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thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

kpJ kar-≤-amb C∂sØ tIcfw? "thWw as‰mcp tIcfw' F∂ ap{Zm-hmIyw tIƒ°p-tºmƒ ]ecpw BZyw Nn¥n-°pI, "F¥m C∂sØ tIc-fØ - n\v C{X XI-cmdv' F∂mhpw. kaq-lØnse \s√mcp iX-am\w t]cpw Cu tNmZyw Db¿Øntb°mw. ImcWw, \ΩpsS \K-cß - f - n-eqsS bm{X-sN-øp-tºmƒ, ]{X-am-[ya-ßf - nse apgp-t∏Pv ]ckyw ImWp-tºmƒ, Zriy-am-[y-aß - f - nse kmwkvImcnI ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ Bkz-Zn-°p-tºmƒ, F¥n\v, s]mXp kaq-lØ - nse apJy-[mcm N¿®-Iƒ°v sNhn-tbm¿°p-tºmƒ t]mepw \mw A¤pXw IqdpI, tIc-fØ - n¬ C{X-tbsd kar-≤ntbm F∂mhmw. hnti-jn®v, C°gn™ c≠v Zi-Iß - ƒ°n-Sb - n¬ D≠mb am‰-ßfpsS ]›m-ØeØn¬. Zn\w{]Xn hnhn[ ]´-Wß - f - n¬ B¿`m-Sm-ch - ß - t- fmsS DZvLm-S\w sNøp∂ h≥InS hkv{Xm-eb - ß - ƒ, kz¿Wm-`c - W - i - m-eI - ƒ; \K-cß - f - n¬ am{Xa√ {Kma-ßf - nepw Db¿∂v s]mßp∂ Iq‰≥ sI´n-Sß - fpw ^vfm‰p-Ifpw; GXv D]-t`m-Kk - m-[\ - hpw Hscm‰ tI{μ-Øn¬ \n∂v e`y-am-°m\p≈ temI{]ikvX {_m‚ v \maß-fp-≈ Iq‰≥ amfp-Iƒ; B{K-ln-°p-∂ Gh¿°pw Xß-fpsS a°sf tUmIvSdpw F≥Po-\n-bdpw _nkn\ v FIvkn-Iyq-´n-hp-sa√mw B°m≥ klm-bn-°p∂ kzm{ib hnZym-`ymk ÿm]-\ß - ƒ; GXv Xcw hnZKv[ ]cntim[bv°pw NnIn’°pw kZmk-abw Xøm-dmbn \n¬°p∂ kq∏¿ kvs]jym-en‰n Bkv]{- Xn-Iƒ; \Kc-ho-Yn-If - n-eqsS \nd™v Ihn™v HgpIn t]mIp∂ AXymVw_cImdpIƒ...\mw \ntXy\ ImWp∂ kar-≤n-bpsS \nd-∏I - n-´p-If - m-Wn-h. Xncn™p t\m°p-tºmƒ \ΩpsS \nXy-Po-hn-XØ - n¬ h∂ am‰-Ønepw \mw A¤p-X-kvX-_v[-cmIpw. Hcn-°¬ kz]v\w ImWm≥ t]mepw ]‰mXncp∂ F{X-sb{X- Km¿ln-tIm-]I - c - W - ß - ƒ C∂n-t∏mƒ \ΩpsS Pohn3


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

X-Øns‚ `mK-ambn Xo¿∂n-cn-°p-∂p. kvIq´¿ t]mepw B-Vw-_c - a - mbn I≠n-cp∂ Imew amdn. H´p-an° CS-Øcw IpSpw-_ß - fnepw kz¥w Imdv ssIh-is - a-Øn-bn-cn°p-∂p. ]e hoSp-If - nepw H∂n-tesd hml-\ß - ƒ; Iºyq-´d - pw, C‚¿s\-‰p-sa√mw imkv{X I¬∏nX I-YI - f - n-eqsS Adnbp∂ Imcy-a√ C∂v. an°-hc - p-tSbpw ssZ\w-Zn\ Pohn-XØ - nse Hgn-hm°m≥ ]‰mØ Imcy-ßfmWv. samss_¬ t^m¨ IW-Ivj\pI-fpsS FÆw tIc-fØ - nse P\-kw-Jysb t]mepw adn-IS- ∂ - n-cn-°p-∂p. ]W-ap-s≠-¶n¬ am{X-at√ Cu ku`m-Ky-߃ Hmtcm-∂pw s - sI-∏n-SnbnsemXp-ßq F∂ tNmZy-Øn\pw adp-]S- n-bp≠v. iº-fØ - nepw Iqenbnepsa√mw F{X-am{Xw h¿[-\h - mWv Ign™ Ipd-®p-Im-eØ - n-\n-Sb - n¬ D≠mb-X.v tUmIvSdpw F≥Pn-\o-bd- pw _nkn-\ v FIvkn-Iyq-´n-hp-Ifpw Nm¿t´Uv A°u-≠‚p-am-cp-sa√mw e£-°W - ° - n\v cq] {]Xn-amkw D≠m-°p-∂nt√? henb hnZym-`ymksam∂pw C√m-sX-Xs∂ ]Xn-\m-bn-cß - ƒ sImbvsXSp-°m-hp∂ F{Xsb{X sXmgn-ep-If - mWv ]pXp-Xmbn {]Nmcw t\Sp-∂Xv! I®-hSw, dnb¬-Ft- Év, IΩo-j≥ FP≥kn, s\‰vh¿°v am¿°-‰nwKv XpSßnbh. Znh-k° - q-en-t]mepw AXym-I¿j-Ia - mb \ne-hm-cØ - n-et√ C∂p≈Xv? hcp-am\w Ipd™, IjvS∏ - m-Sp≈ tPmen-Iƒ sNøm≥ A\y-\m-SpI-fn¬ \n∂v tIc-fØ - n-tebv°v hcm≥ ]pdw\m´nse sXmgn-em-fn-Iƒ XømdmIp∂p F∂-Xp-IqSn {i≤n-°ptºmƒ tIc-fØ - ns‚ A`nhr≤n-bpsS Nn{Xw ]q¿Ønbm-Ipw. CØcw Imgv∏mSpI-fp-sSbpw A\p-`h - ß - f - p-sSbpw ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n-ep≈ \nco-£-W-߃°p-a-∏pdw, kmº-ØnI imkv{X-Øns‚ `mjbnepw tIcfw AXn-thKw ]ptcm-Ka - n-°b - m-sW∂v ÿm]n-°p-∂h - c - p-≠.v hf¿®m\n-c° - n¬ AJn-te¥ym icm-ic - n-tb-°mƒ ]n∂n-em-bn-cp∂ tIcfw Ct∏mƒ kmº-ØnI hf¿®-bn¬ tZio-bX - e - Ø - n¬ Gsd ap∂n-em-Wv. 2009˛10 ¬ 9.6% Dw 2010-˛11¬ 10% Dw hf¿®m-\n-c°v \ap°v ssIh-cn-°m-\mbn. AtX kabw Cu h¿jßfnse tZiob \nc°v 7.4 Dw 8.6 Dw a - m-{X-amWv . hnIknX cmPy-ßf - ptS-Xp-t]mse tIc-fØ - ns‚ kwÿm\ hcp-am-\Ø - nse apJy-]¶v tkh-\t- a-Je - b - n¬ \n∂m-W.v 1960 ¬ {]mY-anI, Z- znXob, XrXob taJ-eI - f - n¬ \n∂p≈ kwÿm\ hcp-am\w bYm-{Iaw 56%, 15%, 29% F∂nß-s\-bm-bn-cp-∂p. F∂m-en-∂nXv 16%, 23% 61% F∂o {Ia-Øn-em-Wv. \mSv kmº-Øn-Ia - mbn ]ptcm-Ka - n-°p-tºmƒ {]mY-anI taJ-eb - psS ]¶v Ipdbp-Ibpw tk-h\ taJ-eb - psS ]¶v h¿[n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv kzm`m-hnI {]h-WX - b - m-Wv. Btfm-lcn hcp-am-\Ø - nepw tIcfw apt∂-dp-IbmWv. 2004˛05¬ 36278 cq]-bmbn-cp∂p {]Xn-io¿j-hc - p-am\w. 2009˛10¬ 52984 cq] 4


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

Bbn Db¿∂p (2004-˛05 se hne \ne-hm-cØ - n¬ ]cn-KW - n-°p-tºmƒ Xs∂). Pohn-X\ - n-eh - mcw Db¿∂p F∂-Xns‚ kqN-\b - t- √-bnXv? hnZy-m`ymkw, BtcmKyw, ]m¿∏nSw , hy‡n-ip-NnXzw XpS-ßnb PohnX-Kp-Wt- a∑m kqN-Iß - f - n¬ tIcfw ssIh-cn® ]ptcm-KXn temI-XeØn¬ Xs∂ {i≤n-°s - ∏-´n-´p-≈X - m-W.v Ah-tbm-sSm∏w ap≥ kqNn-∏n® {]h-WX-Iƒ IqSn tNcp-tºmƒ Gsd A`n-am-\m¿l-amb \ne-bn-emWv \Ωƒ F∂v Nn¥n-°pI kzm`m-hn-Ia - m-W.v tIc-fØ - nse s]mXp{]h¿Ø-Ic - n¬ henb Hcp hn`mKw Imcy-߃ Cu hn[w \nco-£n-°p-∂h - c - m-Wv. am[y-aßfpw A{]-Imcw Xs∂. Ign™ sXsc-s™-Sp∏v ImesØ ]e hnIk\ N¿®Ifpw CXns‚ ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n-em-bn-cp-∂p. hni-Zmw-iß - f - nepw Du∂-enepw hyXym-ka - p-s≠-¶nepw Hcp s]mXp-ka - h - mbw tIc-fh - n-Ik\w kw_-‘n®v C∂v Db¿∂p hcp-∂Xmbn ImWmw. AXns‚ D≈S°w {][m-\a - mbpw Xmsg-]d - b - p∂ Imcy-ßf - n-em-Wv Du∂p-∂X - v. KXm-KX - h - n-Ik - \w ˛ AXn¬ Xs∂ apJy-ambn tdmUv KXm-KXw, XpdapJw, hnam-\Ø - m-hfw. sF.Sn ˛ _n.Sn. taJ-eI - f - nse imkv{X-km-t¶-XnI hnZym-`ym-khpw AØcw hnZym-`ymkw t\Sn-b-h¿°p≈ sXmgn-en-Sß - ƒ krjvSn-°epw. Hu´v tkmgvkn-ßn-eq-sSbpw A - √ - m-sX-bpap≈ am\-ht- ijn Ib-‰p-aX - n. tIc-f-Øns‚ {]Ir-Xn-ku-μ-cy-km-[yX D]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øn-bp≈ Sqdnkw hnI-k\ - w. Cu hnI-k\ ]cn-]m-Sn-Isf√mw cmjv{So-bØ - n-\X - o-Xa - mbn kwL-Sn-∏nt°-≠X - m-sW∂v Ghcpw ]d-bp-∂p. CØcw ka-hmb N¿®-Iƒ \S°ptºmgpw \mfn-Xp-hs - c-bp≈ hnI-k\ - Ø - ns‚ KpW-^e - ß - ƒ H∂pw Imcyambn e`n-°mØ AXn Zcn-{Z-cmb Hcp hn`mKw tIc-fØ - n-ep-≠v F∂v Ghcpw Ct∏mƒ AwKo-Ic - n-°p-∂p. kmº-ØnI hf¿® Xzcn-Xs - ∏-Sp-tºmƒ Ah {ItaW ]cn-lc - n-°s - ∏-Sp-sa-∂mWv Hcp ]£-Øns‚ \ne-]m-S.v AXn\n-Sb - n¬ Nne Icp-X¬ \S-]S- n-If - n-eqsS Bizmkw ]I¿∂m¬ aXn-bmIpw F∂-h¿ ]d-bp-∂p. adp-]£w Cu hmZw AwKo-Ic - n-°p-∂n-√sb¶nepw \hen-_d - ¬\-bß - ƒ Xo{h-ambn \S-∏n-em-°p∂ tI{μ-\b - Ø - ns‚ ]›mØ-eØ - n¬ t£a ]≤-Xn-IfpsS hn]p-eo-Ic - W - Ø - n\v Xß-fpsS hnI-k\ AP-≠b - n¬ Ah¿ {]mapJyw \¬Ip∂p. CØ-cw ka-hm-bß - ƒ°pw `n∂-XI - ƒ°pa∏p-dt- Øbv°v ASn-ÿm-\]-ca - mbn tIc-fh - n-Ik - \w kw_-‘n® Nne N¿®-Iƒ Db¿∂v hc-Ws - a∂mWv ]cn-jØv B{K-ln-°p-∂Xv. ImcWw Ct∏mƒ \S-°p∂ coXn-bn5


