paid him an extra $50 million to keep him from moving to Twitter, though that was never confirmed. He did confirm Twitter's interest to a Magazine, saying "I'm happy here. I look at this as a life journey that I've been on for a long time."


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His career at Google has focused on advancing the ways Google can get its data to end users on any piece of equipment they happen to be using.

Next Big Question Google shuffle: can Android and Chrome OS combine to take on Microsoft? What exactly will that mean? Most likely, it will mean that Google will merge Chrome OS and Android together into a single operating system. It won't happen right away, and it will require Pichai to manage and integrate two different teams with potentially different philosophies about the future of computing, but if he can pull if off, Google's platform will be in direct competition with Windows as the biggest mainstream operating system in the world.. Article By Vivek Parekh


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Issue 6

16 Modi Vs. Gandhi A battle for Seat

April 2013

Trending

Countdown of 2014 Loksabha polls in India has already begun. If you take newspaper or switch on TV news channel, you will find political news on most of the channels. NDA and UPA both have started throwing the buckets of counter excuses on each other. From UPA, Rahul Gandhi is fixed for candidate of Prime Minister in 2014 polls. But as we see in NDA, name of Narendra Modi has lifted suddenly like a volcano. But Modi has not been decided as candidate for PM yet officially. But if we look at NDA, Modiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s place in BJP is up lifting day by day. So once can predict him as a future candidate. But here I want to talk about the leader who can lead India in better way. An American futurologist named Joel Barker says that a leader is a person others opt to follow to go someplace they would not go by themselves. This definition implies that a leader is someone who must have extraordinary vision. But an extraordinary vision requires courage, determination and personal sacrifice. But why we talk about a leaderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s characteristics? The simple reason is India needs a visionary leader. In present scenario India feels insecure. Weather it is social matter, political matter, security concerns or technology matter, India needs some superfluous power which can bring India out of dark hole. A vision for a leader is a deeply personal thing. Does Rahul Gandhi have a personal vision for India? If he has a vision, he has to cultivate it. Narendra Modi, riding the crest of his freshly won state election, is a man whose sense of vision is more discernible, albeit on a regional platform. Running a state and running an entire country is very different. If we talk about national level experience of politics, both are having low experience of it. Rahul Gandhi has been leader of youths but he has not proved himself sitting on some responsible place. At another side, Naredra Modi has proved himself In Gujarat, but this is the first time he is going to be part of national political event.


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In the context of India, the importance of a worthwhile vision has become a matter of historic necessity like never before. On the one hand, the state is failing and on the other hand, the Indian society is beginning to falter and even fragment. It is the latter that has held thing together through the many ups and downs because of our civilizational values and culture. We are clearly at crossroads with one question rooming large: What does it mean to be Indian? A leader who wants to run the country must have a personal answer to that question. It canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be easy to come to answer by doing some of the work in fever of Indian citizens or it cannot be found by just reducing FDI and NREGA. It has to come from deep within. A vision can align people, it can also alienate. Leaders are, at some level, ordinary people and they are afraid to be seen as out of depth. Leadership is inherently fraught with great risk. This is the game where no one is sure about the result. So we have to wait for 2014 for this political event as well as its result. Here is the comparison of characteristics and capabilities of both of the leaders-Rahul Gandhi and Narendra Modi:      

   

 



                     

     



    

                   

      



    

            



    

   

       

       

               

  



Article By Nirav Majevadiya


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Pict-o-graph

Mumbai Darshan Photo Credit Maharshi Patel


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Pict-o-graph

Tour Special

Photo Credit Mihir Bhatt


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Narcotics

April 2013

Drug Dose

Introduction A drug derived from opium (Papaver somniferum) or opium like compound, with potent analgesic effect associated with significant alteration in mood behavior, and with the potential for dependence and tolerance following repeated administration. The word “narcotic” comes from the Greek word “narkon” which means sleep. So basically, narcotics are the compounds which induce sleep. In India these narcotics are most commonly known as “bhang”, “charas” and “ganja”.

