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ae-bmfw thWw ]›n-a-L-´-sØ Poh-t\m-sS- Xs∂ H∂mw- ]-Xn∏v sabv 2014 {]km-[-\w, hnX-cWw : tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-jØv Xr»q¿ ˛ 680004 C ˛ sabn¬ : publicationkssp@gmail.com

A®Sn : sXtc Hm^vsk‰v {]nt‚gvkv, A¶-amen

Malayalam Venam Paschimagattatthe Jeevanode Thanne First Edition May 2014 Published & Distributed by : Kerala Sasthra Sahithya Parishath Thrissur - 680004 E - Mail : publicationkssp@gmail.com Printed at : Theressa offset printers, Angamaly

hne : 5.00 KSSP

2022

IE

May 2014

Dy1/8

45K

500

LL 9/14


hnthIØn\pta¬ hnImcØn\v ta¬ssI e`n® {]Xntj[ {]t£m`{]h¿Ø\ßfmbncp∂p am[hv KmUvKn¬ dnt∏m¿´v \S∏m°p∂Xpambn _‘s∏´v tIcfØn¬ {]tXyIn®v CSp°n, hb\mSv Pn√Ifn¬ \S∂ kac߃. Im¿jnI hncp≤sa∂ t]cn¬ kwLSn∏n°s∏´ kaccq]߃ ]›n-aL-´{]tZiØv Hcp kwc£Whpw Bhiyans√∂ kao]\ Øntebv°pw AXphgn kwhmZmflIam°mambncp∂ Hcp A¥co£sØ C√mXm°p∂ kmlNcyØntebv ° pw FØnt®¿∂p. tUm.am[hv KmUv K nens‚ t\XrXzØn¬ Xømdm°nbn´p≈ dnt∏m¿´mbmepw icn, tUm.Ikv X qcn cwKs‚ t\XrXzØn¬ Xømdm°nbn´p≈ dnt∏m¿´mbmepw icn, tIcfØns‚ {]tXyI kmlNcyØn¬ Xømdm°nb tUm.DΩ≥.hn.DΩs‚ dnt∏m¿´mbmepw icn, hnimeamb A¿∞Øn¬ tIcfØnse ]›naL´{]tZisØ kwc£n °pIbpw kpÿnchnIk\w km[yam°pIbpw sNøp-I-sb∂ e£yw ap≥\n¿Øn Xømdm°nbn´p≈XmWv . Cu kml NcyØn¬ tIcfØns‚ hnIk\hpw ]›n- a - L - ´ kwc£Whpw F∂ cq]Øn¬ Cu N¿®Iƒ hnIkn®p htc≠Xp≠v F∂v tIcf imkv { XkmlnXy ]cnjØv IcpXp∂p. kwhmZmflIamb Hc¥co£w krjv S n°m≥ Ignbp∂ hn[Øn¬ ]›n-a-L-´ kwc£Ww kw_‘n®v Hcp eLpteJ tIcfkaqlka£w ]cnjØv ka¿∏n°pIbmWv. 2014se ]cnkcZn\mNc-WØns‚ `mK-ambn (Pq¨ 5) "thWw ]›naL´sØ Poht\msS Xs∂' F∂ ktμiw {]Ncn∏n°m\mWv ]cnjØv Dt±in°p∂Xv . AXn\mbn Cu eLpteJIqSn D]tbmKn°Wsa∂v kv t \l]q¿hw A`y¿∞n°p∂p. tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cnjØv


4

thWw ]›n-a-L-´sØ Poh-t\msS Xs∂

thWw ]›naL´sØ Poht\msS Xs∂ ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ {]m[m\yw klym{Zn F∂p-IqSn Adn-b-s∏-Sp∂ ]›n-a-L-´-w hen-∏-Øn¬ C¥y-bnse c≠m-asØ ]¿h-X-\n-c-bmWv. KpP-dm-Øns‚ sX°p `mKØp\n∂m-cw-`n®v I\ym-Ip-am-cn-hsc \o≠p-In-S-°p∂ ]›n-aL´-Øn\v 1500 Intem-ao-‰-tdmfw \of-ap-≠v. BsI hnkvXrXn 129037 N. -Intemao-‰¿ hcpw. C¥y-bn¬ G‰hpw IqSp-X¬ ag e`n-°p∂ taJe- I - f nsem∂mWnXv . C¥y- b nse {][m\ \Zn- I - f mb IrjvWbpw tKmZm-h-cnbpw Imthcnbpw ChnsS \n∂mWv Bcw-`n°p-∂-Xv. tIc-f-Øn¬ \n∂pam{Xw 44 ]pg-I-fmWv ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ \n∂v XpS-ßp-∂-Xv. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ as‰mcp {]m[m\yw AXns‚ ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-k-º-∂-X-bm-Wv. lnam-ebw Ign-™m¬ G‰hpw henb ssPh-k-º-∂amWv ]›n-a-L-´-w. ss\k¿§n-I-ssP-h-k-º∂-Xbmepw Im¿jn-I-ssP-h-k-º-∂-Xbmepw Huj[-k-kyk-º-∂Xbmepw kºp-jvS-amWv Cu ae-\n-c. temI-Ønse ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-k-º∂amb 35 ÿm\ßfn¬ H∂mWv ]›naL´w. AXn¬Ø-s∂, A]q¿hamb F´v ÿm\ ߃ sXcs™SpØXnsem∂v ]›naL´amWv. Cu ae\ncIƒ Hmtcm {]tZiØpw (\nXylcnX DjvWtaJemh\-߃, tNme ag°mSpIƒ F∂nßs\) hnhn[ kky˛P¥psshhn[y-Øns‚ Bhm-ktI-{μ-am-Wv. kky-ß-fn¬, cmPysØ BsI ]pjv]n°p∂sN-Sn-I-fn¬ 27%, AXm-bXv 4000 tØmfw C\-߃, 56.6% hcp∂ (645 Xcw) \nXy-l-cn-X-]p-jv]-߃, 682 C\w ]mb-ep-Iƒ, 280 C\w h¿W-e-X-Iƒ F∂n-h-sbms° ChnsS D≠v. P¥p-°-fn¬ 350 Xcw Ddpºp-Iƒ, 1000Øn¬]c-sa-¶nepw {]mWn-Iƒ, 320 Xcw Nn{X-i-e`-߃, 174 Xcw Xpºn-Iƒ, 269 Xcw H®p-Iƒ, 288 Xcw a’y-߃, 500tesd ]£n C\-߃, 120 Xcw kkvX-\n-Iƒ F∂n-h-sbbpw ImWp∂p. Ch-bn¬ knwl-hm-e≥ Ipc-ß-S°w ]eXpw hwi-\m-i-


