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K. Todd White . 6300420 Comprehensive Examination Master of Architecture Advisor : Eduard Epp Counselor : Mark West

Program Document.

For the fulfillment of section 5.4 of the Thesis / Comprehensive Examination Guidelines of the Department of Architecture, University of Manitoba. 1998-1999

K. Todd White . 6300420 Comprehensive Examination, for the completion of:


Master of Architecture degree Faculty of Graduate Studies, Department of Architecture Faculty of Architecture, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB

Vancouver . photos: S.Cox

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global stage and local place

architecture and urban interaction civic space and social motive section


site situations location history

situational context section


site description

programs and infrastructure surrounding places

surrounding districts

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33 40 48


61 68 76

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conceptual development diverse programs flow spaces




theoretical considerations connectivity diversity

interactivity 07

85 88

surface: urban surface(s)



event spaces

container spaces




interchange flows





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107 108 110







picture references


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introduction “HISTORY IS NOT OVER. Nor are we arrived in the wondrous land of techné promised

by the futurologists. The collapse of state communism has not delivered people to a safe democrat-

ic haven, and the past, fratricide and civil discord perduring, still clouds the horizon just behind us. Those who look back see all of the horrors of the ancient slaughterbench reenacted in disintegral nations like Bosnia, Sri Lanka, Ossetia, and Rwanda and they declare that nothing has changed.

Those who look forward prophesize commercial and technological interdependence—a virtual para-

dise made possible by spreading markets and global technology—and they proclaim that everything is or soon will be different. The rival observers seem to consult different almanacs drawn from the libraries of contrarian planets.

“Yet anyone who reads the daily papers carefully, taking in the front page accounts of

civil carnage as well as the business page stories on the mechanics of the information superhigh-

way and the economics of communication mergers, anyone who turns deliberately to take in the whole 360-degree horizon, knows that our world and our lives are caught between what William Butler Yeats called the two eternities of race and soul: that of race reflecting the tribal past, that

of soul anticipating the cosmopolitan future. Our secular eternities are corrupted, however, race

reduced to an insignia of resentment, and soul sized down to fit the demanding body by which it

now measures its needs. Neither race nor soul offers us a future that is other than bleak, neither promises a polity that is remotely democratic.” 1 Benjamin Barber

The Introduction outlines three contemporary discourses that have been creating much discussion within the discipline of architecture. This investigation draws on these discourses, to advance an understanding of their dimensions and influences upon the discipline of architecture within the contemporary urban landscape.

1Benjamin R. Barber, Jihad vs McWorld, How globalism and tribalism are reshaping the world, (New York, USA: Ballantine Books, 1995), pp. 3-4.

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First; Global Stage and Local Place, traces these often diametrically opposing view points within our dramatically changing, globalized world. On one side are the transient citizens of globalization, who survey the future around the globe, observing newly significant changes and future potentials. On the other, are the individuals of Localization who fear this change, and feel a loss of identity within a world more diverse and homogenous as they struggle to control change in their Local Place. While rarely contemplating or engaging the future potentials of our collective urban conditions and environments, Localization often becomes trapped in a stagnant or retroactive attitude towards the future, segregating the Local Place from the potentials the future may offer. However, the Global Stage, often fails to respond to the Local Place, and its citizens, in an accelerated determination for expansion, growth and economic potential. The second; Architecture and Urban Interaction, contemplates an interactive relationship between architecture and urban space in contemporary terms. Creating architecture with a greater interactive relationship to the urban landscape, beyond that of private initiatives, reclaims architecture's relevance to civic space. The goal is to gain insight into potentially new values and ideologies, through the projects urban condition, which may bring further understanding of this interactive relationship between architecture and urban space. The third; Civic Space and Social Motives, follows the changing view of public space in our more globalized cities. From the dialectics of an evolving, fragmenting or possibly dissolv-

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ing public realm, a portion of this project attempts to discover the new public spaces forming within our urban environments. Following the consideration of a changing civic landscape within our urban environment, and the growing realm of private based urban initiatives, reveals the need to reconstruct a social philosophy that will contribute to the design process of architecture, developing an architecture more interactive with the our civic spaces and urban environments. Initiating a comprehensive examination around these discourses, within an urban context will enable the project to pursue questions that could help to reformulate our understanding of architecture in contemporary society. It will also help us to create architecture that supports existing contemporary culture and its evolution within a valuable spatial environment that contributes visually, physically, virtually and mentally to the urban multiplicity of social events and activities that our cities stage and invent each day.

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global stage and local place The notions of Global Stage and Local Place serve as the background, the platform and the instigator of this project. As the background, the project situates itself around the growing discourse of change and conflict surrounding Globalization, Localization, Internationalization, and the urbanization of our globe and its diverse cultures. It builds upon the platform of change, within our social, political and environmental constructions, rituals, and practices. Attempting to construct an understanding of the contemporary shifts that are taking place in our cultures, societies, cities and urban spaces, the project hopes to develop a new perspective, one able to deal with the construction of architecture and urban space within this new dynamic. It is the perception of a more dynamic and fluid world of change, that has instigated the desire to venture within the dialectical relationship of the Global stage and Local place – to learn about the changing dimensions of urban civic space and to search for new principles to generate contemporary architecture. Globalization is producing multifaceted shifts in the old ways of thinking about and perceiving our cities. New rituals, practices, programs and environments are altering the ways we create architecture and envision our cities.

Stage and Place The spaces of urban life have a long history of theoretical discourse. From the classical city to today’s modern metropolis, comparisons can be drawn between the staging of urban life and the activity of theatre. Seen as a historical narrative of our cities, metaphor can compare associations between civic space and the theatre, and chart social and ideological changes

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02 10 (of Mies van der Rohe’s Skyscraper proposal @ Friedrichstrasse Station).

“As the light reflected in the glass surface and the viewing angle suddenly made the building’s skin transparent, private and public realms touched one anouther. Even if for only a moment, the divi-

sion between inside and outside, surface and depth, was overcome: and the auditorium and the stage of the urban theater became one, and viewer and actor met on the same set.”1 Fritz Neumeyer

within our urban history. This project —Global Stage Local Place— proposes a new metaphorical relationship through the use of the words “stage” and “place” in conjunction with the contemporary global-local dialectic. Continuing this metaphorical play of morphological conditions seen within our urban environment today, the Global Stage and Local Place addresses the interaction of the grounded territory of the local with the indeterminate, open possibilities of the global stage. No longer can our local place or urban territory of our city be seen as just the setting for us, as audience and actors, but today it is also becoming the territory of multiple stages for international activity between the virtual and physical global actors and actions of our newly interconnected world.

Globalization The globalization of our world is causing a transformation of our modernized world. Since the 1960’s the organizations of economic activity throughout the world economy has experienced pronounced change, where in the relationship between the city and the international economy has altered drastically.2 This altered relationship of the geography and composition of the global economy has produced a complex duality, which Sassen Saskia explains as a spatially dispersed and yet, globally integrated organization of economic activity.3 Internationalization has seen the influence of North American capitalist culture, politics 1An example of the relationships of urban life described through the popular metaphor of the stage (theatre), and of the actors and viewers upon it. Fritz Neumeyer, “The second-hand City: Modern Technology and Changing Urban Identity”(pp. 16-25), On Architecture the City, and Technology, ed. Marc M. Angelil (Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture: 1990), p. 22. 2Saskia Sassen, Global City : New York, London, Tokyo , (Princeton University Press: 1991) Ch. One: Overview., p. 4. 3Ibid.

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and lifestyles imposed upon the other localities and regions of this world. Though this makes internationalization less evident to the North American city, its effects are producing significant changes in North-American cities as well. The Internationalization of our contemporary world has profound influences on our nation-states, regions, and localities.(Lash, 279) Globalization of our urban areas and urban identities has transformed our sense of region and likewise our understanding of ourselves.4 It disrupts our sense of local space, by threatening the identities of place through the transformation towards a global space that is often characterized as homogeneous, undifferentiated, and virtual.5 Through this internationalization of our urban characteristics and morphologies, our cities potentially head towards this theorized homogenous “global city”.6 However, others argue that “globalization is a contingent, dialectical, non uniform, and undulating mesh of processes which do not, contrary to popular opinion, lead to simple homogenization. Globalization also initiates a myriad of local interpretations and transformations.”7 Thus it maybe interpretated that this is a homogenized diversity of internationalization, which once filtered through the local results in the global environment of which produces new influences on our urban spaces.

Localization The Local is a relatively simple situation to define, it is often that which we know as familiar. The Local can be addressed in a number of contexts and scales. In other words, it is our regionalism, the context of the familiar. The local situation however struggles today in this new globalized world, because the locally familiar place finds change a difficult concept to receive. Trapped between the place that is known and comfortable and developing changes 4Rajchman John, Constructions, Writing Architecture series,Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: The MIT Press, 1998, chapter sevenFuture Cities, p. 110. 5Adell Germán, The Landscape Fights Back: notes on some Parisian projects .(pp.74-81) new territories new landscapes, Barcelona, Spain, European Union: Museu d'Art Contemporani de Barcelona ACTAR, 1997, p. 74 6Koolhaas Rem, The Generic City .1994 (pp.1238-1267) SMLXL OMA, Rem Koolhaas and Bruce Mau. ed.Sigler Jennifer, NewYork, NewYork: The Monacelli Press, 1995. 7Olds K. Globalization and the production of new urban spaces: Pacific Rim mega projects in the late 20th century. Environment and planning A 1995, p. 1714.

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02 12 which are unknown and insecure, the Local often finds itself containing change and limiting potential. Changes and the future of our cities therefore become difficult to perceive today with the pressures resulting from the local condition. Globalized change is dynamic, unpredictable, and in some cases seemingly uncontrollable. And it is these characteristics that apply more stress to the Local, often producing the action of Localization; the denial, and attempted segregation of a local group from inevitable globalization. For these reasons, every locality will interpret and implement transformations due to globalization and internationalization in different ways and thus the manifestation of Global changes within our cities becomes diverse and variable, yet constantly influenced by time and place.8 The Global stage presents new relationships, new possibilities and new social attitudes and new activities to this local site, region or nation, and connects the Local Place to Global Space. The challenge today, within the Global and the Local situation is to find principles and strategies for architecture to appropriately engage particular contexts within this contemporary situation.

Global stage and Urban context The global stage is a place of change and indeterminacy. It brings these characteristics to our urban contexts, and local places, with new differences introduced each day. This suggests, that today we are more of a world neighbourhood than national or provincial. As we learn to work, live and participate in this growing internationalized climate, we change with our exposure to the multiple differences introduced. It will be our ability to understand and to live with 8Olds K. Globalization and the production of new urban spaces: Pacific Rim mega projects in the late 20th century. Environment and planning A 1995, p. 1714 “Seemingly uniform flows of ideas, images, or capital are interpreted to an infinite degree, creating diverse impacts in similar localities at the same time or in the same locality at different times.�

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this increased exposure to differences that will develope the future directions for our societies. This will lead many to search for where we are changing and where significant cultural shifts in ideologies, beliefs, and rituals are surfacing. This project endeavours to promote a new cosmopolitan view of our urban space, a view that accommodates difference, change, and indeterminate futures. The first sign that the Global stage will change our perception and patterns of urban

space is found in the notion of “Global Culture”. It is a topic that is often disputed, questioning how a culture can exist without a specific place or space. It is however, obvious that changes are developing within our urban demographics and social rituals, and so also are the ways in which we live. Immigration, travel and cultural diversity are blending our urban cultures and societies into one internationalized group and combined with the increasing ease of travel and the resulting increases in business and tourism related excursions, a more cosmopolitan society is developing. This suggests a new cosmopolitanism that involves the “intellectual and aesthetic stance of openness towards divergent experiences from different national cultures”9. Uniformity is no longer a desired societal goal, new cosmopolitanism desires a world of interesting and exciting societies of contrast and diversity. Sassen Saskia refers to this cosmopolitan group as the “new high-income workers”, who are the new professionals, managers and brokers, carrying a significant consumption capacity, while greatly benefiting from the newly globalized economy. Making too little money to be considered investment capital, and too much money to induce a savings orientation that the middle class has been characterized with, this new group is developing different lifestyles and 9Lash Scott, Urry John, Economies of Signs and Space :SAGE Publications, 1994, Chapter 11: Globalization and Localization, p. 308.

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02 14 opportunities for innovative economic activities. Interested in the urban setting, high density living, and engendered with consumption oriented lifestyles, this evolving social group is developing new attitudes towards living.10 As the middle class of the industrial society fades, a new class alignment is shaped “This massive urbanization is global in some sense of the now ubiquitous buzzword. It supposes new relations with the local that transform our sense of region and therefore of critical regionalism. Some see a set of connections more “omnipolitan” than cosmopolitan, which define a global business “city,” together with a city of real-time electronic-entertainment culture, coexisting in many “places” at the same time. for which shopping supplies the main program. The new poverty, the new immigration, then constitutes those denied citizenship in this global city.” John Rajachman constructions, future cities, pg 110-111

within the global city.11 This class alignment is developing a polarization between those in the “new high-income” industries, the global citizens and those who work in the “low-income” service industries that provide the urban facilities enjoyed by the new “Global Culture”. Often this “low-income” class, work in these dense urban district and yet find their income may not provide enough to live within that same district, or in extreme cases to live within the ‘city’ itself, potentially this disrupts social diversification, separating the social classes of the city, forcing this “lowincome” class to commute long distances to their places of work.

Global tourism and business travel have also produced changes in our urban spaces.12

Airports, hotels, theme parks and convention centers, all exhibiting megabuilding characteristics, are building or rebuilding within this new cultural connection to global tourism and travel.13 Along with physical change, the increased ritual of travel, is manipulating the demographics of our cities, where transient, temporary citizens of international tourism and business account for

10Sassen Saskia, Global City : New York, London, Tokyo :Princeton University Press . 1991, Chapter Ten: A New Urban Regime?, pp. 323-338. 11Ibid, p. 337. 12see article Tourism, mobility and architecture. archis, 09(September), 1998, pp. 71-79. 13Miyoshi Masao, Architecture in a Reconfigured Body Politique (78-85) ANYBODY Anyone Corporation, ed. Davidson Cynthia C., The MIT Press : 1997, p. 83.