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

ep≈ "hnI-k\w' kw_-‘n® Nne auen-Ia - mb tNmZy-߃ Db-tc-≠X - p≠v. Nne tNmZy-߃ C∂sØ kmº-Øn-Ih - f - ¿®-bpsS t\´-߃ F√m hn`mK-ßf - n-te°pw FØp-∂pt≠m? Cu hnI-k\ coXn XpS¿∂m¬ Zcn-{Z-]£ - Ø - p-≈h - c - psS PohnXw C\nsb-¶nepw sa®s∏Sptam? Cu hnI-k\ coXn kmº-Øn-Ia - mb XpS¿ \ne-\n¬∏v Dd∏v hcp-Øp∂pt≠m? ]mcn-ÿn-XnI kpÿn-cX kwc-£n-°-s∏-Sm≥ \ne-hn-ep≈ hnIk\{Iaw F{X-tØmfw klm-bI - a - mWv? kmaq- l y- a mb Iq´m- b v a bpw hnhn[ hn`m- K - ß ƒ XΩn- e p≈ kulm¿Zhpw Dd-∏m-°s - ∏-Sp-∂pt≠m? tIc-fØ - ns‚ kwkvIm-cn-IØ - \ - n-abpw `mjbpw kwc-£n-°s - ∏-Sptam? kv{XoI-fp-sSbpw Ip´n-If - p-sSbpw Ah-Im-iß - ƒ ]cn-c£ - n-°s - ∏-Sptam? Cu tNmZy-߃°pØcw ImW-Ws - a-¶n¬ C∂sØ ]ptcm-KX - n-bpsS bYm¿∞-Im-cW - ß - f - n-te°pw AXns‚ kz`mh khn-ti-jX - I - f - n-te°pw \ΩpsS {i≤ ] - X - n-bW - w. tIc-fØ - ns‚ kmaq-ly-t\-´ß - ƒ kmº-ØnI hf¿®m-tXm-Xn¬ ]n∂n-em-bn´pw kmaq-ly-]p-tcm-KX - n-bn¬ Gsd-ap-tºm´v t]mIm≥ Ign™p F∂-XmWv tIc-fØ - ns‚ apJy khnti-jX - b - mbn Ghcpw Nq≠n-°m-´p-∂Xv. hnhn[ kmaq-ly-ta-Je - I - f - n¬ \mw ssIh-cn® ]ptcm-KXn AJn-te¥ym icm-ic - n-bp-ambn Xmc-Xayw sNbvXpsIm-≠p≈ ]´nI Xmsg sImSp-°p-∂p. Cu kmaqly-t\-´ß - f - n¬ \s√mcp `mKhpw F¨]-Xp-If - m-bt- ∏mƒ Xs∂ \mw ssIh-cn-®X - m-W.v Fßn-s\-bmWv Cu t\´-߃ km[y-am-bXv? tIc-fØ - n¬ BZyw cq]w sIm≠ P\-Iob k¿°m¿ Xs∂, CXc C¥y≥ kwÿm-\ß -- fp-tSXn¬ \n∂pw hyXy-kvXa - mb Hcp hnI-k\ kao-]\w aptºm´v hbv°p-Ibpw AXn-\\ - p-kr-Xa- mb \nb-a\ - n¿am-Wßfpw `c-W\ - S- ] - S- n-Ifpw ssIs°m-≈p-Ib - p-ap≠mbn. ]n∂oSv aq∂v ZiI ImeØn-\n-Sb - n¬ A[n-Im-cØ - n-en-cp∂ k¿°m-cp-Iƒs°m∂pw Cu ASn-ÿm\-ka - o-]\ - ß - f - n¬ \n∂v Gsd-sbm∂pw hyXn-Ne - n-°m-\m-bn-√. Aßs\ hnZym-`ymkw, BtcmKyw, kmaq-ly-t£aw XpS-ßnb taJ-eI - f - n¬ k¿°m¿ IqSnb tXmXn¬ ]Ww sNe-hg- n-®p. s]mXp hnZym-`ym-khpw s]mXp P\mtcm-Kyhpw sa®-s∏-Sm≥ CXv klm-bn-®p.s]mXp hnX-cW - k - whn-[m\w hn]p6


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

]´nI 1 hnhn[ kmaqly taJ-e-I-fnse ]ptcm-KXn (2009¬) tIcfw C¥y P - \-\\ - n-c°v 14.6 22.8 ac-W\ - n-c°v 6.6 7.4 inip-ac - W - \n-c°v (B-bn-cØ - n¬) 12 53 _me-a-c-W- \n-c°v (0-˛4 hb- v) 3 17 amXr-a-c-W -\n-c°v (e£w {]k-h-Øn¬) 110 301 k¥m-t\m¬∏m-Z\ \nc°v 1.7 2.9 ZmºXy ÿncX 62.3 52 Bbp¿ssZ¿Lyw 74 63.5 Bbp¿ssZ¿Lyw (kv{Xo) 76.3 64.2 Bbp¿ssZ¿Lyw (]p) 71.4 62.6 km£-cX (i-Xa - m-\Ø - n¬) 93 74.04 kvIqƒ {]th-i\w (i-X-am-\-Øn¬) 100 92.4 sImgn-™p-t]m°v (ss{]-adn Xe-Øn¬ %) 42 40 ÿnc-Xb - p≈ hoSp-Iƒ (2001) 68 51.8 I°qkv kuIcyw 85 36 e-s∏-Sp-Øn-bXv `£y kpc£ Dd-∏m-°n. `q]cn-jI v c - Ww Irjn `qan kz¥am-°m≥ ]m´-°m-cmb Irjn-°msc klm-bn®p. ]m´-Ip-Sn-bm≥am-cmb I¿jI sXmgn-em-fn-Iƒ°v Hcp Xp≠v `qan-sb-¶nepw InS-∏m-Sa - mbn e`n-®p. sXmgn¬ \nb-aß - ƒ sXmgn-em-fn-If - psS Ah-Imi ka-cß - ƒ°v ]cn-c£ \¬Ip-Ibpw sXmgn¬ kwc-£Ww Dd∏phcp-Øp-Ibpw sNbvXp. A[nImc hntI-{μo-Ic - Ww ]e ASn-ÿm\ hnI-k\ {]h¿Ø-ßfpw {KmaoW-Xew hsc ^e-{]-Za - mbn FØn-°p-∂X - n\v klm-bn-®p. CtXm-sSm∏w tI{μ-k¿°m¿ A°m-eØv \S-∏m-°n-bn-cp∂ Zmcn{Zy \n¿am¿÷\ ]cn]m-SnIfpw, _m¶p-Iƒ tZi-km¬°-cn®v Ah-bn-eqsS \S-∏m-°nb Im¿jnI ˛ {Kma-hn-Ik - \ ]cn-]m-Sn-Ifpw ^e-{]-Za - mbn {]tbm-P\ - s - ∏-Sp-Øm≥ tIcf-Øn-\m-bn.kmaq-ly-\oXn Dd∏v hcpØ-emWv P\-Iob k¿°mcpI-fpsS {]mYanI Npa-Xe F∂ kao-]\ - a - mWv A∂p-≠m-bn-cp-∂X - v. kmaq-ly-\n-b{¥Ww IqSp-X¬ i‡-am-°pI F∂-Xm-bn-cp∂p AXn\v am¿Kambn I≠Xv. PmXn aX t`Z-as\y ]W-°m-c\pw ]mh-s∏-´h - \pw H∂n-®p-]t- bm-Kn-°m≥ ]‰p∂ s]mXp CS-߃ hym]n-∏n®p-sIm-≠mWv CXv km[y-am-°n-bX - v. 7


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

CXn-\m-h-iy-amb _lp-P-\-k-Ω¿Zw Db¿Øm≥ t]m∂ cmjv{Sob t_m[w tIc-fØ - n¬ A°m-eØv Db¿∂p h∂n-cp-∂p. AØcw cmjv{Sob t_m[w hf¿Øn-sb-Sp-°e - mWv Xß-fpsS IS-as - b∂v \s√mcp `mKw kmwkvIm-cnI {]h¿ØIcpw am[y-aß - f - pw A∂v Xncn-®d - n-™n-cp-∂p. CS-Øc - ° - m-cs‚ tIcfw Fgp-]X - p-If - psS ]Ip-Xn-tbmsS Xs∂ hnZym-`ymkw kn≤n® km[m-cW-°m-cpsS Hcp \nc CXns‚ ^e-ambn tIc-fØ - n¬ Db¿∂p-h∂ - p. Chcn¬ ]e¿°pw Kƒ^v \mSp-If - nepw a‰v hntZ-i cmPy-ßf - nepw sXmgn¬ e`y-ambn. tIc-fØ - nse k¿hokv taJ-eb - psS hnImkw k¿°m¿ ˛ s]mXp-ta-Jem Poh-\° - m-cpsS FÆhpw h¿[n-∏n-®p. kwL-SnX sXmgn¬ taJ-eb - nse sa®-s∏´ Iqenbpw tkh-\t- a-Je - b - psS hn]p-eo-Ic - W - hpw Kƒ^v ]W-hp-sa√mw tN¿∂v sa®-s∏´ Pohn-X\ - n-eh - mcw ]pe¿Øp∂, aXn-bmb hm߬ tijn-bp≈, CS-Øc - ° - m-cpsS Hcp henb \nc tIc-fØn¬ Db¿∂p-h∂ - p. Ch-cn¬ _lp-`q-cn-]£ - Ø - nt‚bpw ap≥X-ea- pd AXntim-N\ - o-ba- mb PohnX kml-Nc - y-ßf - n¬ Ign-™h - c - m-bn-cp-∂p. hnZym-`ymk ]ptcm-KX - n-bmWv Ah-cpsS Pohn-Xh - n-Pb - Ø - ns‚ Xmt°m-embn amdn-bX - v.F-∂m¬, Xß-fpsS ]n≥ Xe-ap-dbv°pw hnZym-`ymk t\´w Dd-∏p-hc - p-Øm≥ s]mXp hnZym-`ymk cwKw sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\√ Ah¿ {ian-®X - v. {]t£m-`߃s°m≠v Iep-jn-Xhpw ASnÿm\-ku-Ic - y-ßf - p-sS- A-`mhw sIm≠v tami-s∏-´X - p-am-bn-cp∂ s]mXp hnZym-`ymk taJe Isøm-gn™v "kz¥w Imcyw am{Xw t\m°n `mhnPohnXw tim`-\a - m-°m≥ ]Tn-∏n-°p∂' I®hS hnZym-`ymk ÿm]-\ß - sf hf¿Øp-Ibpw ]cn-t]m-jn-∏n-°p-Ib - p-amWv Ah¿ sNbvXX - v. B{in-XX - z-t_m-[Ø - n¬\n∂v Ah-Im-it- _m-[Ø - nte°pw kwL-SnX t]mcm-´ß - f - n-te°pw hnhn[ hn`m-Kß - sf \bn-°m≥ Chn-SpsØ sXmgn-emfn {]ÿm-\ß - ƒ°v km[n-®p. ]t£, Xß-fpsS ]n∂n¬ AWn-\nc-∂h - cn¬ kmaqlyt_m[w hf¿Øn-sb-Sp-°m≥ ]e Im-cW - ß - ƒsIm≠pw Ah¿°v Ign-™n-√. CXp-aqew, t\´-߃ D≠m°nb CS-Øc - ° - m-cpsS P - o-hnXho£Ww kzm¿∞-Xb - n¬ am{X-aq∂n hnIe-am-bn-Øo-cp-Ib - m-Wp-≠m-bX - v. Xo£vWa - mb PohnX{]iv\ß - ƒ Ae-´m\n-√m--Xm-bt- ∏mƒ CØcw IpSpw-_ß - f - psS kmaq-ly-_‘ - Ø - ns‚ hgn PmXnbpw aXhpw BNm-chpw A\p-jT v m-\hpsa√m-ambn amdn. I®-hS hnZym`ymk ÿm]-\ß - f - n¬ hf¿∂p-h∂ ]pXnb Xe-ap-d I - q-Sn-bm-bt- ∏mƒ˛ AXpw hyXyÿ aX-ÿm-]\ - hpw PmXn kwL-S\ - Ifpw \S-Øp∂˛ dnsshh-enÃv aqey-ßsf ]cn-]m-en-°p∂, X≥Imcyw am{Xw t\m°n Pohn-°p∂ Hcp kmwkvIm-cn-Im-¥c - o£w tIc-fØ - n¬ CS-Øc - ° - m-cp-sS-bn-Sb - n¬ {]_8


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

e-am-Im≥ XpSßn. kn\n-abpw, kmln-Xyhpw, am[y-ah - m¿Ø-Ifpw F√mw CXns\ ]cn-t]m-jn-∏n°pw hn[w krjvSn-°s - ∏-´p. CS-Øc - ° - m-cs‚ kz]v\hpw BtKm-fh - ¬°-cW - hpw th≠{X hmß-¬ tijn-bp≈ a[y-h¿K-hn-`mKw Db¿∂p-hc - n-Ibpw Ahcn¬ ta¬ kqNn-∏n® kmwkvIm-cn-It- _m[w ASn-bp-d-°p-Ibpw sNbvXpsIm-≠n-cp∂ L´-Øn-emWv BtKm-fh - ¬°-cW - \ - b - Ø - ns‚ `mK-am-bp≈ \h-en-_d - ¬ \b-߃ cmPyØv \S-∏n-em-°m≥ XpS-ßn-bX - .v temIw apgph≥ Hscm‰ Itºm-fa - mbn am‰nb BtKm-fh - ¬°-cWw a[y-h¿K-hn-`m-Kß-fpsS D]-t`mK Xm¬∏-cysØ Xr]vXn-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ Ah-kc - a - mWv \¬In-bX - .v imkv{X-km-t¶-XnI cwKsØ, hnti-jn®v sF.Sn taJ-eb - nse h≥Ip-Xn∏v ˛ sshhn-[y-am¿∂ D]-t`mK D¬∏-∂ß - ƒ Itºm-fØ - n-se-Øn®p. Ce-Itv {Sm-WnIv D¬∏∂-ßt- fm-sSm∏w Km¿ln-tIm-]I - c - W - ß - fpw hml\-ßfpw am¿°-‰n¬ kpe-`a - m-Ip-Ibpw Ah-sb√mw h≥tXm-Xn¬ hn‰-gnbp-Ibpw sNbvXt- XmsS tIc-fØ - nse I®-hS- t- a-Je {ZpX-KX - n-bn¬ hf¿∂p. \h-en-_-d¬ \b-߃°-\p-k-cn®v _m¶nwKv taJebnep-≠mb \bhyXn-bm\hpw ]pXnb {]h-W-Xbv°v B°w Iq´n. Im¿jn-IhrØn°pw sNdp-InS taJ-ebv°pw hm-b] v I - ƒ \¬In-bn-cp∂ _m¶p-Iƒ B cwKØv \n∂p {ItaW ]n≥am-dp-Ibpw Krl-\n¿amW hmbv]I - ƒ°pw D]t`mK hmbv]I - ƒ°pw Du∂¬ \¬IpIbpw sNbvXp. Xncn-®S- hv kpc£n-Xs - a∂v Icp-Xp∂ CS-Øc - ° - m¿°v h≥tXm-Xn¬ hmbv]I - ƒ \¬In. BtKm-fh - ¬°-cW - Ø - ns‚ BZy-L´- Ø - n¬ hntZi C¥y-°m-cpsS \nt£]-Øn\v \¬Inb hfsc Db¿∂ ]en-ibpw cq]-bpsS aqey-Øn¬ XpS¿®bmbn h∂ aqey-ti-mj-Wh - pw hntZi C¥y-°m-cpsS IpSpw-_-ß-fnse B-t]-£nI hcp-am-\Ø - n¬ henb h¿[-\h - p-≠m°n D¬∏m-Z\ taJ-eI - fn¬ \nt£-]n- °p∂Xn-\p-]I - cw Xma-kØ - n\pw hmWn-Pym-hi - y-Øn-\p≈ h≥ sI-´n-Sß - ƒ \n¿an-°p-∂X - n-emWv Ah¿ Cu hcp-am\w hn\n-tbm-Kn®Xv. hntZ-i] - W - a - n-S] - m-Sp-Iƒ°p≈ \nb-{¥-Wß - ƒ eLq-Ic - n-°bpw \hen-_d - ¬ \b-ßf - psS Dt]m¬∏∂-amb h≥InS Agn-aXnbpsS hym]vXn h¿[n-°bpw sNbvXt- XmsS h≥tXm-Xn¬ I≈-∏Whpw \m´n-te°v {]hln-®p. dnb¬ FtÃ-‰nepw \n¿amW {]h¿Ø-\Ø - nepw Cu ]W-sa√mw hn\ntbmKn°-s∏-´X - mbn ImWmw. apºv kqNn-∏n® kar-≤n-bpsS Zriy-߃ ]eXpw Cßs\ krjvSn-°s - ∏-´X - m-W.v hf¿®-bnse NXn-°p-gn-Iƒ ta¬∏d™ \nco-£W - ß - ƒ Ipsd°qSn hy‡-am-Im≥ kmº-ØnI 9