5 `ojWn t\cnSp∂hbmbXn\m¬, F¥v hne sImSpØpw kwc£n t°≠hbmWv. ]›naL´h\w 29 hn`mKØn¬s∏´ BZnhmknIfpsSbpw a‰v ]e-Xcw h\-hm-kn-I-fp-sSbpw hmk-ÿ-e-am-Wv. ]e-Xcw IpSn-tb-‰°mcpw Cu `q{]tZiØns‚ `mKambn°gn™ncn°p∂p. Z£n tW¥ybpsS A¥co£Xm]\ne, B¿{ZX, h¿j]mXw, Imemhÿ F∂nhsbms° \nb{¥n°p∂Xn¬ {][m\ ]¶v hln°p- ∂ Xv ]›naL´amWv . ]eXcw [mXp ]Zm¿Yßfpw {]IrXnhn`hßfpw ChnsS e`yamWv . AXpsIm≠p Xs∂ Cu ae\ncIƒ AXn¿Øn- b mbn hcp∂ kwÿm- \ - ß ƒ°pw Ahn-SpsØ 26 tImSn-tbmfw hcp∂ a\p-jycS°w Ht´sd PohPme-߃°pw G‰hpw A\p-tbmPy-amb Bhmkhy-hÿ Xs∂ bmWv ]›n- a - L - ´ w. tIc- f - Ø n- e m- s W¶n¬ 28,000Øne[nIw N. In.ao.- `q-an-sbbpw (BsI `q{]-tZ-i-Øns‚ GXm≠v 75%), aq∂v tImSntbmfw P\-ß-fp-sS Pohn-XsØbpw t\cn´v kzm[o\n°p∂ BhmkhyhÿbmWv Cu {]tZiw. Cu {]m[m-\y-sa√mw Dƒs°m-≈p∂ ]›n-a-L-´-an∂v AXo-h -Kp-cp-X-c-amb `oj-Wn-Iƒ t\cn-´p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. ]›n-a-L-´Ønse ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-amWv AXn-Kp-cp-X-c-amb XI¿®-bn-tebv°v \oßn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. as‰m∂v hnI-k-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-ß-fpsS t]cn¬ \S-°p∂ Itø-‰-ß-fm-Wv. J\-\w, Sqdn-kw, a‰v Itø-‰-߃ Ch-sb√mw CXn¬s]-Sp-Ømw. tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-jØv

]›n-a-L´]cn-ÿn-Xn-kw-c-£-Ww H‰-s∏´ \S-]-Sn-b√ BtKmfXe-Øn¬ Xs∂ hnhn[ cmPy-ß-fn¬ \S-∂ph∂ A\n-b-{¥n-X-amb {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-Nq-j-WØns‚bpw aen-\o-I-cWØns‚bpw ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-X-I¿®bpsSbpw ]›m-ØeØn¬ sFIycmjv{S-k-`-bpsS t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ 1972˛¬ tÃm°vtlm-an¬ \S∂ tIm¨^-d≥kn¬ Cu XI¿®-I-fpsS aqe-Im-c-W-߃ Xncn®-dn™v \nb-{¥-W-\-S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzoIcn-°p-∂-Xn\pw hnI-k-\k-ao-]-\-ß-fn¬ am‰w hcp-Øp-∂-Xn\pw Xocp-am-\n-®p. XpS¿∂v AwK-cm-Py-߃ Xß-fpsS cmPy-Øns‚ Ahÿ hne-bn-cpØn ]cn-ÿn-Xn-kw-c-£-W-\-S-]-Sn-Ifpw Bh-iy-amb \nb-a-\n¿am-Wßfpw \S-Øn-Øp-S-ßn. 1986˛emWv C¥ybn¬ ka-{K-amb ]cnÿn-Xn-kw-c-£-W-\n-baw \S-∏n¬ h∂-Xv. XpS¿∂n-tßm´v hnhn[ taJ-e-I-fn¬ h¿[n-®p-hcp∂ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-Ø-I¿®-Isf XSbp∂ Xn\v C¥ybn¬ s]mXp-hnepw kwÿm-\-ß-fn¬ {]tXy-In®pw XpS¿\-S-]-Sn-Iƒ FSp-Øp-h-∂p. 1991˛se Xoc-tZ-i-kw-c-£-W Øn\p≈ hn⁄m-]\w CØ-c-Øn¬ D≠mbn-´p-≈-Xm-Wv. h\-


6 thWw ]›n-a-L-´sØ Poh-t\msS Xs∂ kw-c-£-W-\n-b-aw, h\y-Po-hn-kw-c-£-W-\n-b-aw, aen-\o-I-c-W -\n-b-{¥-W-\n-baw Ch-sbms° DZm-l-c-W-ß-fm-Wv. ]›n-a-L-´- ]cn-ÿn-Xn-kw-c-£Ww C∏-d™ kml-N-cy-amWv ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ ]mcn-ÿn-Xn-IXI¿® hne-bn-cpØn Bh-iy-amb \nb-{¥-W-߃ kw_-‘n®v dnt∏m¿´v ka¿∏n-°p∂Xn\v Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP) F∂ ]Xn-\m-ew-K-kan-Xnsb \nb-an-°p-∂-Xn\v A∂sØ h\w-˛-]-cn-ÿn-Xn-a{¥n Pbdmw ctajns\ t{]cn-∏n-®-Xv. s{]m^.am- [ hv KmUv K n¬ sNb¿am- \ mb {]kv X pXIΩn‰n ka¿∏n® dnt∏m¿´nse ip]m¿i-Iƒ \S-∏n-em-°p-∂-Xn-s\-Xnsc Db¿∂ {]Xn-tj-[sØ XpS¿∂v tUm.-IkvXq-cn-cw-K≥ sNb¿am-\mbn High Level Working Group on Western Ghats (HLWG) F∂ ]Øw-Kk-an-Xnsb \nb-an-®p. B dnt∏m¿´pw hna¿i-\-hn-t[-b-am-b-tXmsS tIc-f-Øn¬ tUm.-D-Ω≥.hn.DΩs‚ t\Xr-Xz-Øn-ep≈ {]tXyI kan-Xn-sb \ntbm-Kn-®p. ]›n-a-L-´-kwc-£-W-sa-∂Xv C∂v C¥y-bnepw tIc-f-Ønepw G‰hpw {][m- \ - s ∏´ cmjv { So- b - ˛ - k m- a q- l n- I - { ]- i v \ - a mbn amdnbn-cn-°p∂p. KmUvKn¬ dnt∏m¿´ns‚ i‡n-Zu¿_-ey-߃ KmUvKn¬ dnt∏m¿´p-{]-Imcw ]›n-a-L´w apgp-h\pw ]cn-ÿn-Xnteme{]tZ-i-am-sW-¶nepw ]mcn-ÿn-Xn-I-tem-e-X-bpsS Xo{h-X-bv°\p-kr-X-ambn Environment Sensitive Zone (ESZ) I, II, III F∂n-ßs\ aq∂p-tkm-Wp-I-fmbn Xcw-Xn-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. \ne-hn¬ kpc-£n-Xta-J-e-I-fmb (Protected Area) tZio-tbm-Zym-\-ßfpw h\y-Pohnkt¶X-ßfpapƒs∏sS ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse 142 Xmeq-°p-Iƒ GsX-¶n-epsamcp tkmWn¬ s]Sp-∂-Xm-bn-cn-°pw. F∂m¬ Hmtcm Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESA)bpsS AXn-cp-Ifpw AhnsS KmUvKn¬ dnt∏m¿´n¬ ip]m¿i sNø-s∏´ coXn-bnep≈ hnI-k-\-]-cn-c-£W-{]-h¿Ø-\-ßfpw \n›-bnt°-≠Xv {Kma-k-`bpw hntI-{μn-IrX]-©m-bØv kwhn-[m-\ßfpw Bbn-cn-°pw. ]Øv kqNn-I-IfpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv Hcp {]tZiw G‰hpw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-hn-tem-eamb ESZ I¬- s]SpØWtam A{Xbpw th≠mØ ESZ II taJebn¬ s]Sp-Ø-Wtam AtXm \nb-{¥-W-ß-fpsS Afhv G‰hpw Ipd-hp≈ ESZ IIIbn¬ s]Sp-Ø-Wtam F∂v Xocp-am-\n-t°-≠Xv. KmUv K n¬ dnt∏m¿´nse {][m- \ - s ∏´ ip]m¿i- I ƒ XmsgsImSpØh-bmWv. (a) ]›n-a-L´Øns‚ apgp-h≥ {]tZ-i-߃°pw _m[-I-ambh :