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a larger portion of the social life and economic exchange within globalizing cities.. The populations of hotels within the globalizing cities of internationalization are increasing and encompass a growing inclusion of the city itself. These hotel facilities are combined with numerous other programs, orientated towards tourism, and business, creating large complexes for social and economic exchange that become, through their vast programs, city like. Acting as shopping malls, business centers, leisure facilities, and accommodations, these city like containers are becoming the anchor for global city development. For example, the shopping mall container is engulfing the ritualized habits of our commercial and recreational activities. Containing the growing rituals of shopping and leisure, recreation and business the mall space is becoming our civic space. From the suburban strip to urban underground networks, and from the department store to the megabuilding, the shopping mall is becoming the place of civic activity, a closed, containment of the characteristics that we once called the city. Rem Koolhaas has pursued many of his own ideas on what globalization means to our urban places and where it possibly is changing the practices of architecture. From his book SMLXL, he expresses some of these in the essay titled “Globalization�: Globalization 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

astronomically expands the realm of possibility, for better or worse; exponentially depletes the architectural imagination; exponentially enriches the architectural imagination; scrambles the chronology of individual architects’ careers; extends and/or shrinks shelf life; causes, as in earlier collisions of formerly pure cultures, epidemics; radically modifies architectural discourse, now an uneasy relationship between regional

14Koolhaas Rem, The Generic City .1994 (p.1238-1267) SMLXL OMA, Rem Koolhaas and Bruce Mau. ed.Sigler Jennifer, The Monacelli Press : 1995, p.1260.

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unknowing and international knowing; Globalization destabilizes and redefines both the way architecture is produced and that which architecture produces. Architecture is no longer a patient transaction between known qualities that share cultures, no longer the manipulation of established possibilities, no longer a possible judgement in rational terms of investment and return, no longer something experienced in person — by the public or critics. Globalization lends virtuality to real buildings, keeps them indigestible, forever fresh.� (pg 367,SMLXL, 1993)

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GL1 “The complexity of functional linkages in urban system dynamics�, a system even more complex when considered within the global economic situation of today. (diagram:ANY No.22, 1998)

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“Today we face two problems, related to one another in complex ways, often difficult to separate from one another: how to get away from certain utopian or transgressive images of thought - or the future of thought - and envisage other modes of critical intervention and critical analysis; and how to develop a new conception or image of cities, their shapes, their distinctive problems, the ways in which they figure in our being and being-together, the manner in which they acquire their identities, the kinds of movement they introduce within and among us - an image that would still allow for the play of critical invention and intervention.” pp.09-110 “We must question assumptions about the identity and context of cities and the ideological assumptions of analyzing and intervening in them.” p.111 John Rajchman, future cities,Constructions

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architecture and urban interaction “If architecture is neither pure form nor solely determined by socioeconomic or functional constraints, the search for its definition must always expand to an urban dimension. The complex social, economic, and political mechanisms that govern the expansion and contraction of the contemporary city are not without effect on architecture and its societal use. Space always marks the territory, the milieu of social practice.” p.22 Bernard Tschumi, Architecture and Disjunction

Architecture and design should always involve a responsibility and a commitment to a collective social role. This is exemplified in the social pursuit that led Bernard Tschumi’s writings on architecture, e.g. “Architecture and Disjunction”. Architecture has a social role and purpose, not only to provide social space, but to influence and to interact with social ritual, it places a responsibility on the architect to consider the context beyond architecture and its prescribed site, to the landscape which we all inhabit. This is referred to here as the architecture and urban interactive, a place where the buildings of our cities are socially involved even with those of us not directly enclosed within their constructions. In a world of growing privatization, architects find themselves positioned between the client (private interests) and society (public interests). Without any strong commitment or understanding of an architecture interactive with its society beyond its property boundaries, even the best of these projects will often find success only in the construction of an architecture devoted to only a very singular perspective of the world. Too often, especially in Canada, we live this situation, where buildings “do their job”, satisfy the clients, and facilitate the prescribed client’s program, but questionably join civic space. To influence and begin change within this climate,

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02 22 demands not only an advocacy and educational commitment but also an understanding of how architecture can better interact within the urban field. This necessitates asking what makes architecture constructive in the world outside of its enclosure and what social intentions can inform architecture? This project seeks to make a commitment to an architecture that has an interactive quality with urban space. This quality may be constructed through the understanding of its connection into the urban spatial experience, or perhaps as well through the infiltration of the urban spatial landscape within walls of architecture. The emerging discussions on urban landscapes1, has constructively contributed to this project’s development, by seeing urban space as an artificial landscape and by promoting the contemplation of what defines a valuable artificial urbanscape. Beyond this contemplation, viewing the urban spatial experience through the idea of landscape, eventually leads to the conjunction of the urban plane with that of the internal realm of architecture. Therefore, the experience of our cities can be constructed in two basic spheres—programmed places and the exterior zones for mobility and transfer between them. The programmed place is the architecture (the landscapes and the interiors) of our participating lives, the spaces where we knowingly participate within the specificity of constructed programmed events—our offices, residences, shopping stores, and sports facilities. They would often be classified as the spaces of enclosure, the interiors, however they may also be external, as in outdoor cafes, markets, and recreational fields. The other place of our lives are the places often claimed as the exterior, the between spaces. Often this is the street, the places of passage and transportation, referred to as ‘flow spaces’. In some ways this second place is the 1see Bru, Eduard, ed. NEW LANDSCAPES / NEW TERRITORIES nuevos paisajes / nuevos territorios. Barcelona, Spain, Euopean Union: Museu d'Art Copntemporani de Barcelona ACTAR, 1997.

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domain of urban design, commanded by morphological concerns imposed through regulations such as zoning, setbacks, and codes. A new territorial plane of the spatial experiences involved within urban life develops when we extrude the singular field, the urban landscape, from these two urban spheres. This new plane, is not always natural or horizontal2, nor does it end at the walls of architecture, in fact it is at the same time, interior and exterior. While including the space of urban flow and the exterior landscape, this plane also flows into and through architecture, engulfing its circulation and programmed spaces. Together, this territorial plane becomes our urban landscape. A spatial plane demanding equal design attention as architecture's facades and programs, as landscaped parks and green spaces, and the cities morphologies, topologies and typologies. As a commanding network of spatial experience, the urban landscape fuses urban space and architecture, interior and exterior, the artificial with the natural, and most of all it ties urban life together spatially.

2see Paul Virilio ideas on the oblique. Enrique Limon Paul Virilio and the Oblique. (pp.174-185) Sites & Stations:provisional utopias, Stan Allen and Kyong Park ed.

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“...this is what is so incredibly painful in a way: that you know architecture is in general only a very limited instrument to improve conditions.” p.116 “ that sense, I’m not only an architect, but also a planner of cities, and I think that it is an area where you can make fascinating contributions to cities like Seoul, and where you will not be forced to contribute on only a trivial level. Of course, then the scope of the work increases astronomically because then you are not talking about millions but trillions of dollars, and it becomes increasingly unlikely that you would be involved. (...) So - and this is the irony - on the level of really major operations, I’m much less pessimistic that there is something genuinely believable to contribute than on the level of architecture. But at the same time, because they’re more logistically complex and involve much more money, and therefore more politics, they’re the ones that are the least likely.” p.117 Rem Koolhaas interview, Muae 2

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civic space and social motive a diagram from Edward Soja’s book “Thridspace�, emphasizing the epistemology of space; of how we obtain accurate practical knowledge of our existential spatiality. (chapter 2: The Trialectics of Spatiality, pp.53-81)

To understand architecture as cultural production, as a contribution to the greater society, is to be interested in the ways public and privates space combine, fold, and interact within the urban context. It is important to reexamine the changing spaces of our urbanizing and globalizing world, because public and private spaces are significantly transforming. Newly transformed and invented programs and events within our cities are developing. These changes must be observed and architecture must adapt with them. By developing architecture with an understanding of change and the new dynamic situations that are evolving, architecture will be able to contribute a more valuable spatial experience to our civic space. These spatial experiences will combine to construct spaces for the development of meaningful social activity and understanding, through public interconnectivity.

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Architecture has always been more than just buildings. Though, all to often today more buildings than architecture are constructed. Buildings only follow basic private and capitalist principles of time, money and efficiency, which drive their resolution. Often these principles never lead buildings towards any engagement or contribution to spatial experience, and thus our urban environments often appear to dissolve into a dislocated landscape of isolation . Architecture that demands interaction with the urban spaces of our cities contributes to produce civic spaces that develop a valuable social atmosphere for urban living. We are able to observe seemingly less traditional spaces as our public realm is transforming into a new system.1 This transformation is a sort of fragmentation of the principles

that once were leading an understandings of the private, public and semi-spaces of our cities.2 The fragmentation of private and public space, that the globalized city is experiencing today, demands a new perspective and new understanding for any work of architecture to properly construct itself within the contemporary world. The development of a new perspective of public and private space prepares architecture to regain a valuable position in our urban environments. To develop an understanding of

1“It seems that in the new urban landscape as it is now taking shape, there will be less public space, in the traditional sense, compared to the traditional European city center. A series of shopping malls, frequently combine with indoor entertainment parks, parking garages, hotels, apartments, and above all, numerous restaurants and snack bars have entirely taken over the series of sequential streets and squares to which Rob Krier ascribed such enormous importance some twenty years ago in his book Urban Space.” Lootsma Bart, Public Space in Transition - Der öffentliche Raum in Bewegung,(pp. 116 -123) DAIDALOS. Architektur Kunst Kultur-Architecture Art Culture 67, März-March 1998, p.116. 2“Today, virtually all citizens are obliged to live a life that is in some way dispersed. The events that until now took place in the home are dispersed around the city. Cafes and Laundromats are typical examples. Fast food places, pizzerias and saunas amputate not only the living room and dinning room, but also the kitchen and bathroom from the dwelling. In the end, a bed, a video and a waste disposal unit will be all that is necessary to furnish a house in the future. The current absorption of private residential space by urban space allows us to think in this way: private space is also on the way to fragmentation.” Toyo Ito, (“Conversacion con toyo ito” por Koji Taki, El croquis 71, 1994) Quaderns 213, ed. Gausa Manuel . Barcelona, Spain: ACTAR, p. hf9.

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the changing landscape of public and private fosters the ability for architecture to reconnect these spaces in new and appropriate ways, and allows the new dynamics of our social rituals to both exist and develop. Developing spatial sequences and spaces that meet the diverse needs of the multicultural societies within our cities, promotes an interconnected interaction of society which furthers the development of a greater cosmopolitan citizenship. This promotes and supports a new appreciation of the city through the acceptance of the open, and multifaceted possibilities that the modern city has to offer. A world of intensity, places of interconnection, discovery, surprise, and potential, rather than a course towards disillusionment, fear, conflict and isolation – cities of difference (cities of indifference). The development of these issues, develops a greater responsibility of architecture that is beyond public opinion and private desires because it falls outside these usual thresholds of private construction and public interaction. This is the civic realm, where architecture carries the responsibilities of social questioning, social engagement, and social change.

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“ seems to me that today, after the loss of utopia as a horizon for action, and with the disillusionment of post modernist richness, of functional and formal complexity — with solutions not trapped by oversimplifications of propaganda and narrow ideology — would be a more promising contribution to the architecture of the city. The city as a densely populated artificial landscape of modern civilization has become our second nature. “As an artifact, the city is a technological garden that promises neither redemption in paradise nor condemnation to darkness and despair. As long as the process of making architecture and building civilization are related to one another, there will be a reason for some modest urban optimism, even for those of us who are architects” p.25 Fritz Neumyer, The second-hand City

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* 2 3 4 5 6

• Project site (the central waterfront) •Burrard Inlet (Vancouver harbour) • Coal Harbour • False Creek • English Bay • Strait of Georgia

A • Downtown peninsula B • Central business district C • Gastown historical district D • Downtown eastside district e • Downtown West End, residential district f • Stanley Park g • Centennial Pier, container facility h • Canada Place Trade and Convention Centre k •B.C. Place Stadium m •Granville Island o •University of British Columbia p •Lions Gate Bridge (First Narrows) r •District of North Vancouver















C* D k



2 3














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L1 Waite Air Photos Inc., 1994 •(604)467-9141 L2 Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. July1994, 10m pixels, area 6.27 km by 6.59 km Part of a Landsat-SPOT image map of Greater Vancouver, prepared (orthorectification, data fusion and enhancement) in 1994 by Pacific Geomatics Ltd. for the Greater Vancouver Regional District. Received by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. Processed by RADARSAT International. TRIM elevation data from the B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks

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site situation

location Site area: Population:: City of Vancouver Greater Vancouver total Land Area:

aprox.. 30 ha (74 acres) 543,871 (1996) 1,831,665 (1996) 113.1 square km

Central Waterfront port lands The City of Vancouver British Columbia . Canada 49˚16’ Latitude 123˚7’ Longitude

As an industrialized shoreline located just off the centre of Vancouver, the central waterfront is situated adjacent to a dynamic variety of urban functions oriented towards both local and global commerce, recreation, industry, and trade. This project is situated within the city of Vancouver’s downtown Peninsula straddling the shoreline between the harbour activity of Burrard Inlet and the historical district of Gastown. On the south western boundary of the site, the Central Business district of Vancouver, containing a highly active and built up urban district of office towers is located. To the east, lies the Centrum container facility on Centennial pier and to the southeast the Downtown Eastside district . The site itself, is relatively new to the urban landscape, as it has been created through recurrent infill projects dating back to the 1880’s, when the Canadian Pacific Railway first laid tracks along the shoreline of Burrard Inlet. Currently the active and necessary switching rail yards for the C.P. railway system are supporting harbour industries along the southern shores

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of the Inlet. The switching yard is operated on the south side of the site along the north edge of Gastown. North of the rail yards, along the shoreline lie the Seabus terminal and Harbour Heliport facility. To the eastern side of the site the Park known as Portside park or “C.R.A.B. Park� supplies a desired amenity to the Downtown eastside community and a remaining portion of a former C.N. pier, supplies docking for visiting naval vessels, foreign fishing fleets, and small coastal freighters. Bounded on the western side of the site, are numerous facilities contained within the Canada Place Trade and Convention Centre, the Granville square office building and plaza which straddles a portion of active rail corridor, and the C.P.R. station which facilitates the Skytrain, waterfront station, terminus, the West Coast Express commuter train terminus, and a skywalk link to the SeaBus terminal.





9 Looking across Burrard Inlet, towards North Vancouver Mountains, from Granville square plaza.




x 13

photo:T.White 98

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Programs and places 10

9 8 11 h 12 9 P



13 14





g v














2 • Burrard Inlet (Vancouver harbour) B • Central business district C • Gastown historical district D • Downtown eastside district (Strathcona) g • Centennial Pier, container facility h • Canada Place Trade and Convention Centre 7 • Lookout 8 •Amphitheatre, IMAX theatre 9 • Cruise ship berths 10 • Pan Pacific Hotel 11 • Convention centre, exhibition halls 12 • World Trade centre

16 P


s • Granville Square, Office and plaza t • C.P. railway Station u • SeaBus terminal v • Harbour Heliport terminal w • Crab Park x • C.N. pier y • C.P. rail switching yards z • Fish processing facility 13 • Seabus Skywalk 14 • WCE and SkyTrain Terminals 15 • Harbour Police headquarters 16 • Main street overpass 17 • Container cranes P • Parking

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Street end views, All photographs were taken looking north towards Burrard Inlet and the mountains beyond North Vancouver.

