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Research Overview

First Food Science and Technology Competence Center in Lithuania was opened at Kaunas University of Technology in December, 2010

Prepared by Department of Research Affairs Kaunas University of Technology Editor Leonas Balaševičius Translation & English Text-Editing by Vaidonė Kučinskienė Design by Evelina Garliauskienė Photos by Gintaras Labutis Aurelijus Madzeliauskas Shutterstock Dreamstime Printed by Publishing House “Technologija”

© Kaunas University of Technology, 2011 ISSN 2029-3151

Kaunas University of Technology K. Donelaičio g. 73, LT-44029 Kaunas, Lithuania E-mail: Phone: +370 37 300 000, +370 37 324 140 Fax: +370 37 324 144

Research Overview 2011

Research Overview 2011 4

Kaunas University of Technology


Intelligent Electronics Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vytautas Markevičius Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dangirutis Navikas


Nanofibers. Prof. Dr. Rimvydas Milašius


Theory of Complex Systems in Medicine Prof. Dr. Zenonas Navickas

Research Overview 2011

Content 7

About us


Damaging and Curing Radiation Prof. Dr. Diana Adlienė


Development of New Measuring Methods and Tools Prof. Dr. Habil. Stasys Vygantas Augutis


Predicting Timber Strength Assoc. Prof. Dr. Antanas Baltrušaitis

83 Innovative Treatment of Polluted Waters Assoc. Prof. Dr. Viktoras Račys


“Smart” Piezoelectric Actuators for Future Robots & Intelligent Machines Prof. Dr. Habil. Ramutis Bansevičius


Novel Insights into Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Chaos Prof. Dr Habil. Minvydas Ragulskis


Modern Mathematical Insight into Physical Behavior of Structures Prof. Dr. Habil. Rimantas Barauskas


Dynamical Systems with Time Delays: Analysis & Synthesis Prof. Dr. Jonas Rimas


Ancient Burial Site Helps to Reconstruct Prehistoric Society Dr. Mindaugas Bertašius


Alteration of Urban Social Spatial Code Assoc. Prof. Kęstutis Zaleckis Assist. Irina Matijošaitienė


Ultrasound Energy Saves Lives Dr. Habil. Algimantas Bubulis


Formation of Personality: between Hermeneutics & Ethics Dr. Nerijus Čepulis


Intelligent Control, Robots, Neural Networks & Artificial Intelligence Prof. Dr. Habil. Rimvydas Simutis


Impact of New Media on Lithuanian Cultural Tradition. Prof. Dr. Tomas Sodeika


Embedded Systems. Dr. Vytautas Deksnys


Fuel Cells for Future Generations Prof. Dr. Habil. Julius Dudonis Prof. Dr. Giedrius Laukaitis


Chemicals Risk Management Prof. Dr. Habil. Jurgis Kazimieras Staniškis Dr. Jolita Kruopienė


Virtual War and Real Rockets Prof. Dr. Habil. Algimantas Fedaravičius


Organic Semiconductors – Disruptive Technology of the XXI Century Prof. Dr. Habil. Juozas V. Gražulevičius

55 Amorphous Carbon Coatings and their modification Prof. Dr. Habil. Alfonsas Grigonis, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Liutauras Marcinauskas, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Živilė Rutkūnienė 58 Electronic Support Systems for Future Businesses. Prof. Dr. Rimantas Gatautis 60

Less but Healthier and Nutritious Food on our Table Prof. Dr. Habil. Gražina Juodeikienė


Ultrasonic non Destructive Testing of Composite Structures Prof. Dr. Habil. Rymantas Kažys

66 Eco-packaging Design Prof. Dr. Habil. Edmundas Kibirkštis 68

Unlocking Data: Creating Knowledge in Social Research. Prof. Dr. Algis Krupavičius


Understanding a Mastermind: Semiotic Analysis of Music Texts by an Outstanding Lithuanian Composer Assoc. Prof. Dr. Darius Kučinskas

102 The Importance of Objective & Sensory Material Evaluation in Virtual Prototyping Prof. Dr. Eugenija Strazdienė 105

Design Automation Processes Prof. Dr. Habil. Vytautas Štuikys Assoc. Prof. Dr. Robertas Damaševičius Assoc. Prof. Dr. Giedrius Ziberkass

108 Surface Engineering & Microtechnologies Prof. Dr. Habil. Sigitas Tamulevičius 112

Computational Intelligence Systems Prof. Dr. Habil. Antanas Verikas, Senior Researcher Marija Bačauskienė, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Antanas Stasiūnas, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adas Gelžinis, M. Sc., PhD student Evaldas Vaičiukynas

114 Marketing Science for Dynamic Markets Prof. Dr. Regina Virvilaitė 117 Problems & Solutions for Unique Buildings Health Monitoring Prof. Dr. Habil. Vitalijus Volkovas 120 Starch and its Derivatives for Non-food Applications Prof. Dr. Habil. Algirdas Žemaitaitis 123 Light & Safety Structures Prof. Dr. Habil. Antanas Žiliukas 125 Biomechanics for Better Health & Sports Achievements. Prof. Dr. Pranas Žiliukas

Kaunas University of Technology


Dear reader, Mission of the Science, technology and social cultural research at Kaunas University of Technology is to make an impact on the quality of education of future leaders and professionals; to create frontier knowledge as well as high technology for enterprises and institutions; finally to contribute to the development of sustainable economy and culturally prosperous society. Vision that we share is becoming an acknowledged centre of excellence in sustainable chemistry and chemical technology, future energy, mechatronics and electronics, Information and Communication Technologies as well as nanotechnology and material science, ultrasonic and biomedical engineering, food technology and sustainable economy and culturally prosperous society in Europe and beyond. To pave the way towards the vision we focus on attracting, maintaining and fostering high level researchers and research groups as well as creating inspiring environment for them. We also see ourselves as a strong and reliable node in a worldwide knowledge network, cooperating with Science, technology and social cultural research community. Complementary network that we build is collaborative relationships with businesses and public sector institutions that enable our researchers to be a part of innovation and knowledge and high technology based entrepreneurship ecosystem. In the Research Overview 2011 we invite you to learn some of our achievements in “Smart� piezoelectronic actuators for future robots and intelligent machines and devices as well as intelligent electronics; nuclear energy; ultrasound energy based penetration of intravascular blockage and ultrasonic non-destructive testing for composite structures; organic semiconductors; electronic support systems for future businesses as well as marketing for dynamic markets; healthier and nutritious food; complex systems in medicine; semiotics and new media; nanofibers as well as surface engineering and micro technologies; biomechanics and many more. In case our research would be of interest for you we are open for cooperation and joint research as well as knowledge and technology transfer projects. Looking forward for cooperation, Sincerely,

Asta Pundziene

Vice-Rector for Research

For more information about the research undertaken at Kaunas University of Technology visit: or call the Research Affairs Department on +370 37 300702.

Research Overview 2011

About Us Important Historical Dates On January 27, 1920 Z. Žemaitis, a mathematician, and J. Vabalas-Gudaitis, a psychologist, in cooperation with other intellectuals founded the first centre of studies in Kaunas – the Higher Courses. Among other subdivisions, the Courses included a technical section directed by Engineer J. Šimoliūnas. The Higher Courses enjoyed successful growth and in two years they already had 480 students and 48 teachers. On February 16, 1922 the Government of Lithuania passed a resolution on establishing a university, the first independent higher education institution in Lithuania. The new university was based on the Higher Courses. The President of Lithuania A. Stulginskis appointed Dr. J. Šimkus as the first Rector of the University. Monsignor J. Mačiulis-Maironis (Faculty of Theology), A. Voldemaras (Faculty of Social Sciences), Z. Žemaitis (Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences), P. Avižonis (Faculty of Medicine), and P. Jodelė (Faculty of Technology) were the deans. In 1930 the University was given the name of Vytautas Magnus. The Faculties of Technology, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences trained certified engineers in four areas: civil engineering, mechanics, electrical engineering, and chemical technology. The Faculty of Technology had 17 departments, which employed 40 to 60 researchers and 4 to 6 technical staff members. Technical facilities for studies and research became available when the Physics and Chemistry buildings (1932) and the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory (1937) were completed in Aleksotas. Five doctoral theses were defended in the Faculty of Technology before the World War II. Juozas Indriūnas, the initiator of the textile science in Lithuania, was the first to complete his doctorate studies. During the inter-war

period of independence, the University had 148 student organizations engaged in various directions and interests, including ideological societies and corporations affiliated with political parties. In 1950, Kaunas University was reorganized into Kaunas Polytechnic Institute (KPI) and Kaunas Medical Institute. In 1990, KPI was renamed Kaunas University of Technology. It regained its university status, and embarked on the road of reforms. The objectives of the University included meeting the requirements of the Magna Charta of European Universities, UNESCO, and the EU regulations and coordinating its activities with other European and Lithuanian universities. In 1992, in pursuance of the Law on Science and Education of the Republic of Lithuania, the University implemented two-level degree programmes and a new procedure of awarding scientific degrees and pedagogic titles. Since 1993, a western-style flexible module/ credit system has been implemented, which emphasizes study and research integration, broad-based fundamental education, wideranging study programmes, and independent work. In 1998, the University joined the Magna Charta of European Universities and became a member of the European University Association. In 2001, the University became a member of the European Society for Engineering Education (SEFI). In 2003, the University became a member of the European Association for University Lifelong Learning (EUCEN). In 2006, the University became a member of the Conference of European Schools for Advanced Engineering Education and Research (CESAER).

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Basic Facts about University A model of democratic self-governance is applied at the University. The University consists of faculties, institutes, centres, libraries, and other science, study, economy, and administration subdivisions. University has collegial government organs: University Council (further – Council) and University Senate (further – Senate) and the one-man government organ – the Rector (along with its advisory institution, the Rectorate). The University Council includes 11 members, 5 members being appointed by the Council of Higher Education, 3 members by the teaching and research staff of Kaunas University of Technology, 1 member appointed by the joint agreement of the Minister of Science and Education and the Senate of Kaunas University of Technology, 1 member appointed by the Student Union of Kaunas University of Technology and 1 member appointed by the administrative staff and other employees of Kaunas University of Technology. The Senate consists of executives elected by subdivisions, student representatives. Rector is the member of Senate ex officio. Presently the Senate has 49 members. Among others, the Board of Professional Ethics and the Student Union take active participation in the activities of the University. The Senate Research and Development Committee and the Vice-Rector for Research are in charge of scientific topics, in cooperation with the Research Affairs Department and other subdivisions. The Senate submits programs of R&D, social, cultural development and art and presents to the Rector proposals concerning the funding of those programs and the reorganization of the University structure, required for the implementation of those programs; it also evaluates research results as well as quality and level of the whole University research and art activity.

The Research Affairs Department administrates the doctoral studies as well as nostrification of research degrees and academic titles, research funds, screening and financing of scientific publications, organizes conferences, prepares statistical and self-analysis reports, and exploits the scientific work databases of the University information system. The Doctoral Committees design the doctoral study programs, perform the selection of doctoral dissertations topics, select research supervisors for doctoral students, assess doctoral students, supervise the level of doctoral dissertations in a particular field, perform expertise of research program requisitions and reports, ensure the success of doctoral study and endeavour to rise its level.

University Mission and Main Strategic Objectives The mission of Kaunas University of Technology is to constitute an important part of the global university community and to represent


Kaunas University of Technology

one of the most significant centres of the Lithuanian science, to participate in the development of information and knowledge society,

The mission of Kaunas University of Technology is to constitute an important part of the global university community and to represent one of the most significant centres of the Lithuanian science, to participate in the development of information and knowledge society, and to seek excellence through diversity.

and to seek excellence through diversity. In pursuit of the above, the University will focus on the following main objectives. A Research-based University The University has decisively outlined its vision of becoming a strong science and innovation university, where the university studies are based on symbiosis of studies and scientific research, a university that seeks excellence in fundamental and applied research, where doctoral studies are based on international level research, a university which is a partner of industry, business, NGOs, and the society both in Lithuania and the EU, and which creates, promotes, and implements scientific achievements and innovations. An Innovation-oriented University An innovation is responsive to the needs of the national economy and the international research market and builds upon past success. The University seeks critical evaluation and innovations in its learning, teaching, research, management, and other activities. A Student-centred University The students and the University staff work together to improve the quality of the student experience, with the students involved in decision making at every level. They foster the personal and intellectual development of the students so that they could identify, formulate and solve the problems, comprehend the professional and ethical responsibility, deal with their weaknesses, and become well-prepared for their lives beyond the University. A Quality-focused University The University provides top quality education, based on high level research and innovations. It promotes freedom of enquiry and participation in the knowledge accumulation and skill formation process through a rational use of the

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Organization of Research

possibilities provided by the scholarship system, research, international and national programmes, consultancy, and professional practice. The University is committed to equal employment opportunities. It ensures a healthy and safe working environment, values all the staff, assists in their personal development, and promotes best professional standards. The University enjoys an efficient internal studies and research quality assurance system. A Community-focused University The University conducts research required for advanced development of the society and its economical and technical potential, propagates innovative technologies, fosters the development of the knowledge society, and actively furthers the preparation of the national long-term development strategy. The University provides services and education at all levels of higher education in a variety of study modes and for a variety of academic, vocational and professional needs. The University encourages equal opportunities by creating a diverse learning environment where individual characteristics, such as gender, age, nationality, disability and ethnic origin, are recognized and valued. The University provides new educational opportunities for people from local, national and international communities and develops collaborative relationships with other partners. 10

Kaunas University of Technology

Scientific research and research-based studies are the basis of the University activities. Therefore, all professors commit at least one third of their working time for research at the University. Furthermore, the University employs over one hundred research staff, who is mainly dealing with research work. Participation in research projects is essential for Master’s and Doctoral (PhD) students as it proves to be a productive form of learning, which enables to gain practical experience and to take part in the creative scientific process. The scientists who have done research when they were students are exposed to the latest technological improvements. They develop skills and a scientific approach, even if they do not become researchers. Moreover, this enables the science to renew itself and to retain its vitality. The research and technological development are funded from different sources: the State budget, the Research Council of Lithuania, State and branch programmes, local and foreign economic entities, and international programmes. Every year the significance of research financed by international foundations and coordinated on an international level keeps increasing.

Sources of Funding State Budget Appropriations The current year State budget committee allocation to the University is approved by the Parliament. In accordance with the University strategic plan, the Senate distributes the funds for particular activities and subdivisions, including funds for organizing and financing research. As the research is largely related to the studies, in line with the methodology of the Frascati Manual the R&D expenses come up to approximately 35% of the total budget. They include research funds available for different international projects and orders from economic entities, doctoral studies expenses, a portion of the lecturers’ wages, etc. In 2010, the University Research Fund allocation for faculties, institutes, centres, and projects amounted to approximately 11.1% of the total University budget. In the attempt to boost the research efficiency and the use of funds and to motivate research groups to solve urgent problems, the funds are distributed according to priority criteria set by the University Senate. The finances from the Research Fund are distributed to the subdivisions according to the number of academic and research staff and their research productivity over the previous year, i.e. the number of publications, the significance and the funds received in implementing international programme projects as well as the orders of national and foreign economic entities.

Under the Senate resolution, the pedagogical work of all research staff, which gets paid from the budget funds, must amount to at least one quarter of the full-time job time. About LTL1.0 million of the University Research Fund is allotted to finance the following activities: organizing exhibitions and advertising innovation projects, organizing research conferences, University academic staff sabbaticals, publishing periodicals, textbooks, and monographs, preparing subject area development programmes, and other key expenses. Research Council of Lithuania Since January 1, 2010 the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation has been reorganized into State Studies Foundation. Functions and programs related to financing of science have been transferred to the Research Council of Lithuania. Likewise, after the Agency for International Science and Technology has been reorganized into the Agency for Science, Innovation and Technology, some functions and programs related to international programs financing have been transferred to the Research Council of Lithuania. In 2010, the Research Council of Lithuania allocated LTL3713.5 thousand and supported the University in 25 international projects, 16 projects carried out by groups of researchers, 5 projects of the High Technology Development Programme, 11 projects of national research programmes, 1 Lithuanian R&D priority project. In 2010, 114 doctoral students of the University were granted support by the State Studies Foundation. Third Party Financed Projects The University’s relations with industry reflect the core strategy of a research-based and innovation-oriented University and benefit from its historic strengths in science and engineering. The significant part of the University non-gov-

ernmental funds is earned from contracts with enterprises, firms, and other institutions for research, design, and even small-scale manufacturing. In 2010, the total amount for those contracts came up to LTL4.4 million. International Programmes Various international funds and long-term programmes make a significant contribution to the internationalization of the science and study programmes, expansion of international ties, and support of the intellectual development of the society. The University Researchers participate in the Framework, EUREKA, COST, and other programmes. Currently KTU is implementing 25 projects under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). Individual researchers take active part in the proposal evaluation process. In 2010, the support by international programmes amounted to LTL3985.7 thousand. The national co-financing came up to LTL797.8 thousand.

From Research to Innovations No doubt Lithuanian economy is and will increasingly be a subject of accelerating scientific and technological progress. Innovations represent the driving force of economical growth and new job creation. First and foremost, innovation requires a state of mind, which combines creativity, entrepreneurship, willingness to take calculated risk, and acknowledgement of social and economic changes. Being innovative also means being able to anticipate the needs, being wellorganized and good at meeting deadlines and managing costs. Innovation mentality has to be promoted. We keep assessing our courses and teaching methodologies primarily in terms of their capability to stimulate creativity and the spirit of

Since January 1, 2010 the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation has been reorganized into State Studies Foundation.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

entrepreneurship. We are also developing our national system of lifelong training and teletraining. Lithuanian long term strategy in the field of innovations is conveyed in our national White Book on Lithuanian Science and Technology, which is also an intellectual product of a group of leading scientists and innovators from our University. Scientists from our University boast a large number of inventions. They hold European, US and national patents in different countries. We are strong and competitive in numerous high technologies, including mechatronics, nanotechnologies, biomedical engineering, non-destructive testing, chemistry, environment protection technologies, etc. In 2010, the University filed 5 patent applications. The University holds 10 valid patents of the Republic of Lithuania. Many events, such as seminars, are organized

on a regular basis. They discuss the possibilities of cooperation between universities and private companies in the field of technology transfer. The University presents the scientific research results at traditional annual exhibitions and fairs: Kaunas (Kaunas), Studies, and Balttechnika (LITEXPO, Vilnius). Regular surveys reveal that those events are found useful by their participants: they help to establish cooperation with foreign partners and provide a perfect possibility to boost the reputation of the University. After the Ministry of Economy of the Republic of Lithuania and the Agency for Science, Innovation and Technology have started implementing business support measure “Innovation Vouchers�, research groups of the University have provided services for more than half of first call allocation.

The cooperation is based on bilateral agreements, various projects, which are carried out by departments or research groups in the framework of international programmes, exchange of students, lecturers and researchers, as well as participation at international conferences and symposiums at the University and abroad.

International Cooperation Kaunas University of Technology (KTU) has many cooperation links with foreign universities, research institutes, and companies. The cooperation is based on bilateral agreements, various projects, which are carried out by departments or research groups in the framework of international programmes, exchange of students, lecturers and researchers, as well as participation at international conferences and symposiums at the University and abroad. The faculties and departments of KTU are members of several international organizations. KTU is a member of the European University Association (EUA), the European Society for Engineer12

Kaunas University of Technology

ing Education (SEFI), the International Association for Continuing Engineering Education (IACEE), UNESCO International Centre for Engineering Education (UICEE), the Conference of European Schools for Advanced Engineering Education and Research (CESAER), European Universities Continuing Education Network (EUCEN), and the Baltic Sea Region University Network (BSRUN). KTU is one of the founders of the Strategic Consortium of the Baltic Universities of Science and Technology (BalTech). The University hosts the National Committee of the International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience (IAESTE).

International research and educational cooperation and activities are mainly related to the participation in European Community programmes, particularly Framework, EUREKA, EUROSTARS, COST, Life Long Learning, etc. Since 1993, KTU researchers and academics have been participating in the Framework Programmes for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities starting with the Third Framework Programme. Researchers of KTU successfully participating in the Seventh Framework Programme: 24 projects in the fields of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, nanotechnology, environmental engineering, biomedical engineering, information technology, chemical technology, e-business, and social sciences were carried out in 2010. Currently KTU is implementing 25 projects of the Seventh Framework Programme. KTU researchers and academics are actively participating in EUREKA and COST programmes. 78 EUREKA projects and 27 COST actions in the fields of food technology, chemistry, control and information technology, and biomedical engineering were carried out in 2010. Lithuania joined the EU Socrates programme in autumn 1998. Since then KTU has been annually submitting applications for Socrates/ Erasmus institutional contract for each following academic year. On January 1, 2007 the Socrates programme entered a new stage – it became a part of the new Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP). The LLP is a successor of the previously independent Socrates, Leonardo da Vinci, and Jean Monnet programmes. The application for Erasmus Institutional Contract for academic year 2011/2012 has been drafted on the basis of 259 bilateral agreements signed with 211 European higher education institutions. Student mobility is growing each year, from 74 outgoing and 2 incoming students in 1999/2000 to 184 outgoing and 86 incoming students in 2010/2011 academic year. KTU also participates in the LLP/Erasmus project activities. In academic year 2010/2011 our University has been invited to participate in 2 intensive programmes and 5 thematic network projects. Since 2000, KTU has participated in other Socrates actions, which have been included in the Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP) since 2007. In 2010, the University was involved in 1 Comenius, 4 Grundtvig, 7 Transversal programme projects and 1 Jean Monnet programme project.

Since 1998, the University has participated in the Leonardo da Vinci vocational training action programme. In 2010, KTU participated in 2 projects as a contractor and in 18 projects as a partner institution. For eight year in a row KTU students are participating in the Vulcanus in Japan programme that is designed for the EU students of engineering (or other technical/scientific disciplines), who are willing to establish close links with Japan through a 4-month intensive Japanese course and an 8-month placement in a leading Japanese host company. From 2004 to 2011, six KTU students were short-listed in a highly competitive selection procedure and participated in a 12-month placement period in Japan. In 2011, ten KTU students’ applications have been submitted to EU-Japan Centre for Industrial Cooperation. Three students were short-listed in the first selection round and one graduate of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture was selected to participate in the programme 2011-2012. In 2011 the student exchange with University partners in South Korea, started in 2006, has been successfully continued. During the year 2010–2011 1 KTU student chose Kyung Hee University in South Korea for summer courses and 4 Korean students, 2 from Kyung Hee University and 2 from Yonsei University, came to KTU for one semester study. The important direction of international cooperation is collaboration with German higher education institutions. The Baltic-German High School Office, DAAD Information Centre and Liaison Office of Mecklenburg and Eastern Pommerania in Riga have been operating since 2005. The financial support for study and research contacts offer many different German foundations, like Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst – DAAD, Deutsche Budesstiftung Umwelt - DBU, Stipendienprogramm der Stadt Kiel etc. Each year few KTU students benefit from such possibilities.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Doctoral (PhD) Programmes The Doctor of Science degree is awarded to an individual who has broadened their scope of knowledge in a selected field and related areas and also has attained some original scientific research results and defended a thesis. Those who are willing to achieve the Doctor of Science degree are required either to complete the doctoral programme or to prepare and defend a thesis without attending lectures. At the University, studies in the following fields may lead to a Doctor of Science degree: Humanities: • History and theory of arts Physical Sciences: • Chemistry • Informatics

Social Sciences: • Economics • Educational Science • Management and Administration • Sociology • Political sciences

The doctorate can be completed within a maximum period of four years. Each doctoral student is assigned a research supervisor. With the help of the research supervisor, the doctoral student produces the course plan and the thesis schedule for the entire doctoral period and selects the thesis topic. The doctoral student must pass doctoral level exams in at least four subjects (30 ECTS credits). The best students enjoy the opportunity of performing research or doing a part of their study programme at foreign universities. The doctoral students must also engage in academic work, the volume whereof is prescribed by the Senate. Admission Procedure The total number of the doctoral student admissions at the University is determined with respect of the amount of subsidies allocated by the Government of the Republic of Lithuania and additional funds set aside by the University for running doctoral programmes. Ad14

Kaunas University of Technology

Technological Sciences: • Chemical Engineering • Civil Engineering • Electronics and Electrical Engineering • Informatics Engineering • Materials Engineering • Measurement Engineering • Mechanical Engineering • Power and Thermal Engineering

mission quotas are set for every subject area. Doctoral studies may also be funded by the student or other stakeholders. In such case, bilateral or tripartite agreements are made. Requests produced by sponsoring organizations may be considered in designing individual doctoral study plans. Individuals, who hold the Master’s qualification degree or have graduated from one-level higher education system, may enter the competition. Former doctoral or postgraduate students, who have failed to complete their studies for any reason, are also eligible to participate in the competition. In such case, the duration of previous studies is included in the total duration of doctoral studies. When admitting the candidates, the Doctoral Committee considers the applicant’s research works, scientific qualification and experience, Master’s study grades, letters of reference by scientists, etc. The final decision is made by

the Doctoral Committee. All applicants must be present at the meeting of the Doctoral Committee. To apply, the following documents shall be submitted to the University Research Affairs Department: A letter of application where the subject area and topic for dissertation is specified; A notarized copy of the passport or another valid identity card; Copies of the Master’s (higher education) diploma and related documents; A certificate of academic qualification assessment issued by the Centre for Quality Assessment in Higher Education in Lithuania (; A curriculum vitae; Letters of Reference issued by at least two scientists; A list and copies of research works, or a scientific report, if those are absent; Other documents indicated in the notification of admission or otherwise relevant. The meetings of the Doctoral Committees usually take place at the beginning of July in the KTU Central Building (K. Donelaičio g. 73)

The documents are accepted and further information is available in: Room 406, K. Donelaičio g. 73, KTU Central Building Phone: +370 37 300042, +370 37 300702 Fax: +370 37 324144 E-mail:

Scientific research and research-based studies are the basis of the University activities. Therefore, all professors commit at least one third of their working time for research at the University. Furthermore, the University employs over one hundred research staff, who is mainly dealing with research work.

Dissemination of Research Results Each year, the University organizes scientific conferences, seminars, and other events and invites specialists from national research and education institutions, representatives of governmental and economics structures, and foreign specialists. The largest of those events is the annual cycle of conferences Lithuanian Science and Industry. Every year it receives financial support from the Research Council of Lithuania. The main event of the conference, which is traditionally organized at the beginning of February, is followed by independent subject conferences, which are held in the run of the year. 32 subject conferences took place in 2007, 31 in 2008, 32 in 2009, 37 in 2010 and, finally, this year, 35 subject conferences are being organized in cooperation with foreign institutions and international scientific organizations.

In 2010, 37 subject conferences had more than 3.5 thousand participants; the number of presentations at those conferences came up to over 2 thousand. In Lithuania and abroad, the scientists of the University publish numerous articles, monographs, and teaching literature. A lot of publications are printed at the University publishing house Technologija. Apart from study materials, the scientists of the University published 10 monographs, 9 studies, and 41 compilations of conference material. The significant input of the University’s scientists into the national science development is reflected by a large number of national scientific journals published at the University. Materials for the journals are supplied by scientists from all research and studies institutions in Lithuania, and, increasingly, by foreign authors. Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Distribution channels are also established. The articles of all the scientific journals published by the University are already peer-reviewed by international databases. The numbers of articles published in Lithuanian journals are almost the same every year, while the numbers of articles published in foreign journals keep increasing.

Scientific Journals No



Annual Number of Issues


Chemical Technology

A. M. Sviklas



Economics and Management

G. Startienė



Electronics and Electrical Engineering

D. Eidukas



Engineering Economics

B. Martinkus



Environmental Research, Engineering and Management

J. Staniškis



European Integration Studies

K. Kriščiūnas



Information Technology and Control

R. Šeinauskas



Materials Science

S. Tamulevičius




R. P. Žilinskas




M. Daunys



Public Policy and Administration

V. Domarkas



Social Sciences

P. Jucevičienė



Studies about Languages

V. Liubinienė




R. J. Kažys


Research Statistics Academic & Research Staff in 2010


Professors 4%

Researchers 15%

Researchers 23% Associated Professors 33%

Assistants & Lecturers 48%



Kaunas University of Technology

Assistants & Lecturers 23%

Professors 19%

Associated Professors 42%

Number of Peer-reviewed Scientific Publications per One Full-time Equivalent in 2010

Financial Resources for Framework Programme Projects in 2006 – 2010, LTL thousand

Number of Framework Programme Projects in 2006 – 2010

Projects Financed by Third Parties in 2006 – 2010, LTL thousand

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Number of Doctoral Students

Number of Defended Dissertations


Kaunas University of Technology

Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Diana Adlienė Physics Department

Damaging & Curing Radiation Every time when evaluating radiation incidents and accidents and their consequences on human and nature we learn new painful lessons, however price is always too high. We are not protected against the “force majeure” in nature however the task of scientific community is to do everything for securing of radiation safety and radiation protection of population installing new technologies and methods. In this frame theoretical and experimental investigation and evaluation of radiation impact on individuals, environment and matter are always of great importance. Especially when thinking about individuals who are supposed to be additionally irradiated due to the increasing number of technologies and methods using ionising radiation for medical purposes.

Primary Radiation Injury never Develops in Unirradiated Tissues Ionizing radiation is a flux of alfa or beta particles and gamma or X-rays that produce differently charged ions due to radiation interaction with matter. This leads to the DNA damages in biological tissues that could be repaired by the cell itself or introduce cell mutations, including new cancer development or cause the cell death. All these processes are related to the energy deposition in the cell and in the tissue/organ as total. Due to collisions and scattering events in matter penetrating particles loose their energy in different ways: heavy particles have a limited range of penetration related to a stopping power in material but the intensity of gamma and X-rays decreases exponentially depending on the absorbing properties of the material. Energy absorbed in the unit of mass is defined as the absorbed dose, measured in Gy or Sv and is the main parameter assessing the radiation impact on environment and individuals.