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

hf¿® kw_-‘n® ÿnXn-hn-hc - °-W° - p-If - psS kq£vaX - e - Ø - n-te°v t]mbm¬ aXn-bm-Ipw. tIc-fØ - n‚ A`y-¥c hcp-am-\Ø - n¬ aq∂n¬ c≠p `mK-tØm-fa - n∂v XrXob taJ-eb - n¬ \n∂mWv hcp-∂X - v. tkh\ taJ-ebpsS Cu B[n-]Xyw kmº-Øn-Ihpw kmaq-ly-hp-amb hf¿®-bpsS e£W-amtWm? \mSv IqSp-X¬ ]ptcm-Ka - n-°p-t¥mdpw {]mY-an-It- a-Je - s - b°mƒ ZznXob taJ-ebpw Ah- c≠n-s\bpwImƒ XrXob taJ-ebpw hf¿∂p apt∂-dp-∂Xv kzm`m-hn-Ia - m-W.v ]t£, AØcw kzm`m-hnI ]ptcmK-Xn°v Nne khn-ti-jXIfp≠v, Imc-W-ßfp-ap-≠v. GXv {]tZ-iØns‚bpw hnI-k\ - Ø - ns‚ BZy-L´- Ø - n¬ Im¿jnI taJ-e° - mbn-cn°pw ap≥Xq°w. P\-ßf - psS apJy-Bh - iyw `£-WamWv; AXv \nd-th-‰p-∂Xv Im¿jn-It- a-Je - b - pw. kaqlw IqSp-X¬ ]ptcm-Ka - n-°p-t¥mdpw hkv{Xw, ]m¿∏nSw, Im¿jn-tIm-]I - c - W - ß - ƒ XpS-ßnb \n¿anX Nc-°p-IfpsS Bhiy-IX hym]n°pIbpw hyh-km-bnI taJ-ebv°v ap≥Xp°w hcnIbpw sNøpw. IqSp-X¬ ]ptcm-K-Xn ssIh-cn-°p-∂-tXmsS hnZym-`ymkw, BtcmKyw, KXm-KXw XpS-ßnb taJ-eI - f - n-te°v Bh-iy-߃ hf-cp-Ibpw tkh\ taJebv°v B[n-]Xyw ssIh-cnIbpw sNøp-∂Xv kzm`m-hn-Iam-Wv. F∂m¬, At∏msg√mw samØw P\-ßf - psS `£-WØns‚bpw Akw-kI v rX km[-ßf - psSbpw Bh-iy-IX apJy-ambn \nd-th-‰m≥ AhnSpsØ Im¿jn-It- a-Je - bv°v Ign-tb-≠X - mWv. AXp-t]mse \n¿anX hkvXp°-fpsS Bh-iy-IX \nd-th-‰m≥ hymh-km-bnI taJ-ebv°v IgnbWw. Cu Hcp Znibn-ep≈ ]ptcm-KX - nsb kpÿn-ca - m-Iq. Hmtcm taJ-ebnepw krjvSn-°s - ∏-Sp∂ hcp-am\w B cwKsØ B{i-bn-®p-Ig - n-bp-∂h - cpsS FÆ-Øn\v B\p-]m-Xn-Ia - m-hp-tºmsg \oXn-bn-e[ - n-jvTn-Xa - mb Hcp kmaq-ly-hy-hÿ - b - p-≠mIq. tIcfw kmº-Øn-Ia - mbn Ct∏mƒ apt∂-dn-bXv Cu Hcp coXnbnte A√. {]mY-anI taJ-eb - psS ˛hnti-jn®v Im¿jn-It- a-Je - b - n¬˛ hf¿®bn-√m-sX-bmWv XrXob taJe hf¿∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂X - .v CXns‚ ^eambn 1981 ¬ 39.20% kwÿm\ hcp-am\w \¬In-bn-cp∂ {]mY-anI taJe 1990¬ 36 % Dw 2010¬ 15.3 % Bbpw Npcp-ßn. Im¿jnI taJ-eb - n¬ \n∂p≈ hcp-am-\Ø - n¬ Cu hn[w IpØs\ CSn-hp-≠m-bXv a‰v taJ-eIfpsS {ZpX-KX - n-bn-ep≈ hf¿® aqew Bt]£n-Ia - mbn am{Xw kw`-hn-®X - √ - . Im¿jn-It- a-Je - b - psS \n›-em-hÿ - bpw Xf¿®bpw BWv Imc-Ww ( 2004-˛05 ˛ 1698051, 2009-˛10 ˛ 1668391). Cu Xf¿®-bpsS kzm[o\w c≠p-hn-[Ø - n¬ D≠m-Ipw. H∂v, D¬∏m-Z\ - Ø - nse CSnhv aqew `£y-kp-c£ - b - nepw AkwkvIrXkm[-\ß - f - psS e`y-X10


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

]´nI c - ≠v hf¿®m-\n-c°pw kwÿm\ hcp-am-\Ø - nse hnln-Xhpw hf¿®m \nc°v hnlnXw -----2009-˛10 2009-˛10 1990˛91 Irjn 0- .25 11.47 31 h\w 4.49 1.52 .50 a’y-_‘ - \w 0.06 1.17 1.78 J\\w 17.37 1.19 0.28 {]mY-anI taJe 1.27 15.36 35.99 hyh-kmbw 14.65 8.34 15.18 \n¿amWw 5.87 11.87 7.65 sshZyp-Xn, Kymkv, sh≈w 5.66 1.66 1.09 ZznXob taJe 9.43 22.08 23.92 KXm-KXw 14.48 7.07 4.59 hm¿Øm-hn-\n-abw 30.72 4.45 0.80 hym]mcw, tlm´¬ 7.96 20.70 13.76 _m¶nw-Kv, C≥jqd≥kv 15.34 6.32 7.30 dnb¬ FtÉv 9.89 11.69 0.50 s]mXp-`c - Ww 495 4.48 6.70 a‰v k¿hokv 7.85 6.44 tkh-\t- a-Je 11.51 62.56 40.09 Ah-ew-_w-˛C - ° - t- Wm-anIv dnhyq

bnep≈ tim-jW - ambn. c≠v, B ta-Jesb B{i-bn-°p-∂h - c - psS hcpam-\Ø - nse CSnhv Bbn . CXv c≠pw ChnsS kw`-hn-°p-∂p.1990¬ \ap°m-hi - y-amb `£y-[m-\y-ßf - psS 30 iX-am\w tI-cf - Ø - n¬ D¬∏m-Zn-∏n®ncps∂¶n¬ C∂Xv 15 iX-am-\Ø - n¬ Xmsg am{X-amWv. GI-tZiw ]q¿Wambn Xs∂ `£y-[m\y-߃°v adp-\m-Sp-Isf B{i-bn-°p∂ Xe-Øn-tebv°p≈- h-f¿®-bpsS B]Øv hy‡-am-Wt√m. kwÿm\ hcp-am-\Ø - n¬ 12 iX-am-\t- Ømfw am{Xw {]Zm\w sNøp∂ Im¿jnI taJ-es - b I¿jIcpw I¿j-Is - Øm-gn-em-fn-If - p-ambn 30% tesdt∏¿ B{i-bn-°p-∂p-sh∂mWv hnhn-[ I - W - ° - p-Iƒ hy‡-am-°p-∂X - v (tIc-f] - T - \w 2004˛ 33%; C¥y te_¿ am¿°‰v dnt∏m¿´v 2008 ˛ 31.26%). Btfm-lcn hcp-am-\Øn¬ Im¿jnI cwKØv {]h¿Øn-°p-∂h - sc samØ-Øn¬ FSp-Øm¬ kwÿm\ icm-ic - n-bpsS aq∂n¬ H∂v am{X-ta-bp-≈q-sh-∂m-Wn-Xv ImWn11


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

°p-∂X - v. \h-en-_d - ¬ \b-ßfpsS BZy ]Øv h¿j-Øn¬ Im¿jnIhcpam\-Ønepw Irjnsb B{i-bn-°p-∂h - c - psS FÆ-Ønepw h∂ am‰w hy‡-am-hm≥ Xmsg ImWn-°p∂ ]´n-I- D]-tbm-Ks - ∏Spw Im¿jn-It- a-Je - b - n¬ \n∂v CX-ct- a-Je - b - n-te°v Bƒ°m¿ Pohn-Xh - rØn-°mbn amdp-∂p F∂-Xn-t\m-sSm∏w AXn¬ \ne-\n¬°p-∂h - c - psS hcpam\w CX-ct- a-Je - I - sf At]-£n®v IpØs\ CSn-bp∂p F∂p-Iq-Sn-bmWnXv ImWn-°p-∂X - v. BXy-¥n-I-ambn Cu {]h-WX Im¿jn-It- a-Je - bpsS kmº-ØnI \ne-\n¬∏v Xs∂ Ah-Xm-fØ - n-em-°p-w. ZzoXob taJe samØ-Øn¬ FSp-Øm¬ kwÿm\ hcp-am-\Ø - nse hnln-XØ - n¬ henb Ipdhv h∂n-´n-√ ( 1990 ¬ 23.02%, 2009 ˛10¬ 22.98 %). F∂m¬, hyh-kmb taJ-eb - psS ]¶v 15.18% ¬ \n∂v 8.54 % Bbn Ipd™p. \n¿am-Wt- a-Je - b - psS hf¿®bpw kzm[o-\h - p-amWv ZzoXob taJesb kPo-ha - m-°n-bs - X∂v hy‡-am-Wv (1990 ˛ ¬ 7.65% ,2009 ˛10 ¬ 11.87%). Cu hn[w, ASn-ÿm\ taJ-eb - mb Irjnbpw hyh-km-bhpw hf-cm-Xncn-°p-tºmgpw kmº-ØnI hf¿® {ZpX-KX - n-bn-em-Ip-∂Xv F¥p-sIm≠v? ]´nI aq∂v Irjn-°m¿ I¿jI sXmgn-em-fn-Iƒ IpSn¬ hyh-kmbw Im¿jn-Im-\p-_‘ - {]-h¿Ø-\ß - ƒ a‰v sXmgn-ep-Iƒ Im¿jn-Ih - c - p-am\w

1991 12.24 25.55 2.58 10.23 49.40 33.46

2001 7.20 16.07 3.54

}

73.19 15.35

tkh-\t- a-Je - b - n¬ Nne cwKßfn¬ D≠mb hf¿®-bm-Wn-Xns\ klmbn-®X - .v ]´nI c≠n¬ \n∂v hy‡-am-Ip-∂X - p-t]mse KXm-KXw, hm¿Ømhn-\n-abw, hym]mcw, _m¶nwK,v C≥jq-d≥kv, dnb¬ FtÉv F∂o taJe-If - nse IpXn-∏mWv tkh\ taJ-eb - psS hf¿®bv°v Icp-tØIp∂Xv. kwÿm\ hcp-am-\Ø - ns‚ apJy-`mKw Cu taJ-eI - fn¬ \n∂mWv. D]t`mK kwkvIm-cØ - ns‚ `mK-ambn hf¿∂p-h∂ h¿[n® hml\ D]t`mKhpw tkh-\-ta-J-e-bpsS hf¿®-aqew kw`-hn-°p∂ bm{X-sNtø≠Xns‚ Bh-iy-IX - bpw Imc-Wa - m-Wv KXm-KX taJe hf¿∂Xv. Iayq-Wn-t°-j≥ taJ-eb - psS hf¿® B cwK-Øp-≠mb imkv{X-]p-tcm12


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

K-Xnbpw AXns‚ D¬∏∂-ßf - psS hym]-\Ø - n-s‚bpw ^e-am-W.v dnb¬ FtÉv cwKw sI´n-\n¿am-WØ - n-s‚bpw `qan CS-]m-Sn-s‚bpw `mK-ambn hf¿∂-Xm-W.v \n¿amWmh-iy-߃°pw D]-t`m-Km-hi - y-߃°pw \¬Ip∂ hmbv]Ifn-eq-sS-bmWv [\taJ-eb - n¬ _m¶n-ßv apJy-ambpw hf¿∂-Xv. hnhn[ A\n-›n-XX - z-ßfn¬ \n∂v ]cn-c£ \¬Im≥ klm-bn-°p∂ C≥jq-d≥kv ]≤XnIfpsS hym]-\-amWv C≥jq-d≥kv taJ-esb hf¿Øn-b-Xv. hym]mc cwK-Øns‚ hf¿®-bm-Is´ \n¿amW kma-{KnIfpsSbpw D]-t`m-Kk - m-[\ - ßfp-sSbpw h¿[n® hn]-Wn-bn-eqsS D≠mbXpw. h¿[n® D]-t`mKhpw sI´nS \n¿amW {]h-¿Ø\hpw Ahsb ASnÿm-\a - m°n IpXn-®p-bc - p∂ I®-hShpw ^n\m≥kpw H∏w \S-°p∂ Dul°-®h - S- h - p-amWv tIc-fk - º - Zv LS-\b - psS C∂sØ ASn-Ød F∂-XmWv CXv hy‡-am-°p-∂Xv. ]Ww hcp∂ hgn-Iƒ sI´n-S\ - n¿am-Wa - m-Is´, h¿[n® tXmXn-ep≈ D]-t`mK Bh-iy-am-Is´ Ah-bvs°√mw h¿[n® tXmXn¬ ]Ww thW-at√m. FhnsS \n∂mWv Cu ]Ww krjvSn-°s - ∏-Sp-∂Xv tIc-fo-bcpsS A[zm\w D¬∏m-Z\ {]h¿Ø-\Ø - n¬ sNep-Øn- h¿[n® aqey h¿[-\hv \S-Øn-bp≠mIp∂ an®- a mtWm? A√sb¶n¬ B t{kmX-   p- I ƒ F¥mWv ? Ah F{XtØmfw kpÿn-ca - mWv? Im¿jnI˛ hyh-kmbnI taJ-eb - psS ac-hn∏v B taJe krjvSn-°p∂ A[nI hcp-am-\Ø - ns‚ ]cn-anXn hy‡-am-°p∂p. d∫-dns‚ hneh¿[\hpw AXn-eqsS Irjn-°m¿°v Ign™ Ipd®p h¿j-ßfmbn In´p∂ hcp-am\hpw am{X-amWv Cu cwKØv FSpØp ]d-bm-hp-∂X - .v AXm-Is´ BtKmf d∫¿ hn]-Wn-bn¬ Nne Xm¬°m-enI kw`h hnIm-kß - f - psS ^e-ambn D≠m-b-Xp-am-Wv. am-{X-hp-a√, samØw kwÿm\ hcp-am-\-Øn¬ sNdnbsbmcp iX-am-\ta CXv aqew e`y-ambn´p-≈q. Kƒ^v ]W-amWv apsº∂ t]mse Ct∏mgpw \nt£-]Ø - ns‚bpw hn]-W\ - Øn-s‚bpw apJy t{kmX v . GI-tZiw 50,000 tImSn cq]tbmfw hntZi C¥y°m¿ hgn tIc-fØ - n-te°v hnhn[ am¿K-ßfneqsS (_m¶p-Iƒ aptJ-\bpw A√msXbpw) {]Xn-h¿jw FØp-∂p≠v F∂mWv IW-°m-°s - ∏-Sp-∂Xv. as‰mcp {][m\ t{kmX v _m¶v hmbv]b - mWv. 1998 ¬ 48% am{Xap≠m-bn-cp∂ hmWn-Py-_m-¶p-IfpsS hmbv]m-\n-t£]m\p]mXw C - t- ∏mƒ 70 iX-am-\Øn-\S- pØv FØn-bn-cn-°p-∂p. GI-tZiw Hcp e£-tØmfw tImSn cq] 13