Granville Street view, @ Hastings St.

Seymour Street view, @ Hastings St. The CPR Station is seen here, at the end of

Granville square plaza is seen here above the parkade entrance at the end of the street.

street, known as waterfront station.

Street names Ca




Via d












Alexander St. St.

S t.


R a il



er om H


d. t r


S t.




ds ar ch Ri

Wa te








Columbia St.



S t.





A b b o tt














ill e






G ou m Se y

Granville Square plaza view, looking North. The Sails of Canada Place and distant mountains are visible in the background.



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Cambie Street view, @ Hasitngs St.

The West Coast Express commuter train coaches are visible at end of street.

Abbott Street view, @ Hastings St.

The West Coast Express commuter train coaches are seen at the end of the street.

Columbia Street view, @ Powell St., The Harbour police headquarters is the light blue building visible behind CP rail cars.


Carrall Street view, @ Water St. Here in Gastown’s Maple Tree Square with the CP railway cars slightly visible in the background.

Water Street, @ Columbia St. looking west with the Harbour centre building at the middle right and the Granville square office building middle left. all photos: S. Cox

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Shoreline and waterfront development


Original Shoreline

1972 Waterfront CPR switching yards CN pier Stanley park

Centennial pier

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1998 Existing Waterfront





A • Gastown district B • Downtown district C • Coal Harbour redevelopment D • Industrial district E • “CRAB” park (Portside)

1998 Existing Waterfront H

F • Street end view cones. G • Landmarks H • Influential nodes

G CPR Railway Major vehicular network

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history a brief history of change; opportunities and the possibilities The site for this comprehensive has been a close part of the history of Vancouver, though only since the 1960’s after significant infill projects along the Burrard Inlet shoreline, did the actual site surface become existent. Through the late 1900’ the sites primary function was infrastructural support for the Canadian Pacific Railway system which operated along the South shores of the Inlet. By 1973 significant pier developments were built on the eastern portion of the site providing seven berths for shipping companies. Most of these piers have now been demolished, and the Container Facility “Centrum” now operating on the Centennial pier, plays the dominant role in the harbour landscape of the site. Information for this section, was gathered through readings and the City of Vancouver web page of history. most information retrieved from: : History

1800’s Beginning as a small settlement in the Lower Fraser

Basin named Granville; where the area of Gastown is today, the city of Vancouver began to develop along the southern shores of the Burrard Inlet.

HS1 lumber industry ships

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HS2 Granville shore with Hastings mill in background

HS3 1Gastown in 1884

HS4 Burrard Inlet, 1886 looking west from foot of Main St.


Stamp’s Mill –later known as Hastings Mill– was founded on a portion of the Burrard Inlet at the foot of what is now Dunlevy Street. Where the Centennial Pier Container facility operates today

1886 The city of Vancouver was incorporated in this year.

HS5 Looking east from foot of Howe Street, showing C.P.R. right-of-way under construction.

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HS6 First train arrives in Vancouver, 1887 at foot of of Granville Street.

HS7 1887 at Homer and Pender Street

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Gastown becomes the west coast terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway with the arrival of the first Canadian Pacific passenger train at the foot of Howe Street. Infill and pier construction along the shoreline of Gastown provides the area for C.P.R. track development, and the birth of the site for this project.

HS8 Hasting and Seymour Street rooftop, early 1900’s

HS9 At Howe Street.


HS10 At Granville Street.

Through the late 1800’s and the early twentieth century the area known as Gastown experiences significant development and the city of Vancouver moves into the position of the leading western Canadian city during this period.

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HS11 Land Fill map, 1973.


The first skyscraper was constructed in Vancouver; the Dominion Trust building, at the corner of Hastings and Cambie Street, which continues to function and is slightly visible from the site today.


During the late nineteen sixties and the early seventies the Downtown commercial and the West End residential districts experienced rapid growth. Alternative proposals were developed for freeway constructions through the gastown district or raised above, along the Canadian Pacific Rail lines.

Dominion Trust building. First skyscraper in Vancouver, 1909. photo:T.White 1998

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These freeway proposals were dismissed, and the districts of Gastown and Chinatown were designated heritage districts of Vancouver.


By nineteen seventy-two the Central Waterfront consisted of the infrastructure fro the C.P.R. yards which were covering the western portion of infill areas and the shipping piers on the eastern portion of the site.

HS12 the site around 1990

HS13 the site 1972

HS14 zoomed in, the site in 1972

HS15 Looking east at corner rooftop of Granville and Cordova Street, left photo: 1900, right photo: 1973

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This nineteen seventy-three photograph compares the site to an earlier photograph taken around nineteen hundred and shows the significant infill that lead to the existence of the central waterfront site.


Aurther Erickson’s Robson Street Courthouse was constructed.


In preparation for Expo the Vancouver Port Corporation brings forward the “Interim Plan for the Central Waterfront”. The proposal called for the development of eleven new principle elements. Of the eleven elements; the breakwater, the marina, the walkway system, and long term urban development areas did not see realization. However the Main street overpass, the Port road, Heliport, ferry terminal, new parking areas, and the park were all developed on the site. (see: Interim Proposal)


In eighty-six the largest special category World exposition ever staged in North America was held in Vancouver. Expo 86, brought the development and the opening of the SkyTrain in 1985, and the construction of the Canada Place Trade and Convention Centre designed by Downs Archibald and Ebhard Ziedler.

photo from, Heliport brochure. with the Canada Place Trade and Convention centre sails visible behind the docked Cruise ship.

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The Vancouver Port Corporation (VPC), develops a new plan for the Central Waterfront, to facilitate water-based transportation, tourism, and community developments on the site.


HS16 Aerial photo of Burrard Inlet showing site, around 1990.

The VPC develops the proposal of “SeaPort Centre”; a mixed use project including a convention centre, additional cruise ship terminal and casino. In 1995 the project proposal was put on hold as public consultation greatly opposed the construction of the casino which was an included programme in the proposal.


HS17 artist rendering of proposed convention centre expansion, and Hotel development “Portside”. 1998 HS18

Greystone Properties, the Vancouver Port Corporation and Marriott Hotels proposal, named “Portside”, was determined by the City of Vancouver and the province of British Columbia as the only proposal, of three submitted, to be further pursued. The proposal called for an expansion of the Canada Place Convention centre, the construction of a 1000 room Hotel, over 2 hectares of public open space, a integrated transportation hub, parking space for 1200 vehicles, new roads, a maritime interpretation centre, and an airline check-in facility.

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1998 -.....

The site, January 1998, Looking east from Canada Place Lookout. photo:T.White 98

Pan of the site from the edge of Portside park, looking west towards the central business district of Vancouver. photo:S.Cox 98

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situational context Vancouver as a Global City? SC1 TIME November 17, 1997 cover. “a glittering metropolis has become the newest Asian capital on the Pacific Rim” TIME mag. canadian edition, Nov. 97, cover

“In short, Vancouver can be celebrated as Asia’s newest capital city, a vibrant gemstone in the coronet of dynamism that encircles the Pacific Rim. (...) For Vancouver has become a cosmopolitan centre largely because of an immigrant influx that is growing emphatically more Asian by the year.” Anthony Spaeth2

Currently the city of Vancouver is significantly developing its urban spaces. The downtown peninsula is experiencing large scale urban transformations of the surrounding former industrial districts. New programs include significant housing developments, with mixed use additives such as gyms, schools, parks, retail and restaurant spaces and hotel facilities. Promoting this city as Canada’s global city on the West Coast has brought significant immigration from various countries around the Pacific . Particularly, migration of Hong Kong citizens and investments, have been producing significant densification of Vancouver's urban character. As viewed from the western provinces the city is Canada’s most tropical. The lure of which is often found impossible to deny as Canadians both young and old migrate to “the city without winter”, full of urban opportunity and within the “beloved” Canadian landscape of ‘nature’. Rem Koolhaas laid out characteristics of the global generic city , in his Generic City manifesto within SMLXL1, a critical description of global city traits were presented, many of which Vancouver actu-

1Koolhaas Rem, The Generic City .1994 (pp.1238-1267) SMLXL OMA, Rem Koolhaas and Bruce Mau. ed.Sigler Jennifer, The Monacelli Press : 1995. 2Spaeth Anthony, Asia’s New Capital.TIME, November 17, 1997. p. 30.

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ally shares (specifically when viewed through the context of Canada). Notably: “9. Quarters 9.8 Each Generic City has a waterfront, not necessarily with water - it can also be with desert, for instance - but at least an edge where it meets another condition, as if a position of near escape is the best guarantee for its enjoyment. Here tourists congregate in droves around a cluster of stalls. Hordes of “hawkers” try to sell them the “unique” aspects of the city.” p. 1257) “12. Geography 12.1 The Generic City is in a warmer than usual climate. (...) It is a concept in a state of migration. Its ultimate destiny is to be tropical — better climate, more beautiful people. It is inhabited by those who do not like it elsewhere.” (p. 1262) “12.2 In the Generic City, people are not only more beautiful than their peers, they are also reputed to be more even-tempered, less anxious about work, less hostile, more pleasant “ p. 1262 “12.3 One of the most potent characteristics of the Generic City is the stability of its weather — no seasons,..” p. 1263

It is evident that while Vancouver's downtown peninsula is experiencing heavy urban redevelopment, significant signs of Globalization are present along side . With the “development and a 3Ibid. p. 30.

“Day after day, jumbo jets landing at the international terminal at Vancouver International Airport disgorge a stream of migrants from the Far East. They provide an exotic yeast that has stirred and quickened a city that once prided itself on being “white and polite.” Vancouver is still polite. But civility is now couched in a host of languages and Pan-Pacific customs.” Anthony Spaeth3

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restructuring of its financial systems”, “the globalization of its property market”, the increased influence and involvement of “transnational corporations”, “the stretching of social relations, world networks, and epistemic communities” and an increase in the “traveling and networking” of its citizens4, Vancouver could be well described as a Canadian node “Vancouver has become connected enough that Asian governments see it as a recruiting ground. Singapore, for example, recently opened a Vancouver office to lure talented residents to work in their underpopulated city-state. Many of the managers, technicians and professionals targeted are recent immigrants from other parts of Asia. Those who respond to the lure may not leave their homes. Instead, they may decide to become temporary workers abroad, or even commuters, while maintaining their Canadian passports and their kids in Vancouver’s fine, cost-free public schools. “VAncouver is becoming the bedroom city for people who operate on a global basis,” muses Milton Wong, a prominent local investment advisor.” Anthony Spaeth5

in the developing global landscape. Further in this section two of the largest urban development projects, False Creek (Pacific Place) and Coal Harbour will be discussed, along with the “Portside” development. Together these three projects (which make up one third of the whole downtown area), will and are, influencing and changing significantly the urban morphology, topology and character of the downtown peninsula in Vancouver.

4The five key dimensions of contemporary globalization that play important roles in the processes which are influencing the nature of urban megaprojects in cities like Vancouver, Yokohama and Shanghai. K. Olds. Globalization and the production of new urban spaces: Pacific Rim mega projects in the late 20th century. Environment and planning A 1995, pp. 1715-1719. 5Spaeth Anthony, Asia’s New Capital.TIME, November 17, 1997. p. 31.

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Density, growth, and typology For a North American city, Vancouver’s downtown peninsula is surprisingly dense. As a Canadian city this density is almost unbelievable. With a land area of 5.3 square Kilometers (or 2 sq.miles) the downtown peninsula has a residential population density of 26,750 people per square mile. At present this density is mostly driven by the West End, which is producing a density around 38,410 people per square mile.1 These densities in comparison to the density of Manhattan, at 58,000 people per square mile; central Tokyo, at 28,700 people per square mile; the city of London, at 14,000 people per square mile, and San Francisco, at 16,664 people per square mile, shows the interestingly dense situation that the Vancouver peninsula is developing.2 Far from the standard density that most Canadian cities are used to, Vancouver’s downtown is continuing to implement develop-

Housing towers within the south downtown area of the Vancouver.

photos: T. White 98

“Vancouver , like other cities at intense moments of their physical and economic, has in the past decade generated its own building type. The characteristics are: thirty to thirty-five stories, with six to eight units per floor and a floor plate of 7,500 square feet; two or three elevators and egress stairs nestled together in a “scissors” formation. The units range from studios of 400 square feet to penthouses of 5,000 square feet.” George Wagner3 “What is unique about Vancouver, a city that celebrated its centennial in 1987, is that it is becoming built to this extreme density now. Since mid-century, American center cities have experienced dramatic losses in population. Contrary to this trend Vancouver races towards an urbanity unlike any other on this continent. The forces that have caused it - global migration, city and transportation planning, local geography, national policy, and the brevity of the city’s history - have coalesced to form the city known to its recent Asian immigrants as “Little Hong Kong.” George Wagner4

1numbers from p. 35: Wagner George, Manifest Density : The Vancouver Tower.(pp. 35-37) Harvard Design Magazine, ed. Saunders William S. Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge, MA, USA. Winter/Spring 1998. 2Ibid p. 35. 3Ibid p. 35. 4 p. 35

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ments with these present density values. False Creek (Pacific Place) a 83 ha (or, 0.32 sq.mile) site with a planned residential “Condominium culture and the reality that speculation has reached every square foot of downtown have given the city a plastic and surreal quality - everything is new and looks disturbingly like images in marketing brochures. No complementary expansion of office towers has occurred; on the contrary, older office buildings (built since 1955) are routinely converted to residential condominiums. As the city becomes more intensely developed, moving from one-story to thirty-five, a visual and social conformity has taken over. The funky culture of downtown bars and clubs for the alternative communities of bohemians, artists, and homosexuals has slowly been erased. Increasing pressure is put on the city’s adjacent Downtown Eastside, the skid row of Canada’s west coast, where a large concentration of single-occupancy hotels still exists and the epidemic of needle-borne HIV infections rages out of control” George Wagner8

population of 14,000 people, gives it an estimated density of 43,750 people per square mile; a density closer to Manhattan’s than central Tokyo. The Coal Harbour development project estimates a residential population of 3,500 people on a 33 ha (or 0.33, 0.13 sq.mile) site, producing a density of 26,923 people per square mile; a density relatively equivalent to the present density of the peninsula. The City continues to see significant growth having experienced 7,120 condominium units built between 1994 and 1998. The average population growth has been about 12% over the last few years, and with a downtown population of 47,000 in 1995, the city expects to see this increase to 55,000 people by 2005.5 The peninsula continues to see construction aimed at the new international migrants, young professionals and the retired.6 Creating even more concern over the increasing market values for living units on the peninsula and the increasing needs for social housing. As George Wagner noted specifically in his article “The Vancouver Tower”7, Vancouver has developed its own building typology, of the residential tower. A thirty to thirty five story building, with a

5p. 35: Wagner George, Manifest Density : The Vancouver Tower.(pp. 35-37) Harvard Design Magazine, ed. Saunders William S. Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge, MA, USA. Winter/Spring 1998. 6Ibid p. 36. 7Ibid p. 35. 8Ibid p. 37.

