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CONTENTS 5 2

Much Too Many

4

By-catch by the ton

6

It has no mercy!

3

2

10

8

3

Marine Archaeology techniques

7

5 ways to save the world

9

Miracles from the simplest of creatures

11

Meet Martin!

5

Not so breaking news

8

Lorde’s secret inspiration

10

The great white odyssey

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Topic Article #2

Much Too Many Much Too Fast

If shows like Teen Mom don’t already make you scared of who is having children these days, then maybe the hard facts of how fast humans are multiplying as a whole will. In 1999 the projected human population was up to 6 billion, which means in only 14 years our population has increased by over a billion. With the current exceeding speeds of population growth, the projected global population for 2050 is at 9.6 billion. “What does this mean for us?,” you may ask. Well the correct question would be, “How does this affect the ocean and everything in it?” 1999

A growing amount of humans means more fishing and less marine life. Along with the massacre of our marine friends, reef damage, runoff, and human waste are also increasing. Damage to the ocean means damage to the circle of life and us in return. One question you may be thinking is “Where/when/how can this be stopped?”- Though I have no answer to that, given the hard facts and numbers, we may be passed the point of no return… and we have no one to blame but ourselves.

2013

6 billion

2050

7.1 billion

9.6 billion 2


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Topic Article # 5

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Vocabulary

Marine Archaeology Techniques

SHARPS

Stands for: Sonic high-accuracy ranging and positioning system

Turkey

Country located southwest of Asia, southeast of Europe, between the Mediterranean and the Black seas.

Bronze Age

Period between the Stone and Iron Ages around 3600 to 500 B.C.

Archaeology

Study of human history through excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts and other physical remains.

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2 1) Airlift and Lift bags

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“The ocean is it’s own world in itself, so also discovering new information about our history is like being in two new worlds at once.” -John Smith (Marine Archaeologist)

2) Photography and Mapping

3 3) Submarine excavation

Marine Archaeology

like the computer controlled system SHARPS provides archeologists with a threedimensional map of their site. It all started in

When you were a kid, you would always learn

1960 when marine archaeologists discovered

about dinosaurs and how archeologist would

and explored a 3,000-year-old Bronze Age

dig up their fossils to learn more information

ship off the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

on their history, life styles, body plans,

Ships and the artifacts found inside provide

different species, etc. Marine archaeologist

information like ship construction, life aboard

aim to do the same thing for humans by

a ship, trade, naval warfare, clothing, jewelry,

discovering, salvaging, and interpreting our

weapons, coins, food habits, and other aspects

cultural heritage that still remains undersea.

of every day life thousands of years ago.

Thanks to new technology, many different

Marine Archaeologists also excavate towns

techniques and tools (like the ones shown

and harbors that have been submerged. As

above) are used to carry out these excavations

time goes by and more technology is

and are what allows marine archaeology to

invented, more history and information

even be possible. For example, technology

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Topic Article #1

By-catch by the ton by-catch is causing at least one death every 2 minutes. Marine Turtles are also common victims of the heartless killing and have become endangered because of it. The marine turtles will not survive if by-catch rates remain the same. Though all deaths resulting in bycatch are all extremely unfortunate, one species in particular is affected the In our society, accidental

unreported. Of course there are some,

most; sharks. It is estimated that 3.3

murder is an act that is deemed as

but very few, happy tales of nice

million sharks are caught as by-catch per

forgivable and somewhat sympathized

fisherman who try to save any and all

year on longlines alone. In the northeast

by our judicial system; sadly in the

by-catch they accidentally snatch up in

Atlantic Ocean, 89% of hammerhead

marine world this is far from reality.

their nets, but for the most part all by-

and 80% of white and thresher sharks

Accidental murder victims known as

catch victims have the same story.

have disappeared due to by-catch.

by-catch are one of the most common

Though some by-catch is kept to be put

Sharks are vulnerable to over fishing

tragedies throughout ocean life. By-

to good use after its unwanted death,

because of their slow reproduction

catch is unwanted fish and other marine

the majority of it is discarded into the

rate, along with many other species

creatures caught during commercial

ocean. Even if a by-catch victim is still

being killed.

fishing for a different species. As if over

alive at its release back into the ocean,

By-catch could never be

fishing wasn’t already damaging and

most by-catch dies soon after. Juvenile

completely prevented as long as fishing

heart breaking enough, throw in

fish in general are greatly affected, even

is alive, but if longline fishing and

innocent victims that aren’t even dying

if it is the species of fish the fisherman

trawls were completely banned and

for a purpose. It is estimated that about

was looking for because they are

regulated, it could be reduced greatly.