7 P\n-X-I-am‰w hcp-Ønb Irjn-coXn ]mSn-√. πmÃn-°ns‚ D]-tbmKw F√m- b n- S - ß - f n¬ \n∂pw aq∂p- h ¿j- Ø n- \ Iw L´w- L - ´ - a mbn \ntcm[n-°-Ww. ]pXnb ln¬tÃ-j-\p-Iƒ A\p-h-Zn-°-cp-Xv. s]mXp`qan kzImcy Bh-iy-߃°p-th≠n am‰m≥ A\p-h-Zn-°p-∂-X-√ (Cu ip]m¿i-bmWv ]´bw \¬Ip-∂-Xn\v XS- -amIp-sa∂ hna¿i\-Øn\v ]m{X-am-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv). Iºn, kna‚ v F∂n-h-bpsS D]tbmKw Ipdbv°p∂-Xn\v sI´n-S-߃°v lcn-X-_n¬Unßv tImUpIƒ thWw. NXp-∏p-Ifpw XÆo¿Ø-S-ßfpw \nI-Øm≥ ]mSn-√. {Kma-]-©m-bØv Xe-Øn¬ Pe-hn-`-h-]-cn-]m-e-\-πm-\p-Iƒ Xøm-dm°-Ww. AW-s°-´p-I-fpsS hrjvSn-{]-tZ-i-ß-fpsS ]p\cp≤m-c-Ww, ]pg-I-fnse \oscm-gp°v sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ {]h¿Ø-\-߃, P\Io-bm-h-t_m-[-tØmsS Pe-kw-c-£Ww F∂nh \S-∏n-em-°p-I. (b) ESZ I¬ h\w Irjn-bpƒs∏sS a‰m-h-iy-߃°mbn am‰-cpXv. F∂m¬ Xt±-io-b-P-\-kw-Jym-h¿[-\-hns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ `qan \o°n-bn-cp∏v \S-Øm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. F∂m¬ tdmUp-Ifpw a‰p \n¿anXn-Ifpw ]cn-ÿnXnBLmX]T-\-Øn\v hnt[-b-am°nbXn\ptijw am{Xw \S-∏n-em-°pI(ESZ I, ESZ II) (c) ESZ I, ESZ II taJe-I-fn¬ amc-I-amb hnj-h-kvXp-°ƒ hnk¿Pn-°p∂ hyh-kmbbqWn-‰p-Iƒ ÿm]n°-cp-Xv. (d) Irjn -˛ A©p-h¿j-Øn-\p-≈n¬ cmk-Irjn L´w-L-´ -ambn C√m-Xm-°-Ww. AtX-k-abw cmk-h-f-ß-fp-sS D]-tbmKw C√m-Xm-°m≥ I¿j-I¿°v kmº-Øn-I-k-lmbw Dƒ∏-sS-bp≈ t{]m’m-l\w \¬tI-≠-XmWv. (e) h\m-h-Im-i-\n-baw I¿i-\-ambn \S-∏n-em-°-Ww. (f) cmk- h - k v X p- ° tfm ssU\m- s sa- ‰ p- I tfm D]- t bm- K n®v a’y-_-‘\w \S-Ø-cp-Xv. (g) h\]cn-]m-e\w : Hcp tkm-Wnepw bq°m-en-]v‰kv t]mep≈ GI-hn-f-tØm-´-߃ ]mSn√. Im´n¬ \n∂v Huj-[-k-ky-߃ ISpØ \nb-{¥-W-ß-tfmsS am{Xta FSp-°m≥ A\p-hm-Z-ap≈q. (h) h≥In-S-J-\\w (Mining) ˛ ESZ I, ESZ II F∂n-h-bn¬ ]pXnb J\-\-sse-k≥kv A\p-h-Zn-°p-∂-X-√. \ne-hnse J\\w A©ph¿j-߃°Iw \n¿Ø-em-°-Ww. A\-[n-Ir-X-J-\\w DS-\Sn \n¿Ø-em-°W - w. sNdp-In-SJ - \ - \ - hpw (Quarrying) aW¬hm-cepw ESZ I¬ ]pXn-bX - mbn A\p-hZ- n-°c - p-Xv. \ne-hn-ep≈ CS-ßf - n¬ ]mcnÿnXn-I-km-aq-ln-Im-Lm-X-]-T-\-߃°v hnt[-b-am°n \nb-{¥n-°-Ww. (i) Du¿Pw ˛ ESZ I, ESZ II¬ ]pXnb Xm]-\n-e-b-߃, henb AW-s°-´p-Iƒ, henb Im‰m-Sn-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ F∂nh A\p-hZ\ob-a√. aq∂p-ao-‰-dn-\p-ap-I-fn-ep≈ sNdnb ]≤-Xn-Iƒ, AXm-bXv Run of tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-jØv


8

thWw ]›n-a-L-´sØ Poh-t\msS Xs∂

the river ]≤-Xn-Iƒ, ]mcn-ÿn-Xn-I-km-aq-ln-Im-Lm-X-]-T-\-߃°v hnt[-b-am°n {Kma-k-`-bpsS A\p-a-Xn-tbm-Sp-IqSn am{Xw \S-∏n em-°p-I. hntI-{μo-IrX Du¿P-t{km-X- p-Iƒ t{]m’m-ln-∏n°p-I. BUw-_c-Øn\mbp≈ Du¿tPm-]-tbmKw Ipd-®p-sIm≠v Du¿tPm¬]m- Z - \ - Ø ns‚ ]mcn- ÿ n- X nI- k m- a q- l n- I mLmX- ß ƒ P\-ßsf t_m[y-s∏-Sp-Øp-I. Cßs\ Hmtcm taJ-e-bnepw (ESZ) A\ph-Zn-°m-hp-∂Xpw A\p-h-Zn-°m≥ Ign-bm-Ø-Xp-amb {]hrØn-IfmWv ip]m¿i-I-fmbn \¬In-bn-´p-≈-Xv. Cu dnt∏m¿´ns‚ i‡nsb \ap°v C{]-Imcw t{ImUo-I-cn-°mw 1. A[n-Im-c-hn-tI-{μo-I-c-W-Øns‚ {]m[m\yw FSp-Øp-]-d-bpIbpw A¥n-a-Xo-cp-am\w FSp-°m-\p≈ Ah-Imiw {Kma-k-`-Iƒ°v hn´p-sIm-Sp-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. 2. dnt∏m¿´v Zcn-{Z-]-£Øv \ne-bp-d-∏n-°p-∂p. {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-ßsf NqjWw sNøp∂ kmº-Øn-I-i-‡n-Iƒ°v FXn-cmb \ne-]mSv kzoI-cn-°p-∂p. 3. imkv{Xo-b-k-ao-]-\-Øn-eqsS ]›n-a-L´ kwc-£-W-Øn\v ka-{K-amb hni-I-e-\hpw \n¿t±-i-ßfpw ka¿∏n-®n-cn-°p-∂p. 4. ]›n-a-L´w Z£n-tW-¥y-bnse 25 tImSn P\-ß-fpsS Pekw- ` - c - W n- b m- s W∂v dnt∏m¿´v Nq≠n°mWn- ° p∂p. AXns‚ kwc-£-W-Øn-\p-th-≠n-bp≈ \n¿t±-i-߃ ka¿∏n-®n-cn-°p-∂p. 5. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-en-t∏mƒ A©p-tIm-Sn-tbmfw a\p-jy¿ hkn°p-∂p-≠v. Ahcnt∏mƒ AhnsS Xma-kn-°p-I-bpw D]-Po-h-\-am¿Kw Is≠-Øp-Ibpw sNøp-∂-Xp-t]mse XpS¿∂pw sNø-W-sa-¶n¬ ]›n-a-L´w kwc-£n-°-s∏-tS-≠-Xp-≠v. 6. ssPh-Ir-jn-bn-tebv°v amdp-tºmgpw, 30%¬ IqSp-X¬ sNcnhp≈ ÿe-ß-fn¬ Zo¿L-Im-e-hn-f-hn-tebv°v amdp-tºmgpw D¬ ]m- Z - \ - Ø nepw hcp- a m- \ - Ø nepw D≠m- I p∂ CSnhv \nI- Ø m≥ I¿j-I¿°v kmº-Øn-Ik - l - mbw \¬I-Ws - a∂v dnt∏m¿´v FSpØp]-d-bp-∂p. 7. {]IrXn-hn-`-h-\-io-I-c-W-Øn¬ apJy-]¶v hln-°p-∂Xv Icn¶¬a-S-Ifpw J\-\-tI-{μ-ß-fp-am-Wv. Ch c≠n\pw FXn-cmb \ne]mSv KmUvKn¬ kanXn kzoI-cn-®ncn°p∂p. KmUv K n¬ dnt∏m¿´ns‚ i‡n- I ƒ hni- I - e \w sNøp- ∂ -tXm-sSm-∏w-Xs∂ Zu¿_-ey-ßfpw hne-bn-cp-Ø-s∏-tS-≠-Xp-≠v. Zu¿_-ey-ß-sf \ap°v Xmsg ]dbpw hn[w t{ImUo-I-cn-°mw. 1. ]›n-aL - ´taJe-bn¬ F{X P\-߃ A[n-hk - n-°p-∂p, Ah¿ F{X-am{Xw `qan GsX√mw Bh-iy-߃°mbn D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂p,