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floor plate of about 700 square meters, with six to eight units per floor, two or three elevators and exit stairs in the ‘scissor’ formation. The interesting place that this topology situates itself within is a context of multiple view corridors, and sight lines, as each tower of the peninsula, and each north-south street point across the Inlet, towards the mountains. The mountains, that place of nature, and the natural, which is often critically reasoned to be more Vancouver than the platform they are being viewed from.

The first housing towers constructed on the Coal Harbour development site. photo: T. White 98

“Vancouver’s density, which reflects the mobility of global populations, not the ghosts of national history, lures urbanists - a population whose optimism has been severely tested by this century - to speculate: what sort of city are these towers making” George Wagner9 9Ibid p. 37.

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(mega) urban development projects



SC2, SC3 Significant development sites in the Downtown peninsula A • False Creek Development area B • Coal Harbour Development area C • Project site (the central waterfront) Where the Vancouver Port Authority’s project of “Portside” on the western edge of this site is under development.


“In very general terms, the spatial context for the emergence of late 20th century UMP’s (Urban Megaprojects) has been described by Rimmer (1991b) as one of “megacities, multi-layered networks, and development corridors in the Pacific Economic Zone”. UMP’s are one component of: (a) the rapid growth of urban areas, where levels of urbanization have increased because of natural population growth, rural-urban migration, the reclassification (or annexation) of previously ‘external’ areas, and international migration (Jones, 1991); (b) the increasing importance ( and indeed primacy) of many cities in the economic and cultural terms; (c) rapid (Pacific Asia) and moderate (Pacific North American and Australian) growth over the past decade. (...) (d) economic restructuring driven by deindustrialization, increased levels of higher order manufacturing (in some nations), technological change, and the significant growth of the service sector in most Pacific Rim nations (particularly the producer-service component)” K.Olds1 1K. Olds. Globalization and the production of new urban spaces: Pacific Rim mega projects in the late 20th century. Environment and planning A 1995, p. 1720.

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False Creek Development project Also referred to as “Pacific Place�.

The Pacific Place project is the second largest North American redevelopment project, behind Mission Bay in San Francisco.2 It has an expected completion date in the year 2005, and will provided 7,000 residential units in combination with the construction of 1,700 units of social housing, producing a density of 43,750 people per square mile. 83 ha (204 ac, 0.32 miles2, 0.83 km2)

Site area

8,500 units (1,700 social housing)

Residential units

14,000 people

Estimated residential population

(43,750 people/mile2) 241,547 m2 (2.6 million ft2)

Commercial space Additional programs:

park, schools, community facilities, and waterfront walking

and bicycle routes (Seawall extension)

2Ibid p. 1724. note: detailed numbers for the development are from:

SC4 The construction cranes of the urban redevelopment project of False Creek. photo: TIME mag. canadian edition, Nov. 17, 1997, pg28-29

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Coal Harbour Development project

Relatively new residential towers constructed along the southern edge of the Coal Harbour district. photo: T. White 98

The Coal Harbour project is the second largest on going redevelopment project in Vancouver. It also has an expected completion date in the year 2005, and will provided 2,200 residential units while also providing a 5% incentive for additional rental housing, which will producing a density close to 27,000 people per square mile. Separated into three neighbourhoods, the Marina Neighbourhood (a primarily residential area with limited retail and office space, neighbouring a 400 berth Marina), the Harbour Green Neighbourhood (a residential and public park area, located in the central area of the site), and the Burrard Landing Neighbourhood (a primarily office and mixed use zone, with a Civic Arts Complex, three office towers, and a hotel, along with public plaza spaces). 33 ha (82 ac, 0.13 miles2, 0.33 km2)

Site area

2,200 units

Residential units Estimated residential population The Harbour Green Neighbourhood site, with the park and walkway landscape developed, construction of new residential towers will begin between the park and the towers in the background. photo: T. White 98

Commercial space Additional programs:

3,500 people (26,923 people/mile2) 139,354 m2 (1.5 million ft2)

parks, social housing sites, elementary school, com-

munity centre, day care, a waterfront walkway and bicycle route (connecting to the Stanley Park Seawall), and a performing arts facility

note: detailed numbers for the Coal Harbour development found at:

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Portside Development project

On the Central Waterfront of downtown Vancouver

This development project on the central waterfront is being developed by Greystone Properties Ltd. It is primarily the expansion of the Vancouver Trade and Convention Centre and the Canada Place Cruise Ship Terminal though it includes other associated developments. The process began in 1991, and after the city eliminated the two alternative proposals on other sites in the downtown peninsula in1997, the Portside project began the refinement process, with a plan to begin foundation and infill work infill work this year (1999). This Comprehensive Exam project will not be integrating the developments under way in the Portside project, it will, however, view the proposed programs as initiators for the exploration into the Central Waterfront development. It will also be used as a reference point to the current reality in urban design practice in the Vancouver context.

SC8 Site plan of Portside project photo:

note: information and pictures for the Portside development are from: and various City of Vancouver reports on the new Trade and Convention Centre available at:

Above: SC6 aerial rendering of Portside. Below: SC7 modal photograph photo:

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Above: SC9 Portside renderings, the public plaza space at left, and the Marriott Hotel tower, right SC10. photo:

Functions proposed: Trade and Convention expansion Cruise Ship Terminal expansion Hotel Tower, 1,000 rooms

Commercial, Retail, Entertainment Public Plaza

2 level Parkade

45,500 m2 (490,000 sq.ft) 4,600 m2 (50,000 sq.ft) 74,300 m2 (800,000 sq.ft) 24,500 m2 (264,000 sq.ft) 3 acres.(12,140 m2) 800 stalls

SeaBus Terminal, and pedestrian link 24 space on-site childcare

phase II hotel/office tower, and retail/services phase II Parking Infrastructure

37,000 m2

(400,000 sq.ft) 400 stalls

Supporting street networks, of Canada

Place Way viaduct, Cordova connector, Waterfront Road improve-

ments, future Cambie street alignment, and a connection from upper

level to Waterfront Road.

note: information and pictures for the Portside development are from: and various City of Vancouver reports on the new Trade and Convention Centre available at:

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site description programs and infrastructure


Commuter train, west Coast Express


Using the existing CPR rail corridor, the West Coast Express commuter rail transportation system was established and launched on November 1, 1995. It currently connects Mission, Abbotsford, Maple Ridge, Pitt Meadows, Port Coquitlam and Port Moody with the central business district of Vancouver. Utilizing the Waterfront station as its western terminus the transportation system runs five trains during peak hours. Each train consist of four to seven bi-level passenger coaches, that have a seating capacity of 144. At peak running times the commuter train arrivals and departures may handle close to 2000 passengers (when running at maximum capacity). Currently, Waterfront Station does not provide any parking facilities, mostly due to its position as a destination point for common commuter traffic. The transportation goal of the WCE (West Coast Express) system is to provide fast, reliable and convenient alternative travel to that of the private automobile. Currently Tracks 1 and 2 of the CPR rail corridor are used

The West Coast Express tracks, seen here highlighted in orange. 1 train:

4–7 passenger coaches

1 train:

600–1000 passengers @ max. capacity

1 passenger coach:

144 seating


The terminal structure connecting the WCE passenger platform to the CPR station building, is seen here with the harbour centre tower in background. photo: T. White 98

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The purple and white coloured WCE passenger coaches are seen here constricting the views of the waterfront shoreline on Cambie Street.

within the central waterfront site, next to the Gastown district. They expand to consist of four tracks for switching along the central to western portion of the rail corridor. At present, these trains and passenger coaches are most noticeable from the Gastown area. (see lower right photo, and street end views p. 20) At most periods of the day stationary passenger coaches, restrict grade level views towards the Burrard Inlet waterfront.

photo: S. Cox 98


The SkyTrain tracks use the area highlighted in orange.


The SkyTrain was developed for the World Expo of 1986 and currently terminates its western travel direction at Waterfront station, the CPR building. The trains switch tracks and make the return trip, heading southeast along the 28 kilometre track to Surrey. The SkyTrain covers this distance in 39 minutes, during which it connects 18 stations between waterfront and Mission City. Though 16 of the stations are elevated, the four downtown stations are underground including Waterfront station. The current tracks at Waterfront station lie a few meters above the average grade of the Central Waterfront site. Trains run approximately every three to five minutes, with full daily and weekend service schedule.

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The two SeaBus catamaran ferries that presently transport passengers between Waterfront station in the CBD, and Lonsdale Quay in North Vancouver, have a seating capacity of 400 passengers. These passenger ferries run every 15 minutes during peak operating hours and every half hour during other hours. During peak hours these ferries may be transferring close to 1600 passengers (running at maximum capacity). The connection system in operation on the site, transports passengers through an elevated skywalk corridor between the waterfront station and the ferry dock. It is believed that a more experiential and programmed connection could be provided in any new development project, however the transfer times for passengers between the SeaBus and SkyTrain systems is a required consideration in any redesign of the connection network.

The Seabus Terminal area is seen here highlighted in orange.

1 Seabus ferry: 4 trips/hour:

2 trips/hour:

400 passengers

1600 passengers @ max. capacity (peek hours)

800 passengers @ max. capacity (off peek hours)

The Seabus Terminal as seen from the Canada Place lookout. photo: T. White 98

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d The Heliport landing terminal is shown here highlighted in orange.

Harbour Heliport

The Harbour Heliport facility provides for the boarding, fueling, servicing, loading and unloading of helicopter traffic within the Vancouver Harbour area. The facility supports corporate, commuter and tourist traffic to the harbour and the central business district. Tour helicopters provide a variety of scenic trips around Burrard Inlet and the city of Vancouver. The commuter aircraft supports private chartered trips to choice locations, such as Grouse mountain across the Inlet.

Helicopter Tours

$55/person Burrard Explorer Cross over Lions Gate Bridge, and circle Burrard Inlet. $99/person West Coast Spectacular From Stanley Park to Horseshoe Bay and over Capilano Lake.

Greater Vancouver Tour 30 minute tour of Vancouver sites. North Shore Discoverer

$159/person $195/person

The Heliport located at center of photograph, with container cranes at left, and the SeaBus terminal at far right. photo: T. White 98

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Cruise ship Terminal

The Cruise ship terminal is located along side Canada Place Trade and Convention Centre, below the exhibition level. It accommodates up to five medium sized cruise ships or two large vessels. This terminal supports the growing Vancouver-Alaska cruise industry, which had 289 cruise ship sailings consisting of a total 817,137 passengers over the 1997 season. This creates approximate flows of 2,800 people per arrival and departure. Many of the passengers arrive at the cruise ship terminal from the Vancouver airport, or from the surrounding hotels within the downtown district. This produces a significant population of tourist traffic into the area throughout the season during departure and arrival days. The growth of the cruise industry in Vancouver has lead to the conversion of the Balantyne Pier to provide a second cruise terminal, adding two more berths to the industry. This pier is located just east of the Centennial Pier container facility.

The Cruise ship terminal at Canada Place is shown here highlighted in orange. Cruise Ship Sailings/year passengers in 1997



2800 average

passengers per Cruise

more info: see (

Canada Place starboard side Cruise ship berth photo: T. White 98

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CPR switching yard

The CP rail switching yards are shown here highlighted in orange.

The switching yards as seen from Granville square’s plaza level. This view is looking east along the rail yards

The switch yards currently in operation occupy a significant portion of the infill lands. They not only provide the switching yards for industrial rail traffic of the Port of Vancouver, but they also provide a rail corridor for the West Coast Express commuter train. They are a needed facility for present port operations (unlike those tracks which are being removed for the Coal Harbour project) and will continue to operate in the forseable future. The switch yard of the central waterfront site, has been a significant barrier to access the shoreline since the 1900’s, and it will require the consideration of bridging or tunneling in order to provide connections between the Gastown district and the waterfront. Limited bridging, may provide the most desirable condition for connection and would maintain the expression of the existing activities of the site.

photo: T. White 98

The switching yards seen from the Port road, looking towards the CP rail station building, with the West Coast Express Coaches and the Seabus Skylink visible. Canada Place is at the far right, with Granville square behind the skylink, and the CBD behind the CPR station, at centre. photo: T. White 98

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Port Road (Waterfront road): harbour service road

The Port road along the north side of the CPR yard, provides access for the port and convention centre service vehicles. This road will continue to exist, allowing the continuance of port activity within the site and the servicing of new functions within the developed project.

Port Road view, looking west from the central area of the site, towards Canada Place on the right and Granville square on the left photo: T. White 98

Port Road view, looking east from Canada Place, along the road with the Centennial pier container cranes visible in the distance, and Granville square on the right.

Looking west from the Main St. overpass. Visible from left to right: the buildings of Gastown, the CPR tracks, Port road, and CRAB park at the far right.

photo: T. White 98

photo: T. White 98


Main street overpass

Completed in 1984, the Main street overpass provides a two lane vehicular and pedestrian bridge over the CPR tracks and Port road at the northern foot of Main street. Connecting Main street to the Port road, this overpass allows automobiles, trucks and buses to access the Port road and the facilities they are servicing. Trucks currently use the overpass primarily to service Canada Place. Buses serving the convention centre and the cruise ship terminal use this lower road for layover parking while automobiles currently access the Heliport and Seabus terminals via this overpass. The overpass provides the only means of pedestrian access to Portside Park and the waterfront, from the Gastown and downtown Eastside districts.

The Main Street overpass is shown highlighted in orange.

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surrounding places


Waterfront station, a dynamic, integration of circulation flows, creating a intense activity zone of multiple possibilities, and opportunity.

Connecting Transportation systems SkyTrain West Coast Express Seabus Harbour Heliport City bus system

Waterfront station (CPR station building)

Waterfront station has not been significantly redesigned to exploit the potential beauty or excitement that this station could provide. Other than its name (“Waterfront�) and the historical train terminal building, the station is far from any significant spatial experience that would enhance the everyday rituals of the commuters and passengers each day. It is a circulation hub of pedestrian flows; departing, arriving, collecting, waiting and moving. There are multiple opportunities and potentials for this station to become far more than what it currently is, With a more developed and diversified program this station could become a more significant node along the waterfront.

SD1 The Canadian Pacific Railway depot erected at the turn of the century, which was replaced in 1912-1914 by the existing station building.