Radiation from Nuclear Installations Most important radiation sources in “nuclear” countries like Lithuania are nuclear power plants (NPP) since their operation (and post operation) is related to radioactive releases and possible radioactive contamination of the environment. This is despite the fact, that the contribution of normal operating NPP to total annual irradiation dose of public is <0.01% as compared to 16% related to medical procedures. Saving of decomposition of reactors and spent nuclear fuel storage in dry storage casks for 50 years (firstly in the world practice introduced) are the main problems from the point of view of radiation safety and radiation protection in Lithuania. Real time radiation level monitoring, measurements and modelling are tools available to maintain this problem and to prevent radioactive releases to the environment.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Diana Adlienė and Nobel Price winner physicist Heinrich Rohrer, during his visit in Kaunas University of Technology

There is no Advantage to any Patient for any Uninvolved Tissue to Receive any Dose Ionizing radiation in medicine is used for low dose (mSv) diagnostic imaging and for high dose (up to 70 Gy in fractions) cancer cell treatment in radiotherapy. It was assumed for a long time, that there is no evident danger for the individuals being exposed to the low doses (dose threshold theory), however intensive investigations of genetic material in the past decade have shown some correlation between genetic mutations and small irradiation doses, which stands for the linear increase of radiation risk with a dose (linear dose theory) over the whole dose range. Due to this, the development of new methods for the individualization, optimisation and adequate registration of irradiation doses to patients during each medical procedure are of the highest importance. Implementing projects supported by Lithuanian Science and Studies foundation “Optimization of distance radiotherapy treatment using independent dose planning algorithm” and “Dose modeling in radiation therapy using linear accelerator for patient exposure” our group (Prof. D. Adlienė, PhD M. Laurikaitis, PhD J. Laurikaitienė) collaborating with Malmo University Hospital/ Sweden (Prof. Sören Mattsson) developed independent algorithm for dose plan verification based on experimental measurements of irradiation field parameters which is now implemented at Skåne University Hospital/ Sweden, Oncology Clinic of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, branch Oncology Hospital and


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Klaipėda University Hospital. Implementation of this algorithm allowed reducing the number of non adequate plans and plans needing small corrections almost twice. Now we are working on development of new dosimetry methods in head and neck brachytherapy. It is not possible to exchange radiological examinations of patients with other methods, due to the poor image quality (ultrasound) or lack of systematic studies (nanomedicine). Investigating irradiation doses to women participating in the national preventive mammography screening program against breast cancer, performing experimental phantom measurements and modelling our team (Prof. D. Adlienė, PhD. I. Cibulskaitė), adopted multiple dosimetry method and dose mapping technique for the breast surface imaging and showed quantitatively the importance of side irradiation effects on the total irradiation dose to the breast surface that was never discussed before. In parallel dose interactive database MAMOLIT for mammography patients was created (PhD M. Laurikaitis), and collaborating with Radiation Protection Centre of Lithuania recommended dose level of 2.4 mSv for mammography examinations in Lithuania was established. In order to reduce/ optimise the doses to head patients in CT examinations a method for the selection of exposure parameters according to the simple measurement of patient’s biometric data has been proposed by our group (PhD student S. Mockevičienė and Prof. D. Adlienė)

Improved quality of life achieved implementing optimal medical, physical and technological solutions is the highest benefit for the society.

Don’t forget Detectors… or Damaging Radiation for Materials Science Selection of registration method, detector and proper registration of ionising radiation in personal dosimetry is a big challenge for physicists. Among a big variety of personal dosimeters most suitable are termoluminescent and semiconductor detectors. Semiconductor detectors (especially Si) used for the patient dose measurements are covered by thin film coatings that protect active volume of the detector against mechanical, chemical and other damages. Usually carbon based tissue equivalent protective coatings such as polyethylene, Mylar, epoxy resin are used. However these coatings are relative thick and due to their relative high photon scattering probability cause some problems when measuring surface doses.

Taking into account that modification of properties in some materials (especially polymer-like) induced by controlled ionizing radiation is possible, we have used modifying feature of high energy gamma and X-ray photons developing and evaluating protective coatings for radiation detectors. (Prof. D. Adlienė, PhD I. Cibulskaitė, PhD J. Laurikaitienė). Collaborating in the frame of IAEA regional project RER/8/014 “Nanomaterials & Radiation: Synthesis, Characterization, Applications” our team is now working on the development of protective coatings for MEMS operated in radiation harsh environments (Prof. D. Adlienė) and development of liquid radiation detectors based on nanosilver surface plasmon resonance (PhD J. Puišo).

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Habil. Stasys Vygantas Augutis Department of Electronic and Measurement Systems

Development of New Measuring Methods and Tools The main directions of the scientistsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; work in this area involve increasing the accuracy and speed of measuring and development of new measurement sensors and transducers. Changes in this field happen at blistering pace. The development of new sensors becomes possible due to new technologies. For example, highly sensitive artificial noses are currently being created, which will be looking for explosives. Such systems are created by chemists and physicists. Biosensors are based on investigations of bird, dolphin, eel migration and other studies. The spectrum of sensors has remarkably expanded. For example, atomic force microscopes are sensors, too. We have also created a very sensitive magnetic scalar field sensor. It allows examining one millionth of the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s magnetic field. Thus the development of such sensors enables us to see something new.

Products We have created a large number of such sensors by order of foreign and Lithuanian companies. For example, a measuring system with sensors which enable to measure the size of granules was created for the fertilizers manufacturer. Many sensors are created by our colleagues from K. BarĹĄauskas Ultrasound Research Institute. The development of a sensor is just the beginning. It is not sufficient to convert one physical dimension into another. For a sensor to become a measuring tool, it has to be calibrated. The metrological interface from a dimension being measured to a sensor requires a lot of effort and hard work. Our works secure a metrological interface. Our achievements in the field of acoustic emission and special purpose microphones are rather remarkable. For instance, in order to calibrate an ultrasonic microphone in the frequency range of 100 kHz and more, you need special equipment. We have suggested a calibration technique. With the help of spark, we form a short acoustic pulse. Then we can estimate the microphone pulse and frequency responses fast and accurately. Another problem is how to calibrate acoustic emission transducers in low frequencies. For that purpose you need huge test benches. We suggested a different method. A mechanical delta impulse is formed in the waveguide. In other words, we make the end of the bar move. The transducer is affected by that impulse and it can be calibrated. We know the impact, the response and we estimate the transmission function.


Kaunas University of Technology

Our achievements in the field of acoustic emission and special purpose microphones are rather remarkable. The precision non-invasive temperature measurement of fluid flowing in tube is very important in many fields, such as: food, chemical and medicament industry. Such measurement technique is preferred, because the sensor is not inserted into the flowing product, the flow of fluid in a pipe is not affected, the sensor installation is simple. Wide usage of precision temperature measurement for industrial applications was restricted because of high measuring and calibration equipment prices. We have developed a low-cost sensor calibration methodic and algorithms for measured data processing what allows to decrease temperature measurement uncertainty tenfold, while using relatively cheap temperature sensors-thermistors. Based on the results of our studies two different type thermostat prototypes were designed and manufactured with the set temperature stability Âą 0.005 0C and temperature range from +25 0C (if additional cooling equipment is used, this limit can be lower) to 90 0C (using water).

Prof. Stasys Vygantas Augutis

Fields of Application We have created a large number of different sensors. Some of the examples include measurement transducers and their calibration tools used for pressure vessel diagnostics. When hydraulic tests are performed, such a device is attached to the pipe. The noises and crackles allowed to accurately indicate the weak areas of the pipe. We also created a mechanical impulse synthesis device, surface acoustic wave transducers for hardening control. That makes it possible to assess whether the glass is hardened or not. Broadband dot transducers are used to measure the acoustic fields. Eddy current transducers are used to control various coatings. They help to identify whether a car is puttied or not.

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Research Overview 2011

Another example is eddy current transducer system used to assess pipe corrosion. “Kurmis” is inserted into a pipe, the converters turn and the defects are visualized based on their signals. Control of heating pipe fillers is also possible. The pipe is moving and the „woodpecker“- sensor pecks. The filler is assessed based on the form of the knock. The precision multi-position noninvasive temperature measurement system for flowing fluids in pipes temperature measurement with wireless data transfer and autonomous energy harvesting electric power supply options was developed on the basis of our research. The measured temperature range is from 20 0C to + 90 0C. Another very important area is Barkhausen effect transducers used for steel tension and reserve assessment. This effect is magnetic noises of re-magnetization. Domains re-magnetize by leaps and magnetic noise is emitted into the environment. When a synchronous turning of magnetic field with measuring is used, it is possible to detect the direction of the largest tension. The quality of metals largely depends on technologies and molding skills. Thus a regular control of products is essential. True, before applying this method it is necessary to perform a lot of testing in cooperation with steel producers. They want to use such transducers for railway rail tension assessment. It is really very important as trains are getting faster and the assessment of the condition of rails is becoming particularly important. We are going to join this large project since we have a lot of experience in quality control field.

Special purpose microphones and transducers

Trends There are a lot of areas related to measurements. One could say that the number of measurements equals to that of science technologies. Every single enterprise has something to measure or control anything. Everything is determined by increasing competition and stricter requirements for quality and product control. It is important to appraise the feedback. In order to conquer new markets and to survive in the old ones, it is necessary to continuously and reliably prove that the quality of products is satisfactory.


Kaunas University of Technology

Research Overview 2011

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Antanas Baltrušaitis Department of Wood Technology

Predicting Timber Strength Hierarchical modelling of stiffness-strength properties of Lithuaniangrown timber at Kaunas University of Technology aims to create the classification system of native-grown spruce (Picea Abbies) and pine (Pinus Sylvestris) based on nondestructive techniques for prediction stiffness-strength properties and allocation of structural timber into strength classes accordingly to the international standards. These properties are dependent on timber species and sizes, country of origin, location and characteristics of forest sites within the country.

Living and Building with Wood Wood as a biological tissue exhibits a hierarchical structure. Micro-structural features at different scales of observation determine its macroscopic properties. Recent developments of experimental micro-characterization techniques enabled closer insight into the internal model and the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of wood at length scales approaching to the near molecular. Linking micro-structural properties to macroscopic characteristics enhances the knowledge of the mechanical behavior of wood and creates the basis for the optimal modelling and design of innovative wood products and timber structures. Biopolymer-based wood structure requires special methods of investigation since the scales at nano-, micro- and millimeter level have to be explored estimating the interplay between the hierarchical levels. Typically, large range of techniques has to be implemented to get realistic wood spatial models. Emerging portable and simple-to-use acoustic time-of-flight and resonance-based tools facilitates application of such technologies worldwide.

Lithuanian Expertise Alongside with traditional optical and SEM microscopy for micro-structural features at different scales, DWT and Semiconductor Physics Institute initiated examination of wood properties with millimeter wave technique. Operation of the technique based on scanning of wood sample by millimeter wave beam. Wood density, moisture content and anisotropy can be studied using this technique and the first results show remarkably informative images reflecting those properties. The space resolution of the technique is less than one mm2. Testing is performed at frequency range 120 - 150 GHz. Wood homogeneity image measurement and mapping time is about 1 min. New method raised international interests and may become a tool linking wood micro and macro behavior.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

3D millimeter wave amplitude image of the pine Cutting-edge science is plate cut perpendicular to the annual rings focusing worldwide on discovering effective and reliable methods for prediction of structural timber strength-stiffness properties at earliest stages, even while trees are still growing! Dominating approaches and worldwide state-of-art involve powerful advantages and relative straightforwardness of the transverse or longitudinal vibrations of a solid wood beam; as basic physics behind modern non-destructive methods of testing timber battens to measure stiffness and predict strength. Aims and scope of ongoing DWT projects are modern multi-scale nondestructive systems for inspection of wood hierarchical structural properties. Measurement techniques in use ranges from certified vibrant testers to the experimental ultrasonic devices created at KTU.

Methods Procedures used at DWT include static bending methods, amplitude resonance (dynamic MOE and MOR) method, and Metriguard machine stress-rating method; as a complex it allows to compare and calibrate MOE and MOR values determined using static and dynamic testing principles and methods. Careful comparative analysis and validation of received models interrelating log-vs.-lumber stiffness and strength confirm our hypotheses on potential and possibilities of early-stage selection of structural or decorative application of saw-logs raw material. It was also demonstrated reliably that nondestructive log inspection enables cost-efficient and end-user oriented log-sorting method as early as during tree fall in the forests. Extensive data bank reflecting variability of physical and mechanical properties of Lithuanian softwood species has been collected; received values are in line with high quality Nordic timber and this in turn benefits export-oriented Lithuanian wood processing industry.

International Cooperation Research of hierarchical wood structure phenomenon is facilitated by involvement of DWT in COST Action E55 “Modelling the Performance of Timber Structures”. Participation in COST Action FP0802 “Experimental and Computational Micro-Characterisation Techniques in Wood Mechanics enables to enhance knowledge of the wood microstructure and micromechanics by exploring and evaluating emerging techniques in the fields of physics, chemistry, materials and computer science. Finally, COST Action FP0702 “Net-Acoustics for Timber based Lightweight Buildings and Elements” focuses on improvement of acoustic behavior of timber based lightweight buildings and development of effective acoustic prediction models and measurement schemes. Since 2010, DWT in cooperation with the Norwegian University of Life Sciences participates in the project “Variation of Scots pine sapwood treatability in Northern Europe”. This provides DWT with the unique possibility of balancing and harmonization of national research with the activities of top-level scientific community in wood science and engineering.


Kaunas University of Technology

Wood is not a material, it is a biopolymer! Availability of increasingly powerful micromechanical testing and modelling techniques stimulates never-ending multiscale research of wood properties.

Regional variations of density (kg/m3), strength and stiffness (MPa) of Lithuanian-grown pine

This includes Lithuania in the Nordic common softwood growth area benefiting export capacities. Obtained superior values of bending strength and modulus of elasticity of Lithuanian softwood will facilitate further processing, modification and optimal final usage of sawn timber. As an outcome, strong driving forces appear to induce dynamic growth of Lithuanian wood processing industry, promotion of innovative, highly competitive, qualitative and exclusively value-added engineered wood products.

Results and Perspectives Hierarchical approach in exploring and modelling of the structural phenomenon of wood as biological tissue brings forward new areas of fundamental and applied research unfolding unique technological advantages in surface formation during processing, innovations in wood gluing and finishing, drying, chemical or thermal modification and many others. Obtained at DWT distribution of Lithuanian-grown timber into strength classes shows reasonable agreement with the softwood grown in Latvia, Poland and the Nordic countries.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Habil. Ramutis Bansevičius Mechatronics Centre for Research, Studies and Information

“Smart” Piezoelectric Actuators for Future Robots & Intelligent Machines The term “Mechatronics” was introduced by Japanese, describing the devices or systems, consisting of mechanical, electronic and control parts. Mechatronics is one of priority fields of Lithuanian science and technology. It is also represented in the Hi-Tech valley “Santaka”, initiated by Kaunas University of Technology.

Research Projects The research carried out at the Mechatronics Centre for Research, Studies and Information (Centre) includes several research areas. The development and application of “smart” materials, used in design of different Precision Mechatronics Systems, are representing a very interesting field. The Centre puts large emphasis on another class of “smart” materials – piezo-active structures and compositions. In this research field we possess a global priority in development of adaptable piezoelectric actuators and motors. As early as 1980 Kaunas Polytechnic Institute (now Kaunas University of Technology, KTU) developed first piezoelectric robots in the world and so provided the initial stimulus for the progress in development of the nano-resolution actuators with unlimited displacement and several degreesof-freedom. Later, working in the Institute of Piezomechanics of KTU, we suggested the principles for development of precision piezoelectric motors with several degrees-of-freedom, thus realizing high precision in-space and in-plane positioning systems. Proposed and developed ideas are being applied in nano technologies and nano devices. Currently, several projects dealing with the development of the nano-resolution piezoelectric equipment for positioning and laser beam scanning/deflecting devices are being implemented. Few examples of such systems, developed in 200928

Kaunas University of Technology

2011, are described below; their advantages are: high resolution (up to few nanometers), small response time, high temperature range (up to Curie point of piezoactive materials) and low cost. The control of the optical beam polarizing vector direction is common problem of both the laser technology and measuring devices. Several modifications of such devices, as the polarization filter is fixed on the disk, which is mounted inside the piezoelectric cylinder, have been developed at the Center in 2009– 2010. The travelling wave type vibrations are excited in the piezo-cylinder and then are transformed into the nano-resolution order direct rotational motion. Piezoelectric device for optical beam rotation in polarization plane principal scheme: 1 – polarizing filter, 2 – holder-rotor, made of the ferromagnetic material, 3 – piezoelectric cylinder with electrodes compartments – excitation zones, 4 – permanent magnet to adjust the preload force in contact zone, 5 – case.

Research Overview 2011

Although the development of Mechatronics as a science started with robots, the Modern Mechatronics embraces a much wider range of scientific issues. Prof. Dr. Habil. Ramutis Bansevičius

Tables with piezoelectric actuators implement the rotational motion of high resolution. Main advantages: simple design, possibility to operate in direct rotation and step modes and rather small price, since standard industrial parts (rolling bearings, fastening components and etc.) are used. Piezoelectric actuator is provided with the excitation signals of required frequency and amplitude generated by the oscillator-controller. In-plane positioning of the object (3 degrees of freedom) is one of the most important tasks in design of the precision mechatronic systems. Device for inplane positioning of the object is simple, rather low cost and easy to manufacture. Table with standard rolling bearing for the object location ensuring the rotational motion of the object

To ensure the in plane positioning of the object (3 DOF), along with object rotation about the 3 perpendicular axes is one of the most important tasks in design of the precision mechatronic systems. Device for the object rotation about the 3 perpendicular axes is simple, low cost and easy to manufacture.


(b) Device for the in plane positioning of the object: (a) – principal scheme (1 – table, 2 – contact zone, 3 – piezoelectric cylinder with compartment type excitation zones, 4 – elastic fixture element, 5 – permanent magnet); (b) – device without the table (table removed).

Device for the object rotation around the 3 perpendicular axes: 1 – rotated object that is being rotated (mirror), 2 – segment of the sphere, made of the ferromagnetic alloy, 3 – piezoelectric cylinders, 4 – permanent magnet, 5, 6, 7 – electrodes 8, 9, 10 – contact zones.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Positioning on the plane: generating asymmetric oscillations of the piezoelectric cylinder with sectioned electrodes leads to controlling its position and speed in three directions (3 DOF) Especially interesting and promising are schematics of laser beam deflector, which is based on a new concept of “active” mirror, proposed by the Center. The developed devices have high resolution, simple technological design and low cost.

Three modifications of one DOF laser scanners with “active” mirror. The range of angular displacement cover the angles from 90º to 180º; resolution – 0.001s. In all modifications piezoelectric transducer with specific topology of electrodes is fixed to mirror, mounted on active supports.

Very effective results are obtained when positioning optical components: mirrors, prisms, lenses, etc. Pictures below show some examples of devices, where typical piezoelectric transducers in a form of plate or cylinder are applied. Resulting motion is of high resolution and positioning speed can be controlled in a very wide range: from 360º/month to 180º/s. (a)


Linear positioning device for optical prism (a)

Rotation of optical components (b) with the help of piezoelectric transducers oscillating in travelling wave mode

Science and Business Hi-tech manufacturing companies of Lithuania (e.g. JSC Standa, JSC Altechna, etc.) can easily adjust their manufacturing facilities to produce the piezoelectric positioning systems having nano-resolution, laser scanning devices and even the high accuracy piezoelectric robots. Our University has priority and patents rights for all these devices. Even under conditions of the economic crisis demand on these systems increases – world forecast regarding the development of the piezoelectric actuators and motors are rather optimistic and beneficial for Lithuania. The forecast shows that demand in piezoelectric actuators since 2006 till 2011 will increase twice as much and in 2011 will amount in 10.7 billion US dollars (“Innovative Research and Products”, iRAP, USA).


Kaunas University of Technology

Modern Mathematical Insight into Physical Behavior of Structures Since ancient times, design and development of engineering structures and systems included the stage of analysis and prediction of their physical behavior. The most important concerns have always been related to whether the future structure is strong enough, what are the potential vibrations, what are the potential thermal properties, will the structure be able to fulfill the expected function or task. The simplest and still the most unreliable and dangerous way of producing new designs tends to rely on previous experience only. Nevertheless, a lot of perfect buildings of the past, the genius creators of which did not have an opportunity of making proper design calculations, have survived to delight us. On the other hand, there have been much larger numbers of collapsed buildings and bridges, shipwrecks, car accidents, and subsequent human deaths resulting from unsatisfactory design calculations and predictions.

Evolution of Science Based Predictions The advance of mathematics, physics, and theories based on them, such as mechanics of materials, dynamics, thermal and fluid mechanics, electricity and magnetism facilitate critical and systematic design evaluations. As early as at the end of the XIX century the basic principles of the behavior of physical and engineering systems were well understood and described in a strict mathematical form of partial differential equations (PDE). They led to numbers of new engineering solutions, which resulted in explosive advance of engineering and technology. However, along with the perfect knowledge of the fundamental principles of physical system behavior, the possibilities of investigating real objects were still limited. It was not sufficient to describe the phenomena by mathematical equations. Useful information can only be obtained if the equation is solved. Very often the road to obtaining solutions to equations describing real systems is far from being easy and smooth. A lot of intellectual minds have spent their whole lives on solving equations representing certain classes of investigated objects. The task was hard and slow. It often required extraordinary abilities and efforts of the researchers. A new era in engineering computation dawned with the advance of computers and the development of the finite element computational technology.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Habil. Rimantas Barauskas Department of System Analysis

Research Overview 2011

Element model for investigation of seismic vibrations of Ignalina NPP separator drum

Basic Principles of the Method The finite-element method (FEM) originated from the need to tackle complex elasticity and structural analysis problems in civil and aeronautical engineering. By late 1950s, the key concepts existed essentially in the form they are used today. From the mathematical point of view, the FEM is a numerical method for solving the PDEs, by means of which most physical systems are mathematically described. The basic idea behind the FEM is as follows. The investigated body or system is presented by a structure of small subdomains (finite elements). Naturally, the overall physical behavior of the structure and the physical behavior of a single finite element are described by the PDE of the same type. A single element PDE is approximately replaced by a system of algebraic or ordinary differential equations. The solu-

tion obtained for a single element expresses the behavior of the corresponding subdomain of the body to which external actions are applied. Once element equations are assembled to form overall structural equations, the physical behavior of the overall body or system is adequately described. Since finite elements may form a structure with any geometrical shape, the bodies or systems of complex geometrical forms are easily represented and their physical behavior is simulated. The finite element approach should be treated as a “computational technology” rather than a “method”. Computer implementations of the FEM invoke a lot of auxiliary numerical functions and subroutines, such as algebraic and ordinary differential equation solution, eigenvalue analysis, computational geometry and visualization tools, etc.

Achievements Research in the field of the FEM and its applications to physical and engineering systems started at the research centre Vibrotechnika of Kaunas University of Technology in the late 1970s. Most new developments focused on finite element models of mechatronic systems, the operation principle whereof was based on controlled micro-vibrations and nonlinear mechanical interactions of piezoelectric transducers. The following decades featured exceptionally fast progress in computer development, a transition from mainframes to personal computers, and a worldwide development of “commercial” finite element software systems. The availability of FEM software on the desktop of a researcher facilitated fast and efficient development of new models. The development of the method application schemes for specific investigation tasks went hand in hand with the studies of FEM software systems ANSYS, ALGOR, LS-DYNA, MSC, COMSOL Multiphysics, which were applied in the development of complex computational models in numerous national industrial and international projects. An important and extensive research program based on computational modeling of structural behavior aimed at the structural integrity analysis of Ignalina nuclear power plant (INPP) in order to evaluate and enhance its safety during the remaining period of operation. Numerous finite element models of critical INPP units for evaluating seismic and other dynamic responses, structural strength and fatigue were created at the KTU Computational technologies centre


Kaunas University of Technology

A new era in engineering computation dawned with the advance of computers and the development of the finite element computational technology.

(previously the Structures Reliability Centre). The projects, which focused on the enhancement of personal safety of soldiers (bullet proof clothing), biomedical engineering (radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors), fluid flow and ultrasonic wave phenomena in ultrasonic fluid rate meters, thermal-elastic vibrations of micromechanical devices on chips, etc., required complex multi-field models to be created, where coupled phenomena of electrical current, thermal conductivity and advection along with mechanical deformation were essential.


(b) Simulation the ballistic impact of a bullet against a bullet-proof textile package: (a) - penetration through 5 textile layers; (b) - bullet hold-up in 10-layer package.

Simulation of thermally-elastic modal vibration of a rectangular MEMS resonator. Computed and experimental liver tumor radiofrequency ablation zone.

Future Prospects The prospects and the need of further investigations in the field of the FEM and development of new models are self-evident. Although the FEM theory has been developed and the computations have been performed for nearly sixty years, new challenges for creating more efficient and adequate models continue to emerge. Car models and their behavior in carcrash, â&#x20AC;&#x153;humanoidâ&#x20AC;? models, simulating possible injuries to people in the car, car and animal impact interactions, clothing and wearing comfort models, physical-biomedical models of blood flow and certain treatment procedures â&#x20AC;&#x201C; all those are still far from being perfect and completed. Once computational models are developed to a certain level of perfection, they become objects of commercial value, which can be used and enhanced while new constructions and designs are developed.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Dr. Mindaugas Bertašius Department of Philosophy & Culturology

Ancient Burial Site Helps to Reconstruct Prehistoric Society Fig. 1. A general picture of research in 2006. Photo by M. Bertašius.

Marvelė is the largest prehistoric burial ground ever researched in Lithuania. Its area and period of usage reveal a long process of cultural development exceeding one thousand years (2nd through 12th centuries). The documented material of the archeological research of Marvelė prehistoric burial ground reveals the culture, forms of behavior, and social practices of a community that existed over a long period of time. Thus the final object of the research is a person who lived, created, and worked in a defined cultural space. Technical skills and solutions, social relations, religious beliefs, attitudes and rituals - all those are reconstructed based on the abundant research material.

Solving the Puzzles Merely the diversity of graves representing a period of one thousand years from the 2nd to the 12th century reveals a complex spectrum of cultural change. That is very important since such a long term provides a perfect possibility for consistent observation and analysis of changes. One of the research subjects deals with searching identity and particular characteristics of the place. We, who live in Lithuania, as well as our foreign colleagues find the loyalty to one particular place really fascinating. What were the deciding factors resulting in such stability? Geographically, that was a well situated place close to the water trade routes within an easy reach of the sea routes. The River Nemunas used to

be the main communication artery. However using this as the sole explanation of the place stability would be far too crude. The reasons must have been more diverse, stemming from deeper cultural traditions and worldview. The burial ground represents the characteristics of the local community’s life style. Due to the huge number of graves, the long period, and the geographical location, the archaeological material of Marvelė is of paramount importance to the researchers of the past. From the agricultural perspective, it should be noted that the banks of the river valley produced easier to cultivate soil. It was a good place for farming, which generated higher yields and offered perfect pastures for animal breeding.

Research and Context For the last few years this object has been researched by an expedition of the Department of Philosophy and Cultural Science under the leadership of senior researcher M. Bertašius. The most recent research was very extensive since the construction of Kaunas biological treatment plant was conducted on this location. A large area of approximately 6,000 sq. meters was researched in two years. During the research process, a specific environment with a certain content is generated. Such environment is believed to be significant to modern people, their perception of distinctiveness and cultural self-identification (Fig. 1). The members of the expedition generate the environment 34

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It can be considered that the non-verbal media is much richer and exhaustive as it is not tied up with a limited number of words available for human communication. and transform their perception accordingly. Archeological artifacts (objects, phenomena, actions) are discovered and documented during the research and the social practices reconstructed on their basis transform into unknown to us texts with a certain function and a cultural context attributable to them. However they convey the way people used to perceive themselves and social relations. They reveal the way the public communicative space and cultural memory used to function, what were the specific features of their distinctiveness formation, how was the body treated, and what individual self-expression was like (Fig. 2). All this is testified by the structure of graves, the choice and position of burial items and many other different details. The archaeological artifacts are considered as a result of action expressed through diverse material means. The whole cultural activity conducted by a person in a determined environment is looked on as a set of social statements that would remain in the memories of the participants and serve to structure their ideas about the community, the society, and their dwelling place. Visual language and texts created thereby become highly significant in the research of the past communities similar to that which lived in MarvelÄ&#x2014;. That being so, images tend to reflect human mind rather than specific objects. Those are manifestations of the image, wish, illusion, and past experiences expressed by forms, actions, composition, and ritual, rather than a sole reflection of events and experiences. This provides a possibility of simulating patterns of cultural interacFig. 2. Investigations of skeletal remains from Grave K 1357 and their interpretation reveal an intricate story. Anthropological research shows that the remains belong to a woman approximately aged 25-30. She was buried in the direction typically used for men (i.e. her head was directed to the west). Her burial items included those typical for men (arms) and women (a necklace). The research revealed that she died from skull vault fraction, which was further confirmed by forensic examination. All those details suggest that this woman occupied an important place in the family and participated in major events. Photo by M. BertaĹĄius.

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Research Overview 2011

tion, tracking their development and comparing the results in space and time with proximate cultures. Such simulation facilitates investigations of the cultural pattern formation in a specific community (society, culture or a succession of cultures) and the manifestation of cultural distinctiveness. Moreover, it enables to actualize the studies of cultures and subcultures. Such research is important for scientists in various fields: archeologists and historians, culture researchers and art critics, anthropologists, history of technologies. Thus a comprehensive research of a prehistoric community and its culture requires concentrated interdisciplinary efforts.

Methods The whole research process was filmed. This process enables the scientists to develop and simulate the imagined environment of the past, the life and rituals, etc. which used to exist in this environment. The archaeological findings can be analyzed traditionally, i.e. by studying artifacts. However it is also possible to study the social process, to identify how the ancestors used to express their attitudes, judgments, relations, outlooks, and feelings. The development of the modern world individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s distinctiveness relies on the personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s relations with the past and the history. The problem of identity in a society is becoming increasingly important. Such identity is revealed by the origin of the Baltic culture. A research con-

ducted from such perspective can expect results that are in conformity with the discourse applied in the modern scientific practice. History must be disclosed based on symbolic structures and dynamics of implications, which are picked up from a certain tradition and reshaped to adapt to personal self-consciousness. (V. Kavolis). Once the unique research material is recapitulated, research into regularities can be launched. Historic realities are split up into subsystems and the interrelations among them are analyzed. In this case the studies do not merely emphasize the scientific value of the research material but rather focus on the sequence of the interrelated data and series of different type data that can be subject to structural and comparative analysis, methods of mathematical statistics, and assessment of the possibilities to use process forecasting methods. Fig. 3. A healed trepanation in scraping technique, a hole in the frontal bone of a man aged 40-50. The size of the hole is 60-50 mm (Grave 557; research by Department of Anatomy, Histology and Anthropology, VU). The grave dates back to the end of the 2nd century - the first half of the 3rd century. That is one of the earliest healed examples of such surgery in the North and Middle Europe. Photo by R. Jankauskas.

