Page 1

2011 Pqembv

hmeyw 47

tIcf imkvv{Xkm-lnXy ]cn-jØv

e°w 1

Ih¿tÃmdn:

Xt±i`c-W-h-Ip-∏v hn`-P\w:

aq∂mbn apdn-°p-∂Xv

B¿°p-th≠n? 24

kzImcy {]mIvSokv \ntcm-[\w XpS-cWw tUm. _n.-CI - v_m¬, tUm. Fkv.F - k - v. kt¥m-jvIp-am¿ s{]m^. Sn.-]n. Ip™n-°Æ - ≥, kn.-]n. kptc-jv_m_p

31 6

A[n-Im-c-hn-tI-{μo-I-c-W-a√ tI{μo-I-c-W-amWv e£yw tUm. sh¶ntSjv Bt{Xb

9

imkv{Xhpw aX-\n-c-t]-£-Xbpw kn.-]n. cmtP-{μ≥

35

hmkvXp-imkv{Xw _nt\mbv F a‰-a\

tIcfw; A[nImchntI{μoIcWØns‚ GI amXrI

39

tUm. tPm¿PvamXyp

42

IS¬PohnIfpsS Imt\jpamcn tUm. F. _nPpIpam¿, hn. {ioP ]pkvX-I-]-cn-Nbw:

`qanbv°mbp≈ s\Sp-ho¿∏p-Iƒ 13

hnI-k-\-Øp-S¿®-bv°v FXn-sc-bp≈ \ne-]mSv

s{]m^. Sn.-]n. Ip™n-°Æ - ≥

44

kn.]n. \mcm-bW - ≥

{Ko°v ss]XrIw tUm. B¿.-hn.-Pn. tat\m≥

15

hIp-∏p-hn-`-P-\hpw hnI-k-\-Ø-I¿®bpw

50

tUm. tXmakv sFkIv

20

22

kn.-hn. N{μ≥

P\-]-¶m-fnØ hnI-k-\-Øns‚ \ntj[w

54

s{]m^. Fw.-F.-D-Ω≥

57

hIp-∏p -hn-`-P\w `c-W-L-S-\m-ew-L\w tUm. sI.-]n. IÆ≥

B‚n_tbm-´n-°p-Iƒ Ime-l-c-W-s∏-Sp-∂pthm? tUm´v tImw cmP-Ip-amcn tUm. Fw. jmP-lm≥ Im¿´q¨ ]w‡n:

lc-W-^ew

sI. kXojv

58

imkv{X-hm¿Ø tUm.-Fw.-B¿. kpZ¿i-\I - p-am¿

FUn-‰¿ : B¿.-hn.Pn.- tat\m≥, amt\-PnMv FUn-‰¿ : sI. cm[≥ FIvkn-Iyp´ohv FUn-‰¿: B¿. cm[m-Ir-jvW-≥, Atkm-kn-tb‰v FUn-‰¿: ]n. kptc-jv ]{Xm-[n-]-k-anXn: s{]m^. sI.-B¿ P\m¿Z\≥, s{]m^. Sn.-]n. Ip™n-°-Æ≥, s{]m^. sI. ]m∏q´n Sn. cm[m-a-Wn, kn.-hn. N{μ≥, tUm. B¿.-_n. cmP-e£van, tUm. sI. cmPvtam-l≥, tUm. sI. hnP-b-Ip-am¿ tPmPn Iq´p-tΩ¬, B¿. KncojvvIp-am¿, AUz. Sn. Ko\m-Ip-amcn, hn.-ss_-Pp, ]n. {]Im-i≥ Nn{Xo-I-cWw: sI. kXojv Ih¿ & teHu´v: ]n. {]Zo]v ssS∏v sk‰nMv: hn[p. ]n.-Fkv hnemkw