9 Ch-cpsS {]h¿Ø\w aqew ]›n-a-L-´-Øn\v F{X timjWw kw`-hn-®n-´p≠v XpS-ßnb ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°-W-°p-Iƒ dnt∏m¿´nen-√. AXm-bXv Social, agricultural, demographic `qan-I-Iƒ IΩn-‰n]cn-K-Wn-®n-´n-√. 2. tIm¿]-td-‰p-I-fpsS IS∂pI-b‰w aqehpw h\-kw-c-£-W -{]-h¿Ø-\-߃ aqehpw IqSp-X¬ Zpcn-X-ap-≠m-Ip-∂Xv sNdp-In-SI¿j-I¿°m-Wv. h≥In-S-°m¿°v Imcy-amb _p≤n-ap-´p-Iƒ D≠mIm-dn-√. Cu hkvXpX dnt∏m¿´v hy‡-ambn ImW-W-am-bn-cp-∂p. 3. ]›n-a-L´w kw_-‘n®v CXp-hsc \S∂ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ t{ImUo-I-cn-°m≥ kan-Xn°v Ign-™n-´n-√. taJ-em-h¬°-c-WØns‚ ASn-Ød {]W-_v sk≥ IΩ-‰n-bpsS ip]m¿i-I-fm-Wv. AXv kzoIm-cy-am-Wv. C¥y-bpsS ]¿hXssPh-ssh-hn-[y-sØ-∏‰n C\nbpw ]Tn-t°-≠n-bn-cn-°p∂p. CXn-\mbn Um‰m-t_kv C\nbpw D≠m-t°≠n-bn-cn-°p-∂p. 4. aebpw ISepw XΩn-ep≈ -_‘w BWv tIc-f-Øns‚ ]cn-ÿnXn°v ASn-ÿm-\w. CXv t_m[y-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ KmUvKn¬ kan-Xn°v Ign-™n-´n-√. 5. 30%Øn¬ IqSp-X¬ Ncn-hp≈ ÿe-ß-fn¬ hm¿jnIhnf-Iƒ ]mSn-√ F∂ \n¿t±iw Ct∏m-gsØ kml-N-cy-Øn¬ {]mtbm-KnI-am-I-W-sa-∂n-√. Ct∏mƒ CXn¬ IqSp-X¬ Ncn-hp≈ {]tZ-i-ßfn¬ hm¿jnIhnf-Iƒ Irjn sNøp-∂p-≠v. AXv I¿j-I¿ icnbmb aÆv-˛-Pe kwc-£W {]h¿Ø-\-߃ sNbvXp-sIm-≠m-Wv. imkv { Xo- b - a mb aÆv ˛ Pekwc- £ - W - { ]- h ¿Ø- \ - ß ƒ \S- Ø ns°mt≠ CØcw taJ-e-I-fn¬ hm¿jn-I-hn-f-Iƒ Irjn sNøp-Ibp≈q F∂v Dd-∏m-°-Ww. 6. ssPh-Irjn F∂m¬ F¥m-sW∂v hy‡-am-t°-≠-Xp-≠v. CXv {]IrXnIrjn-b-√. cmk-Io-S-\m-in-Iƒ ]q¿Æ-ambn Hgn-hm-°m≥ ]‰n-tb-°pw. F∂m¬ cmk-hfw ]q¿W-ambn Hgn-hm-t°-≠-X-√. ssPh-Ir-jn°v {]mtbm-KnI DZm-l-c-W-߃ ]d-bm≥ Ign-s™¶nte ssPh-Irjn F{X-am{Xw kzoIm-cy-am-Ip-sa∂v ]d-bm≥ Ignbq. 7. Irjn-°m¿°v hnhn-[-Xcw C≥sk‚o-hp-Iƒ \¬Ip-∂-Xn-s\°p-dn®v dnt∏m¿´n¬ ]d-bp-∂p-≠v. F∂m¬ CØcw C≥sk‚o-hpIƒ X߃°v bYm¿Y-Øn¬ e`n°pw F∂v I¿j-I¿ Icp-Xp∂n-√. DtZym-K-ÿ-cw-KsØ Agn-a-Xnbpw a‰v kmt¶-XnI\S-]-Sn -{I-a-ß-fp-am-W-Xn\v Imc-Ww. CXv ]cn-l-cn-°m≥ hy‡-amb \n¿t±ihpw ]cn-]m-Snbpw thWw. 8. `h\\n¿am- W - Ø n\v ]cn- k - c m- L mX]{XnI thW- s a∂v ]d-™n-cn-°p-∂p. CXv ]q¿W-ambn Hgn-hm-°-Ww. tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-jØv