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

hnhn[ C\-Øn-embn hmWn-Py-_m-¶p-Iƒ tIc-fØ - n¬ Ct∏mƒ hmbv]bmbn \¬In-bn-´p≠v.- C-Xn¬ knwl`mKhpw H - g- p-Ip-∂Xv sI´nS \n¿am-WØn\pw D]-t`m-Km-hi - y-߃°pw I®-hS- m-hi - y-߃°p-am-bm-W.v tIc-fh - nI-k\sØ°pdn-®p≈ Kuc-h-X-c-amb N¿®-I-fn-se√mw tIc-f-Øn¬ _m¶pIƒ kam-lc - n-°p∂ ]W-Øns‚ (AXns‚ apJy-]¶v hntZi C¥y°m-cpsS ]W-am-Wv) apJy `mKw A\y-\m-Sp-Ifnse hnI-k\ {]h¿Ø-\߃°v hn\n-tbm-Kn-°p-∂X - ns\ hna¿in-®n-cp-∂p. F∂m¬, tIc-fØ - n¬ Ct∏mƒ IqSp-X¬ hmbv] \¬Ip∂ps≠-¶nepw Ah t]mIp-∂Xv ASnÿm\ D¬∏m-Z\ - t- aJebn-te-°√. F∂v am{X-a√, B cwK-Øp≈ hmbv] bYm¿∞-Øn¬ Ipd-bp-∂p-ap≠v. hnZym-`ymkw, NnIn’, hnhmlw, XpSßnb Bh-iy-߃°v Zcn-{Zcpw, D]-t`m-Km-hi - y-߃°pw BkvXn \n¿an°p-∂X - n\pw hnZym-`ymk Bh-iy-Øn\pambn kº-∂cpw hen-bt- Xm-Xnep≈ hmbv] -hmßn°q´p-∂p≠v. "tIc-f-]-T-\'-Øn¬ Is≠Øn-bXv hm¿jnI hcp-am-\Ø - ns‚ 15% F¶nepw At∏mƒ Hmtcm-cp-Ø¿ - °pw IS_m-[yX Ds≠-∂m-Wv. aq∂m-asØ {][m\ t{kmXkv, cmPy-Øns‚ a‰p-`m-Kß - f - n¬ \n∂pw tIc-fØ - n¬ \n∂p-Xs - ∂bpw FØp∂ I≈-∏W - a - mWv. Cu ]Ww apJyambpw sNe-hg - n-°p-∂Xv dnb¬ FtÉv CS-]m-Sp-If - n-emWv. IW-°n¬ Ihn™Xpw Ahn-ln-Xh - p-amb ]Ww \nt£-]n-°m≥ `qansb ASn-ÿm\-am-°p-∂X - mWv ÿe-Øn-s‚bpw sI´n-SØ - n-s‚bpw hne C{X-tbsd h¿[n-°m≥ Hcp Imc-Ww. \mem-asØ t{kmX v XnI®pw km¶¬∏n-Ia - m-W.v ""kmº-ØnI Ipanf-Iƒ'' F∂v hnti-jn-∏n°-s∏-Sp∂ {]Xn`mkw. `mhn-bn¬ D≠m-Ip-sa∂v Icp-Xp∂ Hcp hcp-am-\t- Øtbm aqey-sØtbm ASn-ÿm-\a - m°n, Bhiy-°m¿ h¿[n-°p-∂X - n-\m¬ aqey-sØ-°mƒ F{Xtbm aSßv Db-cØ - nte°v AXns‚ hne t]mIp∂ {]Xn-`m-ka - m-Wn-Xv. sNdnb Hcp DZm-lc - W - Ø - n-eqsS AXv hy‡-am°mw. aq∂v t]¿ Hcpan®v `n£bv°v ]pd-s∏-Sp-∂p. c≠vt]¿°v `n£-bmbn ]Øv cq] hoXw c≠v am\y≥am-cn¬\n∂v In´n. aq∂m-as - Ø-bmƒ kao-]n-®Xv Hcp ]ptcmln-Xs - \-bm-Wv. `mhn-bn¬ sFiz-cyw \¬Ip-sa∂v ]d™v ]ptcm-ln-X≥ Hcp hkvXp Abmƒ°v bmN-I\v \¬In. aq∂v t]cpw ho≠pw Hcp-an®pIqSn. Ct∏mƒ Ah¿°p In´nb kºØv Ccp-]Xv cq]-bmWv. F∂m¬ BZysØ-bmƒ°v `mKy-hkvXp kz¥-am-°m≥ tamlw. Abmƒ Xs‚ ]Øv cq] sImSpØv aq∂m-asØbmfn¬ \n∂v AXp hmßn. Ct∏msg{X-bmbn kºØv? ap∏Xv cq]. At∏mƒ c≠m-as - Ø-bmƒ°v AXv thW-sa∂v 14


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

tXm∂p-∂p. 20 cq] sImSpØv AXv Abmƒ hmßm≥ Xocp-am-\n-®p. Iønep≈ ]Øp-cq-]bpw A]-cs‚ Iøn¬\n∂v hmbv] hmßnb ]Øv cq]bpw. Ct∏mƒ Hmtcm-cp-Øcpw Xß-fpsS BkvXn IW-°m-°n-bm¬ samØw 50 cq] At∏mƒ aq∂m-asØbmƒ°v AXv Xncn®p hmßWsa∂v tXm∂n ap∏Xv cq]bv°v. kz¥w ]W-tØm-sSm∏w A]-c\ - n¬\n∂v hmbv]b - mbn ]Øv cq] t\Snbpw ]n∂oSv \¬Im-sa∂ hyh-ÿb - n¬ ]Øp cq] _m[yX-sh®pw Abmƒ 30 cq] krjvSn®v `mKy-hkvXp Xncn®p Iøn-em-°n. Ct∏mƒ BsI BkvXn 70 cq]. Iøn-ep≈ `mKy-hk - vXp-hn\v bYm¿∞ temI-Øn¬ bmsXmcp hne-bp-an-s√∂v Xncn-®d - n-bp-∂X - p-hsc kºØv krjvSn®v Cu I®-hSw apt∂-dmw. Cu coXn-bn¬ krjvSn-°p∂ kºØv bmYm¿∞y-tØm-SS- p-°p-tºm-ƒ AXns‚ bYm¿∞-aq-ey-Øn-tet°m Nnet∏mƒ AXnepw Xmtgbvt°m ]Xn-°pw. C∂sØ kmº-Øn-Ih - f - ¿®-bn¬ sjb¿am¿°-‰pw dnb¬ FtÉpw krjvSn-°p∂ hf¿® CØcØnep≈-Xm-sW∂v ]d-bmw. Cßns\-sb√mw D≠m-°p∂ ]W-Øns‚ henb Hcp `mKw sI´n-S\n¿amWw, `qan CS-]mSv, D]-t`m-Kh - k - X v p-°f - psS hm߬ F∂n-hb - n-te°v t]mIp-tºmƒ F¥mWv kw`-hn-°p-I? sI´n-S\ - n¿amWw Hcp `mKØv Bh¿Ø\ kz`m-ha - n-√mØ F∂m¬ FÆ-Øn¬ s]cp-Inb sXmgn-epIƒ krjvSn-°pw. adp-`m-KØv \n¿amW kma-{Kn-If - psS I®-hSw s]mSns]m-Sn°pw. `qan hmßm≥ ]Ww sN√p-tºmƒ `qan-bpsS hne Dbcpw. `qan hmbv]bv°p≈ kpc-£nX CuSmbn [\-Im-cy-ÿm-]\ - ß - ƒ Icp-Xp∂-Xp-sIm≠v IqSp-X¬ ]Ww hmbv]b - mbn e`y-am-°m\pw Ah ho≠pw D]-t`m-KØ - n\pw \n¿am-Wmhiy߃°mbn hn\n-tbm-Kn-°m\pw Ign-bp-∂p. I®-hS- c - w-KØ - ns‚ hf¿® hn¬∏\ \nIp-Xn-bmbn k¿°m¿ hcp-am-\Ø - nte°pw iº-fa - mbn Xncn®v ho≠pw hn]-Wn-bn-te-°psa-Øp-∂p. Cu {]h¿Ø-\s - a√mw hmbv]b - mbpw \nt£-]a- mbpw [\-Im-cy-ÿm-]\ - ° - m-cpsS {]h¿Ø-\sØ DtØ-Pn-∏n-°pw. C∂sØ kmº-Øn-Ih - f - ¿®bpsS s]mcpƒ AXm-Wv. ta¬ hnhcn® t{kmX- p-If - p-sS-sb√mw {]tXy-IX Ah GXv kabhpw ]nt∂m-´S- n-°m-sa-∂X - m-W.v BtKm-fX - e - Ø - n¬ hfcp∂ kmºØnI {]Xn-k‘n Kƒ^p-\m-Sp-If - nse sXmgn¬ km[y-Xbv°v Ct∏mƒ Xs∂ a߬ G¬∏n-®n-cn-°p-∂p. ate-jy-t]m-ep≈ cmPy-߃ ho≠pw ]g-btXm-Xn¬ d∫¿ D¬∏m-Zn-∏n-°m≥ XpS-ßp-tºmƒ Bkn-b≥ Icm-dns‚ IqSn ]›m-Øe - Ø - n¬ d∫-dns‚ taml-hne A[n-II - mew XpS-cn√ F∂v hy‡-am-W.v hf¿∂p-hc - p∂ kmº-ØnI Ipan-fI - ƒ Bi-¶b - p≈ sNdnb 15


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

apƒap\-bn¬ s]´v Ft∏mƒ thW-sa-¶nepw A∏msS s]m´mw. In´m°-S߃ s]cp-Ip∂ apdbv°v _m¶v ^n\m≥kpw hnhn[ cwK-ßf - n¬ \n∂v ]n≥hmßpw. Xo¿Øpw kpc-£n-X-a-√m-ØXpw AbYm¿Yy-hp-amb km-º-ØnI XqWp-If - n-emWv tIc-fk - º - Z- L v S- \ C∂v \n¬°p-∂Xv F∂m-WnXv hy‡am-°p-∂X - .v kz]v\-߃ ^vfm‰m-Ip-tºmƒ kmº-ØnI hf¿®-bn¬ apJy kw`m-h\ sNøp∂ sI´nS \n¿amW {]h¿Ø\w Ftßm´v t]mIp-∂p-sh∂p t\m°mw. sI´n-Sß - ƒ km[m-cW\ - n¿an-°p-I c≠m-hi - y-Øn-\mWv. H∂p-In¬, Xma-kk - u-Ic - y-Øn\v AXs√-¶n¬ hyh-kmbw, I®-hSw , temUvPnwKv XpSßn GsX-¶nepw hmWnPym-hi - y-߃°v. hmWn-Pym-hi - y-Øn-\mbv hn\n-tbm-Kn-°p-tºmƒ AXn-eqsS an®w hcp∂ em`-Øns‚ Hcp ]¶v am{Xta hmS-Ib - n-\Ø - n¬ \¬Im-\mhq. Cßns\ e`n-°p∂ hmS-I, sI´n-SØ - ns‚ \n¿am-Ws - N-eh - ns‚ ]enibpw aqey-ti-mjWhpw Iq´n°n´p-∂Xn-s\-°mƒ IqSp-X¬ BsW-¶n¬ am{Xta em`-Ic - a - mIq. DZm-lc - W - a - mbn Ccp-]X - e v £w cq] 12 % ]en-ibv°v hmbv]s - b-SpØv Hcp sI´nSw hmS-Ibv°v sImSp-°m≥ Dt±-it- ØmsS \n¿an°p-∂p F∂v Icp-Xp-I. {]Xn-amkw 20000 cq] Abmƒ°v ]en-ib - n-\Øn¬ sNehv hcpw. sI´n-SØ - ns‚ Bbp-jvImew 50 h¿j-ambn Icp-Xnbm¬ t]mepw aqey-tim-jW - Ø - ns‚ XpI-bmbn 3000 cq]-bn-tesd hI-bncptØ≠n hcpw. {]Xn-h¿jw hcp∂ A‰-Ip-‰s - ®-ehpw IqSn ]cn-KW - n®m¬ 30,000 cq]tbmfsa-¶nepw {]Xn-amkw hmS-I-bn-\-Øn¬ hcp-am-\ambn e`n-®m¬ am{Xta kz¥w Bh-iy-Øn-\√ - msX sI´nSw \n¿an-®Xp sIm≠v Abmƒ°v {]tbm-P\ - a - p-≠m-Iq. ]t£, C∂sØ IW°v AX√ F∂v hy‡-amWv 20 e£w cq]-bpsS sI´nSw ASpØ h¿jw 25 e£Øn-s\-¶nepw hn¬°m≥ Ign-bp-∂p-≠t- √m. At∏mƒ hcp-am-\Ø - ns‚ Iq´Øn¬ Cu A©v e£hpw Dƒs∏-SpØn tht≠ IW-°m°m≥ F∂ tNmZyw kzm`m-hn-Ia - mbn Dbcpw. C∂sØ {]Xo£ AXm-Wv. AXp-sIm≠mWv kz¥w Bh-iyØnt\m hmS-Ibv°v \¬Im-t\m H∂p-as√-¶nepw ^vfm‰p-Iƒ \nc-¥cw s]m¥p-∂Xpw Ah-sb√mw X¬£Ww hn‰-gnbp∂Xpw. ^vfm‰p-If - n¬ kz¥-amtbm hmS-Ibvt°m Bbn Xma-kn-°p-∂h¿ C∂v ap∏Xv iX-am-\Ø - n-te-sdbn√. _m¶p-Iƒ hmbv] \¬In-bXpw kwLm-SI - ≥ Xs‚ hnlnXw \nt£-]n-®X - p-sa√mw Cu {]Xo-£b - psS ]pdØm-Wv. ]t£, Cu {]Xo£ F{X-Imew? sI´n-SØ - ns‚ Bbp-jvImew 16