The Canadian Pacific Railway station at the end of Seymour Street. photo: S. Cox 98

The Canadian Pacific Railway station Waterfront facade. photo:T. White 98

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Canada Place Trade and Convention Centre

The Canada Place Trade and Convention Centre, was designed for Expo 86 by the architects of Downs Archambault, Musson Cattell and Partners, and the Zeidler Roberts Partnership. It redeveloped a derelict 1100 ft pier and provided multiple facilities to the city of Vancouver. The exhibition hall is enclosed by a tent structure referred to as “the sails” and is visible in most cityscape photographs. Of course this has produced concerns over any apparent structure which may potentially close off desired views towards the “Sails”. The design of the building has greatly influenced the image of Vancouver by becoming an icon along the lines of the Sydney Opera House. Canada Place is a dynamic version of programmatic hybridization and mixed uses. It has a sense of “bigness” (Koolhaas) containing various functions from shops and kiosks, to exhibition and convention space, to theatres, hotel rooms and cruise ship terminals. Currently the convention centre is exploring the possibilities of expansion through the Greystone properties development project, which would add an additional 45 500 m2 of gross exhibition floor space to the existing exhibition space of 8 300 m2..

A pan of the Central Waterfront site, with “CRAB” park just off the photography, left, and Canada Place Trade and Convention Centre “sails” at far right.. photo: T. White 98

Canada Place Trade and convention Centre. Contained Programs: • Pan Pacific Hotel • World Trade Centre • Trade and Convention Centre • IMAX Starboard theatres • Cruise Ship Terminal, and berths • Retail and Kiosks • Restaurant • and a public promenade, with an outdoor amphitheater and harbour lookout.

Canada Place Trade and Convention Centre, with Pan pacific Hotel centre, and “Sails” over the exhibition hall, at right. photo: T. White 98

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GCRAB park

CRAB park (Portside park)

also known as Portside park

This park was initiated by a community group named C.R.A.B. which successfully lobbied the City Council and the Park Board to provide them with a waterfront park in close proximity to their community. The park provides a desired amenity for the neighbouring community, and for this reason development proposal on the central waterfront lands have been informed to include the existing park landscape. It is believed that by providing an equal or substantial improvement to the park amenity, redesign of the park landscape would be acceptable. This would allow the project to integrate the park landscape into the central waterfront area, potentially linking it into the space along the harbour and the seawall system.

“CRAB� park view, looking west towards Downtown Vancouver, with the shoreline at far right. photo: T. White 98

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VGranville square Granville Square straddles the rail corridor of the SkyTrain and those which once serviced the Coal Harbour district. For this reason it sits upon one above grade parkade level, putting its public plaza space +4m above the street levels of Cordova and Howe. This public plaza has a commanding view of the harbour and north shore. The office tower and retail spaces are constructed above this plaza. The 26 storey tower has a commanding presence, visible throughout the central waterfront area. Any development should consider the possibilities of connecting and integrating this plaza space within its network of paths. Adding programmes around or to this space would also help to activate a rather empty zone of the waterfront due to its disconnection with Cordova Street.

Granville square at centre, with the Waterfront Hotel right, and Harbour Centre at left, the plaza level situates itself about four storeys above the water level. photo: T. White 98

Granville Square, shown in boxed area.

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The Waterfront, Port of Vancouver

The Port of Vancouver is the second largest port in North America. In 1998 it handled 72 million tonnes of cargo, 840,000 TEU’s, and 873,102 cruise ship passengers. An important infrastructure for the city of Vancouver and for Canada, the Port of Vancouver offers a dynamic landscape of ocean going vessels, and small water craft, including float planes.

SD2 Burrard Inlet, Vancouver Harbour

Thoughts on : the Port Landscape and urban redevelopment. What does it mean to redevelop the port lands of our cities. In most cases we find the manicuring of landscapes, the glistening of new residential towers, new parks, schools, coffee bars, and restaurants. All jockeying for views of that waterfront. What does it mean to reclaim port lands for the city, is it really the desire for nature and parks, or is it the machine-like roughness, the vague terrain that draws the initial desire to reside within. To tackle the edge between our cities and the harbourfront, we must come to an understanding of what landscape we are searching for. Are we to send the dynamic industrial landscape of the harbour further east and make room for our manicured beaches (however not for swimming of course), our cycle paths along designed parkscapes and waterscapes, or is there a point where these ideas disrupt the place to such an extent that we actually lose a landscape worth more than we had thought? There must be significant consideration of this situation, the disruption, and the denial of the rough landscape of our cities is a failure we have been living with for years. These “not in my backyard” spaces must be understood in all of their denials, disruptions and in all their possibilities and opportunities.

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Centennial Pier container facility, Centerm

Located at the far eastern side of the site is the Centerm container facility. The facility is a 21 hectare (54 ac.) site with two berths 12.5 and 15.5 meters deep, and 644m long. It is one of three major container ports for the City of Vancouver. The four red coloured container cranes, for the loading and unloading of container boxes for visiting ships are an active part of the visual experience of the central waterfront landscape. see:, for information report on the asian connection to the container Ports of Vanocuver, including Centerm.

The container facility and the cranes of Centennial Pier.

photo: T. White 98

Highlighted in orange is Centennial Pier.

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Mountain view west side of Canada Place

Mountain view east side of Canada Place

photo: T. White 98

photo: T. White 98


The Northern Mountains

scenic views across the inlet

If there is one thing which governs urban design in Vancouver it would be the control and protection of the views towards the northern mountain ranges and any other scenic locations. As a result, street end view cones have become significant in the development of sites along the waterfront of Vancouver. However, as shown in the street views from Gastown have often been more of the CP rail car than the mountains (see photos, p. 20). Thus, consideration and positioning within this topic is important to the development of the site.

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The Seawall of Vancouver, public recreation space

Thoughts on : Vancouver and Seawall There is nothing more close to the hearts of the Vancouverite, than the seawall. That running trail of smooth flowing asphalt path that runs between water and land. The place of recreation on the move. Where does it end, where does it go? The problem of the seawall is the desire to go further. The sea wall is not integrative, it never attempts the blend of urban city and waterfront. It draws a line between. It symbolizes public ownership of the waters edge, but denies just that to the city and its activities. It is a condition that has a contradictory problem in its direction. As a linear and singular path that goes nowhere and always wants to go somewhere. Its only chance for fulfillment is to be continued and yet end, the turn around point becomes the frustration for all. Enjoyment pushes desire for continuity. Continuity pushes the seawall further along, cleaning up the rough edges between nature and the city. Nothing crosses the line between the two; for if the city was to cross, the wall would become street. When does the seawall end? When is it enough? And when will we be able to see that seawall and the street, are perhaps not so different. The seawall has no breaks, that would be disaster and disruption, it has no intersections with its continuity paramount to its function. It is pedestrian rule; a path with no end; a line with no corners. The only satisfactory end; a loop. Though, hope and desire ask for more and pushes the loop further, larger, and longer. Is there is a problem here or could it be that Vancouver has become less a city and more a seawall?

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surrounding districts Central Business District

Central Business District highlighted in orange. Downtown demographics (1991) 8 635 people 5 910 people

Population 1991 Population 1986

The Central Business district connects to the site at Granville Square, with a elevated public plaza, which provides an extraordinary view of the Harbour front. The Granville Square plaza 18.0m above the grade of the Central Waterfront which houses a parking garage.. Further connections from the site to the CBD could be made through the extension of the Canada Place viaduct, and through the extension of the Portside proposals ‘Cordova connector’. This would be a connection to Cordova Street through an existing parking lot east of the CPR station.

5 640 units 93.6% rented units

Total units Residents 20 to 39 Residents 40 to 64 Median income Average income in low-income Households Average house hold size Dwelling units/hectare Area (hectare) Office space (1996) Office vacancy(1996) Hotel occupancy (1996)

41% 39% $ 10 859 $ 20 295 60% note: 1.2 people 16.7 337 ha

The Downtown demographic area includes the

CBD and Gastown. The district area is enclosed between Main Street and Burrard Street., and from False Creek to Burrard Inlet, also including the land north of Georgia Street.

20 960 000sq.ft. 1 928 320 m2 8.3% 77%

Demographics are from :

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Gastown District Gastown is the historical centre of Vancouver. With cobble stone streets and sidewalks and a dense (turn of the century) commercial fabric, it strives to provide a historical, yet often somewhat “touristy� atmosphere. The streets are surrounded by the unique and the tourist oriented shops and restaurants. It also provides some interesting leasable loft spaces. Particularly since the war period, disconnected by the CPR rail corridor, the waterfront has been of little influence on the Gastown district

Gastown demographics (1991) Population 1991 Population 1986 Total units Median income Average income Average house hold size

Demographics are from :

1 550 people 1 500 people 1 130 units $ 9 213 $ 16 794 1.2 people

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Downtown Eastside District

Downtown Eastside District highlighted in orange. Eastside demographics (1991) 4 956 people 3 875 people

Population 1991 Population 1986

The Downtown Eastside terminates the site, by enclosing the site on the far eastern perimeter next to Main street. This area is known for its dissident population, drug users and the socially disadvantaged. Under constant pressure to provide rehabilitation centers, shelters, and low cost housing, this area of the peninsula has all the characteristics of those denied citizenship within the global city. Through understanding the diversity within our societies, any proposal for residential area within the peninsula particularly should consider the issues that this neighbouring community needs to deal with.

3 810 units 99% rented units

Total units Residents 20 to 39 Residents 40 to 64 Seniors 65+ Median income Average income in low-income Households Average house hold size Dwelling units/hectare Area (hectare)

27% 42% 28% $ 8 748 $ 11 251 80% 1.2 people 25.5 150.8 ha

Demographics are from :

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Vancouver demographics (1991 unless noted) Population 1996 Population 1991 Population 1986 Total units Residents under 19 Residents 20 to 39 Residents 40 to 64 Seniors 65+ Median income Average income in low-income Households

543 871 people 461 890 people 432 385 people 199 935 units 59.1 % rented units 19 39 28 14

% % % %

$ 34 174 $ 45 180 25%

Average house hold size

2.3 people

Dwelling units/hectare Area (hectare)

17.7 11 305 ha

Office space (1996) Lions gate bridge crossings (1996) Vehicles inbound to Vancouver (1996)

39 828 000 sq.ft. 3 664 176 m2 32 249 Daily 432 787 Daily

Demographics are from :

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program development

diverse programs pro•gram n., v., -gramed, -gram•ing, or -grammed, -gram•ming. —n. Also, Brit., pro gramme. 1. a plan or schedule to be followed. 2. a list of items, pieces, performers, etc., as in a public entertainment. 3. a performance or production, esp. on radio or television. 4. a systematic plan or set of instructions for the solution of a problem by a computer. —v.t. 5. to schedule as part of a program. 6. to prepare a computer program for. 7. to supply (a computer) with a program. —pro gram•mable, pro gram•a•ble, adj. —pro gram ma•bil i•ty, n. —pro gram•mat ic, adj. —pro gram•mer, pro gram•er, n.

Crossprogramming : Using a given spatial configuration for a program not intended for it, that is, using a church building for bowling. Similar to typological displacement: a town hall inside the spatial configuration of a prison or a museum inside a carpark structure. Reference: crossdressing. p.153, Event-Cities Disprogramming : Combining two or more programs where by a required spatial configuration of program A contaminates program B and B’s possible configuration. The new program B maybe extracted from the inherent contradictions contained in program A, and B’s required spatial configuration mat be applied to A. p.221 Event-Cities Transprogramming : Combining two programs, regardless of their incompatibilities together with their respective spatial configurations. Reference planetarium and roller coaster. p327 Event-Cities

Tschumi, Bernard. Event-Cities, praxis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1996.

CD1 24hr esemblage of programs for the Urban Design Forum . Yokohama project, 1992 • OMA - Rem Koolhaas

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In contemporary terms, programming has changed dramatically. No longer can a program be relied upon to be constant – today’s programs have become, more indeterminate, increasingly diversified and extensively hybridized. Mixed-use, the notion of combining multiple programs within a single building, has now become the norm in many urban settings. This results in a situation where programs have become events of which have is some sense chosen to participate upon the urban infrastructures of a particular site. As spaces take on their third or fourth generation of programs it becomes apparent that spatial form has only a very minor effect on the ability of programmatic infiltration. It also exposes the infrastructure of architecture. Those special components of which have lasting effects of any programmatic infiltration. It may

CD2 24hr program diagram for the Urban Design Forum. Yokohama project, 1992 • OMA - Rem Koolhaas

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be that as we move towards more dynamic programming hybrids, we may also find that architecture becomes the creation of spatial surfaces (spatial infrastructures) which stand prepared for activation by programmatic insertions. The Yokohama Forum project by OMA exemplifies the growing condition of unlimited mixed-use programming. In this project, OMA developed an organization of diagrams laying out sequential programs of diverse events, which are then combined and contained within one 24 hour building of “bigness”. In this ‘city-like’ building the programs within the urban structure would be operational every hour of a 24 hour day. This extreme infiltration of mixed-use onto surfaces of the building creates the potential to produce many of Bernard Tschumi’s notions of crossprogramming, disprogramming and transprogramming. It is however, important to realize that Tschumi’s notion, of programming relies upon the spatial interaction between the events and the users. If mixed-use explores diversity without considering the interaction of the between spaces within the mixed-use construction, the social influence that a diversified world of mixed use can create is greatly diluted. In a world of mixed-use, traditional programming specifics become secondary to architectural and urban moves which are more constant. In urban design these are infrastructural elements, in architecture it is more difficult to discover what these may be. However, this project proposes containerization, circulation, and landscape as the new consistencies in architec-

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tural and urban design. Flow space will involve the consideration of circulation space, both in the city and within the architectural ‘building’, involving collection, connection and movement. Flow space infrastructures set the stage for a dynamic infills of urban programs and civic life, designed to expose, connect, and exchange the social realms of the city. Event space takes up the notion of program but within a more dynamic and fluid perspective allowing the development of spaces for programs which allow the potentials for change and hybridization. Containerization, is the new architectural infrastructure of urban programming within which multiple programmatic possibilities can be constructed. By generating collectivity and distributing social activity the circulation spaces of these buildings become civic space. Orientated towards a landscape the circulation spaces cut through the unlimited programs of the container and develop an interior civic space. Landscape takes up the final core to urban programming expanding its palette beyond park space, to civic space. It now expands its responsibility, taking on the places we inhabit, move, and participate within. Urban landscape, becomes all inclusive, involving both interior and exterior space, connecting urban and architectural space. Connecting together the spaces of the civic realm developed within our urban conditions.