Types of Narcotics Natural opiates Codeine >> Doriden, Empirin, Tylenole with Codeine Opium Morphine Thebaine Opiate Derivatives - Semi Synthetic Buprenorphine >> Buprenex Dextromethorphan Heroin >> Diacetylmorphine, Diamorphine Hydrocodone >> Anexsia, Hycodan, Hycomine, Lorcet, Lortab, Tussionex, Tylox, Vicodin, and Vicoprofen. ο Hydromorphone >> Dilaudid ο Naloxone >> Narcan ο Oxycodone >> OxyContin, Percocet, Percodan, Roxicet, Roxicodone, Tylox, Superdol ο Oxymorphone >> Numorphan ο Synthetic ο Butorphanol >> Stadol ο Dextropropoxyphene or Propoxyphene >> Darvon ο Fentanyl >> Alfenta, Duragesic, Innovar, Sublimaze, Sufenta) ο Levo-Alpha-Acetyl-Methadol - LAAM ο Meperedine >> Demerol, Mepergan, MPTP (a fatal Meperedine-analog contaminant) ο Methadone >> Dolophine • ο ο ο ο • ο ο ο ο


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Heroin Vial

Oozing of Opiates

April 2013

Opium Field

Common Names Brown sugar, Chasing the dragon, China White, Crank, Dope, DXM, Eight ball, H, Horse, Junk, Skag, Smack, Speedball, Whitehorse and many more.

Mechanism Of Action •

Before jumping to the analgesic effect of the narcotic, we first need to understand the normal body’s mechanism of producing analgesic effect. Our body has its own painkiller: “Endorphins” (The word endorphin comes from the term endogenous, meaning morphine-like substances “produced in the body.”) When body is in pain, it releases some neurotransmitters which make the body realize that it has pain. In this condition brain produces endorphin to block the pain message from body. Narcotics do the same thing as that of endorphins, i.e., they block the pain message from body by acting on central nervous system, but they are highly addictive as they alter the chemistry of the brain. When taken, the body creates less endorphin because the effects of narcotics are too much intense than those of endorphins. If you stop taking narcotics, your body goes through the effects of withdrawal. This occurs because your body cannot produce enough endorphins quickly enough to make you feel good, the way narcotics do. There are not enough endorphins to block the pain and your body becomes physically addicted to narcotics.


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This is where the habituation to the drug starts as the user replaces the missing endorphins with narcotics in order to feel good and to avoid the painful effects of narcotic withdrawal. This leads to the dependence of the drug.

Uses •

Analgesic effect • Doctors normally prescribe codeine and propoxyphene (sometimes in combination with aspirin) to subside the pain after oral surgery, for severe menstrual cramps, and for temporary pain relief after other outpatient surgical procedures. • During the major surgeries, to calm down the patient, small dose of morphine is given intravenously with analgesics. • Intravenous narcotics may also be used for palliative care, to relieve the pain of patients diagnosed with terminal cancer. • Sustained release preparations are also available, for ex. a sustained -release injected form of morphine sulfate (DepoMorphine) and a patient-controlled transdermal system (E-TRANS) that releases doses of fentanyl when the patient pushes a button attached to the arm or upper chest. Antitussive effect • Codeine phosphate or hydrocodone is normally prescribed (Corex). Antidiarrheal • A liquid preparation containing powdered opium, anise oil, and glycerin, is sometimes prescribed for severe diarrhea. It decreases the gastrointestinal movements of the gut wall which is responsible for pushing the food through the digestive tract. Lomotil, another antidiarrheal medication, contains a synthetic opioid known as diphenoxylate; it is often recommended for treating cancer patients with diarrhea caused by radiation therapy.