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

apgp-h≥ Cu {]Xo£ sh®p-]p-e¿Øm-\m-hptam? AXn\p tijw Xncn®p-In-´p-∂Xv F¥mhpw? bYm¿∞-Ønep≈ Imem-h[n A{X AI-se-bmhn√. FÆ-Øn¬ s]cpIp∂p F∂-Xp-sIm≠v Xs∂ ^vfm‰p-Ifnse Bƒ∏m¿∏ns‚ tXmXv CXnepw Ipdbpw. AXn-\m¬ {]Xo£bpsS s]m≈Øcw A[n-Iw sshImsX a\- n-emIpIbpw sNøpw. At∏mƒ? F√m ae¿s∏m-Sn-°m-cp-sSbpw kz]v\ß - ƒ CXn-s\sbm∂v Ah-km-\n-°pI F∂v ka-iz-kn°mw. (A-©p-h¿jw apºv tIc-f] - T - \w \S-Øn-bt- ∏mƒ Xs∂ Xs∂ 95%t]¿°v kz¥-ambn hoSp≠v. AXn¬ 10% am{XamWv C∂sØ \ne-bn¬ Xma-kt- bm-Ky-as - √∂v Icp-Xm-hp∂ hoSp-If - n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂Xv. IÆq¿ Pn√-bnse Hcp sNdnb ap\n-kn-∏m-en-‰n-bmb Xfn-∏d - º - nse IWs°-SpØv t\m°n-bt- ∏mƒ t]mepw ImWp-∂Xv {]Xn-h¿jw Bbn-ct- Ømfw sI´n-S-߃°v AhnsS \n¿am-Wm-\p-aXn \¬Ip-∂ps≠-∂p-≈-XmWv. AXn¬ 600 tesd hoSp-If - m-Wv). Cu hn[w \n¿am-Wt- a-Je - b - n¬ A\n-hm-cy-ambpw kw`-hn°mhp∂ XI¿®bpw ]nt∂m-´S- nbpw Fß-s\-bmWv tIc-fsØ _m[n-°pI? IqSpX¬ hne tamln®v sI´nSw hmßn-bh - c - psS kz]v\ß - ƒ - am{XamtWm XI-cp-I? hmbv] \ - ¬Inb _m¶p-ƒ {]Xn-k‘ - nbn-emInt√? adp-`m-KØv C∂v tIc-fØ - n¬ Imbn-Im-[zm\w G‰hpw A[nIw hn\n-tbm-Kn-°s - ∏-Sp∂Xv \n¿amW taJ-eb - n-em-sW-∂Xv {i≤n-°Ww.12-iX - a- m-\t- Ømfw sXmgnep-Iƒ t\cn´v \n¿am-Wt- a-Je - b - p-ambn _‘-s∏-´m-Wp-≈Xv. AXn¬ 90 iX-am-\hpw Aÿn-csXmgn¬ BWv. C\n, I®-hS- t- a-Je - s - b-Sp-Øm¬ samØw I®-hS- Ø - ns‚ KWy-amb Hcp `mKw \n¿amW kma-{Kn-If - p-tS-XmWv. KXm-KX - mhiy-ßf - nepw \ - n¿amW taJe henb kzm[o\w sNep-Øp∂p. Cu hn[w ]tcm-£a - mbn krjvSn-°p∂ sXmgn-ep-Iƒ IqSn ]cn-KW - n®m¬˛ I®-hSw, ^n\m≥kv, KXm-KX - w, hyh-kmbw F∂n-ßs\ ˛ap-∏Xv iX-am\w sXmgnepI-sf-¶nepw \n¿amW taJ-eb - psS ]ptcm-KXn krjvSn®-XmWv. At∏mƒ \n¿am-W-ta-J-e-bn-ep-≠m-tb-°m-hp∂ Xncn-®Sn Cu taJ-e-bnse sXmgn-em-fn-Is - fsb√mw {]Xn-k‘ - n-bn¬ B°pI F∂ h≥ hn]-Ønte°mhpw \sΩ \bn°p-I. ]pen∏pdØv XpS¿∂m¬ C\n \n¿amW taJe Xf-cmsX C∂-sØ-t∏mse Ipsd-°qSn aptºm´p-t]m-Ip∂psh∂v Icp-Xp-I. IqSp-X¬ sshIn-bp≈ XI¿® Zpc-¥Ø - ns‚ Xo{hX h¿[n-∏n-°p-sa∂ Imcyw X¬°mew ad°mw. F∂m¬ a‰v `hnjy-Øp-Itfm? 17


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

sI´n-S\ - n-¿amW-Øn\v apJy-ambn th≠Xv I√v, aÆv, aW¬ , Pew , XSn F∂o {]mY-anI {]IrXn hn`-hß - f - mWv . Ch-bpsS AanX NqjWw Xo{h-ambn XpS-tc-≠n-hcpw. \n¿am-Wm-hi - y-Øn-\mbn IqSp-X¬ A\p-tbmPy-amb ÿew thWw . CXn-\mbn ]mS-ßfpw XÆo¿ØS-ßfpw C\nbpw hym]-Ia - mbn \nI-tØ-≠n-hcpw . Ip∂p-Iƒ CSn®pw, ]mS-߃ \nIØnbpw,aWeqd-dnbpw, Ipg¬In-W¿ Ipgn®pw ]gb sI´n-Sß - f - psS Ahin-jvSß - ƒ hen-s®-dn™pw apt∂-dp∂ sI´n-S\ - n¿amWw hfsc thKw Kpcp-Xc - a- mb ]mcn-ÿn-XnI {]iv\ß - ƒ krjvSn°pw. Irjn-`q-an-bpsS Afhv Ipd-bp-Ia- m-{X-a√. Ah-ti-jn-°p∂ `qan-bn¬ t]mepw Irjn-sN-øm-\m-hmØ ÿnXn-bn-te°mhpw \mw FØp-I.\n¿amW taJ-eb - psS IpXn-∏mWv `qan-bpsS hne-°b - ‰ - Ø - n\v apJyIm-cWw . `qan-bpsS hne I - q-Sp-t¥mdpw, Irjnbpw hyh-km-bhpw sNøm≥ `qan Iøn¬ shbv°p-∂Xv em`-Ic - a - √mXmhpw. Irjn-`qan XcninSp-Ibpw \n¿am-W{- ]-h¿Ø-\Ø - n-\mbn ]cn-h¿Ø\w sNøpIbpw sNøpw. ]pXnb hymh-kmbw XpS-ßm≥ Hcp hyh-km-bnbpw `qan hmßm≥ Xøm-dm-hn-√. hyh-kmbw thW-sa-¶n¬ s]m∂pw hnebv°v k¿°m¿ hmßn \¬tI≠n-hcpw. t£a {]h¿Ø-\ß - ƒ°v sNe-hg - n-t°≠ ]Ww Cu hn[w hn\n-tbm-Kn-t°≠ Ah-ÿb - nemWv k¿°m-cp-Iƒ. Cßns\ ]pen∏pdØv Ibdn Cd-ßm\pw XpS-cm\pw hømØ ÿnXn-bmWv C∂sØ hf¿®bpsS ^e-ambn krjvSn-°s - ∏-´n-´p-≈X - .v \new sXmSmsX Ata-cn-°b - n¬ sXmgn-em-fn-Iƒ t]mepw kz¥w Imdn¬ bm{X-sNbvXv sXmgn¬ ime-bn-te°v t]mIp∂p F∂-dn™v, A¤pXw Iqdnb Hcp Imeap≠mbn-cp-∂p. F∂m¬, tIc-fØ - n¬ sXmgn-em-fn-bmbn hnti-jn-∏n-°s - ∏Sp∂ hn`m-Kß - f - n¬ ]e¿°pw "kz¥w Im¿' km£mXvIc - n-°s - ∏-´n-cn-°p∂p. ]ptcm-KX - n-bpsS kqNn-Ib - n¬t∏mepw kz¥w Imdpt≠m, Ds≠-¶n¬ AXv GXp-Xcw XpS-ßnb Imcy-߃ h∂p tN¿∂n-cn-°p-∂p. KXm-K-X-ta-J-e-bv°mWv hnI-k-\-Øns‚ N¿®-I-fn¬ an°-hmdpw G‰hpw IqSp-X¬ Du∂¬ e`n-°m-dp-≈Xv. tIh-ea - mb bm{Xm-ku-Icyw h¿[n-∏n-°p-I a - m-{X-amtWm e£yw. F¶n¬, tIc-fØ - ns‚ `q{]-IrXn IqSn ]cn-KW - n-°p-tºmƒ thKX, kpc-£n-XXzw, kab IrXyX, sNehv Ipdhv, XpS-ßnb Imc-Wß - f - m¬ ap≥K-W\ e`n-t°-≠Xv sdbn¬th hnI-k\ - Øn-\m-W.v F∂m¬ tIc-fØ - nse hnI-k\ N¿®-bn¬ Ft∏mgpw {]mapJyw e`n-°pI FIvk{v ] v th, ae-tbmc sslth, Xoc-tZi sslth, _n. H. 18


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

Sn ]mX XpSßnb tdmUv KXm-KX - h - p-ambn _‘-s∏´ hnj-bß - f - m-Wv. F¥p-sIm-≠m-WnXv ? KXm-KXw F∂m¬ kz¥-am-bn hml-\a - p-≈h - ¿°v AXn-thKw kpJ-Ic - a - mbn k©-cn-°m-\pff ]mX F∂mWv \mw [cn-°p∂-X.v kz¥w hml\w kz]v\a- mbn kzoI-cn-°s - ∏´tXmsS t- I-cf - Ø - nse hml\-ßf - psS FÆ-Øn¬ AXn-`o-ah - ¿[-\h - mWv D≠m-bn-´p-≈Xv. Hmtcm A©v h¿jhpw IqSp-tºmƒ hml-\ß - f - psS FÆw Cc-´n-bm-Ip-∂p. 1980¬ tIcf-Øn¬ HmSp∂ hml-\ß - f - psS FÆw 2 e£w am{X-am-bn-cp-∂Xv C∂v 60 e£-am-Wv. h¿jw tXmdpw GI-tZiw 5 e£w hml-\ß - ƒ ]pXp-Xmbn \nc-Øn-en-dß - p-∂p. Ch-bn¬ Gsdbpw kzIm-cy- B-hi - y-°m¿°p-≈h - b - mWv. 1991¬ 1.3 eIvjw Imdp-Ifpw 2.88 e£w Ccp-N{I-hm-l\ - ß - fpw D≠mbn-cp-∂Xv .................. Bbn AXv Db¿∂n-cn°p-∂p. Cu tXmXv hcpw h¿jß-fn¬ IqSp-X¬ thK-Xb - n¬ h¿[n-°pw. ]t£, h¿[n-°m≥ km[y-a√mØ H∂p-≠.v tdmUp-Iƒ°v e`y-amb ÿew. Ct∏mƒXs∂ cmPysØ s]mXp-\n-eh - mcw sh®v t\m°p-tºmƒ tdmUv kuI-cy-ßfpsS Af-hn¬ \mw Gsd ap∂nemWv. Hcp e£w t]¿°v 509 In. an. tXmXn¬ ChnsS tdmUp-Iƒ D≈-t∏mƒ tZiob icm-icn 321 In.ao. am{X-amWv. hml\h¿[\-hns‚ ^e-ambn KXm-KX - I - p-cp-°p-Iƒ \nXy-kw-`h - a - m-Ip-tºmƒ Ipcp°-gn-°m-\p≈ am¿K-am-bn apJy-ambpw ImWp-∂X - v. KpW-ap≈ ]pXnb tdmUp-Iƒ krjvSn-°p-Ib - mWv. s]mXp hml-\ß - ƒ°v ]Icw kzIm-cyhm-l\w A¥- m-bXp t]mse kzIm-cy-tdm-Up-Ifpw \mSns‚ A¥- mbn amdW-sa-∂mWv "A¥- p-≈h - ¿' hotdmsS hmZn-°p-∂Xv. kzIm-cy-hml\-߃ s]cp-Ip-tºmƒ D]-Po-h\ - Ø - n-\mbn KXm-KX taJe sXsc-s™Sp-Øh - ¿ ˛Hmt´m-dn-£, ss{Uh¿amcpw SmIvkn ss{Uh¿amcpw˛ A∂sØ hcp-am\w In´ptam F∂ Bi-¶b - n¬ ImØp-sI-´n-°n-S∏ - m-W.v hmßnbpw hen-s®-dn™pw ZpcnXw sImøp-∂p kmº-ØnI hf¿® ssIh-cn-°m≥ apJy-ambn klmbn® D]-t`mK kwkvImcw aptºm´v hbv°p∂ ap{Zm-hmIyw hmßpI D]-tbm-Kn-°p-I, hen-s®-dn-bpI F∂--Xm-Wt- √m. do^n√pw πmÃnIv Imcn_mKpw apX¬ D]tbm-Kn®p Ign™ Iºyq´dp-Ifpw Km¿lnI D]-Ic - W - ß - fpw hsc hnhn[ km[-\ß - ƒ \mw Cu hn[w \nc-¥cw hen-s®-dn-bp-∂p. hoSp-If - n¬\n∂v sXcp-hp-If - n-te°pw sXcp-hp-If - n¬\n∂v \K-ca- [ - y-Øn-te°pw amen-\y-߃ IpSn-tb-dp-∂p. Fen-Ifpw sImXpIpw s]cpIn ]g-bXpw ]pXn-bX - p-amb tcmK-߃ ]S¿∂p-]n-Sn-°p-∂p. amen\yw {]iv\a - m-sW∂v kz`m-hn-Ia - mbpw 19