25% (25 million tons) of the

discarded due to their small size. Over

Having that said, what should we do

worldwide catch is by-catch. However,

300,000 small whales, dolphins, and

about it?

a good portion of by-catch goes

porpoises die every year, which means

DID YOU KNOW? Even coral is a victim to by-catch. Bottom trawling is responsible for most coral by-catch. It particularly threatens cold-water coral reefs, which are slow growing and cannot recover easily. In southern Australia, 90% of where coldwater coral reef used to grow is now bare rock.

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Not So Breaking News Human’s Blame Everything but Themselves While reading the November 14, 2013 issue of the Chicago Tribune, I came upon an article with the headline ‘Ocean suffer silent storm of acidification-international study’. Because of my concerns for our oceans I continued reading and the only feelings I was left with was annoyance and frustration. The article has interesting information and statistics about how the ocean is becoming more acidic through the years because of global warming. This is harmful to the ocean because the main greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, becomes a mild acid when mixed with water (Chicago Tribune). It talks about how in 2100 the ocean acid level is predicted to be above 170% of what it is now and about all the negative affects this will have on the ocean. It discusses evidence of higher acid concentration making fish act “drunk and disoriented.” Though the article is accurate in the negative affects acidification had on the marine environment and it does slightly mention humans being a contributor of global warming because of the immense amount greenhouse gasses we put into the atmosphere, it emphasizes the wrong issues.

Instead of discussing how much it will hurt our economy if all the fish start becoming sick or dying, it should be talking about how acidification of the ocean is only a small percentage of what is becoming harmful to the ocean. It shouldn’t be presenting facts about the coral reef and fish life being damaged with the idea that only acidification is causing that. What about all the chemicals people willingly put into the reef to scares fish out to kill them or the hundreds of other things humans do? The article also continually talks about how this acidification is a “silent storm” because “you can’t hear it, you can’t feel it.” I do like this metaphor, but I think it makes this issue seem bigger and more frightening than the issues we are directly causing to the ocean and everything in it. All together, I feel that article and information were presented in a way that is misconstruing to those who aren’t knowledgeable to all the other issues that harming the marine environment. We are the real silent storm and ignoring that will be our ultimate demise. 5


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POLLUTION

Topic Article #3

It has no mercy!

Types of Pollution Eutrophication

And it’s all our fault

1.

Sewage

Oil

The subject of pollution is nothing new to anyone who has paid any attention in school, to the news, watched any documentary on the earth, or has simply been awake for the passed few centuries; so why does it continue to get worse? Pollution is detrimental to marine life and it’s environment. The damage already done is both visible and invisible- on land, in the air, or in the water- all types of pollution affect the ocean. It disfigures and kills marine life every day and it turns what used to be their beautiful home into a marine wasteland. If that isn’t sad enough story to convince

you that pollution is killing our planet, pollution is also a hazard to human health. If/when we eat a marine organism that has been living in a toxic, polluted environment we put ourselves at risk. Also just swimming, diving, surfing, or even walking on the beach can be dangerous. Now who is to blame for this destruction? Who caused a beautiful world to become so hazardous? The answer is obvious; we did. Though we have learned to recycle and we have started using electric cars, there are still millions of tons of waste going into the ocean each year. When will this stop? Or is the question- Can it?

Excessive richness of nutrients in a lake or other body of water, frequently due to runoff from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life and death of animal life from lack of oxygen. Domestic sewage carries wastewater from homes and city buildings. Industrial sewage contains a variety of wastes from factories. Most sewage is discharged into the sea or rivers that flow to the sea.

Crude oil or petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. Crude oil is refined to yield not only fuels but raw materials for making plastics, synthetic fibers, rubbers, and fertilizer. Oil is one of the most widespread pollutants of the ocean.

Persistent Toxic Substances

Solid Waste

Pollutants that reach the sea from land are said to be persistent because they remain in the environment for years and are non-biodegradable. These materials include pesticides, heavy metals, radioactive wastes, lead, copper, and methyl mercury. Solid waste is easy to see on the beach where trash will be brought up by high water. It includes bottles, bags, foam cups, nets, and thousands of other items. Plastic is especially alarming because its nonbiodegradable.

Thermal The heated water that results from the cooling process is pumped back to the sea, causing alterations to the environment. This affects the temperatures in marine environment.