Adverse Effects Euphoria, rush, hallucinations, Restlessness, Loss of appetite, upset stomach, nausea, vomiting, Dry mouth, Lethargy, drowsiness, nodding, difficulty being roused, Unsteadiness, confusion, Suppression of pain, “Constricted (pinpoint) pupils”, Scars (tracks) caused by injections, Difficulty urinating, Constipation, Sweating, Difficulty breathing


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Drug Abuse in India •

One million heroin addicts are registered in India, and unofficially there are as many as five million. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Cannabis products, often called charas, bhang, or ganja, are abused throughout the country because it has attained some amount of religious sanctity because of its association with some Hindu deities. The International Narcotics Control Board in its 2002 report pointed out that in India persons addicted to opiates are shifting their drug of choice from opium to heroin. The pharmaceutical products containing narcotic drugs are also increasingly being abused. The intravenous injections of analgesics like dextropropoxphene etc. are also reported from many states, as it is easily available at 1/10th the cost of heroin. The codeine-based cough syrups (for ex. Corex) continue to be abused by so many addicts.

Any Solution? All the statistical data point out just one thing and that is, day by day, Indian youth is getting addiction to the narcotics. And definitely you must have heard or read somewhere, something, that drug addiction not only spoils one life but directly or indirectly ruins the life of all the persons related with the addict. This according to me is very serious topic. Where is our youth going? What kind of India do we want? What kind of lesson we are passing to our children? Isn’t it a big question? The more humiliating thing is that people don’t try to leave the addiction. Does it necessary to have strict rules for each and everything? Where are our ethics? Even the medical stores are also playing the major role over here. Our government has decided some rules, like, to purchase any medicated preparation containing narcotics, the patient must have the doctor’s prescription. But everyone seems careless. So many medical stores are found which give these drugs to the patients without bothering about prescription. These things increase the cases of addiction. So what can be the solution? How can one remain non addict? I think it’s completely on all of us. Take all the medical preparation containing narcotic under supervision of doctor only. Never use drugs just for the sake of mental relaxation. Face each and every problem with great courage. Be wise, Be Healthy!

Article By Ruchi Pathak


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Creativity Myths

April 2013

The Myth

Myth 1 Be unique! This boosts creativity!

Truth The relationship between uniqueness and creativity is reverse. It is true that many creative people are unique or strange in behavior. This comes from their creative way of looking at things and unwillingness to stick to those forms of tradition that defy reason. By no means an effort towards uniqueness will boost creativity. It is true that Einstein smoked a pipe, but it does not mean that you will be more of a genius if you take on smoking a pipe.

Myth 2 TV makes you stupid!

Truth TV or radio can be harmful if you are unable to control what you watch or listen, or if you are unable to optimize the proportion of your time spent on broadcasts. Otherwise, TV is still hard to match in its ability to present to you a pre-selected and emphatically graphic video material for the purposes of education or getting informed. Video education based on the material from reputable channels may be the most efficient form of tutor-less education. Swap MTV for Discovery, and make a good selection. Although you cannot employ incremental video watching yet, a dose of daily DVDR viewing will help you stay up to date with the news and brush up your general education


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Myth 3 Geniuses do not forget things!

Truth Genius brains are made of the same substance as average ones. Consequently, their memories are subject to the exactly same laws of forgetting. All knowledge in the human brain declines along a negatively exponential curve. Forgetting is as massive in a genius mind as it is in any other. The best tools against forgetting are (1) good knowledge representation and (2) review. Geniuses may hold an advantage by developing powerful representation skills that make learning much easier. They often develop those skills early and without a conscious effort.

Myth 4 If you do something stupid, so are you !

Truth Human brain is an imperfectly programmed machine. It never stops learning and verifying its errors. Its knowledge base is painfully limited. The same brain may be able to disentangle the complexities of the string theory and then slip on simple sums. Notes left by Newton, Leibnitz or Babbage show that they erred on their way to great discovery or meandered in an entirely wrong direction. We measure genius by its top accomplishments, not by the lack of failures.

Myth 5 You must be born with a creative mind!

Truth Some kids indeed show an incredible curiosity and rage to master. However, there are many techniques that can help you multiply your creativity. Creativity is trainable.