FUn-‰¿, imkv{X-KX - n, Xncp-h\ - ¥ - ] - pcw ˛ 695 001. t^m¨ : 0471 2475668. C sa-bn¬ sasthragathy@gmail.com amt\-PnMv FUn-‰¿, imkv{X-KXn, tImgn-t°mSv ˛ 673 002 t^m¨ : 2701919, C sa-bn¬ ksspmagazine@gmail.com H‰-{]Xn : 12 cq] ˛ hm¿jn-I-h-cn-kwJy : 125 cq] teJ-\-ß-fnse A`n-{]m-b-߃ teJ-I-cp-tS-Xm-Wv; imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-j-Øn-t‚-Xm-I-W-sa-∂n-√. kμ¿in°pI: www.kssp.in


IØp-Iƒ

h\-`qan Xncn-®p-]n-Sn-°m≥ C—m-i‡n thWw Ipd™ `qhn-kvXr-Xnbpw Db¿∂ P\-km-{μ-Xbpw D≈ tIc-f-Øn¬ h\-Øns‚ hnkvXrXn C\n henb Af-hn¬ h¿[n-∏n-°p-hm≥ Ign-bpsa∂v tXm∂p-∂n-√. Ct∏mƒ D≈ h\- ß sf kwc- £ n- ° p- I bpw a‰v km[y-XI - ƒ ]c-am-h[n D]-tbm-Ks - ∏Sp-Øp-Ibpw am{X-amWv C\n sNøphm-\p-≈-Xv. tIc-f-Ønse dnk¿hv h\- ß sf ]cn- t ]m- j n- ∏ n- ° p- h m≥ Ign™ 25 h¿j- ß ƒ°p- ≈ n¬ sNe-h-gn® XpI F{X-sb∂v hnhcm-hI - mi \nbaw A\p-kc - n®v Bsc¶nepw tNmZyw D∂-bn-®m¬ e`n-°p∂ XpI-bnse tImSn-I-fpsS hep∏w Bscbpw Aº-c-∏n-°pw. Cu XpI D]-tbm-Kn®v F{X slIvS¿ `qan hne°v hmßn h\-h-XvI-cWw \SØp-hm≥ Ign-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p. temI-Ønse ]e cmPy-ßf - nepw dnk¿hv h\-Øn-\p-≈n¬ a\p-jy\n¿an-Xa - mb F√m {]h¿Ø-\ß - fpw \ntcm-[n®v Ahsb h\y-ambn kwc£n-°p-hm≥ \nbaw D≠v. F∂m¬ tIc-fØ - nse h\w-hI - p∏v \S-Øp∂ F√m {]h¿Ø-\ß - s - fbpw \nb-{¥n°p-∂Xv Nne DtZym-Kÿ - ∑ - m-cp-sSbpw cmjv{So-b-°m-cp-sSbpw ]W-Øn-t\mSp≈ HSpßmØ B¿Øn am{X-amWv. dnk¿hv h\-Øn-\p-≈n¬ \S°p∂ F√m {]h¿Ø-\-ß-sfbpw \nco-£n-°p-hm≥ imkv{X-⁄∑ - mcpw {]IrXn-ktv \ln-Ifpw ASßp∂ Hcp

Advt

4

]m\¬ cq]o-I-cn-t°≠ Imcyw AXn-{Ian-®n-cn-°p-Ib - m-W.v kzm`m-hnI h\w Xg®v hfcp∂ h\-ta-Je - I - f - n¬ `qan-bpsS Bhc-Wa - mb ASn-°mSv sh´n-sØ-fn®v t\gvkdn-bn¬ ]mIn apf-∏n® ssXIƒ h®p]nSn-∏n-°p-hm≥ hn^-e-{iaw \SØn ]Ww X´n-sb-Sp-°p-∂-hsc F¥v t]cp-\¬InbmWv hnfn-°p-I. Hcp Xp≈n-sh≈w kw`-cn-°m≥ IgnbmØ s]mfn™ sN°v Umap-Ifpw h≥InS FtÉv DS-aI - sf klm-bn-°phm≥ ImSn-\p-≈n-te°v \n¿an® A\m-hiy-tdm-Up-Ifpw XpSßn ImSns\ \in-∏n°p-hm≥ ]Ww sNe-hg - n-®X - ns‚ Ht´sd DZm-lc - W - ß - ƒ Nq≠n-°m-Wn-°p-hm≥ Ignbpw. aÆns\ \in-∏n-°p∂ tXm´-߃ D≠m-°m≥ ]m´-Øn\v \¬Inb `qan ]m´Im-em-h[n Ign™v Xncn-s®-Sp-°m≥ GXv \nb-aa - mWv XS w? h≥InS FtÃ-‰p-Iƒ ssIb-S-°n-h-®n-cn-°p∂ `qan dok¿tΔbpsS ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n¬ Xncn-®p-]n-Sn-°p∂-Xn\v C—m-i‡ - n-bp≈ Hcp k¿°m-cn\v Xo¿®-bmbpw Ign-tb-≠X - mWv. sI.-]n. kptc-jvIp-am¿ sshiyw-`m-Kw, Be-∏pg h\-]c - n-]m-e\ - Ø - n\v {]mtbmKnIambn F¥p-sN-øWw F∂-Xns\ kw_‘n®v s{]m^. Fw.-sI. {]km-Zns‚ teJ\w ASpØ e°-Øn¬ {]kn-≤oI-cn-°p-∂X - m-Wv. ]{Xm-[n-]¿