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Topic Article #4

5 Simple Ways To Save the World And By the World I Mean the Ocean

Mind Your Carbon Footprint

Make Thought-out Seafood Choices

Be conscious of how much energy you use in your every day life. Change to compact, fluorescent light bulbs, take the stairs when you can, car pool or just use your car less all together. By reducing the amount of energy you use, you can also reduce climate change.

The fish population as a whole is rapidly declining because of high demand, which results in over fishing and destruction of habitat. By being aware of what species are overexploited while you go out to eat or go grocery shopping, you can lower the demand for non-sustainable fish.

Use Less Plastic Products

Educate Yourself on the Ocean and Marine Life

Plastic is a big contributor in the waste that causes destruction of marine habitat and entangles, deforms, and kills thousands of marine life every year. Plastic is nonbiodegradable- can’t be broken down naturally. By reusing water bottles, use the cloth bags stores provide, and just recycling, you can reduce the amount of plastic that goes into the ocean.

All life connects to life in the ocean. By educating yourself on the importance of the circle of life, how much the ocean contributes to life on land, and all about the marine environment and everything that lives in it, you can then educate and inspire others. The most common reason that people do things that continue to hurt the ocean is due to the fact that they simply just do not know they are doing it. Education on the world around us can make all the difference.

Influence Change If you take the next step after educating yourself and taking action by also influencing others to do the same, you will make a world of difference. Or if you look into policies in your community that may not benefit the ocean, do what you can to change those policies for the better

For More Information‌ Visit ocean.nationalgeographic.com 7


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Topic Article #6

Lorde’s Secret Inspiration “Those who rule the sea rule the land.”

Though I’m sure most of you have heard, listened to, and loved the song ‘Royals’ by Lorde; many of you may not know about some information on Lorde’s family history that has leaked in the past year. It is said that Lorde’s great-great-grandfather on her mother’s side was a very wealthy man in the Netherlands. It is speculated that Lorde’s family still has a good amount of her late grandfather’s wealth, but Lorde was left out of this fortune and was left on the street to fend for herself. The fact that she was left broke and independent has always been the assumed inspiration for “Royals”, but does it go deeper than that? Not much is known to why she was left out of the fortune or how her grandfather was so wealthy, but it is speculated that this situation has left Lorde twitchy, rebellious, and jealous of all those who have wealth and fortune- causing her to become obsessed with having that herself. I decided to do some research myself to answer some of these bizarre, yet intriguing questions about our beloved Lorde. As I was doing my research one quote in particular stuck my curiosity; “Those who rule the sea rule the land.” This was a motto that emerged in the 1800’s because power came in winning sea battles and having control of the fishing, trade, and naval operations. The quote emphasizes the importance of sea power at the time. It also shows that food and products from the sea were and have always been important. The most interesting part of this quote is that it was started by a man a man named Elliot Lani Yelich. Lorde’s real name is Ella Maria Lani

Yelich-O’Connor. Coincidence? When I noticed the name resemblance, I continued my research on this man and I found that he was essentially a famous sea captain that ran one of the most successful naval ships in the mid1800’s. I then did research on her other last name O’Connor and it turns out she had taken her mothers maiden name (Yelich) and her biological dad’s name (O’Connor) because her parents were never married. I dug deeper and found that the O’Connor family tree is linked to a group of pirates that had taken down Lorde’s grandfather’s ship. Though he didn’t die in the attack and still had his fortune, he killed himself soon after because of nothing to live for without his ship and left on his will that any person who is affiliated with Captain O’Connor’s family is banned from any Yelich fortune. Talk about family drama for Lorde, right? Could ‘Royals’ be Lorde’s public denial of her great-greatgrandfather and her approval of her dad’s grandfathers piracy? Her explaining her frustration toward not getting her share of her mother’s family fortune? One quote from ‘Royals’ seems to strike right at her mothers side of the family- “We will never be royals, it don’t run in our blood, that kind of luxe just ain’t for us.” Now- This could all just be a made up fantasy in my head that I made through research on a simple quote… but you decide.