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26 Ben 10

April 2013

Cartoon

Ben 10 is an American animated television series. The show revolves around Ben Tennyson, his cousin Gwen, and their grandfather Max. During the start of their summer camping trip, Ben goes stomping off into the woods after another fight with Gwen, whom he is not happy to have along on the trip, and finds an alien pod on the ground. When he examines it, he finds a mysterious, watch-like device, called the Omnitrix, stored inside. The device attaches permanently to his wrist and gives him the ability to transform into a variety of alien lifeforms, each with their own unique powers. Although Ben realizes that he has a responsibility to help others with these new abilities at his disposal, he is not above a little superpowered mischief now and then. Along with Gwen and Max, Ben fights evil, both extraterrestrial and criminal.

Omnitrix The main focus of the series is the Omnitrix, a watch-like alien device found by Ben in the first episode. Using it, Ben can transform into a number of different aliens, which he uses to battle the various villains in the series. As explained in the show, the Omnitrix works by binding alien DNA to Ben's, transforming him into the alien of his choice for ten minutes and then reverting him back to normal. As revealed in Ben 10: Race Against Time, the time limit is a failsafe designed to keep the alien DNA from overwhelming the user. To prevent the obvious problem of someone simply stealing the Omnitrix from Ben, the Omnitrix is depicted as quite difficult to remove, being more or less integrated into Ben's skin. Furthermore, when anyone tries, it emits an omni-directional energy burst to discourage such attempts. When people have actually removed the device, it seems to take them a very long time or complicated machinery to accomplish the task. Despite its mechanical appearance, the way it works makes it seem more organic in nature, even possessing a mind of its own. The Omnitrix also adapts for the gender of the user and any illnesses the current user may be afflicted with also spread to all of the aliens as well. It appears to grow along with the user, as Ben 10,000's Omnitrix is at least three times the size of the ten-year-old Ben's, and the aliens age along with the user as well.


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As a running gag, as well as an occasional plot point, the Omnitrix tends to work in ways contrary to Ben's wishes. This is because Azmuth created it to do so as a security precaution. It will transform him into the wrong alien, shut down at inopportune moments, or simply not activate at all, actually resisting Ben's attempts to push the face back down. This has yet to occur in Ben 10: Alien Force, except on one occasion, meaning Ben Tennyson has, to some extent, mastered the functions of the Omnitrix, though not as entirely like his future self in the episode "Ben 10,000". Various episodes in the original series show that at least part of this behavior is Ben's unfamiliarity with the device, and several episodes showcase people (or aliens) whose knowledge of the device allows them to operate it with much greater ease than Ben. When used to its full potential, the Omnitrix is shown to allow the user to become any alien by merely thinking about it, stay in alien form indefinitely, and even switch from one alien form straight to another at will, commonly referred to as the Omnitrix's "Master Control" function. The Omnitrix's origins are explored in Ben 10: Secret of the Omnitrix. Its creator, Azmuth, explains that he built it to provide the various species of the universe a better understanding of each otherâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the proverbial 'walk-amile-in-another's-shoes'. To that end, the Omnitrix absorbs and integrates the DNA of aliens for use by the one wearing it. Because of the combat potential in some of the aliens, particularly those Ben commonly transforms into, it came to be seen as a weapon by Vilgax and others. Afraid that it would be used for the wrong purposes, Azmuth installed a self-destruct feature into the Omnitrix, which served as the central plot point in Secret of the Omnitrix.


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At some point in the years between the original series and Ben 10: Alien Force, Ben managed to remove the Omnitrix by an unknown but difficult process. When Ben puts it back on, the Omnitrix reconfigures into a more watch-like shape, giving Ben access to a new set of alien forms and a holographic alien display, rather than merely presenting the silhouettes of the aliens. Also, Ben has lost his previous alien transformations; this is noted in "Ben 10 Returns", when he first uses the new Omnitrix and states that he doesn't recognize anyone in his selection, in "Everybody Talks About the Weather", when he told Alan Albright that he used to turn into Heatblast, and in "Pier Pressure" when he saw a Galvanic Mechomorph and told Julie that he used to be able to turn into Upgrade. Ben himself also retains any injuries suffered by his alien forms, although this has not been shown to be any real problem as of yet. Also, Ben is able to transform multiple times in succession, but it will eventually shut down to recharge. In addition, the Omnitrix has the ability to repair genetic damage, such as that caused by DNAlien mutation. It uses a previously unseen speech function to inform Ben of this feature.