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flow spaces flow v.i. 1. to move along in a stream. 2. to circulate, as the blood. 3. to stream or well forth. 4. to issue from a source. 5. to menstruate. 6. to proceed continuously and smoothly, as speech, etc. 7. to fall or hang loosely at full length, as hair. 8. to abound. 9. to rise and advance, as the tide. —v.t. 10. to cause or permit to flow. —n. 11. the act of flow. 12. movement in a stream. 13. any continuous movement, as of thought, etc. 14. the rate of flowing. 15. something that flows. 16. an outpouring or discharge. 17. menstruation. 18. an overflowing. 19. the rise of the tide.

CD4 Carrascoplein, designed by West 8.

CD5 Carrascoplein, West 8.

“The moment when motion was conceptualized as flow marked the definitive consummation of the difference between the motion of space-time derived from Einsteinian physics utilized by the architectural avant-garde in the period from the twenties to the forties, and the motion of flow as this has come in recent years to occupy a central place in the activity of explaining contemporary architecture and the contemporary city.” p.15 Ignasi de Solà-Morales, Present and Futures

de Sola-Morales, Ignasi, and Costa Xavier, ed. Present and Futures. Archiecture in cities. Barcelona, Spain: Comitè d'Organització del Congrés UIA Barcelona 96, Col-legi d'Arquitectes de Catalunya, Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona and ACTAR, 1996.

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Flow space is our place of civic interaction and collection where we participate in social urban life. These spaces of socialization are not only the streets and transportation networks of our cities but are growing to include the circulation spaces internal to architecture. As architecture moves to understand movement space as possible event places and as public social space, the internal circulation ‘landscape’ becomes an extension of our urban landscape. An urban landscape of collection, interchange, motions and flows where social urban life develops. Understanding flow space, brings about the rethinking and redevelopment of urban spatial sequences and their inclusion in urban life and experience. As the places of transport and interchange between programmed destinations are understood as part of urban experience and ritual, a new relationship is rendered between the movement space internal to buildings and the street.

“(on places of passage and interchange in the city) I hold that we must invest enough in such places to make them not only convenient and practical but also beautiful. I also hold that we must not, for commercial or aesthetic reasons, artificially exaggerate the state of excitement in these places. Excitement thrives naturally, as it should, in places of passage and movement. It is not good to provoke or manufacture it. Just offer people a calm, generous, simple space and let them live.” p.63. Paul Andreu, Anyhow.

CD6 Arhem Station, proposed by Ben Van Berkel. The considered landscape of flow space interacting with the internal flow spaces of architecture.

Davidson, Cynthia C., ed. ANYHOW. Anyone Corporation, The MIT Press, 1998.

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As a significant part of our urban existence, the spatial sequences and events along our movements between urban destinations become the place where we build our physical and social perception of the city. This is where urban social space becomes less dependent on predetermined interactions derived through programmed space and becomes more about the passage through the collective civic space of our cities.

CD8 Arhem Station, proposed by Ben Van Berkel. The considered landscape of flow space interacting with the internal flow spaces of architecture.

CD7 Locating public space between traffic networks. Arhem Station, Ben Van Berkel.

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event spaces e•vent n. 1. an occurrence, esp. one of some importance. 2. an outcome or consequence. 3. any of the contests in a program. 4. at all events, in any case. Also, in any event. 5. in the event (of), in case (of).

CD9 Schouwburgplein, West 8. event landscape at schouwburgplein Rotterdam.

“In our contemporary world in which railway stations become museums and churches are turned into night-clubs, the old, stable coordinates cease to apply. And, in this world in which airports incorporate amusement arcades, cinemas, churches, business centers and so on, the “city,” as a complex and interactive web of events, becomes the relevant point of reference. These imbrication of elements lead, potentially, to new social relations, altering the once stable contours of institutions and accelerating the process of change on the way. They disrupt and disfigure but, simultaneously, reconfigure, providing a rich texture of experiences that redefine urban actuality: city-events, event-cities.” p.013 Event Cities, Bernard Tschumi

Tschumi, Bernard. Event-Cities, praxis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1996.

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‘Event space’ was introduced by Bernard Tschumi, as a means to understanding the ‘urban environment of activities’. As a conceptual framework, event space enables us to expand singular and multiple view points of urban activity, as well as a virtual experience of the diverse and multiple events that civic space contains at any moment in time. Event space expands our perception of spatial sequences in relation to a composition of endless possible events (throughout a duration of time). Event space contains functions and activities, outside of program. It encompasses ‘interactivities’ within a programmatic function and also defines the undetermined connections between programmed events. Event space is often the space left unprogrammed, or the space connecting programmed events. These unprogrammed spaces within and along a network of connecting flow space, are the areas of chance event and functional invention. From contemplative space to hyper accelerated space, the notion of a connecting event space in conjunction with the new public realm of flow space, produces the interactive urban environment of possibilities that supports our Globalizing cities. In some ways event space is what we experience in most cities. These are difference, surprise, and potential. These embrace the unexpected interactive possibilities that comprise urban living. Diversely dense is our urban condition, and event space convinces architecture to ensure a diverse spatial environment for all differences. To understand the city as a system of multiple events at numerous scales, and to perWhat is different when we think of event rather than program? Program carries specifics, requirements and minimums. Events are open, possible and indeterminate.

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ceive the ongoing infinite collisions of events that happen simultaneously at every moment of time within the city, suggests new architectural strategies. The more we can see the city in all its multiple events the better we can view the unlimited potential that space has to offer. To create the event city or event space is to understand the unlimited scales of interaction that can happen within a spatial zone. It is important to development diverse spatial scales to support the opportunity and possibility for events.

Without events there would be no urban life.

To partake in event, is to live in the city. CD10 Kyoto Center and Railway Station 1991. proposal by Bernard Tschumi, from “An unprecedented combination of programs and spaces: a multiplicity of events without classifications or hierarchy.” p.249 “Spatial sequences are independent of the meaning they evoke.” p.253

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container spaces

con•tain v.t. 1. to hold or include within a volume or area. 2. to have capacity for. 3. to prevent or restrict the success of (an enemy or disaster). —con tain ment, n. con•tain•er n. anything that contains something, as in a box, crate, etc.

The consideration of container space, was first introduced in an essay by Ignasi de Sola-Morales titled “Present and Futures, Architecture in Cities”1 which covered many new perspectives for consideration in viewing our contemporary cities. The notion of container space, can also be linked with the ideas Rem Koohaas expressed in his essay “Bigness”2 where the architecture of “bigness” encompasses the enclosure of many programs. these larger buildings move toward a point where the architecture becomes and challenges traditional and modern notions of urban space and form. It is in “bigness” that internal programs have little or no relationships to the exterior or the form of the enclosure . Container space is a growing characteristic of our urban cities. As large enclosures they attempt to contain a diverse and immense amount of program which becomes their attraction strength. Bernard Tschumi also refers to the attraction strength of container space in his book 1Ignasi de Solà-Morales, Present and Futures. Architecture in Cities.(pp.10-23) Present and Futures. Archiecture in cities, ed. de Sola-Morales Ignasi, Costa Xavier . Comitè d'Organització del Congrés UIA Barcelona 96, Col-legi d'Arquitectes de Catalunya, Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona and ACTAR : 1996. 2Rem Koohaas, Bigness or the problem of large .1994 (pp.495-516) SMLXL OMA, Rem Koolhaas and Bruce Mau. ed.Sigler Jennifer, The Monacelli Press : 1995.

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CD11 Lille Grand Palais (Congrexpo) “Bigness” Designed by Rem Koohaas and OMA.

“Event Cities” (Tschumi, pp. 102-266).3 Tschumi refers to container spaces as the ‘urban generator’. “Urban generators act as catalysts for every kind of activity of function, independent of the form that they may take. In these city-generators, functions and programs combine and intersect in an endless “disprogramming” or “crossprogramming”4. As spaces where endless, and multiple programs are contained within a form which has little influence or commandment over its external world, these spaces require one to consider the principles needed to engage them with meaningful architectural motives. The container is controlled primarily by circulation – the movement through and access to the multiple ‘insides’ of its containment. It is this circulation which becomes a metaphor of the street, an internal landscape of somewhat public space (‘somewhat’, because other than the fact of private funding and ownership, these interiors are often major places of public interaction) . The shopping mall is one example of container space that presents the conflicts and contradictions that container space brings to architecture and its city. Inside, dynamic flowing activities and events mimic the life we once had along our streets. However, this internal activ3Bernard Tschumi, Event-Cities, praxis, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts : 1996. 4Bernard Tschumi, p. 102.

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CD12 Euralille “Stations Triangle”, Head Architect • Jean Nouvel one container of the Euralille project planned and developed by OMA.

ity is often shrouded by the enormously fixed enclosure of the container. The contradictions presented by the container must be considered and strategies are needed for architecture and urban design to deal with them The challenge for architecture in container space is how to compose these architectural entities in terms of their formal order and ‘fit’ within an urban context. Circulation, the strategy of movement, motion, and flow is probably one of the key links between the city, that of civic space and the container of internalized urban activity. Through the development of a circulation landscape the container can connect with city space, potentially resulting in a new network of civic space, where internal streets become just as civic as the traditional notion of street. Both streets and the internal (streets) circulation of the container then connect together as a new urban landscape.

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“I propose that we adopt the category of container to refer to these places, not always public, nor yet exactly private, in which are produced the exchange, the expense, the distribution of gifts that constitute the multiple consumption of our highly ritualized societies. “A museum, a stadium, a shopping mall, an opera house, a theme park, a historic building conserved in order to be visited, a tourist centre: these are containers. They are not transparent, but closed precincts in which the “generalized separation” which Guy Debord described in his Society of the Spectacle constitutes a first fundamental premise. “Separation from reality in order to create, perfectly explicitly, a space of representation. Physical separation denying permeability, transit, transparency. The maximum of artificiality produced by a closed, delimited, protected precinct. Artificiality of the interior space, always interior even when it is open-air, produced by architectonic means that may be multiple, variable, ephemeral etc., but always enclosed by the rigid envelope of the container. “There is a unification of the space that is prior to every process of artificial diversification, and which derives from the essential condition of separation to which we referred above. There is nothing as changeable as the seasonal setting of the retail outlets in the shopping mall; and nothing as rigid, controlled, separated, selective, and homogenous as these temples of consumption whose proliferation on the outskirts of all the world’s major cities constitutes one of the most potent and determining architectonic and metropolitan phenomena of the last twenty years. “And yet the same reasoning is valid for other types of setting for distribution and consumption, in that museums - to cite an example apparently antithetical to the banality of the great shopping centers - function today in exactly the same fashion. Separation and homogeneity, with an internal discourse of multiplication of the cultural goods on offer - permanent exhibitions, temporary exhibitions, lectures, reproductions, merchandising, etc. - that remains imprisoned inside its variety by the unbridgeable distance between the outside world - reality?- and the world of cultural representation and the mechanisms of distribution and consumption. “It is evidently futile to seek to engage with these realities that are more ritual than functional, more closed than transparent, in terms of a set of ideas, however venerable, that are completely alien to the actual behaviors, individual and collective, being enacted all over the world. “Requirements of closure and enclosure, of control and insulation, including in their interior those other needs for diversity, multiplication, and superimposition of projects and formal proposals, seem to constitute an architectural problematic, not only technical but cultural, that is now in process of unfolding before our eyes. Eyes, however, like those of the architects whom Le Corbusier was addressing in Vers une Architecture, that seem incapable of seeing, fixed as they still are on the illusion of functional reason and spatial transparency.” pp.20-21, Present and Futures, Ignasi de Solà-Morales

1Ignasi de Solà-Morales, Present and Futures. Architecture in Cities.(pp.10-23) Present and Futures. Archiecture in cities, ed. de Sola-Morales Ignasi, Costa Xavier . Comitè d'Organització del Congrés UIA Barcelona 96, Col-legi d'Arquitectes de Catalunya, Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona and ACTAR : 1996.

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land•scape n., v., -scaped, -scap•ing. —n. 1. a section of scenery that may be seen from a single viewpoint. 2. a picture representating such scenery. —v.t. 3. to improve the appearance of (an area of land, etc.), as by altering the contours of the ground. —land scap er, n.

CD16-17 Schouwburgplein, West 8. event landscape at schouwburgplein Rotterdam.

“Decisive changes come about when we change the way we look at things” p.6 Eduard Bru New Lanscapes

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05 96 Landscapes is about discovering a new way of looking at our urban fabric. To understand the urban fabric as a landscape, suggests a new virtual awareness of the city ‘environment’ in which we participate. Blending our previous notion of landscape, that of a (ecological) ‘natural space’, with our social landscapes of ‘lived space’, the development of an urban ‘ecology’ begins. By understanding the city as a constructed landscape with an urban ‘ecology’ the disciplines of landscape, architecture, and urban design are stitched together with in the urban territory. This is the development, and investigation into looking differently at our urban environ-

La Villette Park proposal, by Rem Koolhaas and OMA, 1982-83. park diagrams pp.216-217 (Beeler L. Raymond, ed. LANDSCAPE The Princeton Journal, thematic studies in Architecture, vol.2, Princeton Architectural Press.: 1985)

“The essence of the competition becomes, therefore, how to orchestrate on a metropolitan field the most dynamic coexistence of x, y, and z activities and generate through their mutual interference a chain reaction of new, unprecedented events; or, how to design a Social Condenser, based on horizontal congestion, that is the size of a park.” p.84

(Jacques Lucan, Rem Koohaas.OMA1991)

CD14 clockwise: Bands, Points Grids or Confetti, Access and Circulation, Large Elements.

CD14 clockwise: Connections and Elaborations, Sum of the five layers, three categories of nature, Landscaping elements.

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ment, by projecting the landscape of city onto this singular, virtual, topological surface. The surface which at once is external, and also internal, that is natural and yet artificial, the surface and container of our urban activities, functions, events, and experiences. This landscape of continuous surface is the place where we construct our perspective of the city. It is a between space, and yet also the space of the city. Often lost between private programmatics, this landscape reconnects the breath of urban events in a more wholistic construction of urban space.

CD15 Carrasco Square, designed by West 8. the artificial landscape of the cities surface.

CD18 Kunsthall, Rotterdam, OMA & Rem Koohaas below a diagram of the Kunsthall’s circulation landscape.

“We can now see the building, as an interior space, from the viewpoint of what we apprehend in other fields, rather than being bound by mere sterile “disciplinary autonomy”, from what we have learnt, for example, about forms of communication unconnected to architecture. And what we have learnt about the “exterior”: about the relationship between the place and the landscape, with the vociferous precedents of Scharoum’s Library in Berlin and Le Corbusier’s capitol in chandigarh. Walls which mark out a place where the incidents of ground plan are accidents of that landscape. (...) Constructions which can abound as Jochem Schneider says right here, in the tyranny of intimacy, with the disappearance of the public realm. But maybe, as Schneider also says, in other forms of survival of the public realm, in a potential conception of the private as part of a more general scope, as an explicit part of the city, as an actual part of the territory.” p.14 Eduard Bru, New Landscapes

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theoretical considerations

Surface: urban surface(s) constructing perceptions of an interconnected and continuous urban field of socialization (dynamic, diverse, and constructive).