Results and Future Prospects Recently, the second volume of MarvelÄ&#x2014; research material in German and Lithuanian was published (the first volume was published in 2006). It includes the source analysis with initial insights of the researcher and material interpretations produced following European examples. Other courses of action include generalizations and comparisons of the culture and society development based on the available material, participation at conferences and discussions, and starting a dialogue with the society, an educational and cognitive process by means of public lectures, open door days at the site, and public information programs. That is a very important and promising field of activities, which fosters self-knowledge and discovery of authentic cultural traits.


Kaunas University of Technology

Dr. Habil. Algimantas Bubulis Dr. Vytautas JurÄ&#x2014;nas Mechatronics Centre for Research, Studies & Information

Ultrasound Energy Saves Lives For removing tissues and fragmenting stones, removing clots from blood vessels and other undesirable derivatives which can occur in a personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body, it is possible to use the ultrasound energy. Usually the energy generated to the environment by the waveguide is transmitted in the form of intensive acoustic waves of high frequency; tissues are destroyed under their influence, under the direct mechanical effect, or because of the phenomenon of cavitation. Within cavitation, in the liquid effected by the ultrasound frequency of big power, microscopic bubbles filled by vapours or cavities occur which expand fast and explode. These explosions are accompanied by intensive local hydraulic impacts which cause destruction of tissues.

The ultrasound energy has been considered for penetration of intravascular blockages due to both atherosclerotic plaque and old intravascular blood clots (Omnisonic Inc., USA).

Why Ultrasound? Thrombolytic or mechanical recanalizations are much more efficient than conventional open surgery. However the recanalizations are not always technically successful in neglected cases. The most important difficulties occur at the moment of penetration of the occlusion with a guide wire. Inability to penetrate the occlusion may lead to unsuccessful balloon angioplasty, stenting or atherectomy. Therefore it is important to use the ultrasound energy to enhance the recanalization. The studies have been performed to estimate the auxiliary power consumption of various ultrasound effects in order to enhance the effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy. Moreover, the ultrasound energy has been considered for penetration of intravascular blockages due to both atherosclerotic plaque and old intravascular blood clots (Omnisonic Inc., USA). Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Cavitation Effect for Medicine Despite the clinical and technological advancement, vascular diseases such as acute myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral arterial thrombosis remain a serious health problem, regarding unsatisfactory treatment outcomes (high mortality, disability, significant economic costs). For example, mere in the United States the management of cardiovascular diseases, care and disability compensation costs are at $ 40 billion per year. The main idea of our research work is to use the phenomenon of ultrasound cavitation for the endovascular therapy of blood vessel diseases and malignancies.

Method The ultrasonic blood- vessel recanalization system The ultrasonic blood-vessel recanalization system consists of reusable electronics (Generator and Transducer) and the single use ultrasound wave wire (Application for European Patent, No 08478001.4 – 2310). The ultrasound wave wire is connected to the signal generator by attaching the proximal hub to the distal end of the transducer. The Signal generator converts AC line power into high frequency voltage, which is delivered to piezoelectric elements contained within the transducer, resulting in piezoelement’s oscillation. The transducer horn amplifies propagating high frequency (approximately 20 kHz) mechanical oscillations down a wave wire to its proximal tip. This vibration energy of the proximal tip provides mechanical and hydrodynamic impact, which aids in the recanalization of an occluded artery. The ultrasound wave wire used for the internal blood-vessel recanalization consists of the combination of conical-stepped-cylindrical stainless steel waveguide 1and proximal end 2, which is spiral shaped. It allows to improve significantly the dynamic characteristics by existing various static loads. The flexible guide wire 5 may be entered through spiral internal part and it directs the ultrasound wave wire proximal end into the thrombus location in blood vessel.

The structure of the ultrasound wave wire: 1 – conical-stepped-cylindrical stainless steel wave wire; 2 – spiral shaped proximal end of the wave wire; 3 – cavitation stream; 4 – blood –vessel; 5 – guide wire.


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The main idea of our research work is to use the phenomenon of ultrasound cavitation for the endovascular therapy of blood vessel diseases and malignancies.

Image of the cavitation stream induced by the spiral shaped proximal end of the wave wire

Perspectives Introduction of new endovascular interventions into clinical practice in Lithuanian will expand treatment options for many diseases where other approaches, including operative, is impossible or too dangerous. This is particularly useful for specific treatment of serious medical conditions using the new above mentioned percutaneous intervention techniques. The successful application of this ultrasonic blood-vessel recanalization system should be crucial to wider usage of cost-effective endovascular interventions in Lithuania.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Dr. Nerijus Čepulis Department of Philosophy & Culturology

Formation of Personality: Between Hermeneutics & Ethics Since XIX century Humanities have been more and more conforming to predominating method of Physical Sciences, which strives to discover inductively the common laws and to apply them in individual cases. Thus science, by rejecting whatever exclusions, loses his historical-social particularity. Such science researches the individual as an object of species and ignores the human as unique personality. “Method” and knowledge of Humanities should differ from inductive method of Physical sciences. Humanitarian pathway of knowledge aims to understand a phenomenon in its unrepeatable historical particularity. The aim of Humanities comprises humanistic formation of individual instead of communication of certain information or providing with particular skills. Writing culture and industrialism shattered individual and social existences to secluded and alienated fragments. Humanities should form today the integral personality with its esthetical and historical sense, memory, tact and common sense.

Hermeneutics as Method Method of such forming may be found in hermeneutics. The aim of hermeneutics may be determined as a persistent effort to overcome mutual misunderstanding – intersubjective and historical distance which differentiates the human minds. Hermeneutic is not a strict, consequent and inductive method, it rather is the art of understanding and interpretation. The mission of hermeneutics in the past was to interpret and communicate, if it was not naturally evident, a particular phenomenon, which had been provided for us by other people and had arrived to us as a tradition. Today the limits of this art have significantly expanded. Historical consciousness has enabled us to realize that the whole tradition could have been perceived mistakenly or could have rest impenetrable. Since German Romanticism, hermeneutics was intended to avoid any misunderstanding. Therefore, the area of hermeneutics in principle starts covering all the expressions of meaning. The language and so called total mediation constantly persist in the focus of attention for hermeneutics. It turns us back to the very important in nowadays topic of media and philosophy of mediality. Total mediation, mediality, means that any contact with the world is already mediated through senses, organs, body, its environment and circumstances, through consciousness, condition and feelings, language, tools, art, and through mass media. We stay in medium of mediated things, each one of which in turn is the medium, trough which and with which we communicate.

Research of Mediality Most of mediality researches: from Benjamin’s principle of reproduction to hermeneutics of Gadamer, from McLuhan’s “extensions of man” to “new 40

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media” of Manovich, agree that the essence of medium lies in message – mediated act of communication, by which human consciousness and

The nature of metaphysics and religion consists of primordial sociability which conditions every ontology of physiological or technological media.

senses strive to contact the external world by extending themselves. The type of contact – made and then again ruptured – is revealed more by the effect rather than by the content of communication. The effect is conveyed as a metaphor; it aims to mould the media one to another by converting anything to anything and so ranging entirety through electromagnetic medium. Medium is the extension of human psycho-

physiology. We may find the ambiguity of life prolongation and destructive selfamputation in the genesis, development and manifestation of media. Media feed human erotic hunger and generate new partial needs. People respond to it by creating the new technologies. Therefore not only the quantity, but also the rate of needs’ satisfaction and capital are constantly increasing.

Between Eros and Thanatos One type of media promotes communication, amplifies rate and creates such a huge excess of erotic stimuli, that it must be suppressed by other destructive media, extending Thanatos instinct: medicine, drugs, alcohol or even weapons. Suppression, after becoming the dependence, further requires the help of media, which restore life and sociability. In the age of electricity, when technology had expanded our nervous system all around the Earth, we have been shocked due to of the publicity, which had intruded into the most intimate areas of our life. Here we face again quite negative principle of insensibility, which is proved by extent of alcoholism, consumption of antidepressants, birth decrease and suicides in today’s Western culture, often called the culture of death. A person strives to numb the extended and denuded central nervous system, otherwise he would die. The age of electrical media is also the age of subconsciousness and anxiety interspersed with apathy. Thanatos instinct seems to be extremely vital today. Our age, determined by electrical medium, is open more than ever to the sense of in-

tegral completeness, deep empathy and consciousness. Aggressive antagonistic defence of personal world-view is not that strong as in the Industrial Period. Even in nowadays we are overmuch allergic to stagnation and intruded stereotypes. We don’t believe that there is one and the most truthful rational model of Universe, but on this side of the world, split to fragmented smithereens by mechanical technologies, or beyond it, there still remain aspirations to feel non-systemic human reality, existence and universal meaning. Faith in integral harmony of immense Universe is required for this. Media exploration could be based on this fundamental altitude of mind: to understand the media in order to employ them properly for the peace of the mankind and the world. However most of the contemporary media researches prefer physical aspects of media and rarely ask about “metaphysical” conditions of medium. “Metaphysics of media” is required for this, so the descriptions of socioethical relation, otherness, infinity, conscience and religion would be integrated into media researches.

The First Philosophy I’ve tried to achieve this in my recently published monograph: “The First Philosophy: Ontotheology or Ethics?” We must

notice that problem of metaphysics today is becoming very traditionally, metaphysics was considered the main

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Research Overview 2011

discipline of philosophy or the first philosophy. It is related to Aristotle, who calls it theology – a science that inquires into a being qua being and researches it in an ambivalent way: contemplating a being universally and at the same time as an eternal, immutable being separated from the empirical world, i.e., a divinity. Thus, in the tradition that followed and prevailed later, metaphysics becomes both ontology and theology. Heidegger called it onto-theology, tradition – metaphysics, and Aristotle – the first philosophy. Heidegger proposes the overcoming of the metaphysics with his fundamental ontology. This particular attitude gave me the main incentive to raise anew the metaphysical question. Hence the object of research was validity of the thesis that ethics should be the first philosophy in the context of intersection of the Greek and the Jewish paradigms of thought. The aim was

to examine how the theological metaphysics of Duns Scotus and the phenomenological metaphysics of Levinas related to the main Greek ontotheological tradition of Western thought, and to show how their metaphysics, which was influenced by Jewish sensibility and worldview, is in principle ethically oriented thinking. In pursuance of this objective, specific tasks was set: (1) to point out the main features of total ontotheology; (2) to bring to light Duns Scotus’ attitude towards Greek (Aristotelian) ontotheology; (3) to display the origins of Levinas’ phenomenology; (4) to show in what amount the anew interpreted metaphysics, being more fundamental than ontology, coincides with ethics. Novelty of this research lies in probably the first attempt to compare the mindsets of Duns Scotus and Levinas in the context of intersection of the two traditions of thought: Greek and Jewish.

Conclusions Firstly, having gone deep into the alternative of the first philosophy and philosophy on the whole, I realized that metaphysics as the first philosophy can be understood twofold. Being ontotheological and fatally nihilistic from the Greek origins on, Western metaphysics unfolds making the world firstly an object of cognition and later of utilization, manipulation, technological (re) production and consumption for the subject, which in the modernity coincides with identity of the I. The ontotheological metaphysics, which has dominated in Western thinking, while developing through subject-object dichotomy and reflection, lost the sense and idea of transcendence. Still, the turn of the Greek thought towards ontotheological metaphysics yet to Duns Scotus is neither matter-of-course nor inevitable. Ontology and theology do not coincide and converge. These are two quite different sciences. The first is pure theory, the latter is practical. Secondly, transcending the immanence of natural causality, Duns Scotus’s theology is more metaphysical than the metaphysics of Aristotle or at least its then and later ontotheological interpretation, which in the Middle Ages was appropriated and upheld by Parisian philosophers. Further and more radically than theoretical science of a being, such a theological metaphysics is a transcendental immediate relation to a being, which is to be thought as the absolute exteriority and infinity of the other. Moreover, consciousness cannot afford and reverently does not try to overpass an infinite distance to that exterior being. To think does not necessary 42

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mean to mediate by assimilation and representation in consciousness. Thirdly, Levinas’ metaphysical thought, as an excess of reason, proposes an alternative to ontotheologically oriented philosophy and its persistent attempt to identify life of mind with theoretical knowledge. Transcendental phenomenology, as constant return of identifying reason into itself for quiet, is still too torpid and, consequently, too shallow to be the first philosophy. Philosophy needs vigilance that is roused by responsibility and persistent ethical awakening. Human reason, emerging from primordial identity, is not knowledge in traditional sense, and even not an activity, but – more likely – passive sensibility that loses the central position and enters into an ethic relation to the Other. Fourthly, metaphysics, radically interpreted by Levinas as religion, is not ontology. Being an asymmetric and responsible relation, it is neither epistemologically objectifying, nor ontologically participant relation as it was supposed by Tomas Aquinas’ theology or Heidegger’s fundamental ontology. Rather it is a discourse, desire of infinity, generosity, and goodness that transcends the essence and does not belong to the totality of mediated being. A metaphysical relation of religious nature, as revelation and responsible discourse, preserves distance between the I and the Other, and thus does not allow a formation of systematic totality. The nature of metaphysics and religion consists of primordial sociability which conditions every ontology of physiological or technological media.

Dr. Vytautas Deksnys Department of Electronics & Measurement Systems

Embedded Systems With new functional qualities, extended reliability and accuracy, a lower price and energy consumption, a possibility of regular software maintenance leading to higher operational efficiency and new user functions, embedded systems can find application in a number of fields: household appliances, control of technological processes, transport, medical diagnostics, telecommunication systems, etc. The advancement of electronic technologies results in the electronic components of embedded systems becoming increasingly complex and cheap, while their fields of applications keep expanding. The most expensive part of a new workplace is a skilled developer, who knows the methods and tools used for designing an object, who is aware of the embedded system architecture, the physical properties of the object, and who is able of formalizing the same using mathematical models.

V stands for Versatility An embedded system is a special-purpose microcomputer with real time constraints, which is applied in mechatronic systems. The kernel of the hardware (HW) contains a digital microprocessor or a microsystem, which performs dedicated functions of digital information processing. The functions of such components include data acquisition, decoding, digital processing, creating control stimulus, and dealing with measurement, diagnostics, control, communication, and other tasks. Increasingly, a common configuration for embedded systems is the system on a chip (SoC). It contains components of MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems), optical, magnetic, thermoelectric, digital wireless communication systems, sensors and positioning units. A major part of added value created by high tech companies from developed European, USA, Japanese and Southeast Asian countries is attributed to this industry. It employs up to 90% microprocessors manufactured by leading producers all over the world, most of which are eight-bit (ca 34%) and thirty-two-bit (ca 16%) systems and IP cores, which have been lately broadly used in field programmable gate array (FPGA) and application specific integral circuit (ASIC) designs. A new type of cutting edge consumer electronic products is evolving as a result of digitalization and networking of home and entertainment appliances and integration of PCs and communication technologies.

ARTEMIS Platform With the goal to organize the development of this dynamic sector, which is of major importance to other industries, the EU has initiated the European ARTEMIS (Advanced Research & Technology for EMbedded Intelligence and Systems) Platform founded by five global

electronics giants: Nokia, Philips, STMicroelectronics, Thales, and DaimlerChrysler. The Platform is an industry-led initiative to reinforce the position of the EU as a leading worldwide player in the design, integration and supply of embedded systems. Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Dr. Vytautas Deksnys with students

The EU competence in this field spurs the competitiveness of vehicle manufacturing, industrial electronics, telecommunications, and medical technologies industries, which are among the key users of embedded systems. One of the strategic objectives of the European Embedded System Platform ARTEMIS is to reinforce and maintain the EU leading positions in vehicle manufacturing business sector.

Embedded Systems in Lithuania Design and production of embedded systems is among the economic activities which comply with the Lithuanian National Knowledge Economy Strategy. Emerging companies and scientific teams successfully work in the field of embedded system development and application. Already now companies Selteka, Terra Electronics, Teltonika, Axis Industries, Elinta and others manufacture electric measuring instruments, devices and installations for telecommunications and digital television, energy and household sectors where electronic embedded systems are used. The Faculty of Telecommunications and Elec-

tronics of Kaunas University of Technology trains specialists with expertise in this field, conducts scientific research and performs applied works in cooperation with German, Dutch, Finnish, American companies and a large number of Lithuanian industrial enterprises. Twelve internationally successful Lithuanian electronics and IT engineering companies have initiated an Embedded Systems Technology Platform. The aim of the Platform is to ensure that the development and application of embedded systems comply with the strategic objectives prescribed by the Lisbon strategy and Lithuanian instruments.

Department of Electronics and Measurement Systems The KTU Department of Electronics and Measurement Systems conducts scientific and applied research related to the development of embedded systems. The development of embedded systems for TV infrastructure and for the purposes of process, appliance, and installation control and diagnostics is performed by the Laboratory team in close cooperation with foreign and national partners. The Department has developed a 3-D wireless digital accelerometer and digital signal processing software designed for an in-flight analysis of the flutter of aircraft structure elements and for dynamics testing of high-rise structures. Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation funding was used to develop a high technology product â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a hybrid digital TV receiver for digital television programs broadcasted on terrestrial television channels and the Internet using MPEG4 SD (standard definition) and HD 44

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(high definition) audio/video signal compression methods. Furthermore, it can be used to perform e-medicine, e-services, rating, and domestic appliance control functions, and to attain the functionality of an Internet browser. On the order of a Lithuanian company Neigiamas Pagreitis, the Department designed diagnostic tools for car brake system quality assessment. In cooperation with an Italian company Emotion Control SrL, the Department is designing innovative control systems for low-noise brushless electric motors with a high and stable torque in a wide range of rotations and lower power consumption. The Department has designed original quality assessment tools for heat supply systems that have been installed with a large number of heat suppliers. They help to detect the location and character of the defect.

The Department has designed original quality assessment tools for heat supply systems that have been installed with a large number of heat suppliers. Locating a defect in the heat supply system

Insulated heat supply pipes

Perspectives Currently the Department is designing specialized hybrid multimedia units for receiving SD and HD image format digital television signals in DVB-T, DVB-C and IPTV media with MPEG4 and MPEG2 image decompression and for video and audio material storing and viewing on PVRs (personal video recorders). UAB Selteka started mass production of the device. During their scientific research, doctoral students of the Department have designed unique automated methods and tools for product surface quality control that are used in wood-wool panel production processes and also an innovative technology for mobility assessment of concrete mixes during the technological production process which is designed to identify the fractional content of materials.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Habil. Julius Dudonis Prof. Dr. Giedrius Laukaitis Department of Physics

Fuel Cells for Future Generations It is assumed that by 2050 the consumption of energy will increase 1.5â&#x20AC;&#x201C;3 times. Thus new energy generation technologies are particularly relevant. Ecologic problems challenge us to look for new ways of reducing the consumption of oil products by using alternative water, wind, and solar powers. One of the most promising scientific solutions to those problems is the conversion of hydrogen energy into electric energy. Hydrogen is considered to be a potential carrier of energy and in the nearest future it is seen to play a key role in the energy sector by replacing the existing sources of energy. Hydrogen energy represents a very complex field of science and industry which involves hydrogen extraction, storage, and electrochemical conversion issues. In order to solve them, it is essential to secure interaction among different fields of science and technologies: Nanoscience, Chemistry, Physics, and Materials Engineering. Fuel cells are the one possibility to use hydrogen as energy source

How it Works Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electric power. The efficiency of fuel cells can come up to 70â&#x20AC;&#x201C;80% in comparison with 30-40% efficiency of conventional generators. The modern fuel cells use hydrogen or small organic molecules (e.g., methanol or methane) and they are sources of clean electric power since the only bi-product of a hydrogen fuel cell is water. Because of their small size fuel cells can be used on site. Modern fuel cells combine the achievements in fundamental sciences and modern engineering. In view of the decrease in natural organic energy resources and intended reduction of electric energy resources in Lithuania following the closure of Ignalina nuclear power plant, fuel cells, ecologically cleanest autonomous sources The principle of of electric power, are becoming fuel cell work particularly important and relevant. The main types of modern fuel cells include: phosphorus acid (PAFC), alkaline (AFC), melted carbonates (MCFC), polymeric electrolytes (PEMFC), direct methanol (DMFC), and solid oxides (SOFC). All of them use the same universal working principle: oxidation of hydrogen and organic molecules 46

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“...research work in the field of hydrogen energy can make a significant contribution to the implementation of the public policy objectives of the European Union and Lithuania.

takes place in the anode reaction, which generates electrons that are used in the cathode reaction – air oxygen reduction transmitting electrons (under electric current) in the external circuit (see the figure). Those reactions take place subject to electronic conduction in the external circuit and ionic conduction between the electrodes. Stacks of various size and power are made of the fuel cells consisting of cathode-electrolyte-anode structure, which are used as autonomous power-stations or automobile power sources.

In Search of New Materials The use of fuel cells on a large scale is limited by their high production and maintenance costs and insufficient efficiency. Therefore, more effective catalysts and new functional materials are sought in two most promising fuel cell groups - polymeric (PEFC and DMFC) and solid oxide (SOFC) electrolytes. Currently SOFC active elements (electrolytes) are usually made of ZrO – (3–8) mol% Y O ceramics (YSZ – Y stabilized zirconia), as they are characterized by good thermal and chemical stability, quite favorable conditions for oxide-ion conduction, and mechanical strength at high temperatures. Presently comprehensive research is under its way in search of new more efficient materials with better oxide-ion conduction. It is also important to study the superionic ceramics production technological methods and conditions and to choose the most suitable ones. Such superionic ceramics are very important in creating SOFC. Nanocrystal materials are used to produce such ceramics. Thin-layered (SOFC) fuel cells are prospective since they allow reducing the volume and working temperature of the equipment. In order to form the architecture of such cells, various deposition methods of thin layers are used: MOCVD, aerosol-pyrolysis, spray-pyrolysis, magnetron sputtering, etc. New materials and processes are developed by using physical, plasma and nanotechnologies. For example, in order to reduce a cell’s working temperature and to increase its working time, it is necessary to form thin electrolytes, which enjoy good compatibility with the porous cathode and anode, and which are dense (non-porous) and favorable for oxide-ion conduction. The scientists of the faculty of Fundamental Science of KTU are working hard in this field.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

New Research Directions We are looking for effective methods and technologies of forming electrolyte layers (applied in solid oxide fuel cells, SOFC) with great ionic conductance. Our objective is to apply physical technologies in the production of such components. The main issue we are addressing includes forming a dense, thin (1-3 μm) electrolyte layer containing no pores or any other defects that might cause direct penetration of oxygen, a cathode layer of certain porosity with ionic and electronic conduction, and securing the vital electrical properties of junctions of the layers (anode-electrolyte and cathodeelectrolyte). Due to the thinness of the cell component layers, the issue of their chemical and mechanical stability and their mutual compatibility at high temperatures becomes even more urgent. We are also investigating the possibility of using of catalytic nanostructures in solid oxide fuel cells. That would ac-celerate the ionization process by putting catalytic layers before the electrolyte. A new research direction which can give rise to a breakthrough in fuel cell technologies is the use of proton conductive fuel cells. It is attempted to create oxides that are conductive to protons, rather than oxide ions. We use physical coating production methods to obtain thin layers on porous substrates. The following stage of research includes investigation of electrical characteristics of the produced thin-layered structures.

Science and Industry On 13 February, 2006 the Association for Hydrogen Energy was founded in Lithuania. The founders of the association: Lithuanian Energy Institute (LEI), Kaunas University of Technology (KTU), Vytautas Magnus University (VDU), Vilnius University (VU). The Association for Hydrogen Energy is the platform aimed at accomplishing a breakthrough in fuel cell production, hydride-based hydrogen storage, and mass education. On 12 June, 2006 a joint venture agreement was signed by representatives of twelve research institutions and industrial enterprises where under Lithuanian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (http:// was founded. It should become a key instrument in hydrogen economy coordination and promotion at national level. In 2008, a project initiated by Association for Hydrogen Energy partners Synthesis of heterostructural multifunctional materials for hydrogen fuel cells was awarded a three-year (2008-2010) support from Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation for research in the area of hydrogen energy. Currently the research project “The production of hydrogen from water vapor plasma using molecular implantation” is funded by the Research Council of Lithuania for two years period (2010 – 2011). This project has been initiated by Vytautas Magnus University (VDU), Lithuanian Energy Institute (LEI) and Kaunas University of Technology (KTU).


Kaunas University of Technology

Prof. Dr. Habil. Algimantas FedaraviÄ?ius Institute of Defence Technologies

Virtual War & Real Rockets The reality will soon go beyond science fiction films. The Americans are going to arm the 21st century infantryman with a new type of weapons, which will be able day and night to distinguish enemies and aliens by themselves, and with universal communication and life protection systems. The soldierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s equipment has to be developed and the soldier has to be trained using new technologies. Primarily that is the task of scientists, engineers, and designers. That is exactly what the scientists from KTU are doing.

Science for Defence After Lithuania have re-established its independence, the scientists from Kaunas University of Technology started cooperating with the Ministry of National Defence, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and other institutions responsible for national security. KTU Institute of Defence Technologies (IDT) has been founded in 2000. The main activities of institute include organizing, coordinating, and performing scientific research in the fields of defence science and technology as well as other problems related to national security; coordinating the training of specialists in the aforesaid field, participating in the university-level and continued studies, carrying out expert and advisory activities and participating in the development and strengthening of the national defence and national security systems. The main area of research covers the dynamics of mechanical, electromechanical and mechatronic systems: simulation, control, and optimum synthesis, as well as their application in the development of training and military gears and equipment in the field of defence and other.

Models, Simulation, Virtual Reality Staff training in the defence structures of the developed countries is extensively based on special training equipment. It helps to achieve a significant reduction in the training process price and makes it efficient and safe since simulations or virtual technologies replace battlefield ammunition. Presently the IDT is involved in various scientific research: refinement of the functional and technical characteristics of laser rifleman train-

ing equipment, investigation of the dynamics of training rifle fire simulation systems, upgrading training equipment software, theoretical and experimental research of internal and external ballistics, design of cryptographic protection of the data in multimedia networks and image encoding methods, which are very important to ensure the security of the intelligence and technological information held by defence institutions and economic entities. Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011 Col. Rimas Žibas, Defence Attaché to Poland, is trying (out) the laser rifleman training equipment

A staff group of KTU Institute of Defence Technologies at the exhibition in Kielce (Poland)

The Institute is engaged in synthesis and experimental ground tests of laser-based tactics training systems under firing ground conditions (fire simulation, radio data transmission, GPS, data processing software, etc.), research of two interrelated mass internal and external ballistics and application thereof in the development of semi-natural shooting-mortar training equipment, modelling the interaction of a mine simulator with non-deforming and deforming soil surface, computerized modelling of dynamic processes, experimental research, studies and practice of rocketry, etc. The methods of linear and non-linear system dynamics and computerized modelling are used in developing defence technologies and equipment. Computerized, laser and mechanical simulation systems and simulation ammunition are broadly used in serviceman training. That helps to save money, ensure safety, and to increase efficiency of the training process, since there is a possibility to analyze and generalize the data held in the computer memory and to make timely adjustments to inaccurate decisions or wrong actions during the trainings as well as after them.

Rocket Science IDT researches have recently developed the new product: experimental rocket complex of short-range solid fuel. Study of physical and design principles of rocket technique has been performed during the program. Original formula of solid rocket fuel, its production technology, rocket fuel elements, rocket construction with external equipment of ballistic data measurement, registration and transfer, and rocket starter have been developed. Solid fuel rocket engines of two types have been developed; experimental research of their reliability, traction and pressure characteristics at the polygon and comparative analysis in regard to foreign analogs have been performed. The rocket has been successfully tested at Pabradė central polygon. Successful start has inspired scientists with even more solid challenges: to develop rocket technology program in the pointing direction, to improve technical and ballistic characteristics to the average distance (30-40 km).


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Fist testing of 90mm caliber rocket at the Pabradė central polygon

Practical training of Lithuanian servicemen on mortar training equipment developed by the Institute

The main area of research covers the dynamics of mechanical, electromechanical and mechatronic systems: simulation, control, and optimum synthesis, as well as their application in the development of training and military gears and equipment in the field of defence and other. IDT and the World The equipment, which was designed and implemented in Lithuanian defence institutions and abroad, including the General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Lithuania, the State Border Guard Service training centre in Medininkai, the training centre of the Latvian Ministry of Interior in Jurmala, and Jonušas Radvila Training Regiment, where the equipment has been operating since 1997, has led to ammunition savings of approximately LTL 35 millions. Prof. Dr. Habil. Algimantas The mortar training equipment has been inFedaravičius troduced in the Div. Gen. Stasys Raštikis NCO School. Under the framework of PHARE project, a cryptographic data security system has been introduced in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania. Four products have been included into the NATO Master Catalogue of References for Logistics; three products have been awarded with gold medals of the Lithuanian Product of the Year (2004, 2005, and 2007). The PhD degree in Defence Technologies has been awarded to eight persons. We cooperate with the Military Academy in Brno (Czech Republic); the Armaments Technology Institute (Poland); the Defence Technology Centre of the Royal University (Sweden), and Saint-Cyr Military Academy (France). Since 2000 through 2008 trainees from Saint-Cyr Military Academy were accepted at the institute. The equipment developed and implemented by IDT enjoys functional and technical characteristics that commensurate with those of the analogous products of the famous foreign companies and quite frequently surpass them. The complex of semi-natural shooting-mortar training equipment

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Habil. Juozas V. Gražulevičius Department of Organic Technology, Research Group of Synthetic & Natural Polymers

Organic Semiconductors – Disruptive Technology of the XXI Century Organic semiconductors currently are widely studied as components of various optoelectronic devices, i.e. organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells, organic thin film transistors, electrohotographic photoreceptors used in copying machines, and laser printers. Inorganic materials used in those devices are replaced with organic semiconductors because their synthesis is cheaper and less complicated, their spectrum of characteristics is wider, and simpler technologies are required to form amorphous layers. Organic electroactive materials have already been used for several years in commercial optoelectronic products of such companies as Pioneer, Motorolla, Kodak, Philips, Samsung Electronics, DuPoint and many others. Recently Sony announced that its scientists and designers created a 3mm thick OLED television with a 27.5 cm diameter screen. In the near future flexible roll-up televisions made only from organic materials should appear. Mainly organic electronic and optoelectronic components will be used in such televisions.