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

F√mhcpw kΩ-Xn°pw. ]t£, samKm t{]mPIv‰v ÿm]n-®m-te AXv kwkvIc - n-°m\mIq F∂-XmWv samØw N¿®-bpsS kmcmw-iw. {]Ir-Xn-bn¬ Pnhs‚ XpS¿® \ne-\n¬°p-∂Xv {]IrXn {]Xn-`m-kß-fpsS Nm{InI kz`mhw sIm≠m-Wv. aÆpw sh≈hpw hmbphpw PohPm-eß - f - p-sa√mw Cu Nm{InI kz`mhØn\v hnt[-b-am-Wv. F∂m¬ Cu kz`mhw \ntj-[n-°p-I-bmWv ]pXnb hf¿®m coXn-bn¬. ImcWw hf¿®-bp≠mI-Ws - a-¶n¬ IqSp-X¬ D¬∏m-Z\w thWw. At∏mƒ IqSpX¬ hmßn Iq´Ww. AXn-\nsS F√mw Hcn-°¬ am{Xta D]--tbm-Kn-°m\m-hq. hen-s®-dn-be - mWv G‰hpw em`-Ic - a - mbXv F∂-Xn-\m¬ AXv Xs∂ F√m-hcpw sNøp-∂p. amen\y kwkvIc - Ww Fßn-s\-bm-IWw? FhnsS sh®m-IWw? F√m a - m-en-\y-ßfpw H∂n-®p-IqSn Hcn-SØv kwkvIc - n-°t- Wm? F¶n¬ ]pXnb cq]-Øn¬ amen-\y-߃ krjvSn-°mt\ AXv klm-bI - a - m-Iq. th≠Xv amen\yw Ign-bp-∂Xpw D≠m-ImsX t\m°p-Ib - m-W.v Hcp hkvXp sX‰mb ÿe-tØ°v hen-s®-dn-bp-tºm-gmWv AXv amen-\y-am-Ip-∂Xv. Hmtcm∂pw D]-tbm-KØ - n-\p-tijw as‰m-∂n-\mbn {]tbm-P\ - s - ∏-SpØp-tºmƒ GXv amen\yhpw kº-Ømbn amdpw. kmº-ØnI hf¿®-bn¬ am{Xw IÆv \´p≈ hnI-k\ ImgvN∏ - m-Sn\v AXn¬ Xm¬∏cy-ap-≠m-In-√. ]cn-kc - hpw sXcphpw \K-chpw am{X-a√ aen-\a - m-Ip-∂X - v. InWdpw ]pgbpw Imb-ep-sa√mw hnj-ab - a - m-hp-IbmWv. A¥-co-£hpw AXn-thKw aen-\a - m-Ip-∂p. am-en\yw s]cp-Ip-tºmƒ IoS߃ s]cpIpw. IoS-߃ s]cpIn-bm¬ IoS\m-in-\n-If - psS D]-t`m-Khpw h¿[n-∏n°mw. ]I¿®-hym[n-IfmIs´, Iym≥k¿ BIs´, tcmK-߃ GXp-am-Is´ Huj-[h - y-hkm-bØ - n\pw saUn-°¬ tkh-\t- a-Je - bv°pw hf¿∂p ]¥-en-°m≥ ]‰nb Ah-kc - a - mWXv. AXpw kmº-ØnI hf¿®-bpsS kqNn-Ib - n¬ t]mkn‰ohmbn {]Xn-^en-°pw. C∂v \ΩpsS \mSv hf-cp∂ coXn kmº-Øn-Ia - mbpw ]mcn-ÿn-Xn-Iambpw kpÿn-ca - √ - msX `mhn-bn¬ Zpc-¥ß - ƒ £Wn-®p-hc - p-Øm≥ X°hn[-am-sW-∂m-W.v CsX√mw kqNn-∏n-°p-∂s - X-¥mWv? hf¿®bpsS KpW-^e - ß - ƒ In\n-™n-dß - ptam? kmº-Øn-Ih - f - ¿®bpsS KpW-^e - ß - ƒ BZyw ta¬Ø-´n¬ Bbncn°pw e`n-°p-∂sX¶nepw ]n∂oSv XmsgØ´n-te°v AXv In\n-™n-dß - psa-∂mWv apX-em-fn-ØØ - ns‚ h‡m-°ƒ Ft∏mgpw Ah-Im-is - ∏-Sm-dp≈Xv . tkmjy-en-ks - a-∂m¬ Zmcn{Zyw ]¶p-hb - v°e - m-sW∂v Ah¿ ]cn20


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

l-kn-°b - pw sNbvXn-cp-∂p. \h-en-_d - ¬ Ime-L´- Ø - n¬ Ah- Iq-Sp-X¬ i‡n-bmbn Ah-Xc - n-∏n-°s - ∏-Sp-∂p. \ΩpsS A\p-`h - s - a-¥mWv? Zmcn-{ZysØ c≠p hn[-Øn¬ hne-bn-cp-Ømw; tIh-ea - mbpw Bt]-£nI-ambpw. \ΩpsS cmPyØv Zmcn-{Zy-tcJsb ASn-ÿm-\a- m-°n-bmWv tIhe Zmcn-{Zy-Øns‚ iX-am\w 1975-ap-X¬ IW-°m-°p-∂Xv. {Kma-ßf - n¬ {]XnZn\w 2400 Item-dnbpw \K-cß - f - n¬ 2100 Itemdnbpw Du¿Pw `£Ww hgn e`y-am-°m≥ Hcmƒ°v F{X D]-t`mK sNehv hcpw F∂-Xns\ ASnÿm-\a - m°n {]Xn-amk hcp-am\w IW-°m-°p-Ib - mWv sNøp-∂X - .v C∂pw B kao-]\w XpS-cp-∂p. Poh≥ \ne-\n¿ØpI F∂X√msX hnZym-`ymkw, hkv{Xw, ]m¿∏nSw XpS-ßnb ASn-ÿm\mh-iy-ßf - psS sNehv ]cn-KW - n°s∏Sp∂n-√. BtcmKy ]cn-c£ - b - ° v p-≈Xpw hIbn-cp-Øs - ∏-Sp-∂n-√. C∂nt∏mƒ 12˛mw ]≤Xnbmb-t∏mƒ Cu \n›nX Afhv Itemdn e`n-°m≥ F{X `£W sNehv hcpw F∂Xv C∂sØ `£y-hk - vXp-°f - psS hne\n-eh - mcw sh®v \n¿W-bn-°e - √ sNøp-∂Xv. A∂-sØbpw C∂-sØbpw hne kqNn-II - ƒ Xmc-Xayw sNbvXv {]Xn-amk hcp-am\w F{X-th-Wsa∂v Is≠-Øp-Ib - m-Wv. Bt]-£nI Zmcn{Zyw \n¿W-bn-°m≥ \√Xv Ak-aX - z-Øns‚ tXmXv \n¿W-bn-°e - m-Wv. 2008 se \mj-W¬ kmºnƒ k¿sh {]Imcw tIc-fØn¬ 37.5 e£w Zcn-{Z¿ Ds≠-∂mWv IW-°m-°p∂Xv. {Kma-ßf - n¬ Zmcn{Zy-Øns‚ tXmXv 13.25 iX-am-\hpw \K-cß - f - n¬ 20.2 iX-am\hpw F∂mWv IW-°m-°n-bX - .v {]Xn-amkw Btfm-lcn hcp-am\w bYm-{Iaw 420 cq]bpw 539 cq]bpw e`n-°p-∂h - c - n¬ Xmsgbp≈-hc - m-WnXv. 2008se {]Xn-amk Btfm-lcn hcp-am\w 5608 cq]-bm-Wv F∂-Imcyw ]cn-KW - n-°p-I. AXmbXv, icm-icn Btfm-lcn hcp-am-\Ø - ns‚ ]Øn-sem-∂n¬ Xmsg hcp-am\-ap-≈h - s - c-bm-Wv Zcn-{Z-cmbn IW-°m-°p-∂X - .v 2004 ¬ ]cn-jØv \S-Ønb "tIc-f] - T - \' {]Imcw Zcn-{Z-cpsS FÆw samØw P\-kw-JybpsS 22.6 i - X-am-\a - m-Wv. {Kma-ßfn¬ 22.9 iX-am-\hpw \K-cß - f - n¬ 20.8 iX-am-\hpw. {]Xn-amkw 439 cq] {Kma-Ønepw 558-cq] \K-cØ - nepw Xmsg am{Xw hcpam-\a - p-ff-hc - psS IW-°m-WnXv . "tIc-f] - T - \ - '-ØneqsS Is≠-Ønb as‰mcp hkvXpX kmº-Øn-Iÿ - nXn-bn¬ G‰hpw D∂-Xn-bn-ep≈ ]Øv iX-am-\Ø - ns‚ hcp-am\w Xmsg X´n-ep≈ ]Øp-iX - a- m-\Ø - ns‚Xnt\-°mƒ 40 Cc-´n-bm-sW-∂mWv. At∏mgsØ AJn-te¥ym tXmXn-s\-°mƒ Db¿∂ kqNn-Ib - mWn-Xv. \h-en-_d - ¬ \b-ßf - psS Ign™ Zi-Iß - f - n¬ tIc-fØ - n¬ tIhe Zmcn{Zyw Imcy-ambn Ipd-b° v m-\m-bn√ F∂v am{X-a√ Bt]-£nI Zmcn{Zyw 21


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

i‡n-s∏-Sp∂p F∂m-WnXv ImWn°p-∂X - .v hf-cp∂ saUn-°¬ cwKw, XI-cp∂ BtcmKyw Db¿∂ Bbp¿ssZ¿Lyw, Ipd™ inip ˛ _mey-˛ amXr-ac - W - \ - n-c°p-Iƒ F∂nh tIc-fØ - ns‚ sa®-s∏´ Btcm-Kym-hÿ - bpsS kqN-Iß-fmWv . tUmIvS¿ amcpsS FÆ-Ønepw Bip-]{- Xn-If - psS FÆ-Ønepw \mw C°-gn™ c≠p-Zi - I - ß - f - nepw hfsc apt∂-dn. F∂n´pw BtcmKy cwKØv ]pXnb `ojn-Wn-Iƒ Db-cp-Ib - m-Wv. U¶n-∏\ - n, Nn°≥ Kp\n-b, F®v 1 F≥1..... F√m h¿jhpw GsX¶nepw hn[-Øn-ep≈ ]\n-tbm a™-∏nØw t]mep≈ ]I¿®-hym-[n-Itfm hym]-Ia- mbn ]S¿∂p-]n-Sn-°bpw Ht´sd ac-Wß - ƒ kw`-hn-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂p. Cu h¿jw Xs∂ ]I¿® ∏\n-aqew \qdp-IW - ° - n-\m-fp-Iƒ acn-®p. adp-`m-KØ - m-Is´ kaq-lØ - n¬ \s√mcp iX-am\w t]cpw {]talw , lrt{ZmKw XpS-ßnb Pohn-Xs - si-eotcm-Kß - ƒ°v hnt[-bc - mWv . ]e-t∏mgpw ]cn-kc - a - e - n-\o-Ic - Ww aqe-Im-cW - a - m-tb-°m-hp∂ Iym≥k¿ , BkvXa - , F∂o- tcm-Kß - fpw h¿[n-®p-hc- p-∂X - mbn ImWp-∂p.- F-∂m¬, CØcw tcmKmh-ÿI - ƒ ka{Kam-sbmcp BtcmKy ]-cn-]m-Sn-bn-te°√ \sΩ Nn¥n-∏n°p-∂Xv. tUmIvSdpw Bip-]{- Xnbpw, Huj-[i - m-eI - ƒ XpS-ßnb saUn°¬ hyh-km-bØ - ns‚ hn]p-en-Ic - W - Ø - n-te°pamWv. Btcm-Ky-cwKØv tcmKw h - c - m-Xn-cn-°m≥ D≈ \S-]S- n-Iƒ°mbn k¿°m¿ sNe-hg- n-t°≠p∂ XpI t]mepw hn\n-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv kzImcy NnIn’m kuIcyw Dd∏v hcpØm≥ ]‰nb C≥jq-d≥kv ]≤-Xn-If - nem-Wv. "tIc-f] - T - \ - '-Øn¬ e`y-amb hnh-ca - \ - p-kc - n®v samØw IpSpw_ sNehns‚ 13.9% NnIn’°m-bn-´mWv ae-bmfn sNe-hm-°p-∂Xv. AXnZcn{Z hn`mKsØ kw_-‘n®nStØmfw Cu sNehv 31.7 iX-am-\a - m-Wv. tIc-fob IpSpw-_Ø - nse IS-_m-[yXbpsS 12 iX-am-\s - a-¶nepw NnIn’m Bh-iyhp-ambn _‘-s∏-´p-≠m-bX - m-W.v `qan hn¬∏-\bpsS 7.2 iX-am-\hpw A{]Imcap≈ Imc-W-ß-fm-em-Wv. AXn Zcn-{Z-hn-`m-Kß - sf kw_-‘n-®n-StØmfw 12.3 iX-am\w `qan hn¬∏\bpw \S-°p-∂Xv IpSpw-_mw-Kß - ƒ°v NnIn’ t- X-Sm-\m-bm-W.v Btcm-Ky-I-c-amb Hcp kaqlw krjvSn-°m≥ tcmKw hcm-Xn-cn-°p-∂Xn-\mtWm NnIn’m kuIcyw e`y-am-°p-∂X - n-emtWm Du∂¬ \¬tI≠Xv F∂-XmWv {]k-‡a - mb tNmZyw. hnZy-sb-¥n\v a¿Øy\v hnØw ssIh-i-am-hp-In¬! CS-Øc - ° - m-cpw kº-∂c - p-amb hn`m-Kß - fn¬ Dƒs∏´ 22