The urban surface is a perceptional concept of urban space and social significance (relevance). It is in this way that I am attempting to construct a perception of urban space as the seemingly endless surface of transit, transfer, and exchange that our cities rely upon and that bring the “us� of urban space together on its multiple stages. It is where we confront, experience, and understand the multiple differences involved within the "others" included in our urban

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constructions. Within this sense is the understanding that the urban surface is a vital piece of the ongoing urban puzzle. It is on this urban surface, that a significant socialization process takes place and makes it perhaps the most critical event surface of urban socialization (the experience of others, “difference”). If we attempt to reduce the urban experience to simplify the abundant complexity inherently involved, would it not be possible to propose that urban existence relies on two actions, which encompass potentially two experiences. One action being within a place/places, and the other action of being in transit/transfer. The place/places are the basis of each of our own constructed urban modal. Through the linking of our places each of us potentially constructs their own urban field (their own perception of city). Places are our familiar stages, such as our residential units (the place where we live), our office (the place(s) of work), our place(s) of leisure, entertainment, or support (friends,services,etc.). Between all these prescribed places of programmed space, is our place(zones) of transfer and transit, the streets, paths, halls, corridors, foyers, escalators, elevators and corridors, non-places in some sense, yet a collective surface of urban transfer, that we share with the others of our urban environment. These non-places consist of multiple stages, and unlike our places, the urban surface of transfer is often a collection of the diversity contained within our collective urban “neighbors”, and unlike our world of places which is a collection of somewhat known individuals, the urban surface is a “public domain” of somewhat unknown, and undefinable differences.

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In this sense though programmed places are points of urban socialization and collection, they inherently have a somewhat semi-public collection of the familiar, the urban surface is a collection of differences, a surface occupied by a collective unfamiliar and thus sometimes more uncomfortable for some, and more exciting for others. Though the familiar is the zone of comfort it is possible to find arguments which support a concept that experiencing the unfamiliar (especially in the hyper-connected globalization of today) is a constructive, and valuable experience needed for a continued urban collective. Any future urban construction which moves us to denser configurations must bring with it a collective that understands the multiple others within this world, and the meanings involved in this collective organization. The goal here is to construct an understanding of this urban surface and reframe its somewhat non-places as a place! A place in the sense that it contains valuable socialization stages, public spaces of our urban constructions. In doing so we will reconnect the typically understood field of urban space (that outside architecture) to that of typical architectural space (the space bounded by the urban). In combining these public transfer fields/surfaces (both interior and exterior fields) into an urban understanding, we then tie together and demand both architecture and urban space to confront and address each other Therefore in any urban architectural pursuit the urban surface surrounds and infiltrates, and in any urban modal not only surrounds and defines the architectural zones but also considers the penetration into the architectural zones (fields).

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Connection is important to this urban surface because it


provides the surface for developing social intersections. Through pursuing a system of multiple connections, the urban surface develops a matrix of pathways with numerous urban potentials.

action: connection experience: motion / movement (spatial sequence) urban social field

By dissolving the singular viewpoint of collective movements, and developing a more multiple and abstract understanding of the diversity in urban circulations, moves the concept of connectivity towards more dynamic strategies. Connectivity in this direction will strive to provide for and continue multiple routes and pathways which thus intersect and develop a dynamic field of potential confrontations or intersections. It is the intersections that potentially merge differences and promote urban socializations on the urban surface. Intersections are potential collection zones, where the diverse flow spaces intersect though in transit and transfer. Connectivity thus constructs social fabric, however a dynamically dense connectivity provides for further connections and intersections and therefore develops a more dynamic social surface. In a dynamic social surface, indeterminate chance encounters and multiple intersections develop diverse social opportunities. In a dense matrix of connectivity the urban surface

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allows the option to pursue the familiar, but also gives the opportunity for deviations. However, the multiple intersections which result provide a diversity of potential social experiences to each. It is in this way that, connectivity moves away from over controlled and isolated pathways which reduce urban experiences to common sequences and towards developing an urban surface of diverse and dense social intersections which confront the cosmopolitan differences naturally involved within urban constructs. With the intersection with difference becoming a natural occurrence on the public stage, a social tolerance and understanding should follow. which will be necessary for increasingly urbanized condition of our globe. Through connectivity a dynamic matrix of flow spaces allows freedom and individual choice which allows each individual to develop their urban map of their familiar stages and places. However at the same time, the connectivity matrix constantly opens everyone’s familiar map to potential new social intersections.

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06 104


Diversity is important in providing a diverse social collective of which then occupies the urban surface. Thus a diversity of differences allows for a diversity of social potentials, and intersec-

action: diversify (programs, events, + places) experience: differences (social) public (social) perception

tion events. Through providing a diversity in programs, events, places and stages a demographic diversity results upon the urban surface. It is important to develop a demographic of multiple differences in a relatively dense zone to provide a diverse collective upon the urban surface. Producing social diversity within reasonably tight zones of our urban constructs, develops the need for a social acceptance which the urban collective requires. This surface needs the involvement of diversity and difference to produce and invent positive a contemporary urban socialization fabric.

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Interactivity action: spatial intersections

(connection,intersection, folding)

experience: physical, visual and virtual experience of the urban collective

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Interactivity is a key strategy for the urban surface to connect connectivity and diversity. Without folding connection and diversity together the urban surface would stay in a somewhat stagnant state. It is when these environments interact, that significant social stages develop. The experience and ability to perceive the urban interactions of contemporary socialization provides a setting which exposes the complexity of urban society and thus plots a stage for understanding, contemplation, and discussion of our collective situation. Interactivity is the strategy in developing a social pursuit for the urban surface. In the increasingly global circumstances of contemporary society it may well be these collisions of social diversities (differences) upon the dynamically connected urban stages that constructs a social perspective for the future of urban spaces.

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I3 I1


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site connection + integration interchange zones

I1 •

Interconnector zone 9.6 ha (23.7 acres) Eastside location, Waterfront station (wce,skytrain, seabus) + Canada Place way

- Cordova connector intersection. urban zone: social collection, interaction, + dispersion

I2 •

Integration zone 6.6 ha (16.3 acres) Central location, Gastown bridges + Waterfront seawall connections.

urban zone: waterfront link to gastown district + residential / commercial exchange.

I3 •

Separation zone 7.4 ha (18.3 acres) Westside location, Main street overpass + Port road access ramp.

urban zone: separation of service traffic (Port road) and primary site traffic (Canada place way).

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07 108

east-west flow zones Swall • Seawall public flow space. leisure + recreation Canpw (+15m - +10m) • Canada Place way primary flow space

(+5-+15m). vehicular + pedestrian

prd +0m • Port Road Service flows (+0m), parking access + service support skyt + wce • SkyTrain & WCE commuter train transit infrastructure cpr • CPR rail yard barrier existing switching yards

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north-south flow zones Cc • Cordova street connector urban connector Moverp • Main street overpass urban connector g1, g3, g4 • Gastown Bridges urban connectors (pedestrian only)


• Gastown Bridge Abott street

urban connector (vehicular +pedestrian)

Seab(s) • SeaBus station North Vancouver transport Cb5 • (new) Cruise ship berth + facilities. tourism transfers hp• Heliport tourism + business transport

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07 110

Programming A collection of mixed used, multi programmed and programmable spaces, inter connected by the flow spaces outlined above. Station interchange (connection multiplicity mobility space) Separation marketplace (multiplicity mobility space) global hotel (mobility space) expanded convention centre (multiplicity diversity space) interchangeable towers (multiplicity space) unprogrammed event space (multiplicity diversity space) urban landscape (connection diversity mobility space) Flow space infrastructure (connection mobility space)

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interconnector zone

integration zone

separation zone

07 111

total site

site area 30ha ZONE AREAS (hectares)





HOUSING aprox. units aprox. population

1,000 1,500

0 0

0 0

1,000 1,500

aprox. units aprox. population

0 0

1,500 2,000

0 0

1,500 2,000

social housing units aprox. population

0 0

300 300

150 150

450 450

aprox. total population





PARKING interior (underground) exterior parking

1000 100

3,000 200

0 400

4,000 700

aprox. total parking





CULTURAL AND PUBLIC (sq.m.) entertainment galleries exhibition hall + conventions auditorium station transfer social services community services

10,000 0 40,000 3,000 15,000 0 0

1,000 1,000 0 0 0 0 2,000

0 1,000 0 0 0 3,000 8,000

11,000 2,000 40,000 3,000 15,000 3,000 10,000

aprox. total area (sq.m.)





COMMERCIAL shopping + restaurants offices large retail market shopping

30,000 25,000 10,000 0

30,000 5,000 0 0

5,000 10,000 0 5,000

65.000 40,000 10,000 5,000

aprox. total area (sq.m.)





0 0 included in station included in station 5,000 1,000 1,000

3,500 4,000 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3,500 4,500 included in station included in station 5,000 1,000 1,000

aprox. total area (sq.m.)





OPEN SPACE parks and green ways (ha) seawall (ha)

0 1.2

1.0 1.3

1.5 0.8

2.5 3.3

aprox. total area (ha)





TRANSIT heliport seabus skytrain wce commuter train cruise terminal 4 airport shuttle taxi + bus zone

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08 113

bibliography Books Allen, Stan, and Park Kyong, ed. Sites & Stations : provisional utopias. New York, NY, USA: Lusitania Press, 19...... Angelil, Marc M., ed. On Architecture the City, and Technology. Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, 1990. AU

Arenas, Manuel, with Xavier Basiana, Manuel Gausa, and Miguel Ruano, ed. 1984•1994 Barcelona Transfer, sant andreu • la sagrera . Urban development. Barcelona, Spain: ACTAR, 1995.


Barber, Benjamin R. Jihad vs McWorld, How globalism and tribalism are reshaping the world. New York, USA: Ballantine Books , 1995. Brotchie, John, with Michael Batty, Peter Hall, Peter Newton, and Cheshire Longman, ed. Cities of the 21ST Century: New Technologies and Spatial Systems. Melbourne, Australia: Halsted Press, 1991. Bru, Eduard, ed. new territories new landscapes. Barcelona,Spain,Euopean Union: Museu d'Art Copntemporani de Barcelona ACTAR, 1997. Davidson, Cynthia C., ed. ANYHOW. Anyone Corporation, The MIT Press, 1998. Davidson, Cynthia C., ed. ANYBODY. Anyone Corporation, The MIT Press, 1997.


Forman, Richard T. T. Land Mosaics . The ecology of landscapes and regions. Cambridge, Massachusetts : Camgridge University Press, 1995.


Forman, Richard T. T., and Michel Godron. Landscape Ecology. John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1986. Frisken, Frances, ed. The Changing Canadian Metropolis, a public policy perspective. vol. 2. University of California, Berkeley and the Canadian Urban Institue,Toronto: Institute of Governmental Studies Press, 1994.

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08 114


Habraken, N. J. The structure of the Ordinary. ed. Johnathon Teicher, Cambridge, Massachusetts • London, England: The MIT Press, 1998.


Hardwick, Walter G. VANCOUVER, Canadian Cities. Collier-Macmillan Canada Ltd., 1974.


Hillier, Bill, and Julienne Hanson, The Social Logic of Space. Bartlett School of Architecture and Planning: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Knechtel, John, ed. OPEN CITY. Alphabet City six. Concord, ON., Canada: House of Anansi Press Limited, 1998. Lash, Scott, and John Urry. Economies of Signs and Space. Chapter 11: Globalization and Localization. SAGE Publications, 1994.


Lofland, Lyn H. The Public Realm: exploring the city's quintessential social territory. Hawthorne, New York: Walter de Gruyter Inc., 1998. de Sola-Morales, Ignasi, and Costa Xavier, ed. Present and Futures. Archiecture in cities. Barcelona, Spain: Comitè d'Organització del Congrés UIA Barcelona 96, Col-legi d'Arquitectes de Catalunya, Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona and ACTAR, 1996.


Mattison, David. Eyes of the City: early Vancouver photographers 1868-1900. Vancouver City Archives, 1986. Moss, Mitchell, ed. Cities and New Technologies. (Conference on Urban Affairs proceedings, Paris 1990) .Délégation interministérielle à la ville, OECD, URBA 2000, 1992.


Menu, Isabelle. Euralille - the Making of a New City Center. Koohaas, Nouvel, Portzamparc, Vasconi, Duthilleul-architects / Espace Croisé. Basel Switzerland: Birkhauser, 1996.


Pethick, Derek. Vancouver Recalled. Hancock House Publishers, 1974.


Pope, Albert. Ladders. AAR 34 Houston, Texas. New York, USA: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996. Rajchman, John. Constructions. Writting Architecture series. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1998.

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08 115

Rogatinick, Abraham. Restoration Report: A case for Renewed Life in the Old City. Planning Department Document 1972. Sassen, Saskia, Global City : New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton University Press, 1991. Sigler, Jennifer, ed. SMLXL. OMA, Rem Koolhaas and Bruce Mau. The Monacelli Press, 1995.


Tschumi, Bernard. Event-Cities, praxis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1996.


Tschumi, Bernard. Architecture and Disjunction. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1994.


Warnett, Kennedy. Vancouver Tomorrow . a search for greatness. Canada: Mitchell Press Limited, 1974.


Soja, Edward W. Thirdspace. ch. 2, Trilectics of Spatiality. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell publishers Inc., 1996.

relevant papers and essays SITES & STATIONS

Allen, Stan, and Park Kyong, ed. Sites & Stations : provisional utopias. New York, NY, USA: Lusitania Press, 19......


Limon Enrique, Paul Virilio and the Oblique.(p.174-185) On ARCHITECTURE, the CITY, and TECHNOLOGY

Angelil, Marc M., ed. On Architecture the City, and Technology. Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, 1990.


Neumeyer, Fritz, The second-hand City: Modern Technology and Changing Urban Identity, (p. 1625), 1990.

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08 116


Brotchie, John, with Michael Batty, Peter Hall, Peter Newton, and Cheshire Longman, ed. Cities of the 21ST Century: New Technologies and Spatial Systems. Melbourne, Australia: Halsted Press, 1991.


Moss Mitchell, The Information City in the Global Economy ch.12 (p.181-189).


Blakely Eduard, The New Technology City: Infrastructure for the Future Community ch.15 (p.229236).


Rimmer Peter, Exporting Cities to the Western Pacific Rim: the art of the japanese package ch.17 (p.243-261).