10 thWw ]›n-a-L-´sØ Poh-t\msS Xs∂ 9. AW-s°-´p-Iƒ Uo˛-I-Ωo-j≥ sNøp-∂-Xp-ambn _‘-s∏´ \n¿t±-i-߃ A]q¿W-am-Wv. Ah Hgn-hm-°p-∂-XmWv \√-Xv. 10. tkmWp-Iƒ Xmeq°v ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ Xncn-®Xv icn-b-√. tkmWp-I-fpsS AXn¿Øn 100 apX¬ 1000 hsc slIvS¿ -hn-kvXrXnbp≈ sNdp (Micro)\o¿Ø-Sm-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ \n¿Æ-bn-°Ww. A¥naXocp-am\w {Kma-k-`-Iƒ°v sImSp-Ø-t∏mƒ Xs∂ kan-Xn bpsS ip]m¿i-{]-Imc-ap≈ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-temetaJ-esb Ct∏mƒ Xs∂ hn⁄m-]\w sNøWsa∂v ]d-™n-cn-°p∂p. CXv icn-bmb kao-]-\-a-√. IkvXq-cn-cw-K≥ dnt∏m¿´ns‚ ]cn-an-Xn-Iƒ KmUvKn¬ dnt∏m¿´v Hcp hnhm-Z-am-b-t∏m-gmWv AXv \S-∏m-°p∂-Xn-s\-∏‰n ]Tn®v \n¿tZ-i-߃ \¬Ip-∂-Xn-\mbn tUm.-I-kvXqcn-cw-K≥ IΩn-‰nsb Npa-X-e-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xv. IΩn-‰n-tbm-Sm-h-iy-s∏´ Imcy-߃ Xmsg ]d-bp-∂-h-bm-Wv. 1. KmUvKn¬ dnt∏m¿´ns\ ka-{K-ambn ]cn-tim-[n-°p-I. 2.ssPh-ssh-hn-[yhpw ]cn-ÿn-Xnbpw ]›n-a-L´{]tZiØns‚ kmwkvImcnI˛ kmaqlnIhf¿®- b psS ]›mØeØn¬ ]cntim[n°pI. 3. BZn-hmkn˛h\-hmkn Xm¬]-cy-߃ kwc-£n-®p-sIm-≠p≈ ]cnÿnXn kwc-£-W-Øn-\p≈ \n¿tZ-i-߃ \¬Ip-I. 4. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn\v ssIh∂ BtKmfss]XrI]Zhn AXns‚ hnI-k-\-sØbpw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-sbbpw Fßs\ _m[n°pw F∂v hnebn-cp-Øp-I. 5. ]›n-a-L´ hnI-k-\sØ tI{μ-˛kw-ÿm\_‘-ß-fpsS ]›mØeØn¬ ]cntim[n°pI. 6. KmUvKn¬ dnt∏m¿´v _‘-s∏-´-h-cp-ambn N¿®-sN-øp-I. XpS¿ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ \n¿tZ-in-°pI. IkvXqcncwK≥ IΩn‰nbpsS \nb-a-t\m-t±iw AXns‚ ]cnKW\mhnj-b-ß-fn¬ \n∂pXs∂ hy‡-am-Wv. KmUvKn¬ kan-XnbpsS ip]m¿i-Iƒ hnI-k-\-hn-cp-≤hpw P\-hn-cp-≤hpamsW∂ {]Nmc-W-Øns‚ kzm[o\amWv ]cn-KW\mhnj-b-ß-fn¬ Xs∂bp-≈-Xv. C°mcyw k^eoI-cn-°p∂ ip]m¿i-bmWv IkvXq-cncwK≥ IΩn‰n ka¿∏n-®Xv. KmUvKn¬ dnt∏m¿´n-t∑-ep≈ s]mXp {]Xn-I-cWw hne-bn-cpØn IkvXq-cn-cw-K≥ IΩn‰n Is≠-Ønb Imcy-ß-fp≠v. KmUvKn¬ dnt∏m¿´v {]kn-≤o-I-cn-®-Xn-\p-tijw {]XnIcn® (sh_v s sk‰n¬) 1750 t]cn¬ 81% dnt∏m¿´ns\ FXn¿Øp. IkvXqcncwK≥ IΩn‰n cq]o-I-c-W-Øn-\p-tijw A`n{]m-b-a-dn-bn® 150 t]cn¬ 105 t]cpw KmUvKn¬ ip]m¿i-Iƒs°-


tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-jØv 11

Xn-cm-bn-cp-∂p. kwÿm\k¿°m-cp-Ifpw tI{μ-a-{¥m-e-b-ßfpw FXn¿∏pIƒ Adn-bn-°p-Itbm ]n¥p-W° - m-Xn-cn-°p-Itbm sNbvXp. 25 tImSn a\p-jy-cpsS Pohn-XsØ _m[n°p∂ Hcp ]cnÿnXn hyh-ÿ-bpsS kwc-£-WsØ Ipdn®v 1900 t]cpsS hm°p-tI´v \nK-a-\-Øn-se-Øp-I-bmWv IkvXqcncwK≥ IΩn-‰n. BZysØ 1750 t]cn¬ 53 iX-am\hpw J\-\-tem-_n-bn¬ s]´-hcm-sW∂v IkvXqcn-cw-K≥ IΩn‰n dnt∏m¿´v Xs∂ kqNn-∏n-°p-∂p≠v. IkvXq-cn-cw-K≥ IΩ‰n apt∂m-´p-h-®n-´p≈ apJy ip]m¿i-I-ƒ Ch-bmWv (]-cn-ÿn-Xn-teme{]tZ-i-߃°v am{Xw _m[-I-am-bh). 1. ]cn-ÿn-Xn°v G‰hpw tZmjw sNøp∂ {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fp-sSta¬ \nb-{¥Ww G¿s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ ip]m¿i. 2. J\\w, ]md-s]m-´n-°¬, aW¬hm-c¬ F∂o {]hrØn-Iƒ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-teme {]tZ-iØv ]q¿W-ambpw \ntcm-[n-°p-∂p. \nehn-ep≈ J\\w 5 h¿j-Øn-\p-≈ntem ]m´-Im-em-h[n Xocp-∂Xn\\p-kr-X-amtbm C√m-Xm-°-Ww. 3. Xm]-\n-e-b-߃ A\p-h-Zn-°p-I-bn-√, Pe-ssh-Zyp-X-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ Nne \n_-‘-\-Iƒ°v hnt[-ambn \S-∏n-em-°mw, Im‰n¬\n∂pw D¬]m-Zn-∏n-°p∂ sshZyp-X-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-\n-b-a-Øns‚ (EIA Notification 2006) ]cn-[n-bn¬ sIm≠p-h-c-Ww. 4. sdUv Im‰-K-dn-bn¬s∏´ hyh-km-b-߃ ]mSn-√. 5. 20000-N.-sk.ao‰¿ (2,15000 ASn)-hsc hnkvXr-Xn-bp≈ sI´n-S߃°v \nb-{¥-W-߃ th-≠. ]cn-ÿn-Xn-teme {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS 10- In.-ao-‰¿ Np‰-f-hn¬ hcp∂ hnI-k-\-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ ]cn-ÿnXn A\p-a-Xn°v hnt[-b-ambn \¬I-Ww. KmUvKn¬ dnt∏m¿´v apt∂m-´p-h® {Kma-k-`-Isf Dƒs∏-SpØn ]mcn-ÿn-Xn-I-temetaJ-e-I-fpsS AXn¿Øn-Ifpw \nb-{¥-Whpw ]cn-c-£-Whpw Dd-∏m-°p∂ {]{Inb IkvXq-cn-cw-K≥ IΩn‰n A´na-dn-®p. IkvXq-cn-cw-K≥ IΩn‰n ]›n-a-L-´sØ s]mXpsh c≠m-bnX-cw-Xn-cn-°p-I-bmWv sNbvX-Xv. 37% hcp∂ kzm`m-hnI {]Ir-Xnta-J-e(Natural landscape), 63% hcp∂ kmwkvIm-cnI {]Ir-Xn-ta-Je. dnt∏m¿´v {]Imcw ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bpsS 37%am{X-amWv ]mcn-ÿnXnI Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e. ChnSßfn¬ am{Xta \nb-{¥-W-߃°pw kwc-£W - Ø - n\pw \n¿t±-iß - ƒ \¬In-bn-´p-≈p. CØ-cØ - n¬ tIcf-Ønse 128 hnt√-Pp-Iƒ Dƒs∏sS C¥y-bnse 4156 hnt√-Pp-Iƒ ]mcn-ÿn-XnI Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-Iƒ (ESA) B°nbp≈ hn⁄m-]-\amWv tI{μ-k¿°m¿ Cd-°n-bXv. Cu hn⁄m-]-\w Zp¿_-e-s∏SpØnbmWv Ct∏mƒ DΩ≥.-hn.-D-Ω≥ IΩn-‰n-bpsS \n¿t±-im-\p-kc-W-ap≈ ]pXnb hn⁄m-]-\-Øn-tebv°v \oßns°m≠ncn-°p-∂-