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Miracles from the simplest of creatures Take Two Sponges and Call me in the morning Review by Kelsey Cornell In reality, scientists do not

dive in the most beautiful parts of the

believe in miracles. They believe in

humans as well. Some have the ability

world, they also have to spend

evidence and hard facts. But what is

to fight against bacteria, fungi, and

countless hours in the chemistry lab,

a miracle? To me, finding medicine

viruses that could be used as

do an endless amount of tests, and still

that can help heal pain and the

antibiotics. Others are used to

may end up empty handed. Though all

harshest of diseases in the simplest

potentially treat cancer (though shark

the chemicals found in the ocean are

of creatures at the bottom of the

cartilage has still not been proven to

promising, still very few end up in the

ocean; now that is the most

do so) and tumors. Even the poisonous

pharmacy or hospitals.

beautiful kind of miracle.

chemicals and toxins found in the

Though this case study was

ocean can be used as painkillers for

short, simple, and to the point with its

Sponges and Call Me in the

chronic pain and cancer patients or to

information, it is information that

Morning’ explores the phenomenon

treat epilepsy and depression.

made me as a reader reflect on the

The case study ‘Take Two

Though all these aspects in the

of uncovering multiple kinds of

world as a whole and how it all works

chemicals in sponges and other

chemistry in the ocean are extremely

together in the smallest ways to make

invertebrate that have the potential

helpful and amazing to us humans, we

a big difference. It adds to the concern

to be used as medicine around the

definitely have to work hard to get

for the ocean and its well being

world. This is possible through the

them. Finding and using these

because the way we are mistreating it

natural chemicals these

medicines takes a lot of biomedical

is altering the possibilities of new

invertebrates make to help them

research which includes a “sharp eye,

discoveries. What will it take for

survive against predators. The

intuition, good luck, and a lot of

humankind to discover that a sick

chemical substances have properties

frustration” (CT). Though scientist do

ocean means we all become sick in

that have proven to be beneficial to

get to

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The Great White Odyssey Directed by Rory McGuinness

Unlike productions like Shark Week on the Discovery channel, the documentary The Great White Odyssey by National Geographic gives the respect to sharks that they deserve. This hour long, TV movie follows a specific great white shark named Nicole after Nicole Kidman because of her known love for sharks, on her journey across the world. By following one shark, the makers of this film allowed the viewers to personally connected to a shark, which is an aspect no other shark documentary has ever achieved. The graphics and breath-taking footage makes it easy to see the world through a sharks mind. Viewers, like myself, can’t help but root for Nicole as she faces the dangers of the every day life as a shark. Along with being educated on the life of a great white, you are also presented with harsh reality. Sharks are not the enemy of the ocean like we have always been taught; we are. With multiple montages of incredible, yet heart breaking footage of the slaughter of sharks, you are left with the feeling of guilt and confusion. The creature that survived the extinction of the dinosaurs is now being massacred at 73 million a year all to quench the demand for shark fin soup and pride and this film presents more than enough evidence of this. Along with being clear on the cruelty of the humankind, The Great White Odyssey allows you to witness groundbreaking research as Nicole travels farther than any other fish ever recorded in record breaking time. The last fish that held the record was also a great white that traveled from California to Hawaii. Nicole traveled three times that length, going from South Africa to Australia. You also witness Nicole reaching depths in the ocean that no other great white has ever been recorded reaching. She dove up to 3000 feet below the surface! This was just one aspect of the movie that showcased how little we truly know about the great white. This film is an amazing piece of work that I believe has the potential to make a great impact on how people think of sharks, which could in turn save them as a species. It’s movies like this that make a real difference in society and deserve to be recognized.

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Meet Martin! Martin Shell is a marine biologist that dedicates his life to saving and protecting sea turtles.

Saving Schedule Two hours before sunrise One hour before sunrise

Through out the morning & afternoon Sun down

Martin and his team go to the beach and look for signs that a sea turtle laid eggs. Martin goes and gets supplies and sets a net around the nest before tourists get to the beach. Martin checks on the nests in between caring for injured turtles in his care Martin makes sure all lights are off that could confuse the sea turtles that hatch from going in the wrong direction

Martin Shell: Saving Sea Turtles One Nest at a Time When I first sat down with Martin Shell, I noticed a tiny turtle pin on his vest. I asked him about it and he looked down as the biggest smile formed on his face “My daughter made this for me,” he said, as his smile grew bigger, “she has really grown to love the sea turtles as much as I do. We have really just bonded over them.” Already tickled by his story of him and his daughter, I started the interview: What lead you to work with sea turtles in the first place? MS: When I was young, it was just my father and I in a little beach house in Alabama. Because of this, I always grew up around the ocean and grew to love it. … Continue on next page…

Did you know? Sea Turtles have become endangered because of the many damaging things humans do to their environment. Pollution, populated beaches, bright cities, and stepping on or unburying turtle nests are just a few of the harmful aspects of human contribution to the endangerment of sea turtles.