Past and Present The beginning of the group goes back to the seventh decade of the last century when Dr. Rimtautas Kavaliūnas and a group of scientists under his leadership started synthesizing polymeric semiconductors for electrophotographic microfilming. Prof. J.V. Gražulevičius, a former student of Dr. R. Kavaliūnas, proceeds with the work. Presently the main directions of research include the synthesis of organic semiconductors and other organic electroactive materials, their studies, application in optoelectronics and electronics; cationic photopolymerization; preparation of biodegradable polymers from renewable sources. The members of the group are Dr. R. Lazauskaitė, Dr. J. Ostrauskaitė, Dr. G. Buika, Dr. S. Grigalevičius, Dr. J. Simokaitienė, Dr. R. Lygaitis, A. Tomkevičienė, A. Michalevičiūtė, S. Lengvinatė and a number of MSc students. Prof. J. V. Gražulevicius is the Lithuanian Science Prize winner for the cycle of works entitled “New electroactive organic materials for optoelectronics”. Currently we mainly focus on the synthesis of new effective organic semiconductors. Our group has developed new glass-forming elec52

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troactive materials which are characterized by high triplet energies, high mobility of charge carriers of both signs (holes and electrons), coming up to 10-2cm2/Vs. Such materials are promising components of electrophosphorescent OLEDs. Research carried out in cooperation with the experts of optoelectronic devices from

In the recent few years we have developed several families of new electroactive materials which were successfully applied in various optoelectronic devices. Taiwan National University showed that single-layer blue electrophosphorescent OLEDs prepared using electroactive materials synthesized in our laboratories are characterized by 8-9% quantum efficiency for blue electrophosphorescence, and by 13-14% for green electrophosphorescence. These are the state of the art efficiencies for single-layer electrophosphorescent OLEDs. In recent years our group has also designed and synthesized several series of organic semiconductors with high triplet energies which were successfully used in multi-layer blue electrophosphorescent OLEDs with 15% external quantum efficiency. We also engaged in the synthesis of

hole-transporting materials for dye-sensitized solar cells. These materials have low ionization potentials and high charge mobilities with high morphological stability of the glassy state. A new promising area of the research is dealing with the preparation of biodegradable polymers from renewable sources. New biodegradable polymers with good mechanical properties are obtained when natural oils (vegetable oil, fish oil) are chemically modified. In the future such polymers are expected to replace conventional polymers in the production of packaging.

Prof. Dr. Habil. Juozas V. Gražulevičius

Science and Industry In the recent few years we have developed several families of new electroactive materials which were successfully applied in various optoelectronic devices. Our organic semiconductors were tested in electrophotographic photoreceptors, solar cells, field effect transistors, and photorefractive compositions. In collaboration with the scientists from Taiwan National University we have developed light emitting with state of the art characteristics. The efficiency of blue light emitting electrophosphorescent OLEDs comes up to 15%. Some materials were introduced in the technologies of the companies “Samsung Electronics” and “Imation” and protected by ca 50 patents in the USA, Japan, and Europe. The synthesis, properties, and applications of the synthesized materials have been described in ca. 130 publications in the highly ranked international scientific journals and cited over 900 times.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Projects Since 2008: project sponsored by German company BASF “Synthesis and studies of aromatic amines for dyesensitized solar cells”; Since2008: European FP7 project “Functional liquid crystal dendrimers: synthesis of new materials, resource for new applications” together with the universities and companies from Spain, Portugal, Greece, Sweden, Germany, France, Great Britain. Since 2008: Latvian, Lithuanian and Taiwanese research programme project “Design, synthesis and studies of new materials for organic optoelectronics” Since 2008: the joint project funded by Singapore National University “New electroactive glass-forming organic materials for (opto)electronic applications”

Cooperation We cooperate with scientists from BASF, Politecnico di Torino (Italy), University of Cergy-Pontoise (France), F. Rabelais University (Tours, France), National Taiwan University (Taiwan), National University of Singapore, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Center of Polymers and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv.

Future Trends Currently the market of organic electronic devices grows by more than 60% yearly and exceeds USD1.4 billion. NanoMarkets forecasts that the share of organic electronics in 2014 will increase up to USD35 billion. Organic photoactive layers have already completely replaced usual semiconductors in copying and laser printing technologies. In the nearest future a breakthrough in the technologies of the production of organic displays and general lighting as well as in organic and hybrid solar cells is expected, therefore the demand for new efficient organic electroactive materials will continuously increase. In the near future most of electronic and optoelectronic devices will be produced on the base of organic materials. Modern organic synthesis opens practically unlimited possibilities to change chemical and physical properties of materials and as early as the molecular level to plan the characteristics of the devices rather than materials only. The application of organic and particularly polymeric semiconductors and other electroactive materials in the production of electronic and optoelectronic devices will enable to employ the so called roll to roll technologies. Those technologies will greatly simplify the production of electronic and optoelectronic devices. Their production process will resemble the work of an ink printer at a printing-house.


Kaunas University of Technology

Prof. Dr. Habil. Alfonsas Grigonis, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Liutauras Marcinauskas, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Živilė Rutkūnienė Department of Physics

Amorphous Carbon Coatings & Their Modification In order to obtain diamond from other carbon formations, it is necessary to create particularly stable conditions comparable to those in the Earth depths: a high temperature (~35000C) and a very high pressure (~ 108Pa). The first attempts to synthesize diamond were made in 1954 in the laboratory of General Electric. Physical and chemical technologies can be used to obtain diamond crystals, nanostructures and thin carbon coatings from the vapor phase, the properties of which are very similar to those of crystal diamond or graphite.

Variety of Carbon Structures There is quite a number of known nanocrystalline carbon structures: glass carbon, nanocrystalline carbon, fullerenes, nanoonions, nanotubes, nanocones, nanohorns, etc. Carbon nanostructures are cluster compounds with a certain characteristic arrangement. For example, amorphous carbon is made of nanocrystalline clusters embedded in amorphous matrix. The term DLC (diamond-like carbon) was first used in 1971 to define non-hydrogenated solid carbon. DLC coatings are made up of sp2- and sp3- bonded carbon atoms and, depending on their proportion, can be defined as either diamond-like (DLC) or graphite-like (GLC) carbon. Glass carbon is made of irregularly arranged graphite bands and can be considered crystalline in two-dimensional space, but amorphous in threedimensional space. Nanocrystalline carbon is twodimensional fragments of graphite. Thanks to their versatility, amorphous coatings are applied in biomedical technologies (hip joint, artificial heart and implant production technologies). Other fields of application include manufacturing of tools, memory elements, opto- and microelectronic devices. They are used in the surface wave systems and they produce exceptionally efficient electron emitters.


(b) (a) – Amorphous carbon structure Carbon nanostructures: (b) – nanoonion, (c) – single-wall nanotube, (d) - multi-wall nanotubes



Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Structural Properties of Amorphous Carbon Coatings Due to three possible forms of hybridization (sp1, sp2, sp3), carbon can feature a large variety of structures and physical-chemical properties. Sp1 hybridized crystalline carbon of is called carbine which is black small crystalline powder with semiconductor properties. Graphite has sp2 bonding, whereas diamond, which can have cubic as well as hexagonal lattice, is sp3 hybridized. Amorphous carbon can have all the aforesaid types of bonding. Amorphous carbon coatings can be formed from a solid phase, when the so called a–C coatings are obtained by sputtering a graphite target or a-C:H coatings are synthesized from hydrocarbon gas. Additionally inserted hydrogen breaks the network of sp2 bonded carbon atoms, thus the sp3 component increases which is determined by the increased concentration of C–C sp3 type bonds rather than by C–H type bonds alone. Hence, the use of hydrogen can result in more “diamond like” coatings. However, hydrogen reduces the hardness of coatings and its existence between atomic planes causes tensions in the coating and decreases its resistance to deformation. Besides, it also changes the optical conductivity of coatings in different spectrum ranges. When the quantity of hydrogen is large, polymer like carbon coatings (PLC) are formed, where the sp3 bonds can reach up to 70%. Such coatings are soft and their density is low. Due to the low threshold of electric field strength they can be excellent electron emitters with a wide application in photo emission devices. Coatings with prevailing C–C type sp3 (~ 80 %) bonding network are also called tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta–C). Although atomic pairs of sp2 bonding or sp2 cluster groups occur in the sp3 network, such coatings are extremely hard and dense. Coatings with prevailing sp2 bonding network are called graphite like carbon (GLC), but there can also be atom clusters linked by sp3 bonding. Such coatings are softer and their density is lower. Currently much consideration is given to glass carbon (GC) where the carbon atoms form sp2 bonds only. While GC bands are rotating, a lot of small closed (2–5nm) pairs are formed with big convex surface tensions. GC is conductive, soft and low-density, but it is gas-proof, rather resistant to wear, oxidation, and thus it can be used in corrosive and damp environments and it is suitable for manufacturing solid lubricants. The use of oxygen in the process of synthesis determines the porosity of the coating and also its effective surface. That is used to manufacture small and high capacity capacitors.

Research at KTU Our team forms amorphous carbon coatings and nanostructures using CVD and PVD methods: plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE CVD), ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and deposition by electrical arc or plasma jet under atmospheric or reduced pressure. Incidentally, this method is sometimes called thermal plasma (TP). The fields of our research include the properties of the obtained coatings, their modification by ion and electron beam, and irradiance by impulses of laser radiation. Amorphous hydrogenated carbon coatings (a-C:H) were formed in vacuum (~10-2 Pa): by plasma enhanced chemical deposition from pure acetylene (PE CVD method); physical deposition in vacuum with ion beam (IBAD method) from H2 /C2H2 mixtures at various proportions; plasma jet deposition from the Ar/C2H2 gas mixture under atmospheric and reduced pressure (p ≈ 1000Pa) where the plasma working gas (Ar) and precursor gas (C2H2) ratio and the distance between the plasma torch and the substrate were varied. In the IBAD process the surface of the coating was bombarded with ions of ~ 1000eV energy, where the density of the current was 0.12mA/cm2. A maximum deposition velocity is obtained using pure acetylene, whereas hydrogen introduction in the mixture produces a linear decrease with increasing H2 content. The RBS and ERD studies showed that carbon and hydrogen represent the main elements in the coating; apart from them the coatings also contain oxygen, silicon, and other admixtures. When additional hydrogen quantities are introduced into the precursor gas, its content in the coating increases and consequently the refractive index and the density of the coating decreases. The real


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Physical and chemical technologies can be used to obtain diamond crystals, nanostructures and thin carbon coatings from the vapor phase, the properties of which are very similar to those of crystal diamond or graphite.

part of refractive index decreased from 2.3 (pure acetylene) to 1.9 (75% H2). Meanwhile the lowest value of the extinction coefficient was obtained when the H2 content was approximately 30%. Mixtures with such hydrogen content produce rather transparent and hard (25GPa) diamond like coatings. The RS research shows that following the addition of hydrogen the coating becomes more â&#x20AC;&#x153;diamond likeâ&#x20AC;&#x153;. When the hydrogen content in the coating exceeds 40%, C-H bonds become prevailing rather than the same type C-C sp3 bonds and the diamond-like coating gradually transforms to a polymer-like coating. As long as the H2 content in the gas mixture does not exceed 75%, the coatings produced under the IBAD method are diamond-like. The PE CVD method was used to produce coatings only from C2H2 and the influence of ion bombardment on the coating properties was examined. It became apparent that under the conditions of low temperatures (< 500 C) and low (< 100eV) ion energies polymerlike coatings with numerous C-H bonds are formed. It was found that when carbon coatings are formed by plasma jet, an increase in the Ar/ C2H2 ratio leads to lower film growth rate, however it reduces the surface roughness. An increase in the plasma torch discharge power results in rougher surface. The grain structure disappears, columns become more distinct, and the sp2 bonds become more dominant and amorphous graphite-like coatings with glass carbon inclusions are formed.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Rimantas Gatautis Electronic Business Research Center

Electronic Support Systems for Future Businesses In the future, business in Europe will be conducted through flexible networks of interdependent organizations. It will be global, open and collaborative, dynamic and adoptive, frictionless and consistent. And it will be electronically supported (…)”. European Construction Technology Platform (ECTP) states “(…) the future Construction sector will involve innovative business concepts and innovative business processes resulting in innovative construction products that will be supported/enabled by seamless semantic (forward and backward) communication (object exchange and sharing) throughout construction product/service life-cycles and their associated supply chains, based on generic, open and web-based standards...“.

Creating Platform for Construction Business The Electronic Business Research Center at the Economics and Management Faculty of Kaunas University of Technology is involved in the eNVISION project (New Vision for the participation of European SMEs in the future e-Business scenario project) supported by EC 6th Framework program. The main objectives of e-NVISION include development and validation of an innovative e-Business platform enabling Construction SMEs to model and adapt particular business scenarios, to integrate all applications of their enterprise and to incorporate legal, economic, social and cultural services, with the ultimate objective of facilitating their participation


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in the Future European e-Business Scenario. The closer the e-NVISION scenarios are to the Construction evolution in the next future and the major challenges faced by the sector in terms of society, sustainability and technological development, the more useful the e-NVISION platform will be for Construction SMEs engaged in future e-Business field. The scientists of the Electronic Business Research Center specifically contributed to the development and implementation of the e-Procurement scenario for construction sector SMEs.

The main benefits of the e-NVISION project are related to providing a general and technological platform for e-business.

Trends and New Possibilities The construction sector is in transition from a very traditional sector, where the key development objective focused on minimizing the construction costs, towards a demand driven sector, where other factors, including product quality, logistics or user requirements, are taken into account. Therefore, the new and original approach towards such construction e-Procurement process revolves around discovery, evaluation and selection of the most appropriate suppliers for an Investor or PMC. Two key sub-steps are expected to be essential in the e-Procurement process: firstly, the selection of potential suppliers (Procurement configurator) is based on the supplier and offer characteristics and, secondly, the selection is checked by the Analysis of Quotation & Selection of Suppliers. The Procurement Configurator service provides a tool for arranging a list of potential suppliers that are able provide a certain schedule of deliveries required by the investor. This schedule of deliveries consists of a list of prod-

ucts, materials, machinery and equipment identified by a standard classification system. The service picks a list of required items from the schedule of deliveries and matches the items with those offered by the companies. The configurator provides various possible configurations of companies that can provide the schedule of deliveries ranked according to the criteria defined by the user. The agent for quotation integration service analysis provides a tool for quotation ranking by criteria. The main functions of the Quotation Analysis Agent include: 1. The agent for quotation integration service analysis is designed to choose the best quotations (offers) from those submitted to the company. 2. The service is supposed to rank the quotations (offers) so that the user of the service can see the best quotation. 3. Quotation ranking is based on the criteria defined by the user.

The main benefits of the e-NVISION project are related to providing a general and technological platform for e-business. This platform will facilitate interoperability among enterprises, including SMEs, without facing natural obstacles such as language, political and commercial issues, distance and even billing and shipping matters between different countries. In other words, a company using this technological framework will conduct business with other companies from the same or other EU regions without confronting the aforementioned problems and under a reliable and secure umbrella.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Habil. Gražina Juodeikienė Department of Food Technology

Less but Healthier & Nutritious Food on Our Table In the 1960s the Green Revolution came about. The use of herbicides and pesticides resulted in a significant increase of the yield of agriculture crops including various cereals. In view of the numerous problems that have accumulated by the beginning of the 21st century, the time is ripe for a new approach. The response to the world staple food crisis and the deliberations of the FAO’s Conference on World Food Security held in Rome in 2008 might form the basis for this new approach. The draft declaration of this conference calls for stepped-up food production, reduced trade restrictions and more research on the contentious issue of biofuels. It pledges to stimulate food production, increase investment in agriculture, address obstacles to food access and use the planet’s resources in a sustainable way to reach a goal to increase food production by 50 percent by 2030 to meet rising demand.

Looking for Solutions The Earth’s population keeps increasing and it is getting ever more difficult to ensure sufficient food supplies. There are various reasons behind this. Intensive land cultivation leads to excessive exhaust. Soil erosion is accelerating; productive soil layers are declining. There is a significant lack of irrigation water. Droughts and floods as consequence of climate change destroy crop areas and reduce the productivity. The food quality is declining even in rich Western countries. What can Food Science do to help us? There are many fold of measures groups of experts in the different commodities, agriculture and socio-economics, both scientists & technologists, and governmental persons from across the world who can agree upon to determine critical research and development project needs and prioritize related funding schemes. Because bread is quite simple the world’s most important food, KTU prioritize cereals and cereal products as one of the spear-heads in Food Science as part of a bigger modal in Crop and Plant Science including Food and Nutritional Toxicology. The latter subject is to keep an eye on the safety aspects of food and their nutritional aspects.

Food Science in KTU Food Science covers a very broad area and concerns a wide range of products and research subjects (from raw materials to finished food products). With respect of the characteristics of the applied processes and the problems to be analyzed issues related to food en60

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gineering, food chemistry, food microbiology, food biotechnology etc are included. The postgraduate and doctoral students of KTU Department of Food Technology enjoy the possibilities of deepening their knowledge in the field of molecular science and agricul-

The Department is the only one in Lithuania to train food and technology specialists at all levels of University education. It implements the study process, plans and performs scientific research, and undertakes educative activities.

ture and studying biological active components of raw materials for human consumption, mastering extraction methods and applications in foodstuff manufacturing. In this field, the Department is launching custom-built scientific research, designs and participates in national and international scientific projects. The postgraduate and doctoral students should be among the key performers of the scientific research. The Department is the only one in Lithuania to train food and

technology specialists at all levels of University education. It implements the study process, plans and performs scientific research, and undertakes educative activities. Scientific research and research-based studies represent the keystone of KTU activities and thus the professors devote at least one third of their working time to scientific research.

Infrastructure and Human Resources KTU Department of Food Technology has a Cereal and Cereal Product Research Laboratory equipped with a modern fermentation system (BioFlo 110 Modular Fermentor & Bioreactor, USA) and equipment for contact and contact-free textural measurement of cereal products (StevensLFRA texture analyzer and acoustic spectrometer), spectral analyzers and other test and measurement equipment for analyzing plant raw materials as fermentation media. Moreover, the Department of Food Technology has the spectrophotometry and chromatography labs compatible with the current science standards. The aforesaid equipment will be used to evaluate the enzyme activity of the extracted albumen and to analyze the metabolism products formed during the fermentation processes.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Currently the KTU research group Cereals and Cereal Products includes 1 full-time professor and 1 part-time professor, 1 associated professor, 2 researchers, 1 engineer, 2 doctoral students, and 7 master’s students. The scientific research of the KTU research group Cereals and Cereal Products is financed by KTU as well as by national and international project funds. The research group acquired research equipment in 2007 of LTL30 thousand, in 2008 of LTL90 thousand, in 2009 of LTL20.5 thousand (financed by COST actions, Eureka project, the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Lithuania) and in 2010 of LTL532 thousand (financed by structural funds from the EU). These investments allow improving the teaching process, helping for the production to develop new technologies as well as to introduce the main research directions for foreign guests.

Projects The scientists of the research group Cereals and Cereal Products, who are going to be engaged in COST action, have experience in coordinating and executing international projects and custom-designed research, tailor made to the requirements of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Lithuania and other economic entities. Every year they implement several intern and national projects. The international research and educational projects of the Department in the period from 2007 through 2011 include: 2007-2009: EUREKA!3966 FERMFOOD project Fermented Products by Using Lactic Acid Bacteria with Antimicrobial Activity for Bread Production (project coordinator Prof. G. Juodeikienė) 2010-2012: EUREKA E!3674 ITEA2 cluster project “Acoustic wave application for the analysis of the quality and safety of porous food and non-food matrices“(ACOUSTICS) (Project coordinator Prof. G. Juodeikienė) 2006-2010: COST action 928 Control and Exploitation of Enzymes for Added-Value Food Products (Management committee member Prof. G. Juodeikienė) 2009-2013: COST action CM0903 “Utilisation of Biomass for Sustainable Fuels & Chemicals” (UBIOCHEM) (Management committee member Prof. G. Juodeikienė) 2008-2012: COST Action FA0804 “Molecular farming: plants as a production platform for high value proteins” (Management committee members: Prof. G. Juodeikienė, Assoc. Prof. L. Basinskienė). 2010–2012: Lithuanian Rural Development Programme: “Scientific knowledge and innovation diffusion, using good hygiene practices and HACCP principles for the farm – the original grain, flour and baking production” (Project coordinator Prof. G. Juodeikienė).


Kaunas University of Technology

Prof. Dr. Habil. Rymantas Kažys Prof. K. Baršauskas Ultrasound Research Institute

Ultrasonic non Destructive Testing of Composite Structures Composites are the materials of the XXI century. They are being used in such important areas as aviation and space industry, energy generation systems, materials science etc. Composites are made from several components. Most common composites are glass or carbon fibres glued together. Such materials have few essential advantages compared to metals. Constructions made from them are lighter and at the same time even stronger than made using metal. Secondly, composite structures are manufactured by gluing fibres layer by layer. So, it enables to create structures, in general, of any geometrical shape. Moreover it can be created as a single piece. Insertion of the layers of honeycomb structures, foam or balsa wood into the composite enables to create extremely light and strong structures. Most widely composite materials are used in aerospace industry, but in recent years they are used for manufacturing of wind turbine blades, aerodynamic bodies of racing cars, busses, trains, yachts.

Ensuring Safety Main disadvantage of composite structures is that in most cases they are manufactured manually. Taking into account complexity and non-uniformity of structure it can lead to presence of defects such as delamination, lack of glue and brake of fibres. Thus due to safety reasons such composite structures need to be tested. However an inspection of so complex structures is also not a simple task. One of main techniques which can be exploited for non-destructive testing of composite materials is based on applications of ultrasonic waves.

Methods and Technologies Parameters of propagating ultrasonic waves depend on the elastic properties of the material, the dimensions of the object or the presence of nonuniformities therein. Received ultrasonic signals contain information about the condition of object or material. In view of that, ultrasonic waves are widely used for detection of defects in various objects, the exploitation reliability whereof is essential. Such technique is called Ultrasonic

Non-Destructive Testing (UT NDT). However one of most important parameters of ultrasonic waves related to the inspection of composite structures is how they are absorbed and scattered by the material. Higher frequency waves allow better accuracy of the measurements. However it also brings about bigger losses. For example, the waves generated at 3-5 MHz penetrate into composite material only several millimeters. Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Additionally, it is not a simple task to extract useful information from ultrasonic signals and ultrasonic “seeing”, which is rather different from the conventional optical human seeing. In order to be sure that the object is free from defect, the ultrasonic measurements should be performed at multiple positions (points). That means that some

mechanical or electronic scanning is required. This results in extended inspection time. In some cases inspection is impossible due to limited access, for example, in the cases of buried pipes, insulated pipelines, etc. In such cases a novel ultrasonic measuring technology can do a good turn. It is called Long Range Ultrasonic Testing (LRUT).

The New Method It exploits the so-called guided waves. The ultrasonic waves of relatively low frequency are used to inspect objects. The frequency of such waves can range from 40 to several hundred kilohertz. They propagate in planar or elongated structures, such as plates, pipes, bars, and rails. Generally, such waves are much more complicated than bulk ultrasonic waves used in the conventional UT. However, they possess two essential advantages: they are more informative and they can propagate long distances. Thus, those waves can be used to perform an instant inspection of long structures by just measuring the param-

eters of the signals propagating in objects. This method does not require any scanning of elongated objects. Moreover, this technique enables inspection of inaccessible structures. Even if the pipelines are insulated, there is no need to remove the insulation as the ultrasonic wave can propagate under it. However, the implementation of this technique in various objects requires extensive investigation and development because the signals of such waves are much more complicated. Also, for generation and reception of ultrasonic signals novel ultrasonic transducers must be developed.

Success Stories One of the projects, successfully carried out in Prof. K. Baršauskas Ultrasound Research Institute where guided waves were used, dealt with the inspection of composite components for aerospace industry. They need to be inspected both during the manufacturing process and their exploitation to make sure that they are free from dangerous defects. During this project the technique and instrumentation based on the application of guided waves to enable testing of different types of composite materials were developed. Moreover, the developed technique enables to carry out inspections using air-coupled approach. Consequently, in this case no coupling liquid used in a conventional ultrasonic inspection is required. That is a great advantage because in many cases wetting of composite materials during the manufacturing process is not allowed. Here is an example of the acoustic part of the developed instrumentation and the obtained images of detected non-uniformities. (Fig.1) Ultrasound is transmitted into the complex structure made of composite materials and received through an air-gap. A special ultrasonic transducer is used for this purpose. These transducers and low noise electronic unit are also being developed by our institute. This technology was tested in UK. The inspection covered various structures, starting from the structures used in the wings of the Royal Air Force fighter Tornado to honeycomb type structures in the Airbus fuselage. A follow-up of this project also deals with the quality control of a wind power plant blades. It is performed both through water and through an air-gap. Since the structure of the wind power plant blades is rather complicated, it is 64

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necessary to be sure of their strength. The end of such blade rotates at velocities close up to 300 km per hour. The problem is that if a blade breaks, debris can fly as far as half a kilometer, and it is very dangerous as the blade can be 20 to 100 meters long. (a)

(b) Fig. 1. Investigation of the covering panel of RAF fighter “Tornado” using ultrasonic aircoupled technique: (a) - experimental set-up b) – C-scan image of the detected nonuniformities

Composites are the materials of the XXI century. They are being used in such important areas as aviation and space industry, energy generation systems, materials science etc.

Therefore the safety requirements for such structures are very high. The task of inspection is to check the quality of blades. The several techniques based on application of guided waves and air-coupled were developed in our institute.

Fig. 3. Investigation of phase velocity dispersion curves of ultrasonic guided waves in glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) sample: (a) – experimental set-up, (b) – simulated (solid lines) and experimentally reconstructed dispersion curves


(b) Fig. 2. Investigation of the delamination type defects in metal honeycomb sample: (a) – experimental set-up (b) - C-scan image



Perspectives Specialists from the Prof. K. Baršauskas Ultrasound Research Institute actively cooperate with TWI (The Welding Institute), Great Britain. It is a worldwide net, which has affiliations in all continents. They constantly implement around 40 European projects. Since Integrated Science, Studies and Business Centre (Valley) “Santaka” is being founded in Kaunas, premises and equipment for Ultrasound Institute are designed there. Long Range RDT centre will be established in Kaunas, which could be the R&D centre of the whole region. Researchers from the Institute together with their colleagues from Germany are the best specialists in Europe in this area. Hundreds of companies and research centres employ ultrasound for research; though only around ten research centres in the world work with guided waves. At this moment specialists from the Prof. K. Baršauskas Ultrasound Research Institute perform eight FP7 projects, five of them – with long range ultrasonic waves. The future definitely belongs to this technology.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Habil. Edmundas Kibirkštis Department of Graphic Communications Engineering

Eco-packaging Design

The growing consumption of the modern world is producing increasingly larger quantities of packaging waste. The European Union states generate approximately 60 million tons of packaging waste annually. Their weight accounts for about 54% of the total municipal solid waste amount. As concerns materials, the most popular packagings are made of paper/cardboard and plastic. It is also important to emphasise that about 70% to 80% of negative environmental impact cases are determined as early as the packaging design stage.

Packages and Ecology It is vital to reduce the volumes of materials used for packaging, to design packaging with better ecological characteristics, and to use environmentally-friendly materials. As there is no common methodology for designing eco packaging, there is a need of relevant research and it is necessary to build upon the experience of previous scientific studies.

In Lithuania experimental studies in this area are scarce, whereas globally they are largely brought to the fore. Diverse fields of interest include the so called “active materials” (opto– active and mechano–active) that are able to change their colour, shape and other properties subject to different environmental exposure.

Eco Design at KTU The scientific work carried out at our university aims at creating a methodology for eco-packaging design, which would decrease the packaging weight and ensure that the same mechanical strength properties are retained. Packaging producers will benefit from the results of this work as they will be able to reduce the raw material volumes and to use less hazardous materials.

The scientific research focuses on using different methods of increasing the rigidity of packaging perimeter and sides, suggesting a rational packaging geometric form, which increase the packaging resistance to oscillations and compression loads during transportation and storing without increasing the packaging weight but, on the contrary, reducing it.

Projects Since 2005 the science group, in cooperation with several departments of the Ukrainian Academy of Printing, has been involved in the following scientific projects related to the aforesaid problems: “Study of special printing and packaging production technologies, considering their ecological and operational qualities” and “Development of new technologies and printing materials for printed production, its qualitative evaluation, 66

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standardization and identification”. Packaging materials are the research questions of cooperation with the Belarusian State Technological University, and together with Ukrainian Academy of Printing and Warsaw University of Technology is involved scientific project “Investigation of physical and mechanical properties and characteristics of ecological and “active” materials for their application in printing and packaging technologies”.

In the modern age of science and technologies success lays in an efficient cooperation between science and industry rather than individual efforts of a single institution.

Findings and Economic Benefit Experimental testing on plastic/paperboard was carried out: the effect of the paperboard package bottom construction and bottom dimensions on the package resistance to fall shock loads and of different shape of plastic package on package resistance to compression under the influence of dynamic loads were determined. It has been determined that the greatest impact on the paperboard package bottom deformations is made by the dimensions of the bottom geometrical parameters. The obtained investigation results show that difference between static and dynamic compression loads of plastic packages are 2.8 to 4.4. After the manufacturers embark on the methodology of eco-packaging design, they will be able to reduce the quantities of raw materials in packaging production, to replace hazardous materials with more environmentally-friendly ones, to cut down energy and transportation costs and at the same time to supply the market with a new innovative product. Those works would produce a substantial economic benefit. For instance, a one-gram reduction in the weight of only one type of plastic containers would mean that the annual plastic consumption in Lithuania would shrink by approximately thousands tons.