Adn-bn∏v

2011 se tIcf kmlnXy A°mZan Ahm¿UpIƒ

{KŸßƒ £Wn°p∂p. tIcf kmlnXy A°mZan Ahm¿UpIƒ°p≈ {KŸßƒ £Wn°p∂p. 2008, 2009, 2010 h¿jßfn¬ BZy ]Xn∏mbn {]kn≤oIcn®n´p≈ IrXnIfmWv 2011 se A°mZan Ahm¿Un\pw F≥tUmhvsa‚ v Ahm¿-Un\pw ]cnKWn°p∂Xv. Xmsg ]dbp∂ IrXnIƒ°mWv A°mZan Ahm¿UpIƒ \¬Ip∂Xv . IhnX, t\mh¬, \mSIw, sNdpIYm- k am- l mcw, kmlnXy hna¿i\w (hna¿-i\w, ]T\w) ssh⁄m\nI kmln-Xyw (imkv{X am\hnI hn`mK-ß-fn¬s∏´ hn⁄m\{KŸßƒ) PohNcn{Xw (BflIY˛-XqenImNn-{X߃) lmkykmlnXyw, _mekmlnXyw, bm{XmhnhcWw, hnh¿Ø\w. 25,000 (Ccp]Øømbncw) cq]bpw km£y-]{Xhpw ^eIhpamWv kΩm\w. CXn\papºv GsX¶nepw hn`mK- Ø n¬ kΩm\w e`n®hcpsS IrXnIƒ AXmXv hn`mKßfn¬ ]n∂oSv ]cn-KWn-°p∂X√. {KŸ I¿Øm°ƒt°m, AhcpsS _‘p°ƒt°m, kplrØp°ƒt°m, {]km[I¿t°m, kmlnXy- k mwkv I m- c nI kwLS\Iƒt°m, Ahm¿Uv ]cnKW\°p≈ ]pkvXI߃ Ab-®p-Xcmhp∂XmsW∂v tIcf kmlnXy A°mZan {]knU‚ v ]n. h’e Adnbn°p∂p. ta¬∏d™ 3 h¿jßfnse IrXnIfpsS 3 {]XnIƒ hoXw 2011 Pqembv 31˛\v apºv sk{I´dn, tIcf kmlnXy A°mZan, Su¨ lmƒ tdmUv, Xriq¿˛20 F∂ hnemkØn¬ Ab®pXcmhp∂XmWv. Pqembv 2011