C∂sØ


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

\s√mcp hn`m-KØ - n‚bpw ap≥X-ea - pd AXnZcn-{Z-amb Pohn-XØ - n¬ \n∂v D∂X t{iWn-Iƒ Ib-dm≥ klm-bI - a - m-bn-Xo¿∂Xv s]mXp hnZym-`ymk-Øn-eqsS k¿°m¿ Hcp-°nb kuI-cy-am-W.v hnØ-sa-¥n\p a¿Øy\v hnZy- ssI-hi - a- m-hp-In¬ F∂ Ihn-Xm-iI - ew A∂sØ Xe-ap-dsb kw_‘n-®n-St- Ømfw B]vXh - mIyw Xs∂bmbn-cp-∂p. F∂m-en∂v ÿnXnbmsI amdn-bn-cn-°p-∂p. hnZym`ym-kØ - ns‚ ASn-ÿm-\e - £yw \mSns‚ hnI-k\ - Ø - n¬ ]¶mfn-bm-Im\pw kmaqlyt_m[w kw{I-an-∏n-°m-\p-ap≈ ]cn-io-e\amWv. AXp-sIm-≠mWv hnZym-`ymkw Hcp kmaq-ly-Bh - i - y-ambn amdp-∂Xv. F∂men∂v e£Øn-\S- pØv {]Xn-amkhcp-am\w kºm-Zn-°p∂ sXmgn-ep-Iƒ t\Sn-sb-Sp-°p-hm≥ ]‰nb _ncp-Zk - º - m-Z\ - a - mWv hnZym-`ymkw. AXn-\m¬ AXv XnI®pw hy‡n-]c - a - mbn GXv hnt[-\bpw a’-cn®p t\tS≠ H∂m-bn-cn°p-∂p. Cu t_m[-Øn-eq-∂n-bmWv ChnsS A¨ FbnUUv kIq-fp-Ifpw kzm{i-bt- Im-tf-Pp-Ifpw hf¿∂p h∂Xv. Ch-bpsS hc-thmsS s]mXp hnZym-`ymkw h≥ sh√p-hnfn t\cn-Sp-Ib - m-Wv. hnZym¿∞n kulrZ-]c - h - pw imkv{Xo-bhpamb Icn-°p-ew, Fkv. Fkv. F, P\-Iobmkq{XW ]≤-XnIƒ hgn sa®s∏´ ASn-ÿm-\k - u-Ic - y-߃ F∂nh ssIh∂n´pw tIc-fØ - ns‚ {]mY-anI hnZym-`ym-kØ - n\v kn.-_n.-F v. C A¨ Fbn-UUv kvIqfp-If - psS IS-∂p-Ib - ‰w henb `oj-Wn-bm-hp-Ib - m-Wv. \mem-bn-ct- Ømfw s]mXp hnZym-eb - ß - f - mWv A¨ F°-tWm-anIv BbXn-\m¬ AS-®p-]q-´¬ `ojnWn t\cn-Sp-∂X - .v F∂m¬, hnZym-`ymk cwKsØ N¿®-Iƒ apgp-h\pw tI{μo-Ic - n-°p-∂Xv kzm{i-bt- Im-tfPv AUvan-j\pw ^okpw kw_-‘n-®mWv. tbmKy-Xb - psS ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n¬ AUvan-j\pw tijn-bpsS ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n¬ ^okpw G¿s∏SpØp-∂X - n\v ]Icw ^n^v‰n ^n^v‰n F∂ Akw-_‘ - Ø - n¬ Idßn-bmWv kzm{i-bt- Im-tf-Pp-IfpsS N¿® F∂Xv {it≤b-am-Wv. ]Ww sImSpØv t\Sm-hp∂ _ncp-Za - √ hnZym-`ym-ks - a∂pw \mSns\ kmº-ØnIambpw kmaq-ly-ambpw kmwkvIm-cn-Ia - mbpw D∂-Xn-bn-te°v \bn-°m-\p≈ {][m\ D]m-[n-bmWv hnZy-sb∂pw AXv Zcn-{Z\pw kº∂\pw Hcp t]mse e`y-am-°m≥ kaq-lØ - n\v _m[y-Xb - p-s≠∂Xpw \ap°v ad-°m\mIptam? kv{XoIƒ°pw Ip´n-Iƒ°psaXnsc kv{Xo]p-cp-jX - p-ey-Xb - n¬ G‰hpw ap∂n-se-Ønb \mSmWv \Ωp-tS-Xv. Db¿∂ kv{Xo ]pcp-jm-\p-]mXw; Bbp¿ssZ¿Ly-Øn¬ ]pcp-jt- \-°mƒ 23


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

ap∂n¬; amXr-ac - W - \ - n-c° - v AJn-te¥ym icm-ic - n-tb-°mƒ aq∂n-sem∂v am{Xw; k¥mt\m¬∏m-Z\ \nc°v c≠n¬ Xmsg; kwL-Sn-Xt- a-Je - b - nse sXmgn¬ ]¶m-fnØw 45%; hnZym-`ymk taJ-eb - n¬ kvIqƒ {]th-i\ - Ønepw D∂X hnZym-`ymkØnepw hnth-N\w A\p-`h - s - ∏-Sp-∂n-√; F∂n´pw \ΩpsS \K-cß - f - n¬, \nc-Øp-If - n¬ k‘y-Ig- n-™m¬ kv{XoI-fm-scbpw ImWm-Øs - X-¥p-sIm≠v? s]¨hm-Wn`w kv{Xo]o-U\w F∂n-hs - b√mw sIm®p-Ip-´n-Iƒ°v t]mepw ]cn-Nb - a - p≈ hm°pI-fm-Ip∂sX¥p-sIm≠v? kz¥w IpSpw-_mw-Kß - f - n¬ \n∂pt]mepw s]¨Ip-´n-Iƒ°v ]oU\ta‰phm-tß≠nhcp-∂Xmbn dnt∏m¿´p-Iƒ D≠m-Ip∂Xv F¥psIm≠v? D∂X hnZym-`ymkw t\Snb kv{XoI-fn¬ \s√mcp iX-am-\hpw ho´-Ωb - mbn HXpßn°gn-bp-∂Xv F¥p-sIm≠v? CXp-IqSn Hm¿°pI Bfl-lXym \nc-°n¬ G‰hpw ap∂n¬ \n¬°p∂ kwÿm-\a - mWv tIc-fw. IpSpw-_ B - fl - l - XyIfmWv Ah-bn-te-sdbpw. IS-_m-[yXIfpw tcmKw NnIn’n-°m≥ hgn-bn-√m-ØX - p-amWv ]e IpSpw-_ß - s - fbpw Bfll-Xy-bn-te°v \bn-°p-∂Xv. aZy-]m-\Øns‚ Imcy-Ønepw G‰hpw ap∂n-ep≈ kwÿm\amWv tIcfw. {]Xn-h¿jw \Ωƒ aZy-Øn-\mbn sNe-hg - n-°p-∂Xv 7000 tImSn cq]. aZyw sNØcpXv, hn¬°-cpXv, IpSn-°c - pXv F∂m-lzm\w sNbvX {io\m-cm-bW - K - p-cp-hns‚ P≥a-Znhkw IqSn Dƒs∏-Sp∂ Xncp-thm-W\ - m-fpI-fn¬ tIcfw IpSn®p h‰n-®Xv 211 tImSn cq]! Ip‰-Ir-Xy-ßf - n¬ apt∂-dp∂ \mSp-Iq-Sn-bmbn tIcfw amdn-bn-cn-°p-∂p. cmPyØv G‰hpw Ip‰-Ir-Xy-߃ \S-°p∂ \K-ca - mbn tIc-fØ - ns‚ kmºØnI Xe-ÿm-\a - mb sIm®n-\K - cw ÿm\w ]nSn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. atX-Xc - Xz aqey-߃°pw cmjv{Sob t_m[-Øn\pw t]cp-tI´ tIc-fØn¬ Ign™ Ipsd sXsc-s™-Sp-∏p-I-fn¬ ta[m-hnXzw hln-®Xv PmXnaX i‡n-If - psS \ne-]m-Sp-Iƒ. Cu ÿnXn XpS¿∂m¬ aXntbm? F¶n¬ \sΩ ImØn-cn-°p-∂Xv Zpcn-XØ - n-s‚bpw Ak-aX - z-ßt- fbpw A{Ia-Wß - f - ptSbpw Iem-]ß - f - p-sSbpw \mfp-If - m-bn-cn°pw. {`m¥m-eb - a - mbn tIcfw ]cn-Wa - n-°s - ∏-Sp-Is - b∂pw AXn-\m¬ Cu ÿnXn amdntb Xocq. kmaq-ly-\o-Xn-bnepw kpÿn-cX - b - nepw A[n-jvTn-Xa - mb Hcp tIcfw sI´n-∏S- ptØ Xocq. ]t£ Fßs\? H∏w thsdmcp tNmZyhpw kmaq-ly-hn-Ik - \ - Ø - n¬ tIc-fsØ ap∂n-te°v \bn®Xv tIc-fØ - ns‚ cmjv{Sob {]_p-≤X - bpw 24


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

thdn´ hnI-k\ - I - m-gvN∏ - m-Sp-am-bn-cp-∂p. F¥psIm≠v hnI-k\ cwKsØ ]mtS am‰n adn-°m≥ DX-Ip∂ cmjv{Sob apt∂‰ßƒ D≠m-Ip-∂n√? Xncn™p t\m°p-tºmƒ I¿jI ka-cß - f - p-sSbpw sXmgn-em-fn-ka- c - ßfp-sSbpw tZiob {]t£m`-ßfpsSbpw Xo£vWX - b - n¬ hf¿∂p-h∂ bph-Xz-am-bn-cp-∂p tIcf∏ndhn-bpsS L´-Øn¬ \mSns‚ Np°m≥ ]nSn-®n-cp-∂Xv. kwÿm\ Xe-Ønepw {]mtZ-inI-Xe - Ø - nepw Ah¿ Db¿Ønb cmjv{Sob Nn¥-Iƒ°v hnIk\ ImgvN-∏m-Sn\v F¨]-Xp-Iƒ hsc ta¬ssI D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. heXp]£ kz`m-ha - p≈ k¿°m-cp-Iƒ°v t]mepw Cu, CS-Xp-]£ \bßsf Xnc-kvIc - n-°m≥ Ign-bp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√. A∂p \S∂ cmjv{Sob t]mcm-´ß - ƒ Gsdbpw `q]cnjvIc - W - w, s]mXp hnZym-`ymkw, A[n-Imc hntI-{μo-Ic - Ww XpS-ßnb AP-≠I-fn¬ sh≈w tN¿°p-∂X - n-s\-Xn-scbm-bn-cp-∂p. H∏w hnhn[ sXmgn¬ hn`m-Kß - f - psS Ah-Imi ka-cß - sf kwc-£n-°p-∂X - ns\ sNm√n-bpw. kmaqly hnI-k\ ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ°v th≠{X ]Ww Is≠-Øm≥ kwÿm\ k¿°mcn\v Ign-bm-Øh - n[w A`y-¥c-hc - p-am\w {]I-Sa - mbn Ipd™ Fgp-]X - p-If - n¬ tIc-fh - n-Ik - \w kw_-‘n® Kuc-hX - c - a- mb N¿®Iƒ Db¿∂p-hc - m≥ XpS-ßn. Irjnbpw hyh-km-bhpw hf-cmsX \msSßns\ ]ptcm-Ka - n°pw F∂ tNmZyw k - zm-`m-hn-Ia - mbn Db¿∂p. ]nt∂m-´S- n∏n-®Xv `q-]c - n-jvIc - W - hpw sXmgn¬ ka-ch - p-am-sW∂v Hcp ]£w. tI{μ˛ kwÿm-\-Xe _‘-Ønse ]cn-an-Xn-Ifpw hnI-k\ - c - w-KØv s]mXp-\nt£]w Ipd-®p-sIm-≠p≈ tI{μ-\b - ß - fpamWv b-Ym¿∞ {]iv\s - a∂v adp-]£hpw hmZn-®p. Cu X¿°-߃°n-Sb - n-emWv, A[n-Imc hntI-{μo-Ic-WØ - ns‚ km[y-XI - ƒ D]-tbm-Ks - ∏-Sp-Ønbpw {]mtZ-inI hn`-hß - ƒ Xncn-®d - n™pw P\-]¶ - m-fn-Øt- ØmSpw {KmaoW hnI-k\Øn-eq-∂nb, ÿnc-Xbpw kmaq-ly-\o-Xnbpw Dd-∏n-°p∂ Hcp hnI-k\ Imgv®∏ - mSv Db¿∂p-h∂ - X - .v Cu Imgv®∏ - m-Sn-s\m∏w CS-Xp-]£ - hpw \ne-bp-d∏ - n-®X - ns‚ ^e-am-bncp∂p P\-Io-bm-kq-{XW {]kvYm\w. {]mtZ-inI `c-WI - qS CSs]-Se - n-eqsS tIc-fØ - ns‚ D¬∏m-Z\ taJ-esb kPo-ha - m-°m\pw tkh\ taJebpsS KpW-\n-eh - mcw sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm\pw kaq-lØ - ns‚ ]n∂-Wnbn¬ \n¬°p∂-h¿°pw kv{XoIƒ°pw apt∂m´v hcm\pw e£y-an´m-bn-cp∂p P\-Io-bm-kq-{XWw Bcw-`n-®Xv. AXp-sIm-≠p-Xs∂ km[m-cW - P - \-߃°v henb ip`-{]-Xo-£bpw Bfl-hn-izm-khpw \¬In-s°m-≠m-bncp-∂p CXns‚ XpS°w. ASn-ÿm\ kuIcy hnI-k\w, hnZym`ymk 25