12 thWw ]›n-a-L-´sØ Poh-t\msS Xs∂ Xv. \ne-hn-ep≈ hIp∏pkwhn-[m-\-Øns‚ ]n≥_-e-tØmsS ESA ta-J-e-Ifn¬ \nb-{¥-W-߃ sIm≠p-h-cm-\p≈ `c-W-kw-hn-[m\amWv IkvXq-cn-cw-K≥ IΩn‰n \n¿t±-in-°p-∂-Xv. \ne-hn¬ tIc-fØnse ]e hnI-k-\-h-Ip-∏p-Ifpw bmsXmcp GtIm-]-\-hp-an√msXbmWv ]e Xocp-am-\-ßfpsaSp-°p-∂-Xv. ]pg-kw-c-£-W-sa∂m¬ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse hrjvSn-{]-tZiw apX¬ IS¬ hsc-bp≈ Hgp°pw Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-I-fpsS kwc-£-W-hp-am-Wv. F∂m¬ CXv a\- n-em-°msX ]e k¿°m¿h-Ip-∏p-I-fpw hnhn[ taJ-e-Iƒ ]¶n-s´-SpØv ]pg-kw-c-£Ww Akm-[y-am-°p∂ {]hr-Øn-bmWv \S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Cu kao-]-\sØ icn-h-bv°p-I-bmWv IkvXq-cn-cw-K≥ dnt∏m¿´v sNøp-∂Xv. AXm-bXv P\-ßfpsS `b∏m-Sns\ icn-h-bv°p∂ coXn-bnep≈ `cW-kw-hn-[m\w XpS¿∂psIm-≠p≈ ]›n-a-L-´-kw-c-£Ww {]mtbm-Kn-I-am-In-√. th≠Xv ]›n-a-L-´-kw-c-£-W-]-≤Xn Ign™ Iptd amk-ß-fmbn tIc-f-Øn¬ \S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ ]›n-a-L-´-kw-c-£-W-N¿®-Iƒ ta¬dn-t∏m¿´p-Isf ka-{K-ambn hni-Ie - \w sNbvXpsIm≠p-≈X - m-bn-cp-∂n-√m-sb∂v Gh¿°pw Adnbm-hp∂ Imcy-am-Wv. N¿®-I-fn-eqsS IqSp-X¬ hy‡X ssIh-cn°p-∂-Xn-\p-]-Icw IqSp-X¬ k¶o¿W-X-e-ß-fn-tebv°v N¿® \o≠pt]m-hp-Ibpw "Ipfn-∏n®v Ipfn-∏n®v Ip´n' C√m-Xm-hp∂ kml-N-cyØn-tebv°v FØn-t®-cp-I-bp-amWv D≠m-bn-´p-≈-Xv. am[hv KmUvKn¬ kanXn dnt∏m¿´pw ]›n-a-L-´kwc-£-Whpw kw_-‘n®v hnhn[ hn`mKw P\-߃°n-Sbn¬ henb Bi-¶-Iƒ \ne-\n¬°p-∂p. F¥n-s\bpw hnhm-Z-am-°p-I-sb-∂Xv tIc-f-Øns‚ s]mXpkz`m-ha - m-bn-´p-≠v. F√m-h¿°pw tbmPn-°m≥ Ign-bp∂ Imcyß-fn¬t]mepw hnhmZ-ß-fp-≠v. KmUvKn¬ kanXnbpsS ip]m¿iI-fmWv CXns‚ G‰hpw \√ DZm-l-c-Ww. ]›n-a-L´w kwc £n°Ww F∂ Imcy-Øn¬ B¿°pw FXn-c-`n-{]mbw D≠m-Im\n-S-bn-√. F∂m¬ GsXmcp IΩn-‰n-bpsS dnt∏m¿´nepw AXns‚ kq£va-X-e-hn-i-Zmw-i-ß-fn¬ Nne hnS-hp-Iƒ D≠m-Im-\n-S-bp-≠v. dnt∏m¿´v F{X-am{Xw imkv{Xo-b-am-bn-cp-∂mepw AXv \S-∏n-em-°pI-sb-∂Xv Hcn°epw EPptcJmk-ao-]-\w -sIm-≠p-am{Xw km[n°p∂ Imcy-a-√. ]›n-a-L´w kwc-£n-°m-\p≈ I¿a-]-≤-Xn-I-fn¬ hfsc kq£va-X-e-Øn-ep≈ \n¿t±-i-߃ hsc KmUvKn¬ kanXn apt∂m-´p-h-bv°p-∂p. CXn¬ GsX-¶n-ep-samcp sNdnb \n¿t±-itØmSv hntbm-Pn-∏p-≈-h¿t]mepw KmUvKn¬kan-Xn-bpsS ip]m¿iIƒ samØ-Øn¬ X≈n-°-f-b-W-sa∂v Bh-iy-s∏-Sp-∂p. CsXm-cph-iw. adp-hiØv kq£va-X-e-Øn-tebv°v t]mImsX s]mXp-


13 \n¿t±iw am{Xw h®n-cn-°p∂ Nne taJ-e-I-fp-≠v. A°m-cy-Øn¬ hni-Zmw-i-߃ Adn-bn-√ F∂ H‰-°m-cWwsIm≠v Ipd-®pt]¿ samØw dnt∏m¿´n\v FXn-cm-bn. tIcf imkv{X-km-ln-Xy ]cnjØm-Is´ Cu dnt∏m¿´p-Iƒ ]pd-Øp-h-∂-t∏mƒXs∂ CtX-°p-dn®v Hcp \bw cq]-s∏-Sp-Øn-bncp-∂p. AXv IkvXq-cn-cw-K≥ dnt∏m¿´v X≈n-°-f-bpI, am[hv KmUvKn¬ dnt∏m¿´ N¿® sNbvXv \S-∏n-em-°pI F∂-Xm-bn-cp-∂p. KmUvKn¬ dnt∏m¿´v N¿®sNbvXv \S-∏n-em-°pI F∂p-]-d-bp-tºmƒ AXn-s‚-b¿∞w B dnt∏m¿´nse Nne ip]m¿i-Iƒs°-¶nepw C\nbpw hy‡X hcp-tØ-≠-Xp≠v F∂m-Wv. KmUvKn¬ kan-XnbpsS ip]m¿i- I sf s]mXp- h n¬ AwKo- I - c n- ° p- t ºmƒXs∂ kq£va-h-i-ß-fn¬ ]cn-lrXamtI≠ kwi-b-߃ _m°n-\n¬ °p-∂p. AXp-sIm≠v KmUvKn¬ kanXnbpsS ip]m¿i-IfpsS ]›m-Ø-e-Øn¬ ]›n-a-L´w kw_-‘n®v hni-Z-amb Hcp I¿a -]-cn-]mSn D≠m-tI-≠-Xp≠v. 1. KmUvKn¬ kan-Xn-bpsS sNøm-hp-∂Xpw sNø-cp-Xm-ØXpw hni-Zo-I-cn-°p∂ `mKØv D≈ ]e \n¿t±-i-ßfpw s]mXp-am¿K \n¿t±iw am{X-am-Wv. AXn¬ {]h¿Ø-\-]-cn-]mSn \n¿t±-in-®n-´n√. DZm : πmÃnIv _mKp-Iƒ \ntcm-[n-°-Ww, Pn.-Fw.-hn-f-Iƒ Hgn-hm°-Ww, Pem-i-b-߃ XpS-ßn-b-h-bn¬ IS∂pIb‰w A\p-h-Zn -°-cp-Xv. CØc-Øn-ep≈ F√m \n¿t±-i-ß-fp-sSbpw {]h¿Ø\ ]cn-]mSn Xøm-dm-°-Ww. 2. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ khn-ti-j-amb sI´nS\n¿am-W-®-´-߃ thW-sa∂v KmUvKn¬ kanXn ip]m¿i sNøp-∂p. Hmtcm {]tZ-iØn\pw A\p-tbm-Py-amb sI´n-S-\n¿amWssien thW-sa-∂-Xns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv CXv ]d-™n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Cu \bw kwÿm\Øn\v apgp-h≥ _m[-I-am-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. ]cn-ÿnXnkulr-Z-]-camb \n¿amWw F∂m¬ Hmebpw ]p√pw D]-tbm-Kn-®p≈ \n¿amWw F∂-√. adn®v FSp-°pw-tXmdpw C√m-Xm-Ip∂ {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-ßsf B{i-bn-®p≈ \n¿am-W-coXn Ah-ew-_n-°p-tºmƒ hn`hNqjWw Ign-bp-∂{X ]cn-an-Xs - ∏-Sp-ØpI F∂mWv. CXv km[yamIWsa¶n¬ {]mtZ-in-I-ambn e`n-°p∂ \n¿an-X-h-kvXp-°ƒ kw_-‘n® KthjW{]h¿Ø-\-߃ t{]m’m-ln∏n-°-Ww. 3. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ taJ-em-h¬°-cWw \n¿t±-in-®n-´p-≠v. CXv ap≥kq-Nn-∏n-®t- ]mse \o¿Ø-Sm-Sn-ÿm-\Ø - n¬ P\m-[n-]X - y-]c - a - mbn \S-∏n-em-°-Ww. IqSmsX tIc-f-Øns‚ hnI-k-\-{]-Xn-k-‘n-bpsS ASn-Ød `qhn-\n-tbm-K-Ønse Aim-kv{Xo-b-X-bm-Wv. CXv ]cn-lcn-°m≥ `qan taJ-em-h¬°-cW - Ø - n\v hnt[-ba - m-°W - s - a∂v Bibw tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-jØv