apJ-°p-dn∏v Pqembv 2011

A[n-Imc hntI-{μo-I-c-W-Øn\p `ojWn? 73

, 74 `c-W-L-S\m t`Z-K-Xn-I-fpsS A¥:kØ Dƒs°m-≠p-sIm≠v AXp \S-∏m-°nb kwÿm-\-amWp tIcfw F∂Xv AJn-te-¥ym-X-eØn¬ Xs∂ AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-´p-≠v. B cwKØp tIcfw \S-Ønb apt∂-‰ß - ƒ hntZ-iß - f - nepw {i≤-bm-I¿jn-®n-´p-≠.v {_ko-ense t]m¿t´m Ae-s{K-tbm-sSm∏w ]¶m-fnØ P\m-[n-]X - y-Øns‚ ]co-£W `qan-Ib - mbn tIcfw A¥m-cmjv{S thZn-If - n¬ ]cm-a¿in-°s - ∏-Sp-∂p. CsX√mw Hcp `mKØp \S-°p-tºmƒ, adp-`m-KØv tIc-fØ - ns‚ t\´-ßsf ]nt∂m-´S- n-°p∂ `oj-Wn-Iƒ Xe Db¿Øp-Ib - mtWm F∂p kwi-bn-t°-≠n-bn-cn-°p-∂p. {Kma-]© - m-bØ - p-Is - fbpw \K-ck - `- I - s - fbpw dqd¬ sUh-e-]vsa‚phIp-∏n-s\bpw hyXykvX a{¥m-e-b-߃°p Iognem-°n-s°m-≠p≈ ]pXnb `cW ]cn-jvImcw CØ-c-Øn-ep≈ kqN-\bm-Wv. amen\y kwkvI-c-Ww, \o¿Ø-Sm-[n-jvTnX hnI-k-\w, BtcmKy kwc-£Ww XpSßn \nc-h[n taJ-eI - f - n¬ {Kma-ßfpw \K-cß - fpw XΩnep≈ GtIm-]\w a¿a-{]-[m-\-am-Wv. Un.-B¿.-Un.-F.-bpsS {]h¿Ø\w thdn´p \n∂-Xns‚ ZpcnXw Gsd A\p-`-hn-®-Xn-\p-ti-j-amWv AXns\ Pn√m ]©m-b-Øn¬ ebn-∏n-°m≥ ap≥ k¿°m¿ Xocp-am-\n-®-Xv. AXns\-sbms° adn-IS- ∂v s]mSp-∂s\ Cß-s\-sbmcp Xncn-®p-t]m°v F¥n\m-sW∂p hy‡-a-√. tI{μm-hn-jvIrX ]≤-Xn-Iƒ IqSp-X¬ Imcy-£-aambn \S-∏m-°m≥ CXp klm-bn°pw F∂mWv Hcp hni-Zo-Ic - W - w. Aß\sØ Fs¥-¶nepw ]T-\-߃ \S-∂-Xmbn Adn-hn-√. AØcw Hcp ip]m¿i GsX-¶nepw hnZ-Kv[-k-anXn ka¿∏n-®-Xmbpw Adn-hn-√. Xocpam\w FSp-Ø-Xn-\p-tijw AXn\p \oXn-a-XvI-cWw \¬Im-\mbn \SØp∂ Zp¿_e {iaw Bbn am{Xta B hmZsØ ImWm-\m-Iq. Cu Xocp-am-\-Øn-s\-Xnsc tIc-f-Øn\p ]pd-Øp-≈, tIc-fØnse hntI-{μo-I-cW {ia-ßsf kk-t¥mjw ho£n-®n-cp∂ ]ecpw cwKØp h∂n-´p-≠.v hyXykvX cmjv{Sob ho£-Wß - fpw XmXv]c - y-ßfpw D≈-h-cm-W-h¿. Nne-sc-¶nepw tI{μ-`-c-W-Øn¬ \n¿Wm-bI DØ-c-hmZn-Øß - ƒ hln-®n-cp-∂h - c - m-Wv. AXp-sIm-≠p-Xs∂ hn`m-Kob XmXv]c - y߃°-Xo-X-ambn A[n-Imc hntI-{μo-I-c-W-Øns‚ ]ptcm-KXn am{Xw e£yw h®p-sIm≠v k¿°m¿ Cu Xocp-am\w ]p\:]cn-tim-[n-t°-≠Xm-W.v AY-hm, CXv hntI-{μo-Ic - W - sØ Zp¿_-es - ∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ ]tcm£ AP-≠-bpsS `mK-am-sW-¶n¬ AXn-s\-Xnsc i‡amb P\-hn-Imcw Dbcp-I-Xs∂ sNøpw.