Cooperation Department has been a member of various international organizations: EGIN (European Graphic/Media Industry Network), FTA (Flexographic Technical Association), CIRCLE (International Circle of Educational Institutes for Graphic Arts â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technology and Management) and LISPA (Lithuanian Printers Association). Thus its research findings are presented at international conferences and seminars organized by those organizations. We design innovative technologies in close cooperation with scientists, designers, and business representatives from different fields. In the modern age of science and technologies success lays in an efficient cooperation between science and industry rather than individual efforts of a single institution.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Algis Krupavičius Policy and Public Administration Institute

Unlocking Data: Creating Knowledge in Social Research The famous mathematician and founder of mathematical statistics Karl Pearson over a century ago stated that ”the field of science is unlimited; its material is endless; every group of natural phenomena, every phase of social life, every stage of past or present development is material for science. The unity of all science consists alone in its method, not in its material”. According to Pearson, science is able to study everything or almost everything for what are instruments of analysis. Nowadays it is not enough just to choose the right research methods; it is equally important that scientific material, or as we call it in the Humanities and Social Sciences – the reliable sources and factual data – are available to researchers. Therefore, besides the methods, it is essential for contemporary researchers to have an access to reliable data. The growth of empiricism in research that is one of the most important trends in contemporary research, namely in social sciences, revealed the increasing need for high quality empirical data.

Relevance of Empirical Data and its Infrastructures High quality social research in the contemporary world is hardly possible without appropriate infrastructure, without excellence in research methodology and without widespread international cooperation. Empirical data archives are certainly the time-tested infrastructures for social sciences researchers all over the world, though in Lithuania till recent years it was almost unknown. In 2006 Policy and Public Administration Institute has started a project “Storage and administration of empirical data and information: Lithuanian data archive for social sciences and humanities (LiDA)” funded by EU Structural Funds and thus became the cradle of data archive for social science and humani-


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ties (SSH) in Lithuania. Over the first two years LiDA ( has created a broad and rapidly growing data collection and started to provide an access to the worldwide known SSH data sources for Lithuanian academic institutions. LiDA is a virtual centre of expertise in data acquisition, preservation and dissemination. From the very beginning LiDA aims to provide an access to downloadable empirical data for SSH scholars, to initiate and conduct international surveys of highest methodological quality, and to increase knowledge-based empirical data analysis capacities of SSH researchers in Lithuania, and also to promote the data exchange. The tasks of LiDA are universal –

Future social research will undoubtedly be even more comparative, of better methodological quality and more cooperative â&#x20AC;&#x201C; so Policy and Public Administration Institute namely seeks to pave the way for them. Lithuania just started doing work that similar institutions in Germany, Norway, Switzerland and other countries has performed a long time before. LiDA is also cooperating with in sharing data sets, data management and preservation standards. Undoubtedly the original key function of LiDA, as an empirical data archive, is to ensure the continuous empirical data processing and archiving. Nevertheless LiDA is the youngest SSH data archive in Europe, it has already acquired a sound data collection. Today LiDA is approaching a number of 200 data sets including

data from European Social Survey and European Values Study. Since 2008 LiDA holds a national membership at the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR). The ICPSR is the largest data archive in the world. The ICPSR also hosts more that 80 data sets referring to Lithuania. In July, 2009 LiDA has started a second phase of its development marked with a new project â&#x20AC;&#x153;Development of Lithuanian Data Archive for Social Science and Humanities (LiDA)â&#x20AC;? funded by EU Structural funds.

Methodological Training The strong emphasis on empiricism and epistemology of natural sciences that has emerged in social sciences at the beginning of 20th century has led to a widespread use of quantitative data and statistical analysis in social research. However, the generation of social researchers that are able to conduct high quality quantitative research is still developing in Lithuania. Therefore, LiDA aims at raising the data analysis competence of students, scientists and other researchers in Lithuania as well as increasing their abilities to achieve excellence in conducting quantitative and qualitative research. Thus, one of the key activities of LiDA is to establish

coherent training programme with regular spring and autumn methodological seminars. These seminars covered topics of secondary quantitative data analysis, analysis of social survey data, descriptive and inferential statistics in social sciences, basics of correlation and regression analysis, multivariate and logistic regression in social research and also qualitative comparative analysis. LiDA has also organized two international data confrontation seminars about international survey data analysis and also on problems of survey research that have been conducted by international experts from UK, Norway, Switzerland and Germany.

High Quality International Surveys With the establishment of LiDA the research area of Policy and Public Administration Institute has become significantly globalized. LiDA represents

Lithuania in such worldwide known and continuous comparative international surveys as the European Election Studies, European Social Survey,

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Research Overview 2011

and International Social Survey Programme. By implementing high quality international surveys in Lithuania, LiDA aims to design and enhance the standards of excellence in empirical research. As early as in 2004 Policy and Public Administration Institute introduced the European Election Studies (EES) to Lithuania. The EES are about electoral participation and voting behavior in European Parliament’s elections, but more than that. They are also concerned with the evolution of the EU as political community and wider European public sphere, with citizens’ perceptions and preferences about the EU political regime, and with their evaluations of the EU political performance. Since 2008 LiDA has been coordinating the implementation of the European Social Survey (ESS) in Lithuania. The ESS is an academicallydriven social survey designed to chart and explain the interaction between Europe’s changing institutions and the attitudes, beliefs and behaviour patterns of its diverse populations. The ESS is conducted in every two years. The objective of the ESS is to design, develop and run a conceptually well-anchored and methodologically bullet-proof study of changing social attitudes

and values. Sir Roger Jowell, the co-founder and director of the ESS, noted that “having learned from the experience of other cross-national studies, such as the Eurobarometers, the European Value Surveys, the World Values Survey and the International Social Survey Programme, the ESS is able to produce a design and methodology to achieve robust and equivalent measures not only across more than 30 different countries, but also over time. Only to the extent that it succeeded in these respects would the ESS fulfill its aim of monitoring how Europe’s residents see themselves, each other and their collective world“. Since December 2010 Policy and Public Administration Institute is conducting International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) annual surveys in Lithuania. ISSP is an important global platform, which has brought together scholars performing internationally comparable surveys from almost 50 countries since 1985. ISSP is a continuing annual programme of cross-national collaboration on surveys covering topics important for social science research. This programme adds a cross-national, cross-cultural perspective to the individual national studies. In 2010 two modules of ISSP, i.e. “Environment” and “Social Inequality” have been implemented in Lithuania.

Future Prospects The key tasks of Policy and Public Administration Institute and LiDA in the nearest future will remain the same, i.e. to carry out worldclass research, which helps to enhance methodological excellence, by participating in wellknown international surveys. In 2011 LiDA will conduct the 5th round of the ESS as well as the ISSP module on “Health”. A continuity of high quality data services for academic community in social sciences is another priority. LiDA as the national service provider for the Council of European Social Science Data Archives (CESSDA-ERIC) will

LiDA staff: dr. E. Vaidelytė, I. Ambotaitė, dr. R. Rauleckas, dr. V. Morkevičius, dr. G. Žvaliauskas, prof. A. Krupavičius, dr. L. Šarkutė.


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ensure a full compliance with the DDI (Data Documentation Initiative) metadata standard, also will apply the common single sign-on user authentication system, will enable the harvesting of all data catalogue records for inclusion in the CESSDA-ERIC data portal as well as will make data holdings downloadable and searchable with a multi-lingual thesaurus through common data gateways. LiDA is ready to contribute to the cross-national data harmonization activities by applying principles of the OAIS (Open Archival Information System) as well as to share data archiving tools.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Darius Kučinskas Department of Audiovisual Arts Technologies

Understanding a Mastermind: Semiotic Analysis of Music Texts by an Outstanding Lithuanian Composer The works by Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (1875-1911) represent a phenomenal occurrence in the context of European culture. Lately, he has been often identified with his contemporaries: composers A. Schoenberg, G. Mahler, S. Rachmaninoff, and A. Scriabin, and painters W. Kandinsky, P. Klee, and E. Munch, who had the strongest influence on the development of the European and global art at the beginning of the 20th century. When we listen to Čiurlionis’ music, we seem to verge and ponder on the existence of the whole mankind. The multifarious talent of Čiurlionis, which equally manifested itself in painting, music, literature, and photography, exhorted the artist to seek some basics encompassing all those forms of art. Recent research into Čiurlionis’ creative activities revealed new art formation principles, which are of major importance to Lithuania as well as other countries.

The Age of Text Research When semiotic research principles put down roots in the humanities in the 20th century, the text as a coherent combination of signs became a research object in many science fields. The research deals with correlation between the text and the piece of work, the text and the author, the text and the perceiver, with methods of text encoding and decoding, various sign systems, their emergence and development. In the last decades, research works into the origin and change of text attempt to answer the underlying questions of the purport of human artistic activities. In this respect, the creative heritage of M. K. Čiurlionis is particularly unique and valuable. Therefore, at the current stage of musicological research, the textology researches of Čiurlionis’ works become apparent among the key scientific studies. The dual nature of a music text (acoustic/actually performed/and graphic / expressed in notes) sets specific requirements before the researchers and to the research meth-

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Research Overview 2011

odology. Textology research of the music text origin and change prove to be universal and all-embracing. The results obtained using this method of analysis are unique as they can not be achieved using other research methods. Moreover, this method can not do without relations with other subjects and consequently the research mechanism is significantly supplemented and enlarged. Thus, it was not coincidental that the research work of the scientist focuses on M. K. Čiurlionis’ music manuscripts, which are analysed from the semiotic point. Furthermore, textologic analysis of manuscripts is conducted in attempt to produce an accurate reconstruction of the chronology of the whole M. K. Čiurlionis’ creative process, to reveal the circumstances of an individual text origin, the reasons and factors related to text changes, resulting in a certain emergence of the final text, and their notinal and semantic relations. The research included work in music archives in Lithuania (the National M. K. Čiurlionis Art Gallery, The Archive of Literature and Art, the Manuscript Department of the library of Vilnius University), in the United States (J. Žilevičius and J. Kreivėnas Lithuanian Musicology Archive and Balzekas Museum of Lithuanian Culture in Chicago), and in Mexico (composer’s Julian Carrillo, Čiurlionis’ fellow student’s, House Museum). Moreover, important theoretical and methodological research materials were also compiled by foreign scientific institutions and libraries, namely: Glasgow University (2003), Helsinki University, and Sibelius Music Academy (2001 and 2004), Sorbonne University (2004, 2006), Arnold Schönberg Center (Vienna, 2004), and Nancy University (2007).

Findings The key research findings and a review of M. K. Čiurlionis’ musical archive revealed certain inaccuracies in factologic material. They enabled to produce a typological catalogue of the manuscripts, to specify new, previously unknown or lost works, to systemize and to put together the available information on the missing music manuscripts. Such systemization and review of the available materials created preconditions for full digitalization of M. K. Čiurlionis’ music and for devising a qualitatively new research methodology. A detailed source analysis enabled to give a sense to the unique structural formations of pieces of music, manifesting in graphic and geometric text forms. Furthermore, the research revealed paramount multi-artistic significations and applications of the texts. The role of symmetry in M. K. Čiurlionis’ creative work appeared to be particularly prominent. The research showed that different types of symmetry (translation, rotation, and reflection) lie at the basis of the late creative works of M. K. Čiurlionis. Moreover, spontaneous cyclicality of the works became apparent and a segmental development of a particular thematic material was revealed. The semiotic-


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textologic research of M. K. Čiurlionis’ music enabled to identify the musician’s key archetypal traits typical of a person from the European domain. The creative activities bear a simultaneous nature, characterised by an intensive and rather long pre-textual period and rationality as well as asceticism in choosing the elements of composition and expression. The key research findings are reflected in peer-reviewed publications of foreign international and Lithuanian organisations. The research material was also presented and discussed at international conferences and congresses in Lithuania (2002-2008) and abroad: in Glasgow, St Petersburg (2002), Vienna, Paris (2003, 2006), Helsinki, Graz (2004), Roma, Budapest (2006), Zürich (2007), Lviv (2008). The research activities are performed in close cooperation with the International Semiotics Institute, Imatra, Finland, the International Society of Interdisciplinary Studies of Symmetry, ISIS-Symmetry, and the International Association for Semiotic Studies, ICMS, with regular participation at the International Congress on Musical Signification since 2001.

The semiotictextologic research of M. K. Čiurlionis’ music enabled to identify the musician’s key archetypal traits typical of a person from the European domain.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Darius Kučinskas

Future Prospects Presently the textological research of M. K. Čiurlionis’ music found us confronted with one of the most important issues in musicology, i.e. an update of research methodology. Obviously, a further penetration into the text formation and artistic work secrets requires the musicological research mechanism to be expanded by a mathematical statistical probability research method. Such method would help to obtain completely different information while analysing M. K. Čiurlionis’ works. It would represent a universal research method applicable for all modes of artistic expression.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vytautas Markevičius Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dangirutis Navikas Department of Electronics Engineering

Intelligent Electronics New functional qualities, extended reliability and accuracy, a lower price and energy consumption, a possibility of regular software maintenance leading to higher operational efficiency and new user functions constitute a common state of intelligent electronic systems. Unlimited opportunities arise with the possibilities of interactive electronics. We can find applications everywhere: data acquisition and visualization systems, household appliances, control of technological processes, transportation, medical diagnostics and telecommunications systems. With complex algorithms and user friendly interfaces electronic devices are able to change our surroundings significantly – from elimination of boring tasks at home, to improving the performance of various professionals.

Research at KTU Main research areas of the “Interactive Electronic Systems” (IES) group are electronic system data acquisition, control and monitoring efficiency, safety and risk management of electronic medical systems. Group members have experience in developing of the static

soil probe data acquisition and visualization systems. Since 2006 IES research group works in collaboration with “Viltechmeda” developing infusion monitoring systems (bedside and remote) and infusion pump configuration utilities.

More Efficiency and Safety for Medical Service As technology level increases, modern medicine becomes inconceivable without complex electronic devices and their systems, which have become more and more reliable and sophisticated. Modern electronic devices are reliable, they rarely brake down, and the risk of electric shock or any other injury for the patient is vanishingly low. On the other hand, the problem of personnel working with electronic equipment becomes relevant. All the devices have their individual indicators so the personnel have to look after different devices, displaying different information and located in dif-


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Infusion device system

With complex algorithms and user friendly interfaces electronic devices are able to change our surroundings significantly .

ferent places. Complex monitoring and controlling consume a lot of time. The overall process, which includes walking from bed to bed, manually collecting data and transcribing parameters into the patient records takes 2 to 3 minutes per device, 10 to 20 times each day. Also the problem of devices’ controlling occurs – personnel needs high qualification, special, non-medical knowledge. From 50 to 90 percent mistakes in such systems are made by humans. To reduce the amount of mistakes made and to minimize the labor for nurses and physicians, Infusion Management System has been created. Despite the fact that there are many companies, producing syringe infusion pumps, only a few can offer systems integrating many of them. The IES research group in cooperation with “Viltechmeda” company has developed a Syringe Infusion Pump System, witch will soon be used in hospitals around the world. The IES research group has developed algorithms of data transfer and collection, software and hardware of data gathering devices and the concept of System visualization. Also, IES research group considers the opportunity to expand this work by installing additional features to the System: connections to Hospital Information System, data visualization and syringe infusion pump management. The most challenging task is the creation of Syringe Infusion Pump Management System.

Cone Penetration System for Soil Exploration In various stages of design and construction, knowledge about engineering geological conditions and processes that have influence to stability of future structures and other characteristics, is necessary. To identify engineering geological conditions, soil physical-mechanical characteristics are required. This type of information can be obtained after the soil engineering geological research is performed. Nowadays, fast and quite cheap soil research methods, which allow obtaining of all the information about engineering geological information, are widely spread. One of these methods is static probing or penetration. Static probing (CPT – cone penetration test) allows to determine stratigraphy of layers, soil types and to evaluate soil geotechnical parameters. In places where

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Research Overview 2011

geological conditions are quite equal and clear static probing can be applied not only as additional method to other filled or laboratory method results specification but also as a main field analysis method, which sometimes can be used instead of boring. IES research group is currently performing the research in creating an intelligent probe and integrating it with management system. The algorithms of system management and data transferring to remote servers, the data exchange protocols between probe and system, as well as interactive user interface, model and data visualization software have been created. Data is logged directly to a field computer and can be used to evaluate the geological stratigraphy, soil types, water table and engineering parameters of the ground by the geotechnical engineer on-site, thereby offering quick and preliminary conclusions for design. Mathematical model of calibration and temperature compensation has been developed, allowing a significant increase in accuracy of soil probe. Integrated electronic accelerometer-inclinometer enables to calculate the probe trajectory during probe and to signal staff about the dangerous deviations from the given trajectory. Furthermore, soil structure model formation system prototype has been created. Such system would allow to design and build the bases of various buildings more quickly, more cheap and more accurate.

Geological data acquisition system

Perspectives of Research Research, where hardware and software tools enable to monitor the infusion processes in virtual environment, is being developed. Using infusion monitoring system with remote access capabilities (over Ethernet or WiFi) ensures higher flexibility, availability and better response time. Doctor will be able to observe status of particular patient on-line and to make decisions that are critical in course of treatment even being far from the patient (another hospital unit, university, or even another country). Also, we are currently developing a research related to measurements of wall thickness of corrugated polypropylene tubes. Automated quality control system is being created.


Kaunas University of Technology

Prof. Dr. Rimvydas Milašius Department of Textile Technology

Nanofibers Playing jackets with a computer keyboard, invisible clothes, stainless steel threads and special fabrics that reinforce the framework of a plane – this is the world of smart textile and nanotextile. For a long time textile meant only a fabric for clothing. The situation changed drastically after new weaving and knitting technologies and new fibers have been invented and crossed with other industries and fields of science, such as electronics, IT and nanotechnologies. Clothes are getting ever more intelligent; they bring diversity to our lives and protect us from all kinds of troubles. The 21st century will possibly be called the age of textile due to the rapid development of technical, nano and smart textile.

Trends and Areas of Application Among the latest developments, technical textile is definitely noteworthy. In the 90s Europe was seriously falling behind in this field, whereas in the USA and Japan large investments were being made into the research of technical textile and development of new technologies. Fortunately, in about 2000 Europe also realized the prospects of this field; however, the negative image of the textile industry development prospects created in the past years continues to exist. Textile technologies can make even planes invisible. Carbon fiber is used in the production of planes-spies. Since it is very strong, this fiber is quite often used by passenger plane and car constructors. Carbon fiber is made from thousands of thin acrylic strands which are heated and carbonized during the further production process. Thus carbon fiber composite materials are produced. They were used in the new Airbus 380 and consequently the weight of the bearing structures has been reduced by as much as 40% while their strength increased tenfold. Japanese textile industry is known to be among the world leaders in this field. They have been winding threads and weaving different fabrics for centuries. It was hardly incidental when in 1991 the Japanese scientist discovered nanotube carbon – the strongest material in the world. Nowadays textile can ensure a person’s safety. A garment is becoming one of the main means to prevent even terrorism. Such garment made from smart or nanotextile could be a transmitter and a receiver responding to explosives and toxic substances. This is the way the global surveillance system is developed. In 2005 a shirt, a “motherboard”, was invented. It is washable. Such computer incorporated in a shirt weighs 400 grams. Textile has changed beyond recognition. New fabrics are resistant to pollutants, bacteria, mosquitoes; materials absorbing body odor and reducing its excretion; fabrics measuring the heartbeat and breathing rate; textiles regulating the body temperature; completely impermeable and ultra absorbent textiles; cosmetics textiles moisturizing and perfuming the skin. The world of smart textile is rapidly evolving, which is the result of the activities of numerous scientific research centres all over the world.

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Research Overview 2011

The Future is Nano Kaunas University of Technology scientists create nanofibers, their compounds and assess their properties. We create nanofibers using the method of electrical forma¬tion. An electric field is created where very thin strands from polymeric solution are formed. The strands stiffen when they travel the distance between the electrodes. Polymers can move from downwards, in parallel or upwards. A coating of the produced nanostrands is used to cover an object. If the process is observed with unequipped eye, the only thing one can see is an emerging “cloud“. Where a microscope is used to magnify the view over 1000 times, it is possible to check whether the produced surface is smooth and whether the quality of the created nanofiber is satisfactory. Fiber minimization represents one of the trends in the world of textile. Electrical formation of nanofibers has been known for quite a while. We were developing this kind of nanofiber and we have reached the measurements of strands of 50 – 200 nm. This is one of the areas where completely different constructions and properties appear. Such fibers can be very strong. Here it is already possible to use carbon nanotubes. Those are also fibers. So far nanofibers are mainly used in medicine. They are also used to produce filters for toxic substances. Nanofibers are characterized by a large area of the surface. Consequently, they perfectly absorb different materials. The nanofibrous structure of medical textiles blocks both the red blood cells and dangerous viruses. Thus during an operation surgeons can be protected against AIDS. Moreover, it is breathable. Another field of nanofiber application is medical implants. However, this field is relatively new and it is not known how nanoparticles will behave in the body. It is necessary to perform comprehensive studies.

Traditions and the Present Developments In Lithuania we have excellent traditions of textile industry and scientific research. Universities started training engineers 80 years ago. The first scientific researches were carried out then. In 1936 the first PhD theses and the first Doctor Habilitatus thesis were defended (Prof. J. Indriūnas). Since then the textile science and industry has won the Lithuanian National Award five times and today, despite various difficulties, it remains one of the largest industries in Lithuania. Currently we mainly focus on the research of nanotextile. We started this work in 2006. In 2008 we were also involved in an international project. It dealt with the use of nanofibers for medical purposes. This was a project supported by the Project Development Fund of European Economic Area Financial Mechanism and Nor-

wegian Financial Mechanism: “Application of nanofibers for the prevention of infectious diseases in surgical operations“(project manager Prof. S. Stanys). The project was implemented in cooperation with specialists from Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Another project is financed by framework FP7 and starts in 2011. Till 2015 in cooperation with Ghent University (Belgium) and institutions from others 13 European countries we will participate in project 2BFUNTEX (“Boosting collaboration between research centres and industry to enhance rapid industrial uptake of innovative functional textile structures and textile related materials in a mondial market”) by Programme Theme 4 – NMP - Nanosciences, Nanotechnologies, Materials and New Production Technologies (KTU coordinator Prof. R. Milašius).

Not an Easy Task In fact, it is difficult to manage the process of nanofiber formation. Our first attempts showed that even slight changes in environmental parameters can affect the result significantly. If the temperature differs by several degrees the structure of the forming nanofiber becomes different. Therefore, the standards will be stricter. It is relatively easy to produce a single product


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...our main goal is to develop such conditions and technologies that would enable mass production of desired nanofiber and coatings from it.

with desired properties, but our main goal is to develop such conditions and technologies that would enable mass production of desired nanofiber and coatings from it. For instance, already 50 years ago it was known how to make polythene so that it was one of the strongest fibers in the world. However, only around 1986 the Dutch began its mass production. It is quite similar with electrically formed nanofiber. For quite a while it has been known how to make it but various technological problems keep emerging.

Prof. Dr. Rimvydas Milašius

Development Opportunities We intend to invest money received from different funds, develop projects, and look for partners in other science institutions both in Lithuania and abroad. In 2009 the first doctor thesis will be defended in this field. Today several doctoral as well as master students carry out investigations in nanofibers formation, estimation and properties investigation. I believe that this is one of the most prospective fields of textile science development and therefore in the future there will be new projects and new thesis, new technologies and new products will be born that will give a great push to the textile science in Lithuania.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Zenonas Navickas Department of Applied Mathematics

Theory of Complex Systems in Medicine We are all very sensitive about health disorders experienced by ourselves or our kin. Various heart diseases are among the most prevalent health disorders in Lithuania and globally. Since Vesalius times (1548) it has been known that the bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to adapt to the environment depends on three holistic (whole-body) systems: cardiovascular system, structural musculoskeletal system, and regulatory (CNS, humoral) system. Disorders of each of them, including the cardiovascular system, affect the functions and wellness of the body. Contemporary medicine faces the challenge of timely diagnostics of heart diseases. Early diagnostics is encumbered by the fact that initial lesions take place in the changes of the interrelations and functions of the body rather than in the body structures. Thus a disease firstly manifests itself through changes in relations. However that is exactly where it is most difficult to spot and measure them.

Complexity of Humans Humans are complex adaptive systems with interrelated systems, which are dependant on each other. The muscular, structural, and cardiovascular systems are probably most closely related. Sufficient and adequate physical activity is known to result in better health. However it is still not known how to measure physical activity to ensure that it is sufficient but not too intensive and that it maintains the health of a person at a desired level. Typically, different heart beat visualization tools are used for this purpose. However that is insufficient. To determine an optimal intensity and length of a workout, it is necessary to assess the degree to which the cardiovascular system adapts to physical loads. The developed technologies for measuring body complexity dynamics serve the said purpose and enable the coach/instructor and the sportsman to arrive at optimal characteristics of training sessions.

Diagnostic Technologies in Lithuania and Worldwide Currently, there are many institutions all over the world involved in development of new diagnostic technologies. Their work is based on the theory of complex systems, which can be 80

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applied in medicine and other fields of science. The leading institutions include the Institute of HeartMath, New England Complex System Institute (MIT), and many others. In response to the

Early diagnostics is encumbered by the fact that initial lesions take place in the changes of the interrelations and functions of the body rather than in the body structures. predominant issues of the contemporary science, scientists of Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education joined together to form an enthusiastic team committed to complicated issues of diagnostics in medicine and sports physiology and development of new diagnostic technologies based on the theory of complex systems. This led to deeper understanding of body system interrelations and enabled to monitor their dynamics in various circumstances: at the pathology emergence stage and in the course of disease development.

Insight into the Problem The key problem is measuring a man as a complex system of elements and their correlation. The methods described in literature are used to measure dynamic systems; however they are not always relevant for describing a live object, because it is difficult to formalize physiological processes. The Institute of HeartMath (USA) is investigating and developing methods of visualization of physiological process interrelations in humans. It is of paramount importance to assess the changes occurring in the body, in particular when it is exposed to physical impact. Physical exercise affects all the levels of body structure, such as sub-cells, cells, tissues, organs, and systems. Therefore a bicycle ergometer test assesses integrated functions of the said systems by registering the data of several interrelated main systems of the body, i.e. the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and regulatory systems. Typically, various mathematical methods are applied for real-time assessment of the functions, while a man is treated as a system with complex operation. Cooperation and interrelations between two or more sportsmen represent an important factor leading to success or defeat in team sports. It is well known that in competitive environment some sportsmen are able to achieve a significant increase in their efficiency, while others find competition a major obstacle in realizing the potential accumulated while training. Different methodologies can be used to investigate and assess interpersonal interaction. Detection and description of the movements of persons is one of them. However information obtained with the help of those methodologies is more related to the result itself and the development of a certain behavioral pattern and it hardly reflects the personal inner correlation, if at all. The works performed by the USA Institute of HeartMath indicate that the processes describing heart activity represent the most appropriate processes for investigating such correlation. There are not many methodologies developed for assessing interpersonal interrelations, although that is a very urgent practical and scientific issue.

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Research Overview 2011

A Confluence of Sciences The team started its cooperation after an occasional meeting between medical practitioners and mathematicians when Prof. M. Ragulskis was defending his Doctor Habilitatus Thesis dealing with theories of non-linear systems and a feasible application of chaos in various technologies (2002). Prof. Z. Navickas and Prof. A. Vainoras (LSMU) and dean of faculty V. Janilionis found common scientific interests related to development of new methodologies and technologies for medicine (and cardiology, in particular, designed for ECG analysis). An informal group of enthusiasts emerged. The group was growing fast and it involved scientists from the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education (Prof. J. Poderys), who were interested in the possible applications in sports physiology. A group of Bachelor’s and Master’s students were captivated by the expediently solved problems. At a later stage the group was joined by several doctoral students and doctors (Dr. L. Bikulčienė, Dr. A. Žvironienė, 2007-2008). The scope of issues tackled by the group was also expanding. The team members were also creating technologies for analysis other processes in cardiology (Dr. L. Gargasas, LSMU).

Projects Currently the activities of creating new technologies are performed in several directions: 1) Research of the complexity measures and their dynamics of electrocardiogram parameters recorded for 12 leads simultaneously, continuously, and in different situations (during physical exercise, during revascularization, in patients with ischemic heart disease, during

coronary angiography procedure). 2) Research of the complexity and inter-parameter correlation of different heart process during each cardio cycle. 3) Assessment of interpersonal interrelations in treatment and sport. 4) Development of theoretical models.

Results and Prospects The results support the thesis of the Institute of HeartMath that the ECG can reflect the interrelations of a body as a complex system. The assessment of the interrelations using discriminates of specially produced matrices helps to spot even slight changes in the heart function during each single heart beat. The results revealed that the new processing algorithm provided information of new quality about heart activity properties (the new dynamic changes of internal relations in the cardiovascular system were discovered). Moreover, the new algorithm required just three signal points for the evaluation of dynamic relations – it was practical to use in monitoring systems for real time analysis. Algorithm has already been implemented in automated ECG recording system “Kaunas–Krūvis W03”. An analytical method of three time series cointegration enables to make an ECG based assessment of the interaction of three nonlinear dynamic physiological systems in time and to analyze them on different fractal levels. The usage of suggested diagnostic technologies enabled to automate the diagnostic conclusions and evaluate dynamic relationship between doctor and applied effect. According to the re-


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sults, the present functional state of the cardiovascular system, adaptation resources and applied influence efficiency could be concluded. The suggested diagnostic technologies opened up yet unknown possibilities to observe and monitor the interrelations of different systems and to assess the dynamics of such interrelations by arriving at the source of the disease. The team takes part in large-scale international projects (ITEA2 cluster projects). Moreover, international cooperation is gathering pace, with Barcelona University, Spain (Prof. Natalia Balague), Ilmenau University of Technology (Prof. Detchew Veselin), Johannes GutenbergUniversity of Mainz (Prof. Wolfgang Schöllhorn) among the most committed counterparts. The team envisions the development of standards for measuring the complexity dynamics of physiological processes and the whole body as a holistic adaptive system, which would give a deeper insight into the changes in the functional condition of the body on different fractal levels. The objectives of the team include direct application of the results in medical practice through development of new diagnostic technologies.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Viktoras RaÄ?ys Department of Environmental Engineering

Innovative Treatment of Polluted Waters The treatment of industrial wastewater, polluted with specific contaminants, is usually based on a multiple stage treatment approach, consisting of physical-chemical and biological processes. The final step of the oil polluted wastewater treatment generally includes chemical coagulation, different modifications of bioreactors, or sorption with granulated activated carbon. These treatment stages are expensive, require a lot of energy consumption, are unstable, generate waste (used sorbent) and have operational problems. The new, innovative method has been proposed by the KTU scientists, working in the Department of Environmental Engineering.