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“The sea turtles have saved me just as much as I have saved them.”

MS continued: One day as I was walking along the beach, I saw a group of kids, tourists, kicking something around. Something didn’t feel right so I went to investigate and I realized it was a baby sea turtle. So I ran into the middle of their circle of “fun” and stole the turtle and ran. It wasn’t dead, but it was close. Both of it’s front fins were ripped open and one of it’s eyes were swollen shut. I took him to my father panicked and determined to save him. Long story short- the little guy made it through. I named him Leo after my favorite Ninja Turtle, Leonardo. Ever since then I’ve had a slight obsession with sea turtles and protecting them. So what did you do next once you realized saving sea turtles was your passion? MS: Throughout grade school, my dad and I would go out and keep a look out for anyone messing with nests or anything like that. I did my own research all about sea turtles when taking care of Leo and never stopped. In college I got my official diving certificate because it was always a dream of mine to also swim with the beautiful turtles in

their habitat. I got into one of the top Marine Science schools, University of Alabama, and majored in Marine Biology. After I got my degree I started my in depth research on sea turtles and traveled the world to see them. It was some of the best years of my life; I met my wife, Tracy, who is also a marine biologist and we had our little baby girl on the way. But after traveling for years, I realized I needed to do something that would have a bigger impact so my family and I moved to Florida where I started my non-profit organization and website savetheseaturtle.org. Yes! Tell me more about that? MS: It started as a small website where I would put together groups to help put fences around sea turtle nests on the beach. I also added some of the information I found through my research so I had some where to direct people to and further their education on the species. Now the Save the Sea Turtle Foundation as grown immensely, along with the website. Along with us constantly educating everyone we can, we raise money, take donations, provide ways for people to help hands on, and allow people to adopt a nest by donating

monthly. We also have a sea turtle store where all the proceeds go toward saving the sea turtles and we sponsor Outreach magazine to support education of marine life. The organization just really grew into something amazing and continues to grow.

Martin and his daughter put up one of the fences to protect a nest of sea turtle eggs. What is your favorite part of your every day? MS: Being able to wake up every day knowing I get to work with sea turtles as a career and that I’m making a difference in the world whether it’s in big or small ways. I also get to share it all with my wife and daughter. My wife and I enjoy going diving together on the weekends to further our research. My daughter and I go out every morning together to protect the nests. She also helps me take care of the injured turtles we take in. Continued next page…

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So you do still care for injured turtles? Is this common? MS: It is more common than you think. Right now we have about 7 sea turtles with minimal to severe injuries. We have an average of 1020 every couple of months. We take turtles that other locals find and we have also found a few ourselves. Most injuries are results of careless fishing, by-catch, boats, or just from beach goes being too curious. Every turtle is different in the recovery process so there is really no way of telling how long it will take for a turtle to be ready to go back into the wild, but we try to get them there as quickly as possible. In some circumstances we take the turtle to shallow water with low tide so it begins to regain strength quickly. It’s the most rewarding feeling when we watch one of our turtles swim back into the ocean. It’s a constant reminder at why I started do this in the first place. I can’t help but smile and think about Leo every time and wonder where he is in the world.

With all the nest fences you have put up and all the turtles you have taken in, how many turtles do you think you have saved since you started this journey?

MS: Oh, it’s hard to say. I would estimate in the thousands, just because I have been at this every day for over 20 years. I know that sounds like a lot, but I still wish I

Martin’s wife Tracy, helping a sea turtle regain it’s strength to eventually be released back into the ocean. could do more for them. Even with all the work my team and I have done, sea turtles are still endangered and it’s not getting any better. It’s going to take the world opening it’s eyes and seeing the damage it’s doing to the

environment and all the beautiful creatures in it for me to feel content and successful. Is there anything else you would like to tell the readers? MS: Be sure to educate yourselves. Not only on sea turtles, but on marine life and the oceans conditions in general. Be cautious of your carbon footprint and be aware of the ripple affect every action you make has on this planet. A lot of us forget we are only a small percentage of what else is living on this planet and many, if not most, have lost respect for that. When I say educate yourself I don’t just mean read books and memorize information; I mean get out there and experience the world. Helping someone, whether it’s another person or a creature of a whole different species, can teach you the most valuable and rewarding lessons of all. The sea turtles have saved me just as much as I have saved them. They have helped me through my hardest times and gave me hope and something to live for. Just another piece of evidence of the circle of life… Help others and they will help you in return.

Visit www.savetheseaturtle.org for more information

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