imkv{X-KXn

5


Ih¿tÃmdn Xøm-dm-°n-bXv: ]n. kptcjv

Xt±i`c-W-h-Ip-∏v hn`-P\w:

aq∂mbn apdn-°p-∂Xv

B¿°p-th≠n? 2011 Pq¨ 8˛\v Xncp-h-\-¥-]p-cØv kwÿm\ Poh-\-°m-cp-sSbpw A[ym-]-I-cpsSbpw sFIy-thZn Xt±-i-`-cW hIp-∏ns\ hn`-Pn-®-Xn-s\-Xnsc \S-Ønb skan-\m-dns\ B[m-c-am°n Xbm-dm-°nb dnt∏m¿´v. ap≥ kwÿm\ πm\nwKv t_m¿UwKw tUm. sh¶n-tSjv Bt{Xb DZvLm-S\w sNbvX Cu skan-\m-dn¬ U¬ln-bnse C≥Ãn-‰yq´v Hm^v tkmjy¬ kb≥kv Ub-d-IvS¿ tUm. tPm¿Pvam-Xyp, tUm. tXmakv sFk-Iv, {io. kn.-]n. \mcm-b-W≥ XpS-ßn-b-h¿ ]s¶-Sp-Øp.

A[n-Im-c-hn-tI-{μo-I-c-W-a√

tI{μo-I-c-W-amWv e£yw tUm. sh¶ntSjv Bt{Xb

CXv Ncn{X]camb Hcp ap≥ssIbmWv. C¥ybn¬ tIcfØne√msX as‰mcnSØpw k¿°m¿ Poh\°mcpw A[ym]Icpw A[nImchntI-{μoIcWsØ C{X i‡ambn ]n≥XpWbv°p-∂Xp ImWm≥ Ignbn√. CXv hfsc kp{][m\amb Hcp CSs]SemWv. CØcØnep≈ Hcp Xocpam\ØnseØp∂Xn\v k¿°mcns\ t{]cn∏n®sX¥msW∂Xv Zp¿{Kl-

6

amWv. Iq´pI£n `cWØns‚ kΩ¿±w -sIm≠msW∂p ]dbp∂p. tI{μØn¬ AØcw kΩ¿±ßfmWv AgnaXnbv°p ImcWsa∂v {][m\-a{¥n ]dbp∂p. ChnsS Xt±i`cW hIp∏ns\ aq∂mbn apdn®v A[nImc-hntI{μoIcWsØ Iim∏p sNøp∂-Xn\p≈ \ymbhpw AXpXs∂. CXv I£n cmjv{So-bØns‚ Imcya√. tIcfØn¬ `cn°p∂ ]m¿´nbn¬-

Xs∂ \nch[n t]¿ Cu \S]Snbn¬ AkwXr]vXcmWv. tIcfØn¬ am{Xa√ tZiobXeØn¬Xs∂bp≈ {]apJ- c mbn´p≈ tPm¿Pv a mXyphns\ t]mep≈ kmaqlyimkv{X⁄cpw CXns\Xnsc {]XnIcn®n´p≠v. Fs∂t∏mep≈ a‰p \nch[nt]¿°v tIcfØnse A[nImchntI-{μoIcWØns‚bpw ]¶mfnØ P\m[n]Xy- Øns‚bpw {]h¿Ø\ßfn¬ Pqembv 2011