International Impact of the Method The water pollution research group, headed by Dr. Viktoras RaÄ?ys, at Department of Environmental Engineering at KTU, together with partners from other EU universities has developed a complex biosorption wastewater treatment system. The working principle is based on use of microorganisms on solid phase medium system. This method is based on the complex use of bioregeneration, sorption, filtration and contemporary sorbent self-regeneration processes. The technology can be applied for treatment of ballast waters from ships, wastewater from oil refining plants and other oil polluted wastewater treatment. Activated carbon adsorption and biological degradation are two important processes, used for industrial wastewater treatment. Applications of sorbents for treating effluents from several industries have recently been described including textile, plating, landfill leachate treatment and petroleum indusKaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

tries. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are currently being developed to remove not only readily biodegradable compounds, such as several petroleum hydrocarbons, but also pollutants that are resistant to biodegradation. There have been no previously published studies that would have compared the utility of biologically activated systems with different sorbents for reducing levels of key pollutants, including polycyclic

aromatic hydrocarbons, and the ecotoxicity of effluents laden with petroleum products. The achievements of the above research have been published not only in several scientific journals, but also in numerous global scientific news internet portals (www.sciencedaily. com,, as well as in Brazilian journal Hydro (2009 March, ISSN 1980-2218, No. 29).

Projects and Cooperation The above described technology has been developed during the Eureka project E!2962 Euroenviron BiosorbTox, together with partners from Umea University, Sweden. KTU water pollution research group contributed for the project by investigating different technological parameters and the mechanisms acting during the treatment process. The technology has

been implemented for oil-polluted wastewater treatment in SC “Klaipėdos nafta”. Recently, KTU has signed a cooperation agreement with Wetsus (Centre of excellence for sustainable water technology), the Netherlands. In a framework of this cooperation, further research is being carried out on recovering humic substances from wastewater.

Applications The biosorption system can be used for ballast water treatment, run-off from car parks and car washes, refinery wastewater treatment, wastewater treatment from oil products’ terminals. It is already practically used in SC “Klaipėdos nafta”. This innovative biological treatment technology employed for waste water treatment guar-

antees the quality of water discharged into open water basins satisfying the stricter normative requirements of the European Union. After such a treatment effluents BOD is less than 2mg/l, suspended solids - less than 2mg/l, oil products – less than 0,5mg/l and no sorbent waste is generated.

Perspectives A market-ready system for tertiary wastewater treatment of oil-polluted water has been developed. It was optimized for removing both the legally regulated compounds and the most toxic or persistent compounds. This performance has been validated in the laboratory and tested in a full-scale treatment plant. The principle is being developed further, with the aim


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to broaden the range of target pollutants and application of the system to small-scaled wastewater treatment units. In a framework of cooperation with Wetsus, the analysis of research methods for recovering humic acids from wastewaters and bringing back to natural cycle with the use of innovative water treatment technologies has been initiated.

Prof. Dr Habil. Minvydas Ragulskis Research Group for Mathematical & Numerical Analysis of Dynamical Systems, Department of Mathematical Research in Systems

Novel Insights into Nonlinear Dynamical Systems & Chaos Phase control of dendrytic neural networks, evolutionary algorithms for time series forecasting, dynamic visual cryptography, adaptive quadratures for realtime applications, non-uniform embeddings in multi-dimensional phase spaces, chaotic time-averaged moiré fringes – is there anything in common among these diverse fields? The answer is a definite Yes. It all perfectly fits into the interests of the Research Group for Mathematical and Numerical Analysis of Dynamical Systems Nonlinear dynamical systems and chaos play an important role in many areas of science and engineering. Thus it is quite natural that our research interests are quite wide. Moreover, a healthy balance between rigorous theoretical analysis and practical applications produces fruitful results. In general, research directions in our Group can be conditionally classified into four subject areas: optics, numerical methods, cryptography and nonlinear dynamics. Though some aspects of different subject areas are highly intertwined, separate classification can help to crystallize the essential qualifiers of the each subject area.

Modelling of Optical Effects Optics has traditionally been an important research area for our Group. Our field in optics could be shortly described as modelling of optical effects in virtual computational environments. The utilization of three basic components – numerical models of elastic dynamically interacting bodies, a physical model describing interference effects occurring whenever optical whole field fringe based experimental techniques are used to investigate these bodies, and the construction of digital graphical representations helps to mimic realistic optical processes taking place in those systems. And not only – such tools help to interpret complex optical phenomena and help to develop new measurement techniques. We managed to propose several new measurement techniques and improvements of existing measurement techniques – time average photoelasticity; time average stochastic moiré; time average geometric super moiré; the generalization of Abel transform for vibrating tubes; corrections of classical formulas describing time average projection moiré and time average geometric moiré. The range of investigated systems is quite wide: from MEMS up to fluids, membranes, or bodies with fractal surface geometry. Investigations of optical phenomena originated new numerical cryptographic methods and initiated the development of specialized numerical techniques. Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Development of Numerical Methods We have been always heavily dependent on the development of novel numerical methods for the visualization of optical effects. One of the important results in this area worth noting is a new method based on conjugate smoothing used to represent a discontinuous field on a finite element mesh. Since our main interest lies in dynamical systems, time-averaging operators play an important role in our research (these operators also lead to applications in cryptography). We have proposed new quadrature rules which are especially effective in real time computational experiments. A new numerical technique for time series forecasting based on fuzzy inference systems

could be also mentioned. It exploits nonuniform attractor embedding to determine the optimal set of time lags which is used to construct a delayed vector input into the fuzzy inference system. The criterion for the optimality is the spreading of the attractor into the multi-dimensional delay coordinate space. Experiments with benchmark chaotic time series show that the proposed method can considerably improve the forecasting accuracy. Identification of a near-optimal set of time lags by means of evolutionary algorithms simplifies the task considerably, though that requires appropriate modifications of the whole computational setup.

Solitons and Waves in Differential Equations Another interesting application in the area of numerical methods is the derivation of new soliton-type solutions of nonlinear differential equations. We have developed a new criterion determining whether an exact solution of a differential equation can be expressed in a form comprising a finite number of standard functions. This criterion is based on the concept of ranks of Hankel matrixes constructed from sequences of coefficients

produced by symbolic multiplicative operator techniques. The employment of this criterion also gives an answer on the structure of the solution â&#x20AC;&#x201C; contrary to the exp-function method where the structure of the solution is initially guessed and only then symbolic computations are used to identify the necessary parameters. Our technique provides a deeper insight into the structure of the original differential equation.

Visual Cryptography Visual Cryptography (VC) is a cryptographic technique which allows visual information (pictures, text, etc.) to be encrypted in such way that the decryption can be performed by the human visual system, without the aid of computers. Classical VC is developed in the nineties and is based on a visual secret sharing scheme, where an image was broken up into n shares so that only someone with all n shares could decrypt the image, while any nâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;1 share 86

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revealed no information about the original image. Numerous modifications and advancements of the method have been proposed so far: halftone VC, colored VC, secret sharing schemes without pixel expansion, polynomial style sharing, multiple secrets schemes, circular VC, progressive image sharing, etc. We have proposed a new concept of Dynamic VC. It is a one share method; the secret is encoded into a single image. The secret can be

Modelling of optical effects in virtual computational environments, novel numerical techniques and applications, dynamic visual cryptography, control and characterization of chaotic nonlinear systems build the ground for new challenging possibilities in mathematical and numerical analysis of dynamical systems. leaked only when this image is oscillated into a predefined direction at predefined amplitude. We exploit the inability of human visual system to follow rapid oscillatory motion and exploit the optical moiré phenomenon to form the secret in the timeaveraged image. The security of the encryption can be increased if a non-harmonic moiré grating is used to form the image. Another important development in the area of cryptography is a new class of hash functions based on time-averaging moiré operators. Special properties of algebras of moiré grating functions and time-averaging operators enabled to construct efficient one-way collision-free hash functions. The functional principle of these hash functions is based on the inherent ill-posed inverse problem which is in its turn based on optical moiré phenomena.

Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Chaos Since the title of our research group is Mathematical and Numerical Analysis of Dynamical Systems, dynamical systems traditionally occupy an important part of our research. Attractor control strategies based on small external impulses have been developed for adaptive control of particles in a field of propagating waves; for particles and films conveyed by an undulating membrane; for the parametric identification of complex systems. The bouncing ball model was generalized for Rayleigh surface waves; for electrophoresis and control of biomedical particles. The principles of the developed attractor control techniques are used to control chaotic networks of neurons with dendrytic dynamics.

Results and Future Trends Our Group has originated a number of interesting solutions, methods and applications. We have developed the concept of dynamic visual cryptography which is a new branch in the science of digital image security. Our fuzzy time series forecasting methods based on the optimal attractor embedding outperform state-of-the-art predictors for such benchmark tests as Mackey-Glass series. We have developed an analytical criterion which determines if solution of nonlinear differential equation can be expressed in a form comprising finite number of standard functions; moreover, this criterion generates the structure of the solution automatically and outperforms homotopy perturbation methods. As mentioned previously, all these developments are closely related and originated by the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems and chaos. Modelling of optical effects in virtual computational environments, novel numerical techniques and applications, dynamic visual cryptography, control and characterization of chaotic nonlinear systems build the ground for new challenging possibilities in mathematical and numerical analysis of dynamical systems.

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Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Jonas Rimas Department of Applied Mathematics

Dynamical Systems with Time Delays: Analysis & Synthesis It is known that together with increase in requirements to qualitative characteristics of dynamical systems, requirements to the models used at their analysis and synthesis, as well, increase – they should better in the greatest possible degree reflect processes in real systems. Many processes include delay-effect phenomena in their inner dynamics. On the other hand, delays are frequently used to simplify very high order models. For this reason the interest in the dynamical systems with time-delays keeps on growing in all scientific areas.

Background Dynamical systems with time-delays (also called delay systems) represent a class of infinite dimensional systems largely used to describe propagation and transport phenomena. In economical systems, delays appear in a natural way since actions and effects, caused by these actions, are separated by some time interval. In communication, data transmission is always accompanied by a nonzero time interval between the initiation and the delivery-time of a message or signal. With the development of network technology more and more networks (e.g., Internet) have been applied to distributed control systems, which are termed as networked control systems (NCSs). Time delay which exists in NCSs has brought more complex problems into a new research area. A distinguished feature of all systems cited above is that their evolution rate depends not only on the present state but, as well, on the past history. The study of delay effects on dynamical systems properties is motivated by two main reasons: first to understand how the delay presence may deteriorate the system’s behavior, and second to “control” their effects for better performances achieved.

Stability The investigations of the effects of time delay on the stability of dynamical systems have received considerable attention in the few last decades. Two particular stability analysis directions, delay-dependent and delay-independent stability, respectively, have been the focus of these investigations. Delay-independent stability of a system means that the system is stable for all values of delay, and otherwise the system’s stability is delay-dependent. It is known that with only commensurate delays, the stability of a linear time-invariant system can be determined efficiently by solving some matrixpencil eigenvalue problem. On the other hand,


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for systems with incommensurate delays the stability problem has been found to be NP-hard in general, and hence poses a fundamental difficulty. The delay-dependent stability conditions are generally less conservative than delay-independent ones. Many kinds of approaches have been proposed to obtain delay-dependent stability conditions based on linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. LMI can be efficiently solved numerically by using algorithms developed for solving optimization problems involving LMI. Deriving the stability conditions of time-delay systems the LMI can be combined with the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional techniques.

...the interest in the dynamical systems with time-delays keeps on growing in all scientific areas. Solutions received practical application. Recently, an approach for the solution of linear timeinvariant systems of DDEs has been developed using the Lambert W function. The approach using the Lambert W function provides a solution form for DDEs similar to that of matrix exponential for ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Unlike results obtained using other existing methods, the solution obtained by Roots of transcendental characteristic Lambert W function -s equation s + e = 0 method has an anato obtain the solutions of linear delay-dif- lytical form expressed ferential equations are known, and only the with the parameters method of the consecutive integration has of the DDE. The main difficulty in solving linear delay differential equation (DDE) is that its characteristic equation is transcendental and has infinite number of roots. Several analytical methods

Results The group of scientists of the Department of Applied Mathematics has investigated systems with delays within more than 20 years. Multidimensional control systems with delays have been objects of these investigations. We will mention some basic results received by scientists of the group. Using the method of consecutive integration, an exact expression of the solution of the linear matrix differential equation with k different delays (k  N), is derived. Applying derived solution formulas, transients in multidimensional synchronization systems with the various matrices, which describe structure of the internal links of the system (structural matrices), are investigated. It is proved that in nonlinear multidimensional mutual synchronization system (with the saw-tooth non-linearity form in the characteristics of the phase detectors) there can be different modes of operation. The necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of these modes are deduced. The problems of finding of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of various structural matrices of a special kind of n-th order (n  N), and the problem of raising of these matrices into the integer powers l (n  N), are solved. In accordance with the results, received by scientists of the group within last 6 years, 37 articles in ISI journals are published (from them 33 in ISI journals which have a citing index).

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Research Overview 2011

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Kęstutis Zaleckis Assist. Irina Matijošaitienė Department of Architecture & Land Management

Alteration of Urban Social Spatial Code A city has to change in order to remain. How does its social spatial code change, and what conclusions and forecasts can we make by investigating the alteration of the code? Application of the theory of space syntax and the model of serial vision will help us to answer the questions – both are applied for the code of Kaunas Downtown to research. Results of the research demonstrate and help to understand complex interaction of land management and urban developments. The results could be used for the modeling of urban situation changes or for a forecast making.

Urban Social Spatial Code City is a complex open system. Understanding complexity of urban form and urban interactions plays a vital role in integration of urban environment and society. The impact of different land management regimes on social codes of existing urban structures is often not considered by the planners. The urban social spatial code, as a set of social spatial rules, determines how we perceive the environment, how we act in the environment and where we act in it.

Methods There are a lot of structural models of the cityscape but for the presented investigation two most complex ones have been used in the integrated manner: the theory of spatial syntax and the model of the serial vision. The first one represents the most deeply modeled social-cultural features of the space such as depth and shallowness, integration and control, symmetry and asymmetry, unity and fragmentation, axiality and convexity. The space syntax is usually used in some foreign countries for the system of urban streets and squares, pedestrians and transport flows to analyze, as well as for links inside a building to describe. The serial vision is focused on the essential features of urban design and perception of urban spaces: serial vision, hereness and thereness, space and place, line of life, etc. Integrated together these two models allow constructing the full picture of urban social spatial code and its rules. The methods have never been applied for urban social spatial code in Lithuania to analyze.

Research Object The mentioned methods are being applied to Kaunas Downtown. Kaunas Downtown consists of the Old Town that was established at the beginning of the 15th century and the New Town planned in the manner of the Classicism in the first half of the 19th century. Through all the ages of its existence this urban area has demonstrated the evolutional development instead of revolutional one. Today the area is protected together with all of its essential architectural features as an object of


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The perspective of the research is to use the analysis of social spatial code for the master plan of Kaunas city to prepare.

cultural heritage. During the Soviet occupation the political system in Lithuania was radically changed. The same happened with land management. One of the fundamental changes that affected urban planning was cancellation of private land property and introduction of state land property as the only one that was allowed, as well as all formal and informal boarders between land possessions inside old quarters had been destroyed. Since 1990 the opposite process has taken place: former property is being restituted to the legal owners where pos-

The connectivity (control) of the system: A â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Kaunas Downtown in 1935, B â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Kaunas Downtown in 1988.

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Research Overview 2011

sible. Two historical periods are being researched and compared: interwar period of 1938 and the end of the Soviet occupation period of 1988. The focus of the research is made on changes influenced by the destruction of land property borders.

The Main Results Research results demonstrate quite radical urban mutations and complexity of urban structure. Changes in land management system and tools without any significant urban or architectural alterations have caused changes in social spatial code of Kaunas Downtown area in 1935-1988. The following changes have been observed in the period of the Soviet occupation in comparison with the interwar period: significantly increased depth of the system of convex spaces; increased depth of single convex spaces; increased depth of the system of axial spaces; increased number of axial spaces; increased fast choice factor; increased axis connectivity, control and

global integration factors; generally all urban structure have become more asymmetric; in addition to dominating in the area known here and known there code the known here and unknown there code has been added; a big number of private spaces has been transformed into public spaces and public spaces. Identified time and initial source of the changes has drawn attention to the fact that urban structure is or could be changed permanently because of its complexity. Results of the research show that even â&#x20AC;&#x153;non architecturalâ&#x20AC;? aspects of urban design and planning could be very important and should be considered by the urbanists and city planners.

International Projects & Future Trends The research is being performed within the framework of COST action TU0602 Land Management for Urban Dynamics. The analysis and the comparison of the alterations of urban social spatial code in 1938 and 1988 will lead to the research of nowadays situation. The perspective of the research is to use the analysis of social spatial code for the master plan of Kaunas city to prepare. It will let us provide the master plan with information about the intensity of space usage, the adaptability of city (or its parts) for external or domestic users, its axial deformation etc., to forecast the directions of urban development.


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Prof. Dr. Habil. Rimvydas Simutis Institute of Automation and Control Systems

Intelligent Control, Robots, Neural Networks & Artificial Intelligence The ever increasing technological demands of today call for very complex systems, which require highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that high performance can be achieved and maintained under changing operation conditions. The control of these complex systems cannot be met by conventional control systems. For instance, there is a significant need to achieve higher degrees of autonomous operation for mobile robotic systems, spacecraft, chemical and biotechnological systems, automotive systems, and others. To achieve such highly autonomous behaviour for complex systems one can enhance today's control methods using intelligent control systems and techniques. The area of intelligent control is a fusion of a number of research areas in automation, computational intelligence, computer science and control engineering coming together, merging and expanding in new directions. Intelligent control systems are typically able to perform one or more of the following functions to achieve autonomous behaviour: planning actions at different levels of detail, emulation of human expert behaviour, learning from past experiences, integrating sensor information, identifying changes that threaten the system. These research areas are important and provide several key approaches to intelligent control which is hierarchical and often distributed.

Robots and Artificial Intelligence So far robots have been programmed with the help of conventional software. Currently, neural networks and logic of fuzzy sets start to be used for movement control and coordination. Robots can be taught common movements and decisions by imitating human movements and decisions and applying the so called expert cloning technology. The main shortcoming of modern robots is that they can only imitate human actions and decisions. We do not yet have algorithms that could “understand“ what they do, generalize the results, and generate new solutions. Nowadays artificial intelligence represents but a collection of individual computational methods, algorithms of logical operations, and technical solutions. Such technique enables to address a number of technical tasks quite successfully and it can successfully imitate certain decisions of “intelligent“ creatures; however it does not Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

answer the main question – how the structured intelligence is formed from observations and experiments. Jeff Hawkins was the first to begin investigating this issue (“On Intelligence“, 2005). The most interesting direction of modern robotics is autonomous mobile robots. Currently their application is limited and usually it is not economically viable. They are mostly used by the military industry, toy industry, services. Unfortunately, the intellectual potential of robots produced up to now, i.e. their ability to learn and generalize, is rather limited. Artificial intelligence and artificial life are one of the vast goals of the mankind which are programmed in our minds. Today there are only several interesting computational technologies that partly imitate human mental activities and that can be applied to address practical tasks.

Research at Institute of Automation and Control Systems The main direction of the work of KTU Institute of Automation and Control Systems research group includes the application of computational intelligence methods (artificial neural networks, logic of fuzzy sets, experimental systems, evolutionary programming, and swarm intelligence) in control of technical systems. Intelligent control systems are created based on these methods. It is sought to make the most of the a priori information (expert knowledge, fundamental models) and information accumulated in the experimental data (including real time measurements) for making the best solutions. The control systems are developed in a way that makes it possible for them to evolve and improve their work while they perform. Algorithms are created in order to improve the employment of expert knowledge and their formation from experimental data. Intelligent control systems is applied for control of autonomous mobile robots, cooperation of mobile robots; control of chemical and biotechnological processes; development of gaze (eye) tracking systems. The profile of the scientific works of the group can be best characterized by the research projects: 2006-2009: EUREKA-APROMOCS. Application of intelligent control systems in waste water treatment plants (EUR0.92m, partner: Germany). 2006-2009: Ukrainian and Lithuanian project. Creation of navigational means for mobile autonomous robots in undefined environment. Improvement of the navigation of autonomous mobile robots applying methods of computational intelligence (LTL200 thou-


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sand; partner: Ternopil University). 2007-2008: Identification of dimensional objects applying methods of computational intelligence (neuron networks and systems of fuzzy sets); partner UAB “Elinta”. 2007-2008: Partner in project ASOMIS – Application of computational intelligence methods for monitoring and optimization of ATM networks (Coordinator – UAB Penki Kontinentai Group) 2008-2010: VySek - Application of computational intelligence for designing automatic eye tracking systems. (Financed by Lithuanian Science and Studies Foundation ). The project VySek was aimed at the research, design and implementation of a novel associative technology (the position of the eye pupil – the action of the actuator). Those technologies are based on the systems of image processing and on the application of the computational intelligence method. The proposed innovative eye tracking system automatically detect the position of the eye pupil and generate commands to be used by the computer or an external device. The detection and recognition was based on two dimensional data. The designed methods and algorithms work stably and steadily with average quality video signals. The eye pupil position tracking systems, which are in the market today, cost from EUR4100 to EUR17900. There are about 2000 users of those devices in Europe. If the price of the eye tracking systems could be reduced to EUR2000 – EUR3000, the number of their users would come up to 2 million. The authors of VySek project expect to cut that price five more times and to make the devices mobile.

The area of intelligent control is a fusion of a number of research areas in automation, computational intelligence, computer science and control engineering coming together, merging and expanding in new directions.

Cooperation The scientists of the group are closely cooperating with the scientists from one of the strongest universities in the world in the field of robotics, EPFL (Switzerland), with experts in computational intelligence from Germany (University Halle-Wittenberg, FH Schmalkalden, Dresden Technical University), Sweden (Halmstad University/Intelligent Systems Laboratory), Hungary (University Of Veszprem/Process Engineering Department), Portugal (University Lisabon) , Ukraine (Ternopil University).

Prof. Dr. Habil. Rimvydas Simutis

Prospects of the Field Scientists from the most famous universities in the world (MIT, Stanford University, Caltech), as well as such companies as IBM, Microsoft, etc. are actively working in the field of intelligent control systems. Since traditional information technology companies are becoming typical service companies, they can only maintain their competitive advantage by creating intelligent components and applying the same. Thus the intelligent control systems enjoy undoubtedly good prospects. The important thing is that along with the development of technologies and methods of gaining knowledge, the intelligence quotient of these systems also increases.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Tomas Sodeika Department of Philosophy & Culturology

Impact of New Media on Lithuanian Cultural Tradition The humanities at a technological university should not be considered only as a supplement to technological education, as a subject of “general education“. Certainly, they perform this function, too. Nevertheless, it is not less important (or maybe even more important) to integrate humanitarian thinking into the domain of technological knowledge. The Faculty of Humanities was established for this particular purpose. One of the youngest faculties of Kaunas University of Technology, it quite recently started independent studies programmes. Currently it offers bachelor and master programmes, such as Translation and Editing of Technical Language, Computerized Linguistics, Music Technologies, Media Philosophy.

Technology and Humanity Higher technical schools with older studies and research traditions (Massachusetts Institute of Technology or Berlin Technical University) have been providing a curriculum in such humanitarian studies for a long time. Technologies are penetrating into the domain of the humanities. It is difficult to imagine a modern humanities professional who does not use the computer or surf the Internet. On the other hand, the world created by technologies requires a different, humanitarian view, rather than the “pragmatic” efficiency-oriented one, which emerged in the 21st century. Modern technologies do make a heavy impact on the entire human life. We live in a world with almost no areas unaffected by technologies. However, it should not be forgotten that technological thinking is efficiency-oriented only. It tries to answer the question how


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to achieve one goal or another, however it does not question the significance of aims. Therefore, it is getting more and more difficult to understand where we are and what is happening with us. Here a reflective attitude characteristic to humanitarian sciences and philosophy in particular is is gaining increasingly more importance. The Media Philosophy programme delivered by the Department of Philosophy and Culturology is firstly oriented towards such attitude.

...the world created by technologies requires a different, humanitarian view, rather than the “pragmatic” efficiencyoriented one, which emerged in the 21st century.

What are Media For many of us, media firstly associates with the mass media. Thus, quite often it has to be explained that media do not only mean publications, radio, television or the Internet and that the concept of “media“ is much wider. Although the modern media researchers understand them differently, it could be stated that media are man-made environments where the reality appears to be “commensurate” with a human being. It can be said that media are the environments where the human interaction with the outer world takes place (e.g., tools used by people) and where relationships between people take place (e.g., various communication systems). The media theory is interested in how the changes in those environments influence human perception, thinking, interaction, etc. Thus we should consider media as environments we are immersed in, the character whereof determines our life, rather than means we can use at our discretion. Script is a perfect example. The invention of phonetic script meant one of the most important revolutions in the history of mankind. Ca. 8th century BC the Greeks started using a system of writing. Obviously, writing helped to achieve a

wider spread of information and to store it in a more reliable way. The phonetic script was a new medium which resulted in dramatic changes in people themselves. A reading and writing person replaced the speaking and listening one. The previous orientation of human perception towards a rather “subjective” sense of hearing was replaced by orientation towards seeing, which is essentially an “objectivizing” sense. On the other hand, the phonetic script is “analytical” unlike, for example, pictograms and ideograms used by the Chinese. Script encouraged objective and analytical thinking, which means that it laid the foundations for science. However, unlike the live speech, a written text does not have a direct addressee: it can be read by anyone, anywhere and any time. Thus communication among people inevitably gains certain features of anonymity in writing cultures. Therefore, it has to be admitted that writing has been encouraging social alienation. This proves the invention of the phonetic script to have been a genuine revolution.

New Media The new revolution is already under its way and it was caused by the “new media“, which according to Marshall McLuhan started a new era in the history of mankind. According to him, the extent of this revolution is similar to that which happened when the phonetic script was invented and when J. Gutenberg invented a new printing technology. The word “electronic” could be used instead of “new”. “New media” are environments based on electronic technologies. We could probably agree with McLuhan, who said that electricity,

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Research Overview 2011

unlike optics, mechanics or chemistry, extends the central nervous system, which coordinates our understanding as a whole, rather than the “external” senses of a person. A computer generated virtual reality which opens new multidimensional, “multimedia” possibilities of experience, which in its turn causes significant changes in our life, is a perfect example of such extension.

Nature of Changes What are those changes like? How do they manifest and what do philosophers say about them? McLuhan believed that electricity-based technologies return to people the integrity of perception and communication, which was characteristic to the old tribe communities. While forecasting the further development of the mankind, he talked about the “global village” – a state of the mankind when everyone almost instantly can learn about the things happening in the furtherest places of our planet, when relations among people become extremely close, and when it becomes possible to overcome the alienation of people predetermined by the “old media” and the dehumanization of the modern world caused by the so called “progress“. However, such optimistic attitude is only one in the great variety of possible attitudes. Another well-known media theoretician Jean Baudrillard tends to describe the modern situation as complete fade of something called reality. According to him, we live in a world where nothing real is left: everything has turned into simulacrum – an ideal illusion of the reality created by modern technologies, which we cannot even expose, i.e. we can not understand it is an illusion. Thus the issue about the nature of changes caused by modern media remains open.

Research Directions and Methods Two research directions can be distinguished. The first one is related to the “old media“, mainly research of the relationship between orality and writing. The other one is the research of the “new media” related to computer technologies. We could mention several methods applied in most humanitarian curricula, such as phenomenologic insight and description, hermeneutic analysis of understanding situations, and also

comparativistics of different media. Those “directly” applied methods are supplemented by meta-methodologic reflection characteristic to philosophy the purpose whereof is to highlight the cognition possibilities and limits provided by specific methods. Since the media studies inevitably bear an interdisciplinary nature, such reflection is particularly important.

Global Village and Us How do the new media influence the development of Lithuanian culture and its tradition? Firstly, when we talking about the influence of the new media on Lithuanian culture, it is worth mentioning that we became “literate” much later than most European nations. Thus inevitably a question arises: to what extent does this “backwardness” influence Lithuanian culture: the fact which is not discussed by many of those who talk and write about the present situation of Lithuanian culture. Perhaps, Lithuanian mentality, which is less influenced by the writing culture, is more receptive to the culture of the “global village” which is being formed by new media? Nonetheless, the most important thing nowadays is the globalization effect produced by the new media. It is obvious that something, which 20 years ago seemed like an “iron curtain” separating Lithuania from the rest of the world, no longer exists. Globalization processes in the Lithuanian culture are taking place simply because there is the Internet. But when we try to analyze its impact, there is a question of how to respond. On one hand, we have to try to make up for our lag in the area of information technologies, which was determined by the economic situation. On the other hand, it is equally important to preserve the national identity. Therefore, we have to find ways to be ourselves without falling behind the technological progress. It is obvious that this search requires particularly close cooperation among representatives of technical and humanitarian sciences.