14 thWw ]›n-a-L-´sØ Poh-t\msS Xs∂ Db¿∂n-´p-≠v. tIc-f-Øns‚ `qan AXns‚ kzm`m-hnI D]-tbmKw F¥mtWm AXn\v am{Xta D]-tbm-Kn-°m-hq. Im¿jn-I-ta-J-e, ]m¿∏n-S-ta-J-e, hmWn-Py-ta-Je XpS-ßnb coXn-bn¬ tIc-f-Øns‚ `qansb taJ-e-I-fmbn Xncn-°mw. Hmtcm taJ-e-bnepw `qan AXXv taJ-e-bpsS kzm`m-hnI D]-tbm-K-Øn-\mbn am{Xta am‰nhbv°mhq. `qcq]-Øns‚ LS\ am‰p-Itbm `qan ]cn-h¿Ø\w sNøp-Itbm Acp-Xv. Npc-°-Øn¬ KmUvKn¬ kanXn \n¿t±-in-®Xv t]mse `qanbpsS {]Ir-Xn-ZØ D]-tbm-KsØ ASn-ÿm-\-am°n `qan-bpsS taJem-h¬°-cWw \SØWw. CXpw kwÿm\w apgp-h≥ _m[-I -am-°-Ww. 4. ]md-s]m-´n-°-cp-Xv, aW¬ hmc-cpXv F∂o \n¿t±-i-߃°-∏pdØv tIc- f - Ø ns‚ sI´nS \n¿amWtaJ- e sb samØ- Ø n¬ DS®phm¿°m≥ Ign-b-Ww. hnhn[ tdmUp-I-fpsS \n¿amWKpWta∑ h¿[n-∏n-°¬, hoSp-I-fpsS hen-∏-\n-b-{¥-Ww, IpSpw-_-Øns‚ hen-∏-Øn\v B\p-]m-Xn-I-am-bn-am{Xw hoSv \n¿an-°m≥ Ign-bp∂ kml-N-cyw, Hcp IpSpw-_-Øn\v Hcp hoSv F∂ kao-]-\w, F√mhn[ s]mß-®-\n¿am-W-ß-fn-ep-ap≈ \nb-{¥-Ww F∂nh {]tbmKØn¬ sIm≠p-h-cWw. 5. ]md-J-\\w ]q¿W-ambn \n¿Øn-h-bv°m-\m-hn-√. AXv sNdnb-tXm-Xn-se-¶nepw Bh-iy-am-tb-°mw. AXv sNøm≥ Ign-bp∂ {]tZ-i-߃ {]tXyIw Is≠Øn hn⁄m-]\w sNø-Ww. 6. Du¿P- e - ` y- X - b v ° p- t h≠n sNdp- I n- S - P - e - s sh- Z yp- X - ] - ≤ - X n, kutcm¿Pw, ]h-t\m¿Pw F∂nh D]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Ø-Ww. ChbpsS D¬]m-Z-\-Øn-\mbn {]tXyIw ]≤-Xn-Iƒ thWw. 7. C∂v KmUvKn¬, IkvXq-cn-cw-K≥ F∂o t]cp-Iƒ°mWv {]m[m\yw. F∂m¬ Du∂¬ e`nt°≠Xv tIc-f-Ønse `qanbp-sSbpw `qhn-`-h-ß-fp-sSbpw bp‡n-k-l-amb hn\n-tbm-K-Øn -\m-bn-cn-°-Ww. CXv kw_-‘n® Hcp Zo¿L-Im-e-]-cn-t{]£yw Bh-iy-am-Wv. CXn-\p≈ \n¿t±iw KmUvKn-en¬ \n∂p-am-{X-a-√, a‰p IΩn-‰n-I-fn¬ \n∂pw kzoI-cn-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. C∂sØ {]iv\-ß-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Im-cWw I¿j-Itcm ]cnÿn-Xntbm A√. IqSp-X¬ `qan Itø-dm≥ t{]cn-∏n-°p-Ibpw imkv{Xo-b-amb `qhn-\n-tbm-KsØ XInSw adn-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ hnI-k-\-\-b-amWv \ne-\n¬°p-∂-Xv. AXv {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-ß-fpsS ta¬ A\n-b-{¥n-X-amb NqjWw Agn-®p-hn-Sp-∂p. H∏w `qan-ssI -am-‰-sØbpw \n¿am-W-ta-J-e-sbbpw Aan-X-ambn B{i-bn-°p-∂p. kw-ÿm-\-Øns‚ samØw B`y-¥c D¬]m-Z-\-Øns‚ \men-sem∂n¬ IqSp-X¬ `qan-ssI-am-‰-Øn¬ \n∂pw \n¿am-W-ta-J-ebn¬


15 \n∂pw hcp-∂-Xm-Wv. Cu hnI-k-\-\bwsIm≠v ]›n-a-L-´sØ kwc-£n-°m-\m-hn-√. Zo¿L-Im-em-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ Z£n-tW-¥ybv°v s]mXp-shbpw ]›n-a-L-´-\n-hm-kn-Iƒ°v hnti-jn®pw tZmj-I-cam-Wn-Xv. Ct∏mƒ ]n¥p-S-cp∂ hnI-k-\-\-b-am-Is´ BtKm-f-h¬IrX-km-º-Øn-I-kml-Ncy߃ Bh-iy-s∏-Sp-∂Xpw apX-em-fn-ØØn\v Gsd {]nb-s∏-´-Xp-am-Wv. AXp-sIm≠v ]›n-a-L-´-kw-c -£-W-sa-∂m¬ apX-em-fn-Ø-hn-I-k-\-ssi-en-tbm-Sp≈ FXn¿∏v F∂m-W¿∞w. KmUvKn¬I-Ωn‰n dnt∏m¿´ns‚ s]mXp-Zni apXemfnØhncp-≤-am-Wv. B s]mXp-Zni AwKo-I-cn-°p-Ibpw ta¬ hn-h-cn-®-t]mse hni-Zmw-i-߃ N¿® sNbvXv ka-\zbw krjvSn°p-I-bp-amWv th≠-Xv. tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-jØv