]¶mfnI-fmIm≥ `mKyw e`n®n´p≠v. 1997˛¬ Rm≥ AJn- t e¥ymP\Iobimkv{X{]ÿm-\-Øns‚ A[y£\mbncp∂ kabØv tIcfØnse P - \Iobmkq{XW {]h¿-Ø\ß-fpambn _‘s∏´p {]h¿Øn-°m≥ km[n®n´p≠v. \nch[n {Kma-k`mtbmKßfn¬ ]s¶Sp°m\pw Ign™p. 500˛600 t]¿ ]s¶SpØ AØcw tbmKßfpsS P\]¶mfnØhpw AXns‚ \SØn∏pw sXfnatbmsS Fs‚ a\ nep≠v. CØcØn¬ A[nImchntI{μoIcWØns‚bpw P\]¶mfn-ØØns‚bpw ]mT߃ ]I¿∂p \¬InbXn\v tIcfØnse P\ßtfmSv IS-s∏´n-cn-°p∂p. tIcfØn¬ 35 Zie£w P\߃ D≠v. Xangv\mSv 72 Zie£hpw Cw•≠nse P\kwJy 70 Zie£hpamWv. tIcfØnse Hcp Pn√bpsS P\kwJy bqtdm∏nse Nne cmPyßfpsS P\kwJybv°v XpeyamWv. bqtdm∏nse eIv k w_¿Kv , sU≥am¿°v XpSßnb cmPyßfnse P\kwJy \ΩpsS Hcp Pn√sb°mƒ sNdpXmWv. sU≥am¿°n¬ 45 e£w P\ßfm-Wp≈Xv. C¥ybnse Cu henb P\kwJy U¬lnbntem, sNss∂bntem, Xncph\¥]pctØm\n∂v `cWw \SØp∂Xv A{]mtbmKnIam°p∂p. tI{μØnepw kwÿm\Ønepa√msX Xmsg X´pIfnse k¿°mcpIƒ°v P\߃°pth≠n \nch[n Imcy߃ sNøm\p≠v. Zu¿`mKyhim¬ CSXp]£ ]m¿´nIf√msX BcpwXs∂ A[nImchntI{μoIcWsØ ]n≥XpWbv°p∂ Dd®\ne]mSv FSp°p∂n√. `cWLS\m-t`ZKXn-bpsS `mKambn Xangv\m´n¬ A[nIm-chntI{μoIcWw \S∏m°nbn´p≠v. ]t£ P\]¶mfnØ- Ø n\v AhnsS hfsc°pd®v ]¶pam{Xta A\phZn°p∂p≈q. Pn√m Bkq{XW kanXnIfps≠¶nepw A[nImcan√. Xangv\m´nse Pn√m`cWw Ct∏mgpw IfIvSdnepw Un.B¿.Un.F. t{]mPIvSv Hm^okdnepw tI{μoIcn®psIm≠mWv \S°p∂Xv. tIcfØn\v hfsc t\ctØXs∂ CXns\sbms° adnIS°m≥ Ign™p. A[nImchpw NpaXebpw ssIamdp∂ ImcyØnepw CXp{]ISamWv. Xt±i`cW ÿm]\ßfnte°v ]Ww \¬Ip∂Xv ]cntim[n°ptºmƒ kwÿm\ k¿°m¿ \nIpXnhcpam\Øns‚ 10 iXam\Øn¬ Xmsgam{XamWv \¬-Ip∂Xv. Xt±i`cW ÿm]\߃°v ^e{]Zambn {]h¿Øn°p∂Xn\p klmbIcamIp∂ XcØn¬ [\w, NpaXeIƒ, DtZymKÿ¿ (finance, imkv{X-KXn

tIcfhpw ]›na_wKmfpw A[n-ImchntI{μoIcW ]co£Wßfn¬ am{Xa√ `q]cnjvIcWØnepw thdn´p \n¬°p∂ kwÿm\ßfmWv. CXv {it≤bamb Hcp Imcyambn ImWWw. Xangv\m´n¬ `q{]`p°ƒ hfsc i‡cmWv. A[nImchntI{μoIcWw `q{]`p°∑m¿°v IqSpX¬ kzm[o\w {]mtZinI`cWcwKØv h¿[n°p∂-Xn\p ImcWamImw. CXv k¿°m¿ Poh\°m¿°pw A[ym]I¿°pw tZmjIcambn amdntb°mw. tIcfØn¬ `q]cnjvIcWw \SØn AXp-sIm≠pXs∂ B Hcp {]iv\w C√.