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Happened in History The Harappan Culture

The earliest imprints of human activities in India go back to the Paleolithic Age, roughly between 400,000 and 200,000 B.C. Stone implements and cave paintings from this period have been discovered in many parts of the South Asia. Evidence of domestication of animals, the adoption of agriculture, permanent village settlements, and wheel-turned pottery dating from the middle of the sixth millennium B.C. has been found in the foothills of Sindh and Baluchistan (or Balochistan in current Pakistani usage), both in present-day Pakistan. One of the first great civilizations -- with a writing system, urban centers, and a diversified social and economic system -appeared around 3,000 B.C. along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh. It covered more than 800,000 square kilometers, from the borders of Baluchistan to the deserts of Rajasthan, from the Himalayan foothills to the southern tip of Gujarat. The remnants of two major cities -- Mohenjodaro and Harappa--reveal remarkable engineering feats of uniform urban planning and carefully executed layout, water supply, and drainage. Excavations at these sites and later archaeological digs at about seventy other locations in India and Pakistan provide a composite picture of what is now generally known as Harappan culture (2500-1600 B.C.). The major cities contained a few large buildings including a citadel, a large bath -- perhaps for personal and communal ablution -- differentiated living quarters, flat-roofed brick houses, and fortified administrative or religious centers enclosing meeting halls and granaries. Essentially a city culture, Harappan life was supported by extensive agricultural production and by commerce, which included trade with Sumer in southern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq). The people made tools and weapons from copper and bronze but not iron. Cotton was woven and dyed for clothing; wheat, rice, and a variety of vegetables and fruits were cultivated; and a number of animals, including the humped bull, were domesticated. Harappan culture was conservative and remained relatively unchanged for centuries; whenever cities were rebuilt after periodic flooding, the new level of construction closely followed the previous pattern. Although stability, regularity, and conservatism seem to have been the hallmarks of this people, it is unclear who wielded authority, whether an aristocratic, priestly, or commercial minority.


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By far the most exquisite but most obscure Harappan artifacts unearthed to date are steatite seals found in abundance at Mohenjo-daro. These small, flat, and mostly square objects with human or animal motifs provide the most accurate picture there is of Harappan life. They also have inscriptions generally thought to be in the Harappan script, which has eluded scholarly attempts at deciphering it. Debate abounds as to whether the script represents numbers or an alphabet, and, if an alphabet, whether it is proto-Dravidian or proto-Sanskrit. The possible reasons for the decline of Harappan civilization have long troubled scholars. Invaders from central and western Asia are considered by some historians to have been the "destroyers" of Harappan cities, but this view is open to reinterpretation. More plausible explanations are recurrent floods caused by tectonic earth movement, soil salinity, and desertification.

Article By Nirav Majevadiya


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Puzzles

Puzzle 1 A two-digit number, read from left to right, is 4.5 times as large as the same number read from right to left. What is the number?

Puzzle 2 Which number when added to 5/4 gives the same result as when it is multiplied by 5/4?

Puzzle 3 Aman bUys acarton of 200 cigarettes, and every day he smokes seven cigarettes less than the day before. Eventually the day arrives when his quota is down to one cigarette - which happens to be all that there is left in the original carton. How many a day was he smoking when he bought the carton?

Puzzle 4 There are two stalls in a market selling apples. Stall Asells them at three for 10p, stall B sells them at two for 10p. On Monday, each stall sells 300 apples, therefore stall Acollects £10 and stall B collects £15 - a total of £25. On Tuesday, each stall again has 300 apples, but this time both stalls decide to combine and sell at five for 20p. At the end of the day, all the apples are sold but they find that they only have £24 to be shared between them. What happened to the extra £1 ?