Kaunas University of Technology

Prof. Dr. Habil. Jurgis Kazimieras Staniškis Dr. Jolita Kruopienė Institute of Environmental Engineering

Chemicals Risk Management Chemicals are widely used in industry, agriculture, medicine, household and other fields because of their useful properties. Chemicals may provide strength or plasticity, give colour, treat illnesses or undesired organisms, and perform numerous other functions. People employed chemicals already in ancient times. The use became especially widespread since 20th century, when scientists have synthesized new chemical substances, and have identified previously unknown possibilities of their application. New industrial and agricultural chemicals, new pharmaceuticals have been introduced. Society was enjoying the “chemicals revolution”, and there was a lot of enthusiasm about it. For example, P. Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of pesticidal properties of DDT. At the same time many chemical substances have hazardous properties. Sometimes a property is useful for certain application, while it causes risk to human health or environment in other circumstances. Humans knew about some hazards of chemicals hundreds of years ago, but the clear evidence for the need of control and management evolved together with the widespread use, and became especially pronounced since the middle of the 20th century.

Research Context The Institute of Environmental Engineering is involved in several research areas, chemicals risk management being one of them. The Institute was among the first institutions intensively working on these issues in Lithuania as early as 1998, when a transposition of the EU system on chemicals control started, and a capacity building was necessary. At that time the work was mainly related to the classification and labelling of chemicals. As APINI’s competence grew, our research comprised various other aspects related to chemicals risk management. Requirements for chemicals (their production, supply to the market, use) are distributed over the different legal acts and control frameworks, while the overall system was missing. Therefore APINI specialists and their partners from Latvia, Estonia and Germany have developed a proposal for a chemicals management system at enterprises, consisting of various elements (like inventory of chemicals, chemicals risk assessment at workplaces and risk assessment for the environment, etc.), which consider all important issues regarding the chemicals. These elements have been implemented in many companies of the Baltic countries. APINI specialists have been widely involved in preparation of the national implemenKaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

tation plan (NIP) for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) controlled by the Stockholm convention. These substances are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic (PBT), they can travel long distances, what makes them especially dangerous to human health and the environment, and requiring the special control measures. So-called emerging pollutants, such as pharmaceutical substances, are another issue. It is essential to identify the potential environmental concerns before they become critical human health or environmental problems – pollution prevention being preferable to remediation actions. Hence we have studied the potential emissions of pharmaceuticals into the Lithuanian environment (surface water bodies) and carried out an environmental risk assessment by answering which active pharmaceutical substances for human use enter the environment; where they enter the environment; what are their loads and the resulting environmental concentrations; and what is the potential environmental risk. Some of other studies to be mentioned include supply-chain method analysis of the use of certain dangerous substances (like DEHP, organotin compounds, PAHs, and others), substitution issues, REACH impact assessment, etc. Currently most of the research is related mainly to the issue of REACH. It is a new chemicals policy in Europe, having the aim to protect health and environment, to contribute to the free circulation of chemicals on internal market, while enhancing competitiveness and innovation.

The Current Research The Institute is involved in three research projects: ChemXchange, P-REACH, and StarDust. “ChemXchange” project addresses the collective challenge faced by the SMEs in the construction sector of complying with today’s obligations and regulatory requirements regarding exchange of information on hazardous chemicals between various actors in the sector. The proposed chemical information exchange system will fulfil the acute needs of the European construction sector regarding compliance with the new European chemical legislation, including challenges connected with chemical risk assessment, communication of information on chemicals, and chemicals management. The overall objective of “Polymer REACH” (“P–REACH”) is to develop an e-learning platform and training materials for the European polymer industry to learn and understand how to manage their obligations under the European legislation, REACH. Today no e-learning solutions exist that encompasses REACH and all aspects of the polymer industry. This unique training course will contribute to scientific and technical know-how about REACH and help users to understand and comply. The project will use a “blended learning” approach, offering interactive on-line modules and traditional “Paper-based” materials, focusing on the needs of polymer companies. The critical mass that is needed to create a strong and attractive global position and the innovative approaches that are needed to address grand challenges can only be achieved through an international cooperation. The “StarDust” project contributes to this issue by linking strong research environments, clusters and SME networks – creating a number of globally-leading research and innovation hubs in the Baltic Sea region in order to achieve the stronger critical mass, attractiveness, and a competitive international position. The purpose of the pilot project, in which APINI is involved, is a development of water protection by new and innovative technologies, products and services. The pilot case strives to achieve an EU level of the laboratory of Vodokanal, and of water treatment plant in St. Petersburg taking REACH requirements into a consideration. The piloted concept will be multiplied to the surrounding countries of the Baltic Sea. Final outcome is to create the mini-cluster for water treatment technology among the Baltic Sea countries. 100

Kaunas University of Technology

Humans knew about some hazards of chemicals hundreds of years ago, but the clear evidence for the need of control and management evolved together with the widespread use...

Projects and Cooperation The researchers of the Institute have been working in close cooperation with BEF (Baltic Environmental Forum from Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia), Őkopol (Germany), DHI (Danish Hydrolic Institute), NERI (National Environmental Research Institute from Denmark) and many others. The international and national research and educational projects during the last five years include: 2004–2009: FP7 project “Novel methods for integrated risk assessment of cumulative stressors in Europe – NOMIRACLE”. Coordinated by NERI, Denmark. 2006–2008: Leonardo a Vinci project “Development of Knowledge on REACH”. Coordinated by APINI, KTU. 2009–2011: Leonardo da Vinci project “Innovative training for increasing the knowledge base of the European polymer industry in relation to REACH: P-REACH”. Coordinator – Smithers Rapra Technology Ltd, UK. 2009–2011: FP7 project “Development of a webbased system for exchanging information and managing risks of chemicals for the construction industry, addressing new challenges related to EUs chemical legislation – ChemXChange”. Coordinator – EBA, Norway. 2010–2013: BSR 2007-2013 program project “The Strategic Project on Trans-national Commercial Activities in Research & Innovation, Clusters and in SME-Networks – StarDust”. Project coordinator – VINNOVA, Sweden. Pilot project “Clean Water” coordinator – Lahti Science and Business Park, Finland.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Eugenija StrazdienÄ&#x2014; Department of Clothing & Polymer Products Technology

The Importance of Objective & Sensory Material Evaluation in Virtual Prototyping Research Background In modern globalization world, new products and services developed in due time are becoming essential for companies growth and competitive ability. Tendencies of mass customization and rapid prototyping effect manufacturing processes of many consumer products: clothing, haberdashery, footwear, elements of home interior, furniture, etc. 3D virtual prototyping (2D/3D and 3D/2D transformations, parametric design, etc.) has become a keystone of these processes. Still, problems associated with 3D virtual visualization in respect to applied materials mechanical properties are not yet solved, as well as the possibilities of parametric design of complicatedly shaped, e.g. human body, spatial shapes. All

this has a significant effect upon the results of consumerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s subjective visual perception. On the other hand, the problem remains concerning objective evaluation of textile hand and its relationship with sensory, e.g. tactile, properties of applied materials. Concerning the later problem significant work has been done at Kaunas University of Technology, Faculty of Design and Technologies. Meantime current investigations are mainly aimed to analyse the functions of 3D CAD systems taking into account the effect of materials mechanical properties and to perfect the possibilities of 3D visualization, thus making the preconditions for the application of 3D software in mass customization development processes.

2D/3D and 3D/2D transformations visualised with Modaris 3D Fit software of LECTRA Company


Kaunas University of Technology

...virtual processes of products development will start new relationship between textile and clothing manufacturers and will initiate the strategies of open manufacturing, allowing the consumer to become the designer and producer of his own garment.

European Experience Several projects have been initiated by the European Apparel and Textile Confederation EURATEX taking into account three main development directions pointed out in European Technology Platform, the third of which is the end of clothing and textile products mass production by shifting it to mass customization strategies. One of such projects was LEAPFROG funded in 2004 by FP6 program (www. where special attention was paid at virtual prototyping of clothing and application of mass customizations processes. Meantime the aim of the project E-TAILOR ( was different: virtual optimization of clothing construction and standardization of body measurement scales. The aim of HAPTEX ( project also funded by FP6 was to find the relationship between consumers’ visual perception of virtual garment and sensory, i.e. tactile

evaluation of real materials texture. The later problem nowadays is relevant and many research works are being performed to solve it. In this respect the research work at Kaunas University of Technology is performed from the other standpoint, i.e. trying to create the device and to develop the method which could describe the behaviour of textile materials and their tactile properties by one complex criterion. It was expected that with the help of this equipment the differences between fabrics could be distinguished more evidently and easily, especially taking into account sensory evaluation of textiles tactile feeling.

Projects Textile sensory, i.e. evaluation of tactile properties is related with such fabric properties as smoothness, softness, rigidity, roughness, thickness, weight, etc. Recently new tactile evaluation methods of textiles based on pulling process of a disc shaped specimen through a rounded hole are being developed and more widely applied for fabrics testing. For this reason test unit Griff-Tester has been created at Kaunas University of Technology. It laid the basis for the project of French-Lithuanian programme of integrated activities “Gilibert” on bilateral cooperation in scientific research and experimental development “New Method for Textile Materials Tactile Properties Evaluation” which has been carried out together with Université de Haute Alsace ENSITM. Usually the effect of fabric treatment in industry is evaluated subjectively. In some cases certain mechanical property variations due to finishing treatments can be tested using standard testing methods, but they are far away of representing human evaluation of tactile perception. Thus, the aim of this project was to apply Griff-Tester in real production processes. The obtained data have shown that Griff-Tester provides new scientific information that could be associated with the sensory analysis results. The effects of finishing products concentrations have been found to be in accordance with the manufacturer’s technical specifications. The evaluation of this effect has been carried out by two different methods of tactile analysis: objective evaluation with Griff-Tester and sensory evaluation.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011


(c), (d) - The evaluation of textile hand and anisotropy with the help of Griff-Tester device




(a), (b) - Griff-Tester device attached to standard tensile testing machine

The project â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Development of Spatial Shells: Investigation and Evaluation of Woven Structures Formability and Quality of Construction Assemblesâ&#x20AC;? was financially supported by Lithuania State Science and Studies Foundation and was aimed to investigate spatial behaviour of textile materials also at low wearing level loads. Nowadays the formability of textile material is very important as textile or textile-based composite materials are widely used in clothing and soft furniture production, interior and exterior

decoration, in advanced architecture projects. When the forming conditions overcome some critical limits, the spatial textile shell achieves an unstable shape, i.e. wrinkles. The availability of the constructional assembles must guarantee the unwrapped design of spatial product, its stability and reliability during exploitation. So the aim of the project was to define the effect of woven structures formability for design processes and 3D visualization of spatial shells geometry. Distribution of displacement in a deformed plain woven element

WiseTex model of twill weave fabric for the mechanical behaviour investigations

Further Developments Thus in long-time perspective virtual processes of products development will start new relationship between textile and clothing manufacturers and will initiate the strategies of open manufacturing, allowing the consumer to become the designer and producer of his own garment. The information provided by 3D CAD systems will help to realize effective communication and cooperation between different sectors, i.e. researchers, industry and traders of textile and clothing industries through specifying the performance requirements and transactions based on fabric properties data.


Kaunas University of Technology

Prof. Dr. Habil. Vytautas Štuikys Assoc. Prof. Dr. Robertas Damaševičius Assoc. Prof. Dr. Giedrius Ziberkas Department of Software Engineering

Design Automation Processes Design automation of any system is based on using software. Complexity of systems to be designed is continuously increasing due to the rapid technology innovations and market pressure. Though complexity issues are a great challenge for all modern systems, embedded systems and their software can be seen as the most representative example. According to recent announcements, the amount of embedded code has grown exponentially from around 100 kilobytes to a projected 1 gigabyte, for example, in the latest generation of high-end automobiles. And there is every reason to expect this “Moore’s law for embedded systems” to continue for the foreseeable future. Thus the methods and technologies that have traditionally been used to develop embedded systems are starting to reach the limits of their scalability. As a result of that software, which serves for other systems’ building, becomes more and more complex. But how software systems and their components being an instrument of other systems’ building should be created per se as effectively as possible? A general framework to achieve this goal is to combine the relevant methods and generative technologies into a coherent methodology in order to enhance the productivity while developing complex applications.

Achieving Ambitious Goals Higher technical schools with older studies and research traditions (Massachusetts Institute of Technology or Berlin Technical University) have been providing a curriculum in such humanitarian studies for a long time. Technologies are penetrating into the domain of the humanities. It is difficult to imagine a modern humanities professional who does not use the computer or surf the Internet. On the other hand, the world created by technologies reKaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

quires a different, humanitarian view, rather than the â&#x20AC;&#x153;pragmaticâ&#x20AC;? efficiency-oriented one, which emerged in the 21st century. Modern technologies do make a heavy impact on the entire human life. We live in a world with almost no areas unaffected by technologies. However, it should not be forgotten that technological thinking is efficiency-oriented only. It tries to answer the question how to achieve one goal or another, however it does not question the significance of aims. Therefore, it is getting more and more difficult to understand where we are and what is happening with us. Here a reflective attitude characteristic to humanitarian sciences and philosophy in particular is is gaining increasingly more importance. The Media Philosophy programme delivered by the Department of Philosophy and Culturology is firstly oriented towards such attitude.

Research in KTU Over 15 years the Design Automation Processes research group of KTU Informatics Faculty has been enjoying scientific research experience for creating automatic program generation and transformation systems aiming to enhance reusability and productivity of various system design processes. We focus on the development of a methodological foundation that enables through analysis to extract from various domains artefacts and knowledge for creating software components and then to describe such design processes as specification, representation, generalization at high abstraction level in order, on this basis, we could be able to perform high-level modelling and to develop transformation approaches that lead to program generation. At the core of the methodology is the product line approach and design for reuse in designing generic and generative components for hardware, embedded systems, web-based and e-learning oriented systems. The main focus is given to the domain variability representation at high abstraction level, modelling and transformations. To represent the domain artefacts and their commonality-variability models we use the feature-based notation. To implement transformations we use heterogeneous meta-programming techniques. Our specific interest is the generalization of heterogeneous meta-programming techniques. To investigate the capabilities of the techniques in various domains we have developed the domain-independent meta-language and tools that support our research. Our research activity focuses on the following directions: 1. Formalization and extension of the feature diagram notation to support domain knowledge representation, specification, context-based modelling and transformations; 2. Heterogeneous meta-programming techniques, generalization of the techniques and complexity evaluation of meta-programs; 3. Component variability management, high-

level model and program transformations; 4. Program characteristics improvement and modelling of program energy consumption awareness; 5. Intelligent component models.

Results As a part of the introduced methodology for specification, modelling and design of systems, we have developed the domain-independent meta-language and tools that support our research in program generation/transformation using heterogeneous meta-programming techniques. In particular, the transformational process-based method for soft IP (Intellectual Property, HW domain) design has been proposed, which includes: (a) the concept of transformational design process for soft IP-based design; (b) generic component model and framework for the development of meta-specifications; (c) soft IP customization framework based on the integration of UML-VHDL meta-model and meta-programming with parsing. The transformational design method allows generalizing, customizing and integrating soft IPs at a higher abstraction level and


Kaunas University of Technology

If you want to create a software sub-system or component automatically first you need to understand well a domain under consideration representing its commonality-variability model, and then to transform the model into the executable specification using some generative technology. Prof. Dr. Habil. Vytautas Štuikys

then automatic generating of IP instances on demand, thus enabling to achieve higher extent of reusability and flexibility in the domain. For e-Learning domain, we have developed the method based on high-level abstractions, i.e. using feature-diagrams and meta-programming techniques to design Generative Learning Objects (GLOs). The method includes: (a) the feature-based specification of learning content with variability in mind; (b) meta-specification for GLOs development and instances generation; (c) aggregation of LO instances derived from GLO to form higher-level compounds for e-learning. In our research group similar transformational methods has been developed to support web-based components and embedded software component automatic design. The methods use high-level feature-based specifications that are transformed into heterogeneous meta-programs. Over past decade 4 PhD dissertations have been prepared and defended in our research group and about 60 articles and conference proceeding papers were published in wide-world on the topic.

Prof. Dr. Habil. Vytautas Štuikys , Assoc. Prof. Dr. Robertas Damaševičius, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Giedrius Ziberkas

International Projects and Cooperation Our research group cooperates with Darmstadt University in Germany, Riga Technical University in Latvia, University of Cyprus, TIMA laboratory at Grenoble University in France and other institutions. The cooperation includes the partnership in European projects (e.g., UNITE), PhD student exchange, exchange of publications or publishing common papers and also participating in Editorial Boards of scientific journals (e.g., ISSN 1306-4428, ISSN 0948-6968) or membership of international scientific organizations, such as IEEE or ACM. For example, the recently completed European project UNITE (Unified eLearning environment for the school (FP6 IST-26964, 2006-2008)) have not only opened the way for a wider cooperation with European partners and researchers but have also enabled the research group to extend the application of our methodology to the e-learning domain.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Habil. Sigitas TamuleviÄ?ius Institute of Materials Science

Surface Engineering & Microtechnologies Institute of Materials Science One of the most successful subdivisions of KTU working in the field of Materials Science and Engineering is the Institute of Materials Science (former Institute of Physical Electronics). The Institute was founded in 1994 after the reorganization of the Scientific Center of Semiconductor Microelectronics "Microlira" of Kaunas Institute of Radio Measurement Technique. In 2003, the Institute had been reorganized into a Research Institute, having the status of the University Institute, and in 2010 it has become a part of the University as an academic research division. Currently the Institute has 33 employees and premises facilities of a total area of 1100 m2. The research activities are being carried out in collaboration with the scientific laboratories and departments of Kaunas University of Technology, with other Universities, scientific institutions and industrial partners of Lithuania. The Institute is equipped with up-today scientific technological and analytical equipment. It makes possible to carry out research in the fields of solid-state physics, surface analysis, microelectronics, materials science and chemical analysis. M.Sc. and PhD students of the University are involved in the research activities of the Institute. The Institute has a track of successful cooperation with foreign colleagues and Lithuanian business enterprises performing common research and projects within different International and European programmes (FP6, COST, Eureka, NordForsk etc). E.g. the projects run


Kaunas University of Technology

together with the JSC â&#x20AC;&#x153;Technologijaâ&#x20AC;? resulted in the developed and introduced novel technologies, which allow producing mechanically and high temperature resistant coatings used in the technology of rollers. At the moment two COST projects dedicated to the development of new biosensors based on the plasmonic properties of nanoparticles and one project dedicated to highly ionized pulse plasma processes are in progress. The Institute is one of the Lithuanian research institutions engaged in the field of high technologies and its research activities are aimed at the development of new technological equipment, new technologies and implementation. The main directions of research activities are related to micro- and nanotechnologies field. It is worth to note that special document security means (different type of optically variable devices) are also produced here. Main technological tools include vacuum and plasma technologies: glow discharge plasma, radio frequency plasma, arc-discharge plasma. Plasma technologies are used for coating production and for selective removal of material. Combining various methods of lithography (contact microlithography, laser interference lithography, electron beam lithography) and plasma etching (or reactive ion etching), different microstructures and microdevices that find variety of the applications in different engineering fields are produced.

The main directions of research activities are related to micro- and nanotechnologies field.

Scientific Aspects Development of new microsystems and microobjects requires a new approach to the technologies and engineering of new materials with unusual properties. This is important for optical materials â&#x20AC;&#x201C; materials applied in the production of optical systems, mechanical and optical devices. In this process plasma technologies appear as a very efficient tool. Direct ion beam deposition or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition have been applied to produce new material combining antiadhesive properties and transparence in the visible range: diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, which are used in nanoimprint lithography. This technology is considered as an efficient, high production rate technology enabling replication of structures with linear dimensions within the nanometric range. At the moment this technique provides nanometric (20nm) resolution. It should be mentioned that the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of diamond-like amorphous carbon are unique and similar to natural crystalline diamond. Those coatings are applied in different sensors and micro-

electromechanical devices, passive layers in microelectronics, technical and bio-medical devices. When diamond-like amorphous carbon coatings are applied in nanoimprint lithography processes, the carbon has to be optically transparent, optically and mechanically homogenous at the nanothickness level and hydrophobic. It also has to be resistant to multiple heating and cooling. This complicated technological problem has been solved by controlled changing of the composition and structure of the material. Coatings of diamond-like amorphous carbon were deposited by direct ion beam, as the source of hydrocarbon using acetylene gas or mixture of HMDSO (hexamethyldisiloxane ((CH3)3SiOSi(CH3)3) vapour and hydrocarbon gas. Further research is being performed in this field applying DLC for biosensors contacting with the liquid phase to provide control of the processes in real time. Inertness of the DLC makes this approach very promising in developing of new biosensors operating in hazard conditions, analysis of processes in blood and other biological applications.

Applications The available micro technologies (microlithography, interference lithography combined with plasma and reactive ion etching) enable to produce micrometric and submicrometric devices for various applications. Those are various dispersive elements, dividers of optical wave front. Under an international project (Nexus), a micro fluidic device has been developed, which is used for the orientation of nanofibers. The above technologies and replication of microstruc-

tures in polymeric materials (Nordforsk project) had been used by our institute to create new optical elements: polymeric microstructures with regularly arranged silver nanoparticles. The work has been performed in cooperation with Helsinki University and Southern Denmark University. If metal has the form of nanoparticles whose linear dimensions are nanometric, such particles demonstrate quantum properties and can be used in analytical technique. These

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

particles act as local amplifiers enforcing the electrical field and increase Raman scattering sensitivity of the surface up to 10,000 times (Raman scattering is used in the analysis of mate-

rial structure to identify its chemical bonding). In developing of such devices, we have made microstructures with resonance properties in the visible light.

Wavefront splitter for red laser light in action (Intensity of laser light is concentrated mainly in two diffraction maxima)

Plasma technology (plasma spray employing arc discharge) was found to be efficient tool in the production of composite coatings used in solid oxide fuel cells SOFC). The requirements for the electrodes of such fuel cell are rather specific. They have to be porous, electrically conductive, having significant component of electron conductivity. Vacuum plasma spray method has been used to create such structures, which are used in solid oxide fuel cells operating in high temperature range. Yttrium stabilized zirconium ceramics and nickel or nickel oxide composites layers have been produced and investigated as potential electrodes for high temperature SOFC. Continuing research in this field, further experiments on the developing of new micro SOFC devices and elements for such kind of sources are being performed. During the recent years a lot of attention is paid to the technologies of micro fuel cells (µ-SOFC) with few watts of output that can be applied in the portable electrical equipment. The most efficient micro fuel cells are expected to be produced using crystalline silicon as a constructional material. The energy density for this type of cells is expected to be at least four times higher than that for the lithium ion or nickel hydride batteries. Technology of this type of micro fuel cells is based on the thin films technologies. µ-SOFCs like other SOFC contain anode, electrolyte and cathode, but contrary to the other constructions they are formed on the silicon substrate. The main objective of the new project is the search of new technologies of production of elements (cath-


Kaunas University of Technology

Diffraction grating with a period of 4 μm in fused quartz, optimized geometry to provide splitting of the red light

ode, anode, electrolyte) and microstructures for the future µ-SOFC. New chemical methods (sol-gel) enabling formation and doping of the electrolyte material will be developed, new laser microtechnologies are going to be applied and investigated to produce microstructures for the µ-SOFC, new lithographic processes combined with the chemical and reactive ion beam etching will be implemented to produce self sustained membrane structures and electrodes on top. The project will contribute to the development of new technologies and materials for the future energy production; it will stimulate further innovative systematic research in the field o future energy technologies and applications. It is very important that a new partner in this research with worldwide recognition - the Swiss Federal Laboratory for Materials and Testing is involved contributing with the advanced analytical techniques.

Main technological tools include vacuum and plasma technologies: glow discharge plasma, radio frequency plasma, arc-discharge plasma.

Future of the Field In Nice an annual conference is being organized by European Materials Research Society (EMRS) this year, which is attended by about two thousand participants from all over the world. One of the multiple sections of the conference is usually dedicated to the carbon or carbon based materials and nanocomposites. These sections are organized by the European network that coordinates scientific research in this promising field. Carbon coatings containing particles of other phase, i.e. metallic or semiconductors, etc., receive especially great attention. This is a promising material for future applications and remains on the top of research interests. The present European market has a lot of products where diamond-like carbon coatings (or doped DLC) are used – the size of the market is about 30MEuros – and covers applications from “data to beer storage”. Coatings are used in stents for heart bloodvessels, in heart valves; to cover working surfaces of hard disks of PC, to change permeability of PET bottles, to coat cylinders and other parts of “Ferrari” engines etc. The Institute, seeking for he novel fields of applications, developing new microdevices and structures, fits well to the European tendencies in the field. It is important to stress another direction of research of the Institute that includes the production technologies of special optically variable devices. At the moment the Institute only in Lithuania has a complete technological cycle – from the representation of a graphic image to the final product. Such holographic labels are used by various state institutions: State Metrological Service, State Tax Inspectorate, etc. It is very important for optical document security measures to be created in Lithuania. At the moment the Institute can offer all the necessary technologies: dot matrix, objective holography, for mastering and replication of holographic images in various (e.g. polymer) structures. Cooperating with the Physics Institute and Kaunas University of Technology Panevėžys Institute development of new security tags employing modern technologies such as electron beam lithography enabling mastering of 3D holographic images combined with special effects is being performed.

Application of micro technologies represents one of the hottest research fields in technological sciences. Particularly promising materials include graphene and meta-materials whose specific feature is negative refraction index. In cooperation with the Semiconductor Physics Institute the Institute has produced new type meta-materials for manipulation of terahertz radiation. The terahertz range radiation is used in contactless diagnostics of materials and security systems, research of chemical compounds and biological objects, and in the technology of THz images. Development of compact, electrically accumulative THz frequency radiation emitters and sensors that work at ambient temperature is in process.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Habil. Antanas Verikas, Senior Researcher Marija Bačauskienė, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Antanas Stasiūnas, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adas Gelžinis, M. Sc., PhD student Evaldas Vaičiukynas Department of Electrical & Control Equipment

Computational Intelligence Systems

Computational Intelligence represents one of the most vigorously investigated fields of scientific research in Informatics and Engineering. The methods of Computational Intelligence include artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic, and evolutionary computing. Artificial immune systems and swarm intelligencebased calculations inspired by biology and wildlife are becoming increasingly widespread. Intelligent equipment with Computational Intelligence should be adaptive, capable of learning and accommodating themselves to new situations, generalizing, abstracting, and making associations.

International Cooperation The Computational Intelligence research group of the Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering at Kaunas University of Technology enjoys over 30 years of scientific research experience in such fields as machine learning, decision making, classification, fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks, data mining, image and signal analysis and identification, and speech analysis. The group’s members include from 2 to 4 doctoral students. The group enjoys close cooperation with Halmstad, Chalmers, and Linköping Universities in Sweden, Darmstadt University in Germany, IBM Haifa Research Lab in Israel and others. The results of scientific research have been implemented in Lithuanian and Swedish industries, Swedish and UK banks.

Research and Projects Voice Pathology Detection The research has initially been started in cooperation with the Department of Otolaryngology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences and led to the research project “Voice Pathology Detection Project – HC3” carried out jointly by KTU, the Speech Technologies group at IBM Haifa Research Lab and Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. The goal of the project is to create decision support tools for diagnosing different voice pathologies. The following user cases will be supported: 1. Patient screening by a general practice physician at a community health care centre.


Kaunas University of Technology

2. Patient screening by paramedics at remote locations and third-world countries. 3. Web-based self-screening. 4. Screening of employees that work in risk environments or under risk conditions. 5. Collecting and exploring databases aiming to support trend analysis and treatment policy planning (for ENT experts and voice therapy experts). Advanced Voice Function Assessment The research is being performed under the framework of COST Action IC2103 Advanced Voice Function Assessment. This action aims

Computational Intelligence is concurrent with deductive reasoning, case-based reasoning, expert systems, logical and symbolic machine learning.

at improving voice production models and analysis algorithms. New previously unexploited techniques such as high-speed motion pictures of the vibration of the vocal folds and records in natural environment will be combined with new theoretical developments to improve voice production models of normal and abnormal voicing. Algorithmic Decision Theory The research is performed within the framework of COST Action IC0602. It aims at putting together researchers from different related fields such as decision theory, discrete mathematics, and Computational Intelligence in order to improve automated decision support in the presence of massive data bases, combinatorial data structures, partial and/or uncertain information, and distributed decision makers. Such situations arise while dealing with most real world problems, such as logistics, homeland security, epidemiology, risk assessment and management, e-government, and the implementation of recommender systems. Model of the Human Signal Filtering System of the Inner Ear The research is concerned with mathematical models that enable to investigate the speech perception processes and is financed by the Lithuanian Research Council. This project is concerned with the qualitative functional model of the human signal filtering system of the inner ear. The model implements the somatic motility and the active hair bundle motion mechanisms of the OHC, identifies their influence on the filtering, adaptation and the efferent control mechanisms of the filtering system. Method for Identification and Quantification of Phytoplankton The research is aiming at creating an automated method for identification and quan-

Assoc. Prof. A. GelĹžinis, Senior Researcher M. BaÄ?auskienÄ&#x2014;, Prof. A. Verikas

tification of alien invasive species of phytoplankton and is financed by the Lithuanian Research Council. Alien phytoplankton species constitute a significant proportion of the total invasive species found in aquatic ecosystems. A possibility of creating a system for automated identification and counting of alien phytoplankton is investigated by collecting a digital image database of the alien phytoplankton species found in the Lithuanian waters of the Baltic Sea. Intelligent Monitoring, Control and Security of Critical Infrastructure Systems The main objective of the research is to develop innovative intelligent monitoring, control, and safety methodologies for critical infrastructure systems, such as electric power systems, telecommunication networks, and water systems. The research aims at putting together profound knowledge in the field of application and the methods of computational intelligence, the system theory, and adaptive systems in order to develop cutting-edge methods of monitoring and control based on intelligent data interpretation and decision making, self-aware/ self-improving/self-healing modelling, scalability, flexibility, modularity and fault tolerant operation. The research is planned within the framework of COST action IC0806.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Regina Virvilaitė Department of Marketing

Marketing Science for Dynamic Markets Tremendous changes of consumer behaviour that are associated with constantly increasing requirements for quality, distinction and satisfaction of special needs are identified in the current knowledge based social-economic system. Within the context of globalization and information communication technologies and their impact, marketing theory is inevitably evolving and the importance of perceiving of new marketing theories and methods actualizes as well. Despite the variety of scientists’ opinions that is prevailing at first sight, it is more often agreed with the opinion that the choice of a consumer depends on the fact what value is provided by the offer of an enterprise. The necessity to present the offer for target consumers in such a way that ensures exceptional and long lasting benefit appears. This could be achieved when acquiring the competitive advantage that is related with the differentiation of goods and services offered as well as the quality of relationship and loyalty of consumers.