]›n-a-L-´kw-c-£Ww tIc-f-Øns‚ \ne-\n¬∏n\v A\n-hmcyw apI-fn¬ kqNn-∏n® aq∂v hnZ-Kv[k - a - n-Xn-dn-t∏m¿´p-If - nepw Ct∏mƒ \S∂phcp∂ N¿®-If - nepw Kh¨sa‚p-If - psS kao-]\ - Ø - nepsa√mw ASn-h-c-bn´v AwKo-I-cn-°p∂ Imcyw "]›n-a-L-´sØ kwc-£nt°-≠-Xp≠v' F∂-XmWv. kwc-£Ww imkv{Xo-bhpw Zo¿L -Im-e-^ew \¬Ip-∂-Xp-am-bn-cn-°-Ww. XI¿®bv°v Imc-W-am-Ip∂ A\n-b-{¥n-X CSs]-S-ep-I-sf√mw \nb-{¥-W-hn-t[-b-am-°-W-sa∂pw dnt∏m¿´p-Iƒ ]d-bp-∂p-≠v. a\p-jy\pw {]Ir-Xnbpw XΩn-ep≈ _‘-sØ-°p-dn®v ]cn-K-Wn°p-tºmƒ ASn-ÿm-\-k-ao-]-\-ambn FSp-t°-≠Xv a\p-jy≥ IqSn Dƒs°m-≈p∂XmWv Cu `qanbpw `qan-bpsS ]cn-ÿn-Xnbpw F∂pw Ahs‚ \ne-\n¬∏n\pw XpS¿®°pw Bh-iy-amb hn`-h-߃ Cu `qan-bn¬ \n∂p-Xs∂ e`n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v F∂pap≈ Xncn-®-dn-hmWv. `qan- b nse hn`- h - ß ƒ°v F√m- h ¿°pw Xpey Ah- I miap≠v . \mfsØ Xe-ap-d°pw Cu Ah-Im-ihpw A¿l-Xbpap≠v. B A¿∞-Øn¬ F√m {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-ß-sfbpw kwc-£n-®p-]-tbm-Kn°pI F∂Xv am\-h-cm-in-bpsS s]mXp DØ-c-hm-Zn-Øhpw Hmtcm ]uc-s‚bpw IS-a-bp-am-Wv. Cu Xncn-®-dnhv AwKo-I-cn-°msX AanXem-`Ø - n\pw {lkz-Im-et- \-´Ø - n\pw kzm¿∞-Xm¬]-cy-߃°p-ambn {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-ßs-f NqjWw sNøp-∂-Xn-eq-sS-bmWv F√m ]cnÿn- X n- X - I ¿®- I fpw DS- s e- S p- ° p- ∂ - X v . CXns\ XS- b p- ∂ - X n\v kmaq-ln-I-amb \nb-{¥Ww A\n-hm-cy-am-Wv. temI-sØ-hn-sSbpw kzImcyaq-e-[-\-Øns‚ A\n-b-{¥n-X-amb IS-∂p-I-b‰w Xt±-io-bambpw ]c-º-cm-K-X-ambpw \ne-\n-∂n-cp∂ P\hn`m-K-ß-fpsS \ne\n¬∏n-\-Sn-ÿm-\-amb hn`-h-ßsf C√mbva sNøp-Ibpw Ahsc Pohn-X-{]-Xn-k-‘n-I-fn-te°v X≈n-hnSpIbpw sNbvXn-cp-∂p. b{¥-


16 thWw ]›n-a-L-´sØ Poh-t\msS Xs∂ h¬IrXt_m´pIfpsS A\n-b{- ¥n-XI - S- ∂ - p-Ib - ‰w ]c-ºc - m-KX - a - ’ - ysØm-gn-em-fn-I-fpsS PohnXw Zp -l-am°n F\¿Pn πmt‚-j\pw kq∏¿ssl-th-I-fpw h∂-t∏mƒ aq∂mwtemI-cmPy-ß-fnse I¿jI¿ hgn-bm-[m-c-am-bn. A\n-b-{¥n-X-amb Izmdn-Ifpw, Ip∂n-Sn-°epw h\w \in-∏n-°epw ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ ]mcn-ÿn-Xn-I- XI¿®bv°pw AhnsS hkn-°p∂ Xt±-i-P-\-hn-`m-K-ß-fpsS Pohn-X-{]-Xn-k-‘nIƒ°pw samØ-Øn¬ tIc-f-Ønse P\-ß-fpsS IpSn-sh-≈-apƒ∏sS-bp≈ ASn-ÿm-\m-h-iy-ß-fpsS XI¿®bv°v Imc-W-ambn. AXpsIm-≠p-Xs∂ ]›n-a-L-´-kw-c-£-W-sa-∂Xv ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ hkn-°p∂ P\-hn-`m-K-ß-fpsS am{Xw DØ-c-hm-Zn-Ø-hpw IS-a bpa-√. adn-®v, tIc-f-Ønse P\-ß-fpƒ∏sS 25 tImSn-bn-tesd hcp∂, ]›n-a-L-´-sØ B{ibn-°p∂ F√m P\-hn-`m-K-ß-fp-sSbpw s]mXp-B-h-iy-am-Wv. ]›n-a-L-´Øn¬ \n∂v Ih¿s∂-Sp-°p∂ hn`-hß - ƒ D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂Xv AhnsS Xma-kn-°p-∂h - c - psS Bhiy߃°p-am-{X-a-√. adn®v ]›n-a-L-´Øn\v ]pd-Øp-\-S-°p∂ Aan-Xamb Bh-iy-߃°p-Iq-Sn-bm-Wv. CXn¬Øs∂ \n¿am-W-ta-J-ebpsS A\n-b-{¥n-Xamb -h-f¿® CXn¬ {][m-\-am-Wv. km[y-amb \nb-{¥-W-ß-fn-eq-sS-sb√mw C∂v \S-°p∂ hn`-h-Nq-j-WsØ sNdp-t°-≠X - p-≠v. \ne-\n¬°p∂ coXn-If - nepw ioe-ßf - nepw kao]\-ß-fnepw am‰w hc-Ww. ]›n-a-L-´-kw-c-£-Ww Hmtcm tIc-fo-bs‚bpw IS-abpw DØ-c-hm-Zn-Ø-hp-am-sW∂v Xncn-®-dn-b-Ww. Cu Xncn-®-dn-thmsS hnhn[ hnZ-Kv[-k-an-Xn-dn-t∏m¿´p-Isf ]cntim-[n-°m\pw hne-bn-cp-Øm\pw \ap°v Ign-b-Ww. Cu P\-Io-b -]-cn-tim-[\ \S-°-W-sa-¶n¬ Imcy-ßsf hkvXp-\n-jvT-ambpw Iq´mbpw ]cn-tim-[n-°m≥ Ign-bp∂ kwhm-Z-߃ tIc-f-Øn-ep-S\ofw \S-°-Ww. AXn\v klm-b-I-ambhn[w "thWw ]›n-a -L-´sØ, Poh-t\msS Xs∂' F∂ ap{Zm-hm-Iyw tIc-f-Øn¬ hym]I-ambn N¿® sNø-s∏SW-sa∂v tIcf imkv{X-km-ln-Xy -]-cnjØv B{K-ln-°p-∂p. \ne-\n¬∏p-≈Xpw P\-Io-b-hp-amb hnI-k\\b-ß-fpsS cq]o-I-c-W-Øn¬ _lp-`q-cn-]£w hcp∂ km[m-cW-°m-cpsS ]£-Øp-\n-∂psIm≠mWv ]cn-jØv AXns‚ {]h¿Ø\- ß ƒ apt∂m´v sIm≠p- t ]m- I p- ∂ - X v . ]›n- a - L - ´ - k w- c - £ - W Øn\v AØ-c-samcp I¿a-]-≤Xn Bh-iy-ap-≠v. AXn-eqsS am{Xta, ]›n-a-L-´-ae-\n-c-Ifpw AXn¬ \n∂v D¤-hn-°p∂ \Zn-Ifpw, Ah tN¿∂v cq]-s∏-Sp∂ ImbepIfpw ^e-`q-bn-jvT-amb Xoc-°-S-epsams° ]c-kv]-c-_-‘n-X-ambn cq]-s∏´ Cu ]cn-ÿn-Xn-hyq-lsØ ]cn-]m-en-®p-sIm-≠p-tIc-fsØ tIc-f-ambn \ne-\n¿Øm-\m-hq.

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