Fox-Przeworski Joanne, Concentration of New Information Technologies: are there spatial policy concerns? ch.25 (p.364-374).


editors epilogue, Epilogue (p.391-395).

NEW LANDSCAPES / NEW TERRITORIES nuevos paisajes / nuevos territorios

Bru, Eduard, ed. new territories new landscapes. Barcelona,Spain,Euopean Union: Museu d'Art Copntemporani de Barcelona ACTAR, 1997.


Moss Mitchell, The Information City in the Global Economy ch.12 (p.181-189).


Blakely Eduard, The New Technology City: Infrastructure for the Future Community ch.15 (p.229236).


Rimmer Peter, Exporting Cities to the Western Pacific Rim: the art of the japanese package ch.17 (p.243-261).


Fox-Przeworski Joanne, Concentration of New Information Technologies: are there spatial policy concerns? ch.25 (p.364-374).


editors epilogue, Epilogue (p.391-395).

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08 117

NEW LANDSCAPES / NEW TERRITORIES nuevos paisajes / nuevos territorios

Bru, Eduard, ed. new territories new landscapes. Barcelona,Spain,Euopean Union: Museu d'Art Copntemporani de Barcelona ACTAR, 1997.


Bru Eduard, La mirada larga The long-distance gaze .(p.6-19).


Puig Charles, Nadal Sara, Infiltraciones Infiltrations .(p.22-25).


Adell Germán, The Landscape Fights Back: notes on some Parisian projects .(p.74-81).


Schneider Jochem, La tematizacihem, temporani de Barcelona ACTAR, Barc A discusion of the individual in the city as landscape .(p.170-187).


Beigel Florian, Paisajes épicos Epic landscapes .(p.188-202).


Zardini Mirko, La prepnderancia The prevalence of the landscape .(p.203-209).


Davidson, Cynthia C., ed. ANYHOW. Anyone Corporation, The MIT Press, 1998.


Kwinter Sanford, Leap into the Void: A New Organon? (22-27).


de Solà-Morales Ignasi, Liquid Architecture (22-27).


Andreu Paul, Tunneling (59-63).


Sassen Saskia, Hong Kong. Strategic Site/New Frontier. (130-137).

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08 118


Davidson, Cynthia C., ed. ANYBODY. Anyone Corporation, The MIT Press, 1997.


Arata Isozaki and Akira Asada, The Demiurgomorphic Contour (38-45).


Miyoshi Masao, Architecture in a Reconfigured Body Poitique (78-85).


Rajchman John, Some Senses of "Ground" (p.154161).


Massumi Brian, The Political Economy of Belonging and the Logic of Relation (p.174-189).


Zaera-Polo Alejandro, Forget Heinsenberg (p.202-209). THE CHANGING CANADIAN METROPOLIS

Frisken, Frances, ed. The Changing Canadian Metropolis, a public policy perspective. vol. 2. University of California, Berkeley and the Canadian Urban Institue,Toronto: Institute of Governmental Studies Press, 1994.

GL, Van.

Leo Christopher, The Urban Economy and the Power of the Local State:the politics of planning in Edmonton and Vancouver. ch.20 (p.657-698).

GL, Van.

Ley David, Social Polarisation and Community Response:contesting marginality in Vancouver's downtown eastside ch.21 (p.699-723). OPEN CITY

Knechtel, John, ed. OPEN CITY. Alphabet City six. Concord, ON., Canada: House of Anansi Press Limited, 1998.


Sassen Saskia, Cities in the Global Economy (p.172/175).


Foreign Office Architects, High Speed Railway Complex: Pusan, South Korea (178-187).


Paul Virilio interviewed by Philippe Petit, Cybermonde: The poitics of Degradation (192-203).

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08 119


Lash, Scott, and John Urry. Economies of Signs and Space. Chapter 11: Globalization and Localization. SAGE Publications, 1994.


Lash Scott, Urry John, Economies of Signs and Space, Chapter 11: Globalization and Localization. (279-313). PRESENT AND FUTURES

de Sola-Morales, Ignasi, and Costa Xavier, ed. Present and Futures. Archiecture in cities. Barcelona, Spain: Comitè d'Organització del Congrés UIA Barcelona 96, Col-legi d'Arquitectes de Catalunya, Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona and ACTAR, 1996.


de Solà-Morales Ignasi , Present and Futures. Architecture in Cities.(p.10-23).


Pérez-Gómez Alberto, Spaces In-between.(p.274-278). CITIES AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES

Moss, Mitchell, ed. Cities and New Technologies. (Conference on Urban Affairs proceedings, Paris 1990) .Délégation interministérielle à la ville, OECD, URBA 2000, 1992.


Moss Mitchell, Telecommunications and Urban Economic Development .(p.147-157). CONSTRUCTIONS

Rajchman, John. Constructions. Writting Architecture series. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1998.


Rajchman John, Constructions. chapters: oneConstructions, twoFolding, threeLightness, fourAbstraction (Journal of Visual Arts.1994), fiveGrounds (ANYBODY.1997), sixOther Geometries, sevenFuture Cities, eightThe Virtual House (ANY 19/20.1997).

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Sassen, Saskia, Global City : New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton University Press, 1991.


Sassen Saskia, Global City : New York, London, Tokyo. Chapter One: Overview. (3-15). Chapter Ten: A New Urban Regime? (323-338). SMLXL

Sigler, Jennifer, ed. SMLXL. OMA, Rem Koolhaas and Bruce Mau. The Monacelli Press, 1995.


Koolhaas Rem, Typical Plan .1993 (p.334-350).


Koolhaas Rem, Globalization .1990/93 (3p.62-369).


Koolhaas Rem, Bigness or the problem of large .1994 (p.495-516).


Koolhaas Rem, What Ever Happened to Urbanism .1994 (p.959-971).


Koolhaas Rem, The Generic City .1994 (p.1238-1267).

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articles and periodicals AU

Filion, P., “Factors of evolution in the content of planning documents: downtown planning in a Canadian city, 1962-1992,” ed. M Batty, Environment and Planning B:Planning and Design. vol. 20, Pion Limited,Great Britain, (1993) pp. 459-478.


Gausa, Manuel, “metropolis • metapolis: new ways of mapping the contemporary city,” Quaderns, 213, ed. Manuel Gausa. Barcelona, Spain: ACTAR. p. 10-17.


Hutton, Thomas A., “Vancouver .CITY PROFILE,” Cities, 11(4), (1994) pp. 219-239.


Lootsma, Bart, “Public Space in Transition - Der öffentliche Raum in Bewegung,” DAIDALOS. 67, März-March (1998) pp. 116 -123.

Architektur Kunst Kultur-Architecture Art Culture


Maggie, Toy ed., “Hypersurface Architecture,” Architectural Design Profile, no.133, New York NY: John Wiley & sons Inc., (1998) pp. 01-96.

Van., GL

Olds, K., “Globalization and the production of new urban spaces: Pacific Rim mega projects in the late 20th century.” Environment and planning A (1995), pp. 1713-1743.


Pearson, Clifford, “Reports from the Pacific Rim,” Architectural Record 07.97, pp. 81-95.


Pelkonen, Eeva Liisa, “Bernard Tschumi’s Event Space,” DAIDALOS.Architektur Kunst Kultur-Architecture Art Culture 67, März-March (1998) pp. 83-85.

Van., GL

Wagner, George, “Manifest Density : The Vancouver Tower,” Harvard Design Magazine, ed. Saunders William S., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Winter/Spring (1998) p. 35-37.


“Tourism, mobility and architecture,” archis, 09 September, (1998) pp. 71-79.


“XL in Asia: A Dialogue with Rem Koolhaas and Masao Miyoshi,” MUÆ 2. New York City: Kaya Production Inc. (1997) pp. 96-119.

GL, AU, PS, Landscape

Quaderns 213, ed. Manuel Gausa, Barcelona Spain: ACTAR

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08 122

planning documents Van.

M. Gordon and E. Barth., Policy Report.Urban Structure (New Trade and Convention Centre) City of Vancouver: November 05, 1998.


Vancouver (B.C.) Planning Dept., New Trade and Convention Facilities Review Program, Stage Two City of Vancouver: January 1998.


Vancouver (B.C.) Planning Dept., New Trade and Convention Facilities Review Program report, Stage One City of Vancouver: Feburary 1996.


Vancouver (B.C.) Planning Dept., Coal Harbour. land use and development policies and guidelines. City of Vancouver:1996.


Vancouver (B.C.) Planning Dept., Reports to Council. Central Waterfront: Interim Development by the Vancouver Port Corporation. City of Vancouver:1984.

web pages City of Vancouver, New Trade & Convention Centre: City of Vancouver, neighbourhood profiles: City of Vancouver, statistics 1998:

Greystone Properties Ltd., PORTSIDE project:: Port of Vancouver:

section . page

picture references section 01preface

p. 02

section 02introduction

p. 03-17 global stage and local place s.02 p. 05-10 GL1. ANYmagazine, No.22. ed. Cynthia C. Davidson, Anyone Corporation: 1998,

diagram from:A technical Review of Urban Land Use:

Transportation Models as Tools for Evaluating Travel Reduction Strategies, by Frank Southworth (july 1995)

civic space and social motive s.02 p. 15-16 CS1. Edward W. Soja. Thridspace. Blackwell Publishers Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: 1996, diagram, p.74

ch.2: trilectics of spatiality

section 03site situations

p. 18-33 Location s.03 p. 018-21 L1. Waite Air Photos Inc. 1994 L2. Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, July1994. History s.03 p. 22-26 HS1. Mattison David., Eyes of the City: early Vancouver photographers 1868-1900. Vancouver City Archives, 1986. photo 2.2, p.22. HS2. Pethick Derek., Vancouver Recalled. Hancock House Publishers, 1974. Hastings mill, p.59 HS3. Pethick D., Gastown, pp.56-57. HS4. Pethick D., Burrard Inlet 1886, p.55 HS5. Pethick D., p.70. HS6. Pethick D., First trian arival 1887, p.95. HS7. Pethick D., pp.88-89. HS8. Mattison D., p.48. HS9 Mattison D., p.46. HS10. Mattison D., p.47. HS11. Rogatinick Abraham., Restoration Report: A case for Renewed Life in the Old City. Planning Department Document 1972. land fill map,1973, p.13. HS12. Blair L. Calvin, Dr. Day E. E. Douglas, Frid Bradley R., the Canadian Landscape. map and air photo interpretation, third edition, Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario: 1990. p.108. HS13. Rogatinick A. Burrard Inlet 1972, p.17. HS14. Rogatinick A. from picture: Burrard Inlet 1972, p.17. HS15. Hardwick Walter G., VANCOUVER, Canadian Cities. Collier-Macmillan Canada Ltd. 1974. 1900 and 1973, pp.156157. HS16. Blair L. Calvin, Dr. Day E. E. Douglas, Frid Bradley R., the Canadian Landscape. map and air photo interpretation, third edition, Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario: 1990. p.108. HS17 HS18. Situational context s.03 p. 27-33

09 123

section . page

09 124

SC1. SC2, SC4. SC6,

TIME magazine, Canadian edition, November 17, 1997. cover page. SC3. Waite Air Photos Inc. 1994. Spaeth Anthony, Asia’s New Capital, TIME magazine, Canadian edition, November 17, 1997. pp.28-29 SC7, SC8, SC9, SC10.

section 04site description

p. 34-45 Surrounding places s.04 p. 39-43 SD1. Mattison David., Eyes of the City: early Vancouver photographers 1868-1900. Vancouver City Archives, 1986. photo 2.2, p.61. SD2. Blair L. Calvin, Dr. Day E. E. Douglas, Frid Bradley R., the Canadian Landscape. map and air photo interpretation, third edition, Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario: 1990. p.108.

section 05conceptual development

p. 46-57 programs s.05 p. 46-48 CD1. Sigler Jennifer ed., SMLXL OMA, Rem Koolhaas and Bruce Mau. The Monacelli Press: 1995. CD2. Sigler, SMLXL OMA, Rem Koolhaas and Bruce Mau., 24hour City, p.1219 CD3. 24hour City photo Pending flow spaces s.05 p. 49-50 CD4. SD9902 Space Design.The Dutch Model: Architecture, Urban Design and Landscape., CD5. Architect’s Journal, Nov. (1997)., West 8, Carrascoplein p. 34 CD6. SD9902, UN sudio Van Berkel and Bo, Arhem Station. p.54 CD7. ANY magazine. No.22., Arhem Station diagram, p.23 CD8. SD9902, UN sudio Van Berkel and Bo, Arhem Station, p.56

West 8. Carrascoplien,

24hour City,



event spaces s.05 p. 51-52 CD9. Architect’s Journal, Nov. (1997)., West 8, Schouwburgplein p. 33 CD10. Tschumi Bernard , Event-Cities, praxis, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts : 1996.

Kyoto Center,


container spaces s.05 p. 53-55 CD11. Menu Isabelle, Euralille - the Making of a New City Center : Koohaas, Nouvel, Portzamparc, Vasconi, Duthilleul architects / Espace Croisé. Birkhauser, Basel Switzerland: 1996. Lille Grand Palais, pp.58-59 CD12. Menu Isabelle, Euralille., Stations Triangle, p.112 CD13. Menu Isabelle, Euralille., p.33 landscapes s.05 p. 56-57 CD14. Beeler Raymond L. ed. LANDSCAPE, The Princeton Journal, vol.2, Princeton Architectural Press: 1985 Rem Koohaas, pp.216-217 CD15. SD9902, West 8, Carrascoplien, p.37 CD16. Architect’s Journal, Nov. (1997)., West 8, Schouwburgplein p. 35 CD17. Architect’s Journal, Nov. (1997)., West 8, Schouwburgplein p. 35

La Villette, OMA,

section . page

CD18. Kunsthall pamphlet publication.

section 06theoretical considerations section 07design

09 125

section . page

00 126

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K. Todd White Todd was born in Montreal, Quebec and grew up in the prairie town of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. He was a resident of Saskatchewan for his entire time at the University of Manitoba. He entered the Environmental Design program in the year 1990 after graduating form Marion M. Graham Collegiate in 1989. After his Environmental Studies degree, he entered the pre-masters architecture program in 1994. During his masters studies he often returned to Saskatoon for the summer periods to work for the firm AODBT Architects. He was an active member of the UMAAS student organization, and was president for the 98-99 semester. He also participated in the Berlin studio, one of the many excellent foreign studios the Faculty of Architecture has offered. Todd has seen the dawn of the computer as a tool in architecture and spent a good period of his final years learning to utilize this new mechanism in his design processes

B.E.S. bachelors of Environmental design

Faculty of Architecture, University of manitoba, 1990-93

Masters of Architecture program(March)

Faculty of Architecture, University of Manitoba, 1994(pmr) 1995-2000



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