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Puzzle 5 Can you find a word of nine letters from which you can delete one letter at a time and yet always give another valid word, until you get down to a single-letter word? There's no need to rearrange the letters at each stage, either.

Answers of Previous Puzzles Puzzl_ 1 ::- Th_ f[rm_r h[s 23 ]hi]k_ns [n^ 7 ]ows. Puzzl_ 2 ::- Sh_ h[s [ minimum of 15 st[mps. M_xi]o: 1 \lu_, 2 r_^, 4 unknown ]olor Fr[n]_: 2 \lu_, 3 r_^, 1 unknown ]olor Unknown ]ountry: 1 purpl_, 1 r_^ ... [n^ for [ll w_ know, sh_ might [lso h[v_ 2 gr__n st[mps from G_rm[ny. 

 Puzzl_ 3 ::- Hy^rog_n ]hlori^_ ]om\in_s with so^ium hy^roxi^_ to form ]ommon s[lt (so^ium ]hlori^_) [n^ w[t_r. Puzzl_ 4 ::- Bo\ [rriv_^ first. Tom got th_r_ n_xt [n^ th_ p[inting w[s still th_r_, so Bo\ w[s not th_ thi_f, [n^ n_ith_r w[s Tom. Wh_n @nn [rriv_^, th_ p[inting w[s still th_r_, \ut it w[s gon_ wh_n sh_ l_ft. So @nn w[s th_ on_ who stol_ th_ p[inting. Chu]k [rriv_^ l[st [n^ ^is]ov_r_^ th[t th_ p[inting w[s gon_.

Puzzl_ 4 ::- If th_r_ [r_ 20 physi]s stu^_nts who [ll t[k_ m[th_m[ti]s, [n^ h[lf of th_ m[th_m[ti]s stu^_nts stu^y physi]s, th_r_ must \_ 40 stu^_nts in th_ m[th_m[ti]s ]l[ss. If h[lf of th_ 30 lit_r[tur_ stu^_nts t[k_ m[th_m[ti]s, th_n 15 of th_m t[k_ m[th_m[ti]s. Sin]_ non_ of th_ lit_r[tur_ stu^_nts stu^y physi]s, only fiv_ stu^_nts in th_ m[th_m[ti]s ]l[ss stu^y n_ith_r physi]s nor lit_r[tur_.

Note : Answers of these puzzles will be published in next issue. Mail us answers of puzzles asked in this issue and get your name published in next issue.


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Facts and Figures •

The Grammy Awards were introduced to counter the threat of rock music. In the late 1950s, a group of record executives were alarmed by the explosive success of rock ‘n roll, considering it a threat to "quality" music.

In 1955 the richest woman in the world was Mrs Hetty Green Wilks, who left an estate of $95 million in a will that was found in a tin box with four pieces of soap. Queen Elizabeth of Britain and Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands count under the 10 wealthiest women in the world.

The system of democracy was introduced 2 500 years ago in Athens, Greece. The oldest existing governing body operates in Althing in Iceland. It was established in 930 AD.

If you went out into space, you would explode before you suffocated because there's no air pressure.

On average, half of all false teeth have some form of radioactivity.

A chip of silicon a quarter-inch square has the capacity of the original 1949 ENIAC computer, which occupied a city block.

An ordinary TNT bomb involves atomic reaction, and could be called an atomic bomb. What we call an A-bomb involves nuclear reactions and should be called a nuclear bomb.

At a glance, the Celsius scale makes more sense than the Fahrenheit scale for temperature measuring. But its creator, Anders Celsius, was an oddball scientist. When he first developed his scale, he made freezing 100 degrees and boiling 0 degrees, or upside down. No one dared point this out to him, so fellow scientists waited until Celsius died to change the scale.

At a jet plane's speed of 1,000 km (620mi) per hour, the length of the plane becomes one atom shorter than its original length.

The wick of a trick candle has small amounts of magnesium in them. When you light the candle, you are also lighting the magnesium. When someone tries to blow out the flame, the magnesium inside the wick continues to burn and, in just a split second (or two or three), relights the wick.


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