Past and Present Two directions could be identified within the development of marketing science. The first direction is more related with the expression of marketing content and its essence in Lithuanian marketing literature for teaching. The second direction of marketing development is oriented towards research works. The first research works were assigned to solve the problems of marketing management. Results of theoretical and empirical studies confirmed the significance of marketing decisions, related with products/services, brand, and marketing communications when attaining the competitive advantage in domestic and global markets. The results of scientific research were published in scientific journals and proceedings of international conferences as well as in scientific and practical conferences under the title “Marketing Theories and Methods in Lithuania”, organized as a joint effort with Prof. Dr. Habil V. Pranulis from Marketing Department in Vilnius University. The ability to identify the target market and understand the behaviour of consumer is another source to achieve the competitive advantage. The results of research works, conducted by J. Banytė, dealt with the context mentioned and have been revealed in doctoral thesis “Consumer Behaviour of Hotel Services” (supervised by Prof. Dr. R Virvilaitė). Marketing theory is inevitably evolving in the context of dynamic market and the usefulness of many conceptions that reflected the principles of traditional marketing started to decrease. Results of research works has proved the fact that consumer choice depends on the value, provided by the offer of an enterprise. The rendering of exclusive value for consumers is regarded to be the main factor that increases the competitive advantage of business enterprises and ensures the 114

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Within the context of globalization and information communication technologies and their impact, marketing theory is inevitably evolving and the importance of perceiving of new marketing theories and methods actualizes as well.

loyalty of consumers as well as long-lasting relationship. Methodological issues that are related with the development of consumer value are examined within the context of brand image and its value. Research works on the formation of brand image, the links of brand identity and image, and the measurement of brand value has been carried out within the area. Theoretical studies of consumer value development within the context of relationship marketing revealed the fact, that the recognition of consumer perceived value

and the value of relationship from the point of view of a consumer, have reasonably become relevant. The results of research works related with the topic were introduced in doctoral thesis “Consumer Perceived Value of Long-Lasting Relationship with the Enterprise of High Contacts“(scientific advisor Prof. Dr. R. Virvilaitė). The results of research works that had been carried out during the two last decades has been presented in 74 publications with coauthors; 5 of them were published in ISI and 9 of them in peer reviewed ISI databases.

Projects and Results The application of marketing conception has been revealed through methodological provisions and their adaptation in the market of freight services in Lithuania. The research works in the area mentioned above have been carried out since 2000 when participating in EUREKA umbrella project LOGCHAIN E-2402 “Building of Advanced Freight Chains and Logistics Technology”, LONGCHAIN, and EUREKA umbrella project LOGCHAIN+ E!3715 “Building of Advanced Freight Chains and Logistics Technology” – LOGCHAIN + (coordinator – TÜV Management Systems GmbH Central Division Research Management, Germany, representative from Lithuania – Prof. Dr. R. Virvilaitė). EUREKA umbrella project LOGCHAIN joins up projects that solve the issues of developing and implementing freight chains and logistics technologies. The first research works in the area of transportation services had been carried out when implementing RAIL GAUGE CHANGE project E-2353 “Economics Study about Investment in an Automatic Rail Gauge Change System within PAN-CORRIDOR 1“(coordinator – Dresden University of Technology, Germany, representative from Lithuania – Prof. Dr. R. Virvilaitė). Following the

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Research Overview 2011

results of empirical studies the need of the system for changing automatic railway gauge was verified as well as economic expedience of investments and the decrease of freight costs due to the reduced duration of transportation and no need for wagon transhipment and car change. PolCorridor E-2727 project “PolCorridor-Creating Europe’s Most Advanced Freight Transport Corridor (coordinator – Institute of Transport Economics, Norway, representative from Lithuania – Assoc. Prof. J. Banytė). The results of the empirical studies that had been carried out in Lithuania and had been related with the demand of freight services in PolCorridor transport corridor has confirmed assumptions stating that the intermodal transport corridor that would be developed following the technologies of Blue Shuttle Train would be useful for freight companies in the state and would provide possibilities to transfer scopes of bigger cargo from uniform freight by road transport to intermodal and, thus, achieve the improvement of social and environmental protection conditions. When participating in EUREKA umbrella project, theoretical studies for increasing of the competitiveness of intermodal transport terminals had been conducted and had revealed the place of logistics centres within the system of intermodal transportation. Theoretical solutions were based on empirical studies that described the conditions for opening centres of logistics in Lithuania and presented solutions for increasing the competitiveness of public centres of logistics. Solving the problems of increasing of the competitiveness of intermodal transport, the possibilities of intermodal transport’s applying in maritime shipping has been proved. The results of scientific investigations were published in the proceedings of the international conference under the title “Transport Means“. The conceptions and methods of marketing had been applied when solving the problems of increasing the competitive advantage of small and medium enterprises. The results of scientific investigations were presented in partner meetings of the project COST A17, entitled as “Small and Medium Enterprises Economics Development and Regional Convergence in Europe” (coordinator – COST Social Science, European Commission, DG Research, Belgium, representatives from Lithuania – Prof. Dr. R. Virvilaitė and Prof. Dr. V. Snieška) and published in proceedings of international conferences and scientific publications. The results of theoretical and empirical studies on the development of small and medium enterprises had been applied when developing the methodology for employee training in small and medium hotels. Leonardo da Vinci pilot project HOTSME- Self-Managed Learning for SME Hotels (coordinator – Tourism Authority, Malta, representative from Lithuania – Prof. Dr. R. Virvilaitė). Implementing the projects mentioned above Assoc. Prof. Dr. J. Banytė, Prof. Dr. R. Gatautis, Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Dovalienė, doctoral students B. Šeinauskienė, A. Gadeikienė, and V. Saladienė, as well as researcher L. Matulionienė took an active part.

Future Trends The analysis of possibilities to acquire the competitive advantage reveals the significance of research works on consumer perceived value of relationship. This is related with the role of consumers in product and service markets and the marketing idea oriented towards the development of long-lasting relationship. Following the provisions mentioned above research works are devoted to the issues of quality in relationship with consumers and factors that determine the choice of certain service providers. The focus of research works from the perspective of acquiring the competitive advantage that are related with brand management, i.e. with the solutions on the measurement of brand value and brand standardization, are also significant. Works that are largely devoted to the issues of brand and evaluation of its value are related with continuous empirical studies and are verified by the results of the previous theoretical studies. Within the context mentioned, more emphasis is placed on the issues of links between the variables of consumer behaviour and the perception of brand value.


Kaunas University of Technology

Prof. Dr. Habil. Vitalijus Volkovas Institute of Technological Systems Diagnostics

Problems & Solutions for Unique Buildings Health Monitoring The monitoring concept of unique buildings, development of the monitoring system and verification methodology is the aim of the project STATIMON1). Implementation of this aim is done by deep analysis of world practice of buildings state control, reasoning based on building typical design, creating their mathematical and physical models with defects in structural elements, determining stability parameters, designing, producing and testing the prototype of automated monitoring system and development of the suitable software for monitoring system.

Building Condition and Analysis Sudden collapses of various purpose buildings in recent years require modern researches of structural stability monitoring system. Therefore it is appropriate to carry out extensive analysis and create concept of unique buildings mathematical models and stability criteria, the structure of state monitoring system and develop its prototypes for commercialization. The normal exploitation of the building is defined as the sum of prevention and control inspections in order to ensure building’s compliance with requirements during whole its usage period. The buildings can reach emergency state due to their degradation and their condition then does not comply with the essential building requirement of the Construction law – mechanical resistance and stability, thus further their use is not safe anymore. The features of the possible building emergency condition are related to the changes in buildings supporting construction due to which

further building’s mechanical resistance and stability is not ensured anymore. Essential building’s requirement is determined by construction safety marginal condition which defines various nature construction disintegration or conditions close to it. Environmental influence caused by the superposed different types of loads becomes more significant. The snow accumulation and ice can often generate an impact action, overloads, which emerge due to snow and ice blockage of water-shoot systems. A melting snow or raining may induce flooding and damages of building foundations. This can create large deformations and load redistribution. Significant increase of wind loads due to vortex and tornados are becoming more common. Besides, constructions which experience the load approximate to the marginal, acoustic sound pressure burst can be critical (e.g., in sport arenas).

1) Creation of buildings stability criteria, state monitoring system and implementation of the prototype: The project of the scientists group STATIMON, funded by Research Council of Lithuania. Reg. No. MIP-10213 (agr. MIP71/2010), period 2010–2011.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Structural Health Control In the world practice of unique structures health monitoring predominant and most developed is bridge condition monitoring. Such buildings as sports and entertainment arenas, huge supermarkets and multi-storey buildings only currently became objects in which monitoring strategies, practical solutions and executed research are tested. Because of the danger of the collapsing buildings among a lot of countries and regardless to the high cost of construction health monitoring recently big attention is paid to this problem: normative and legal base is being formed, specialized businesses are being created and developed. The developed monitoring systems contain various quantity and types of used transducers. They are designed to monitor the corrosion, static and dynamical parameters as deflections, accelerations, strains and etc. The building monitoring has some general principles and any monitoring and diagnostic systems should be created and developed

assuming several main axioms: all materials potentially contain faults and defects; evaluation of system condition requires comparing two states; the simulation modelling phase is unnecessary to detect origin of the defect and its location but generally it is essential to determine defect’s type and predict its development; transducer cannot measure the fault – it is required to convert transducer’s data into information about the fault. The main components of the structural health monitoring system: collection of building’s construction data, measurement transducers, data processing and data transfer, data collecting, control, interpretation, algorithms and procedures for building’s state diagnostics. The development of building monitoring system consists of these questions: identification of the object; modelling and validation of the processes; evaluation of the condition of the constructions on the base of created stability conditions.

Monitoring Concepts of the Buildings Stability Building stability depends on current supportive conditions and constraints between components of construction. Stability criteria for elastic and elastoplastic behaviour of materials are formulated for compressed slender structural elements and are suggested on experimental methodology. An objective observation of parameters is based on the control measurements using equipment, i. e. monitoring and diagnostics system. In this case the stability of the building can be evaluated only according to gathered informa-


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Building stability depends on current supportive conditions and constraints between components of construction. Stability criteria for elastic and elastoplastic behaviour of materials are formulated for compressed slender structural elements and are suggested on experimental methodology. tion of current state and correlation with modelled situations taking into account analytical, numerical and physical results. Then the stability estimate can be recognized as a particular created decision making rule. Conceptually that means that the purpose of the building monitoring system is not only to measure particular processes but also to have algorithm based on defect modelling results according to which building stability problem is solved and safety margins or probability of failures are estimated. If the information and reliability of predictions is not sufficient, then the essential changes of deformation state and spatial arrangement should be developed. Unique buildings are characterized by exceptional attributes and characteristics which depend on building functions, purpose and constructional solutions. Thus analysis of their models depends on particular building but the usage of hypothetical building could help to distinguish common construction elements and select generalized models. The main Lithuanian construction regulation documents allow to reason building models for the both physical and numerical research, to establish their adequacy. Therefore it is purposeful to limit the investigative object to simpler multi-storey building, where generalized static and dynamic loads of overlays and columns, modelled changes of loads and stiffness in local places.

Complex Mathematical and Physical Modelling of Structures Physical multi-storey framework type model of building, consisting of columns and slabs, is purposed in order to investigate static and dynamic response of the structure with different levels of damages. The elements of this model were constructed considering the scale factor of the real building such as to ensure that the building of one, two and more storeys (in particular case the up to 9 slabs) imitation model of the building framework. The main aim is to perform computing and investigation of the building, considering as possible outcomes due to uneven and concentrated loads, quality and maintenance of construction and investigate weakened supportive constructions under dynamic loads. The correlation between results of numerical evaluations by comparing with the corresponding results of the physical modelling was determined. The corrected mathematical model allows achieving sufficient adequacy of the mathematical and physical models, thus using efficient numerical method the typical features of the modelled defects have been calculated.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Prof. Dr. Habil. Algirdas Žemaitaitis Department of Organic Technology

Starch & its Derivatives for Non-food Applications In the 21st century more and more consideration is given to ecological products and the ways of their production. People need increasingly more various materials; however, their production must not pollute the environment or secure pollution reduction. What ecological solutions do scientists offer? One of the possible answers to this question is a more extensive replacement of synthetic polymers with polysaccharides and their derivatives. That is a family of biodegradable natural polymers and the main representatives are cellulose, starch, and chitin. Cellulose, a raw material used in paper and textile industries, is one of the best-known biopolymers with the broadest technical applications. The second most popular representative of the polysaccharide family, which is obtained from plants, is starch. They have advantages over synthetic polymers obtained from fossil raw materials, i.e. oil and coal, because they are produced by the nature itself. Moreover, the products based on biopolymers degrade naturally in the environment without increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Those are the main reasons which cause the intense development of new polysaccharide products and their technologies all over the world.

Non-food Applications of Starch We employ our experience in chemical modification of polysaccharides accumulated over several decades and we are expanding our research in the area of starch non-food applications. Our priorities include the projects with potential practical value. When wheat starch is produced in JSC Amilina in Panevėžys, A-type and B-type starch fractions are isolated. The B-type fraction is less valuable than the A-type fraction and currently it is not rationally used. In cooperation with the specialists of the company we are finalizing research on B-type starch applica120

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tions in paper production. We have tested the biochemically processed B-type fraction at Klaipėdos Kartonas factory and have proofed that this fraction is suitable for the paper production. If we succeeded in introducing this technology to Klaipėdos Kartonas, a worthless waste, which pollutes the environment, would become a useful product, and the company would earn a fair economic profit. Our research group is finishing a set of laboratory experiments on designing the manufacturing technology of high charge density cationic starch (HD-CS). This work forms a part of

We employ our experience in chemical modification of polysaccharides accumulated over several decades and we are expanding our research in the area of starch non-food applications.

the project which is presently being implemented by the group and its science and business partners in line with the tasks of the National Industrial Biotechnology Programme. We have created the technology where quaternary ammonium groups with a positive charge are introduced into starch chains while preserving the natural microgranules. The process is efficient; it takes place at the room temperature, also, the employed equipment is not complex. The efficiency of the modification comes up to 90% [Bendoraitienė, Joana; Kavaliauskaitė, Rasa; Klimavičiūtė, Rima; Žemaitaitis, Algirdas. Peculiarities of starch cationization with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride // Starch - Stärke. ISSN 0038-

9056. 2006, Vol. 58, no. 12. p. 623-631. R. Kavaliauskaitė., R. Klimavičiūtė., A. Žemaitaitis. Factors influencing production of highly cationic starch // Carbohydrate Polymers, 2008, Vol. 73, no.4, p.665 – 675]. Before long this technology will be tested for industrial applications. After its implementation the production of cationic starch products competitive to synthetic analogs will begin. Starch, which is modified in this manner, acquires properties that are not characteristic to natural raw materials, such as binding and concentrating of negatively charged pollutants from industrial and municipal wastewaters. Hence, HD-CS is the potential sorbent and flocculant for environmental technologies.

Starch Flocculants and Adsorbents The people would associate starch with the food applications. Nevertheless, nowadays starch is increasingly more useful in non-food industry. Currently, the low charge density cationic starch is mostly used. In the case of HD-CS, ten times more of cationic groups were introduced into macromolecule. Starch modified in that way becomes either a flocculant or a sorbent. It was determined that heavily swollen particles of the modified starch have flocculation properties, i.e. they are able to bind and precipitate pollutants from wastewater [Rima

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Research Overview 2011

Klimavičiūtė, Dalia Šablevičienė, Joana Bendoraitienė, Algirdas Žemaitaitis. Kaolin dispersion destabilization with microparticles of cationic starches //Desalination and Water Treatment. ISSN 1944–3994. 2010, Vol. 20, p.243–252.]. We have found that the flocculants synthesized by us are better than some water soluble starch based flocculants. The studies of flocculation mechanism have explained the reasons of this phenomenon. Although our flocculants are not as efficient as the synthetic ones, they are cheap and biodegradable. Thus there is a possibility to use starch flocculants for water treatment instead of synthetic products. It is likely that such wastewater sludge treatment technology will be attractive to Lithuanian wastewater plants that have equipment for biogas production from wastewater sludge. For example, Kauno Vandenys wastewater treatment plant, that has a modern sludge treatment technology, could find it attractive. We found that the crosslinked of HD-CS macromolecules are particularly efficient adsorbents for pollutants [Rima Klimavičiūtė, Joana Bendoraitienė, Ramunė Rutkaitė, Algirdas Žemaitaitis. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium on cationic cross-linked starches of different botanic origins// Journal of Hazardous Materials. ISSN 0304–3894. 2010, Vol. 181, p. 624–632.]. For example, a modified starch based adsorbent can be used to remove anion colorants that are present in textile wastewater [Klimavičiūtė, Rima; Riauka, Aurimas; Žemaitaitis, Algirdas. The binding of anionic dyes by cross-linked cationic starches // Journal of Polymer Research. ISSN 1022-9760. 2007, Vol. 14, no. 1. p. 67-73]. Presently that is substantial environmental problem in textile industry.

Future Prospects In Lithuania the implementation of the national integrated programmes financed by EU structural funds should be started. One of them is called Sustainable Chemistry. We expect that research and development of technologies where starch compounds are used will play an important role in this programme. We have recently found that cationic starch can attach molecular iodine. Thus it becomes a polymeric complex compound that at the same time possesses bactericide properties. Such product will release the attached iodine only when there is an iodine acceptor in the environment. If water will contain bacteria, the complex will kill them by releasing iodine. When all the iodine present in the complex will be used, we will get a biodegradable substance again. Currently, we are working on such systems in MIP 53/2010 project “Cationic starch-iodine complexes with antimicrobial activity” financed by the Research Council of Lithuania. Together with the partners of the intended project we are going to make a nanofiberbased hybrid material. The bactericide microparticles of that material could be immobilized. There is another possible solution: to make nanofiber perform as a bactericide. For that purpose, nanoparticles possessing bactericide properties could be made at first and then nanofibers formed. We have started working in this field in cooperation with electroweaving specialists from KTU, Bulgaria and Estonia. Thus we expect to make a product


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which we could offer as a filter for the water disinfection in closed water systems. Modern chemistry and technology of starch conversion into the technical products is closely related with the development of bioplastic packaging materials. As noted above, starch is cheaper than some plastic. So why not to start the production of starch-based biodegradable thermoplastics in Lithuania and to replace the polythene or polypropylene film packaging therewith which would enable to have the national problem of landfills finally solved? Moreover, this way was chosen in the USA and all other developed market economy countries more than ten years ago. You need so “little“: to make starch thermoplastic, to create its production technology and persuade the consumers of the benefits of such products. The first steps have been made together with Umaras, a thermoplastics producer from Utena. To make the polythene film more biodegradable, modified starch microgranules have been added into the film. We live in the period of nanotechnology development. We expect to use starch nanoparticles in order to improve the removal of particularly hazardous pollutants from drinking water. That should lead to a large increase of the efficiency of those processes. Charge carrying nanoparticles of modified starch already exist in laboratory test-tubes. Currently, we are involved in the COST Action FA0904 “Eco-sustainable food packaging based on polymer nanomaterials”.

Prof. Dr. Habil. Antanas Žiliukas Centre of Strength & Fracture Mechanics

Light & Safety Structures Technological civilization develops creating more and more durable materials. While creating new structures it is pursued that they were strong, light and economical. Therefore, one of the most important indicators is the ratio of strength of the material to its density. Composite materials are especially durable and strong, characterized by good physical properties. However, studies of these materials are insufficient. This is especially true while assessing the bearing capacity of structures made from composites. Although the idea of combining two or more components to produce materials with controlled properties has been known and used from time immemorial, modern composites have been developed only several decades ago and have found by now intensive application in different fields of engineering. Composite materials are ideal for structures applications where high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight rations are required. The study of composite materials actually involves many topics, such as, for example, manufacturing processes, anisotropic elasticity, strength of anisotropic materials, and micromechanics. Technological progress is associated with continuous improvement of existing material properties as well as with the expansion of structural material classes and types. Usually new materials emerge due to the necessity to

improve construction efficiency and performance. In addition, new materials themselves, as a rule, in turn provide new opportunities to develop updated structures and technology, while the latter challenges materials science with new problems and tasks. Structural materials process a great number of physical, chemical and other types of properties, but at least two principal characteristics are the stiffness and strength that provide the structures with the ability to maintain its shape and dimensions under loading or any other external action. Thus the structures cannot exist without controlled stiffness and strength. Naturally, both properties depend greatly on the structures design but are determined by the stiffness and strength of the structural material because a good design is only a proper utilization of material properties.

Composite materials are especially durable and strong, characterized by good physical properties. However, studies of these materials are insufficient.

Kaunas University of Technology


Research Overview 2011

Studies of Strength and Fracture of Materials New assessment criteria of strength and fracture of composites have been created at the Centre of Strength and Fracture Mechanics of Kaunas University of Technology and have been proved experimentally, applied in industry and approved in worldwide magazines’ Web Science databases. This gives hope that composites will be created and applied more efficiently. [A. Žiliukas. Strength Criterion of undirectional Composite. Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences. Vol. 13. December 2006. p.p. 520-524, N. Keršienė, A. Žiliukas, A. Keršys. Influence of ply orientation on mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of woven carbon and glass composites. Mechanika. Kaunas. Technologija. 2010. nr.2 (82), p. 3136, A. Žiliukas, A. Surantas. Determination of residual welding stress in load bearing structures mode of welded hollow sections. The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering. Vilnius. Technika. 2010. Vol.5. p. 55-61] The main directions of scientific activities are: studies of new materials and problems

of strength and fracture of innovative structures made from them. Strength and fracture criteria have been developed at the Centre of Strength and Fracture Mechanics and have been improved when a structure is affected by a multiple stress state in a three-dimensional space. This is not common in science as more studies have been performed to define the bearing capacity of materials in one-dimensional or two-dimensional space. Solution of three-dimensional problems is particularly important for anisotropic materials. The gained strength and fracture criteria have enabled to assess properties of materials when they are loaded in various directions, and to estimate structures when they are under total actual load. Such estimations have been applied while designing the new structures in Lithuanian factories JSC “Traidenis”, “August and Ko”, “Hydrologija” and etc. In the projects produced are of various sizes and are used for storing overground and underground wastewater.

There are lots of composites used in medicine, odontology, traumatology, orthopedics and etc. Composite materials are mainly used for reconstructions so they must be strong and durable. The new area of researchness is pointed on composite materials and structures used in odontology. New researches of composite materials used for tooth restoration as well as structures of prosthesis with implants have been initiated at the CSFM in cooperation with Department of Maxillofacial Surgery.

Perspectives On the grounds of scientific studies carried out while analyzing composite structures in pursue to estimate the most rational strength, fracture and stability parameters it is expedient to extend engineering research. Composite materials and structures are very promising for manufacturing of light structures and their use for the safety of important buildings, for example, for building of storages of hydrogen fuel. Composites can be used to make high pressure vessels characterized by great bearing capacity. Therefore, designing and exploitation of high pressure vessels is one of the most important fields of application of composite materials. This can be achieved by using and combining layers of different composites made of various materials. The new research area on odontological materials and systems would give more information and possibilities for odontologist to restore tooth and to implant.


Kaunas University of Technology

Prof. Dr. Pranas Žiliukas Department of Mechanical Engineering

Biomechanics for Better Health & Sports Achievements The object of Biomechanics, which comprises Biology and Mechanics, lies in mechanical features and active movements of animal and human organs, described according to mechanical laws and anatomic and physiological features of living organism. This direction is new at KTU, but researchers have already achieved some experience while developing modern measuring and programming equipment, researching and modeling human movements and biomechanical features of tissues. Research of movements is being performed in order to improve the technique of sportsmen movements and to better their results. Again, this information is necessary for the development of new original trainers and methods of medical diagnostics.

Computer Models for Better Implants One of the most important research fields in Biomechanics is the rehabilitation of human working capacity by substituting the damaged joints with artificial ones (implants). Thousands of hip joint endoprosthesis surgeries are performed each year. Still, it may be difficult to restore exact normal anatomy of joint because of anatomic changes in pelvis and femur, caused by disease or injury. Therefore in some cases the surgeons do not choose properly the implant components or do not embed them correctly during the surgery. After such surgeries natural position and functions of a joint are not restored properly, and human movements do not correspond to the parameters, which a person had had until the surgery. Consequently, the research aimed to assure the process of endoprosthe-

sis and to develop new means for regeneration of disordered functions of supporting and movement apparatus is very relevant. Computer based modelling is applied in this case. To forecast the consequences or to establish the correction means of natural joint‘s replacement with artificial one or of other interventions of similar complexity into living organism, when it is important to evaluate anatomical body

Human biomechanical model: a – fragment of model of lower body with implant; b and c – models of elements of hip joint replacement

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Research Overview 2011

Results of forward dynamic analysis of the human gait. Curves of Y-coordinate’s change of healthy joint centre control point during walking, received when shifting the hip joint implant centre by 2, 4 and 6 mm vertically upwards with respect to the femur bone

structure and body systems functions with a maximum possible adequacy, existing models, methods and software are not perfect yet. Therefore, in order to establish the impact of artificial joints on human supporting and movement apparatus and movement functions or to perform other sound research, human walking (movement) analyses, which combine calculation and experimental data, methodology and human models, designed to investigate human body systems, are developed in the Department. Methodology and models may be employed to improve the exactitude of joint replacement surgeries and to accelerate the rehabilitation after joint replacement surgery (for implant adjustment, rehabilitation procedure correction etc). It is important to develop rational implant con-

structions and to choose appropriate materials. Implant must rest unbroken and unloosened for an established period of time. Bone remodeling problem is also relevant, when, due to heavy tensions, long-term loads may affect negatively the structure of bone tissue and therefore the bone tissue may atrophy, cement-bone connections may weaken or even decompose, and the implant may loosen. In turn, mechanical features of bio-cement, which is used for cementation of implant elements in the bones, may substantially influence the dimension of load, which affect the bone, and the tension in it. Through this biocement human body weight load is transferred to the bones. The research, performed at the Department, also enables to assure better quality of endoprosthesis.

Unique Trainers Skiing, rowing and even swimming trainers, which imitate certain human movements – running paths, steps, veloergometers (bikes) – are widely used aiming to achieve superior sports results. Their possibilities are often limited, because sportsman’s shape and movements do not correspond to the real life or sports conditions. Rowing is one of the most efficient and best-balanced ways to develop the human endurance and strength. Besides, the rower must keep his balance, coordinate movements and proportion the force of all participating muscles, because all above-mentioned factors significantly influence the results. It is proven that muscle strength training does not always improve its balance-keeping function. Unbalance enforces to strain muscles during the force training, induces the adaptation of nervous-muscular system and improves coordination, and harmonized balance and force trainings increase the movement control and muscle activity (strength, stability). Almost all rowing trainers designed for amateurs as much as for professional sportsmen are 126

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Research of movements is being performed in order to improve the technique of sportsmen movements and to better their results. Again, this information is necessary for the development of new original trainers and methods of medical diagnostics. of the balance type. Yet in the real conditions trainers of non-balanced type would be more appropriate aiming to imitate the rowing of floating, i.e. unbalanced boat. One more positive feature of unbalanced type trainers is following: trainings, which require body balance support, affect nervous system as well, and the more significant and varied (comparing to ordinary trainings with dumbbell) muscle load is obtained; the risk of muscle, chord and joint injuries is decreased, etc. Unbalanced rowing trainer, which has more degrees of freedom than other known ana-

logs, with installed elements of stabilizing moment support, enabling to achieve approximate to real rowing training conditions, has been developed. Trainer suits for starter as well as for professional sportsman. During the training more muscle groups are working, the accuracy and coordination is being developed, risk of injury decreases. Besides, muscles remain active for longer period of time during the rowing process. While using such trainer, research of unbalanced rower boat system movements at the laboratory approximates at maximum to the real conditions.

Collaboration While performing these and other research (developing tactile system, aimed to deliver text and graphic information for blind people, load hitch of rowing trainers, mobile equipment for monitoring of human heart action and physical activity during the active movement etc), KTU closely cooperates with other research institutions (Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education, Kaunas University of Medicine) and industrial companies. Research in the field of Biomechanics is performed in close cooperation with colleges from research and industry institutions. Together with JSC “Baltec CNC Technologies” (BCT) intellectual trainers of alternate (controlled) load are being developed (project “Gudris”); together with Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education and JSC BCT, high-tech technology development programmes HOMOTECH (2003-2005), supported by State Science and Studies Foundation, and VITAACTIV (2007-2009) had been performed; the cooperation with Lithuanian-Hungarian company “Brača–Sport”, producing world-class rowing sports equipment, and with medics from the clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology at Kaunas University of Medicine has been initiated. In first case, while performing the calculation analysis, particular parameters of existing and designed academic rowing oar palms efficiency are being established; in the second case, means for cementing of broken human limbs bones are being experimentally researched.

Future of Biomechanics Engineering in nowadays is penetrating deeply into biosystems and even into its genetics. There are lots of engineering measures in the doctor’s working environment. Technical measures better and more qualitatively restore human functions, modern prostheses compensate them etc. Conditions of sportsmen training are currently changing. Without technical equipment, conforming to up-to-date scientific information and produced using appropriate materials, provided with measuring, data storage, transfer (including wireless connection) and processing means, it is impossible to compete in any branch of sport.

Kaunas University of Technology


Š Kaunas University of Technology, 2011 ISNN 2029-3151

Kaunas University of Technology K. DonelaiÄ?io g. 73, LT-44029 Kaunas, Lithuania E-mail: Phone: +370 37 300000, +370 37 324140 Fax: +370 37 324144

Research Overview 2011

Research Overview 2011  
Research Overview 2011  

This annual report provides a brief review of some of the key research activities undertaken at Kaunas University of Technology in 2011. Res...