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

BtcmKy t- a-Je - b - nse P\-Iob CS-s]-S¬ , kv{XoI-fpsS Iq´mbva hf¿Øn-sb-Sp-°¬ XpS-ßnb Imcy-ßf - n¬ P\-Io-bm- kq-{XWw henb kw`m-h\ \¬In-sb-¶nepw ASn-ÿm\ e£y-߃ \nd-th-‰p-∂X - n¬\n∂v AXv Gsd AI-se-bm-bn-cp∂p. Imc-Wß - ƒ ]e-Xp-≠v. CXn¬ {][m-\amWv a[y-h¿K- hn`mK߃ s]mXp-hn¬ ImWn® \n w-KX. kwL-SnX {]ÿm-\ß - f - n¬ AWn-\n-c∂ a[y-h¿K-°mcn¬ \s√mcp iX-am-\Ø - n\v t]mepw Ah-Imi t_m[-Øn-\∏ - p-dt- Ø°v kmaq-ly-t_m-[Ø - n-te°v hfcp-hm≥ Ign-™n-cp-∂n-√. AXn-\m¬ P\-Io-bm-kq-{XWw e£yw sh® kmaqly \≥a-Iƒ X-߃°v {]Xy£Øn¬ DS≥ KpWw \¬In√ F∂ Imc-WØ - m¬ Ah¿ hn´p-\n-∂p. P\-Io-bm-kq-{X-WØ - ns‚ hnI-k\ - I - m-gN v ∏ - mSpw AXn-eS- ßnb cmjv{Sobhpw kzmwio-Ic - n®v AXn\v t\XrXzw \¬Im≥, k¿°mcns\ \bn-® cmjv{Sob {]kvYm-\Ø - n\v t]mepw Ign-™n-√. Xmsg Xew hsc-bp≈ th≠{X cmjv{Sob N¿®bpsStbm Xocp-am-\Ø - n-s‚tbm ASn-ÿm-\Ø - ne√ P\-Io-bm-kq-{XWw Bcw`n-°s - ∏-´Xv F∂-Xmhmw AXn-\p-Im-cW - w. BtKm-fh - ¬°-cWw krjvSn® hn]-Wn-km-[y-XIfn¬ a[yh¿K hn`mK-߃ BIr-jvSam-bXpw AXn\v A\ptbm-Pyamw hn[w Hcp kmwkvImcn-Im-¥c - o£w hf¿Øn-sb-Sp-°m≥ am[y--aß - ƒ {ian-°pIbpw sNbvX L´-am-bn-cp∂p AXv. Cu kmwkvIm-cnI A¥-co£w P\-Io-bm-kq-{XWw kw_-‘n® {Inbm-flI N¿®-Iƒ A°m-eØv hym]-I-ambn \S-°p-∂Xn\v XS- -am-bn. {]mtbm-KnI cwK-Øm-Is´ D¬∏m-Z\ taJ-eI - f - n¬ _Z¬ A\p-`h - ß - fpw kwL-S\m cq]-ßfpw th≠-{X-bn-√mØXv B taJe-bn¬ \n¿tZin-°s∏´ t{]mP-Iv‰p-Iƒ hnI-ea - m-Im≥ CS-bm-bn. ]n∂oSv ASpØ sXscs™-Sp-∏n¬ `c-Wa - m‰w hcn-Ibpw P\-Io-bmkq-{X-W e - £ - y-Øn¬ \n∂v B k¿°m¿ ]nt∂m´v t]mhp-Ibpw \h-en_-d¬ \b-߃ Xo£vWa - mbn \S-∏n-em-°p-Ibpw sNbvXXv P\-Io-bmkq-{XWw XI-cm≥ CS-bm°n. F∂m¬ XpS¿∂v \S∂ hnhm-Zw P\-Iobm-kq-{XWw F∂ _Z¬ hnI-k\ AP-≠sb kwi-bØ - ns‚ \ngen¬ \n¿Øn-bXv \h en_-d¬ \b-߃ IqSp-X¬ IqSX¬ i‡-am°n ASn-t®¬∏n-°m≥ If-sam-cp°n. ]n∂oSv ho≠pw CS-Xp-]£ k¿°m¿ A[n-Im-cØ - n¬ hs∂-¶nepw hnhm-ZØ - ns‚ Ibv]pw kmwkvIm-cn-IX - e - Øn¬ h∂ am‰hpw aqew \h-en-_d - ¬ \b-ßsf F√m-Xe - Ø - nepw {]Xntcm[n-°m-\pX-Ip∂ P\-Io-bm-kq-{XWw t]mse i‡-amb Hcp _Z¬ \bw apt∂m´v sh°m\pw \S-∏n-em-°m\pw Xømdmbn-√. 26


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

kmwkvIm-cnI cwKsØ am‰w Hcn-°¬ {`m¥m-ebw F∂v hnti-jn-∏n°-s∏´ tIcfw kmaq-ly-]ptcm-KX - n-bn¬ G‰hpw ap∂n-se-Øn-bX - n\v ]n∂n¬ tIc-fØ - n¬ BZyw cq]wsIm≠ k¿°m¿ apX¬ \S-∏n-em-°nb P\-]£ hnI-k\ ]cn-]m-SnIfmsW∂v \mw I≠p. ]t£, AØcw Hcp k¿°m¿ cq]-h¬°-cn-°s∏-Sm≥ XpS-ßnb cmjv{Sob kwkvImcw Fß-s\-bmWv ChnsS am{Xw hf¿∂Xv F∂ tNmZyw {]k-‡a - m-Wv. AXn\v \mw IS-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂Xv {io\m-cm-bW Kpcp apX¬ tIc-fØ - n¬ {]h¿Øn® \thm-Ym\ {]ÿm-\ß - tfm-Sm-Wv. bp‡n-t_m-[hpw hnZym`ymkhpw FØn-®p-sIm≠v A‘-hn-izm-khpw A\m-Nm-cß - fpw C√m-Xm°m-\mWv Ah¿ {]h¿Øn-®X - v. Bflo-bX - sb t]mepw Ah¿ D]-tbm-Ks∏-Sp-Øn-bXv P\-ßf - n¬ Bfl-hn-izm-kw D≠m°n kwL-Sn-∏n°m\mWv. A∂sØ kml-N-cy-Øn¬ kmaq-ly-]c - n-jvIc - Ww km[y-am-°m-≥ AXm-bn-cp∂p Ffp∏ am¿Kw. Aßs\ ]S¿∂ bp‡n-t_m-[hpw kmaqlnI t_m[-hp-amWv kz¥w ssZ\y-Xb - psS ImcWw hn[n-bs - √∂pw kwLSn-®v t]mcm-Sn-bmte Ah amdq F∂p-ap≈ Xncn-®d - n-hn-te°v P\-ßsf \bn-®X - v. Ah-Imi ka-cß - f - psS hnPbhpw ]cm-Pb - h - p-sa√mw cmjv{So-bamb t]mcm-´Ø - ns‚ {]k-‡n-bn-te°v Ahsc \bn-®p. H∏w ]pXnb temIw km[y-am-sW∂ ip`m-]X v n-hn-izm-kØnte°pw. F∂m¬ tIcfw C∂v t\cn-Sp∂ ASn-ÿm\ {]Xn-k‘n kmwkvImcnI cwKØv h∂ am‰-am-Wv. kam-¥c hnZym-`ym-kØ - n-eqsS, am[y-aß - f - neqsS, kmwkvIm-cnI ]cn-]m-Sn-Ifn-eqsS hn]Wn aqey-ßt- fm-sSm∏w A‘hn-iz-mkhpw Aim-kv{Xo-bX - bpw PmXn-If - p-sa√mw P\-ßf - n-te°v kw{Ian-∏n-°pI-bmWv. Bflo-bX - G‰hpw hmWn-Py-aq-eyap≈ Nc-°mbn amdnbn-cn-°p-∂p. A‘-hn-izm-khpw A\m-Nmc-ßfpw hn‰-gn®v kmº-ØnI km{amPyw sI´ns∏m°p-∂h - ¿ hnZym-`ymk BtcmKy taJ-eI - f - nse I®h-Sß - ƒ°pw t\XrXzw \¬Ip-∂p. Bcm-epw tNmZyw sNø-s∏-SmsX, Acmepw hna¿in-°s - ∏-SmsX. Bcmepw ]cn-tim-[n-°s - ∏-SmsX apt∂-dp∂ Cu Bflo-b hym]mcw P\ßsf Acm-jv{Sobh¬°-cn-®p-sIm-≠mWv apt∂-dp-∂X - .v AXn-\m¬ bYm¿∞ {]iv\ß - sf Xncn-®d - n-bm\pw kwLSn-Xa - mb cmjv{Sob {]Xn-tcm-[ß - ƒ kwL-Sn-∏n-°m\pw Ign-bmsX hcp∂p. tIcfw t\cn-Sp∂ ASn-ÿm\ sh√p-hn-fn Hcp-]t£ CXm-hmw. as‰mcp tIcfw km[y-am-hm≥ tIc-fØ - n\v ap∂n¬ P\-]£ - Ø - p-\n-∂p≈ Hcp hnI-k\ AP≠ sh®p27


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

sImt≠ Cu hgn ]ng® t]m°ns\ XS-bm-\m-hq. kmº-ØnI hf¿®bv°v ]Icw kmaq-lnI hnI-k\Øneq-∂nb Hcp hnI-k\ ]cn-]m-Sn-bmWv Db¿∂p-h-tc-≠-Xv. tIc-f-Øns‚ D¬∏m-Z\ taJ-esb hnti-jn®v `t£ym¬∏m-Z\ - sØ hos≠-Sp-°m\pw ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£n-°m\pw kmaqly-\oXn Dd∏v hcp-Øm\pw Cu hnI-k\ AP-≠° - m-hW - w. kakvX taJ-eI - f - nepw kmaq-ly-\n-b{- ¥Ww G¿s∏-SpØn-s°mt≠ CXv km[y-am-hq. Itºm-fhpw kzImcy Xm¬∏-cyhpw kmaq-ly-\oXn e£yw h®m-In√ Hcn-°epw {]h¿Øn-°p-I. em`w h¿[n-∏n-°¬ am{XamWv AhnsS ]cn-KW - n-°s - ∏-Sp∂ hnj-bw. kmaq-ly-\n-b{- ¥Ww km[yam-°pI h¿[n® k¿°m¿ CS-s]-Se - n-eq-sS-bm-Wv. \h-en-_d - ¬ \b-߃ \n¿tZ-in-°p-∂X - p-t]mse tIhew s^kn-en-t‰-‰¿ Bhp-Ib - √ k¿°m¿ sNtø-≠X - v. D¬∏m-Z\ taJ-eb - nepw tkh\ taJ-eb - nepw kPo-ha - mbn CS-s]-Sp-I-bm-Wv. Aßs\ CS-s]-S-W-sa-¶n¬ k¿°m¿ kmº-ØnI kpÿn-cX ssIh-cnt® aXn-bm-Iq. C∂v ImWp∂ kar-≤nbpw kmºØnI tijn-bp≈ henb Hcp hn`mKw P\-ßs - fbpw CXn-\mbn {]tbmP-\-s∏-Sp-Ø-Ww. \nIpXn ]ncn-°mXncn°p-∂-X√ P\-t£aIc-amb \S]-Sn. hcp-am\w th≠-{X-bp-≈h - c - n¬ \n∂v hnhn[ coXn-bn-ep≈ \nIp-Xnbn-eqsS ]Ww kam-l-c-n°-bmWv {]mtZ-inI `c-W-IqSw apX¬ tZiob k¿°m¿ hsc sNtø-≠X - v. kz¿W-Ønepw `qan-bn-ep-sa√mw \nt£-]n®v a\-t°m-´-Iƒ sImøp∂ Chn-SpsØ kº∂ hn`m-K-ß-tfmSv \mSns‚ hnI-k-\-Øn\v kw`m-h\ sNøm≥ Bh-iy-s∏-S-Ww. CXn-\mbn A\ptbm-Py-amb kwL-S\m cq]-߃ Db¿∂p-hc - W - w. ]t£, Hcp kwibw Db¿t∂-°mw. tIcfw C¥y-bpsS `mK-am-Wv. C∂sØ P\-t£-aI - c - a - √ - mØ ]e \b-ßfpw tIc-fØ - n¬ \S-∏n-em-°s∏-´Xv tI{μ \b-ß-fpsS kΩ¿Z ^e-am-bm-Wv. icn-bm-Wv. tIcfw C¥y-bp-sSbpw C¥y temI-Øn-s‚bpw `mK-amWv. C∂sØ BtKm-fh - ¬°-cW Ime-L´- Ø - n¬ {]mtZ-inI kº-ZvLS-\-Iƒ temI-I-tºm-f-hp-ambn tN¿∂p {]h¿Øn-°p-tºmƒ AØcw {]Xn-tcm[ {]h¿Ø-\ß - ƒ {ia-Icw Xs∂-bm-Wv. ]t£, Ah IqSntb Xocq. \oXn-]q¿h-I-amb Hcp kaq-lsØ ap∂n¬ I≠p-sIm≠v AXn\mbn C∂p-Xs∂ {]h¿Øn-°p-tºm-gmWv P\-ß-fn¬ Bfl-hn-izmkw hf-cpI. AØcw {ia-ß-fpsS Pb-]-cm-P-b-ß-fn¬ \n∂mWv P\-߃ cmjv{Sobw bYm-hn[w a\- n-em-°p-Ib - p-≈q. kmaq-ly-\o-Xn-bnepw kpÿnc-X-bn-ep-aq-∂nb Hcp _Z¬ hnI-k\ AP-≠-bmWv CXn-\mbn cq]-s∏Sp-tØ-≠X - v. 28


thWw as‰mcp tIcfw

AØcw Hcp hnI-k\ AP≠ \S-∏n-em-°m≥ cmjv{So-bhpw kmwkvImcn-Ih - p-amb CS-s]-S¬ D≠m-hW - w. hnI-k\ - Ø - n-\X - o-Xa - mb cmjv{So-ba - √ hnI-k\ - I - m-gvN∏ - m-Sns‚ ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n-ep≈ cmjv{So-ba - mWv Db¿∂p-htc-≠X - .v I£n cmjv{Sob-Øn-\X - o-Xa - mbn hnhn[ {]ÿm-\ß - f - n¬ AWn\n-c∂ km[m-cW - ° - msc apgp-h≥ Cu hnI-k\ - AP≠bv°v ]n∂n¬ AWn-\n-cØ - m≥ Ign-bWw. tIc-fØ - ns‚ kmkvIm-cnI aWvUe - Ø - n¬ hnhn[ Xe-ßf - n¬ i‡-ambn CS-s]-´p-sImt≠ CØcw hnI-k\ ImgvN∏mSpw cmjv{So-bhpw hf¿Øn-sb-Sp-°m-\mhq. tIc-fØ - ns‚ cmjv{Sob ]mc-ºcyw, P\-]£ cmjv{So-bØ - ns‚ aqey-߃ Dƒs°m≠ cmjv{So-b{]h¿Ø-I¿, kwL-SnX {]ÿm-\ß - ƒ, {KŸ-imem {]ÿm\w, IpSpw_{io Ch-sb√mw CØcw kwkvImcw hf¿Øn-sb-Sp-°m-\p≈ A\pIqeLS-Iß - f - m-Wv. tIc-fØ - ns‚ `q{]-Ir-Xnbpw Imem-hkvYbpw ASnÿm\ kuI-cy-ßfn¬ h∂ apt∂‰hpw P\-Xb - psS hnZym-`ymk \nehm-ch - p-sa√mw KpW-]c - a - mbn \ap°v {]tbm-P\ - s - ∏-Sp-Øm-\m-hpw. thWw as‰mcp tIcfw AXv \ap°v km[y-am-Wv.

29


Venam Mattoru Keralam - Pamphlet  

Descibing why we need a change in kerala's present situation.

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