functions, functionaries) F∂nh \¬Im≥ Xangv \ mSv k¿°m¿ XbmdmIp∂n√. C¥ybnse an°hmdpw kwÿm\ßfpsS ImcyØn¬ CXmWv ÿnXn. ]›na_wKmƒ CXn¬\n∂v hyXykvXambn {]h¿Øn°p∂p≠v. ]eImcyØnepw tIcfw A\ymZriamb Hcp amXrIbmbn \ne\n¬-°p∂p. tIcfØns‚ hfsc khntijamb Hcp {]tXyIX A[nImchntI{μo-IcWØns‚ {]{InbIƒ°v (process) ^esØ (outcome) °mƒ {]m[m\yw \¬Ip∂Xn\v {i≤ \¬Ip∂psh∂XmWv. tIcfhpw ]›na_wKmfpw A[nIm-chntI{μoIcW ]co£Wßfn¬ am{Xa√ `q]cnjvIcWØnepw thdn´p \n¬°p∂ kwÿm\ßfmWv. CXv {it≤bamb Hcp Imcyambn ImWWw. Xangv\m´n¬ `q{]`p°ƒ hfsc i‡cmWv. A[nImchntI{μoIcWw `q{]`p°∑m¿°v IqSpX¬ kzm[o\w {]mtZinI`cWcwKØv h¿[n°p∂Xn\p ImcWamImw. CXv k¿°m¿ Poh\°m¿°pw A[ym]I¿°pw tZmjIcambn amdntb°mw. tIcfØn¬ `q]cnjvIcWw \SØn AXpsIm-≠pXs∂ B Hcp {]iv\w C√. `q]cnjvIcWw \S∏m°nbXv tIcfØn¬ A[nImc hntI{μoIcWw ^e{]Zambn \S∏m°p∂Xn\p klmbIcamIp∂p. tIcfØn\IØpw ]pdØpw tZiobXeØnepap≈ _p≤nPohnIfpw kmaqly{]h¿ØIcpw tIcfØns‚ A[nImchntI{μoIcW A\p`hßsf {]Xo£tbmsS t\m°nImWp∂h-cmWv.

7


Hcp amXrI F∂ \nebn¬ cq]wsIm- ≠ phcp∂, am¿KZ¿i\w \¬Ip∂, a‰p kwÿm\߃°v ]n≥XpScm-hp-∂XmWv tIcfØns‚ {]h¿Ø\-߃ F∂ Hcp kmlNcyØn¬ F¥p-sIm≠v A[nImcw G‰v ASpØZnhkw Xs∂ t\cnb `qcn]£w am{Xap≈ tIcfØnse k¿°m¿ Cu Hcp \S]Snbnte°pt]mbn F∂Xv F\n°p a\knemIp∂n√. c≠v {]iv\߃ CXn¬ ASßnbn´p≠v . A[nImchntI{μoI- c WØn¬ tIcf k¿°mcn\p≈ Bflm¿∞Xsb ]‰nbp≈ Kuchamb tNmZy߃ Db¿∂p hcp∂p. c≠maXmbn Cu hn`P\w hnIk\Øns‚ ]ckv]c-_‘nXamb kao]\sØbpw hntI{μo-IcW {]{Inbbn¬ P\]¶mfnØw Dd∏m°p∂ {]{Inbsbbpw \in∏n-°p∂p. Xt±-i-`-cW hIp-∏ns\ \KcØns\∂pw {KmaØn-s\∂pw ]©mbØpIƒs°∂pw hn`- P n®v sh≈w tIdmØ AdIfm°n am‰p∂-tXmsS Bkq- { X- W Øn\v A\nhmcy- a mb ]ckv]c_‘w C√mXm°-s∏S-p-∂p. as‰mcp {][m\ {]iv\w ^bepIƒ Xo¿∏n\p≠mIp∂ ImeXmakamWv. CXv hntI{μoIrXmkq{XWØns‚ {][m\s∏´ khntijXbmb thKØnep≈ Xocpam\saSp°¬ {]{Inbsb XSks∏SpØp∂p. bYm¿∞Øn¬ sXcs™Sp°s∏´ Xt±ikzbw-`cW ÿm]\ßfpsS A[nImc-

8

an√mXm°pIbmWv. P\ßfpsS A[nImcsØ Zp¿_es∏Sp-ØpI-bmWv sNøp∂Xv. Xangv\m´n¬ ÿnXn ]cnXm]-IcamWv. Hcp Xt±i`cWÿm]\w Hcp Iep¶v sI´p∂Xn\p Xocpam\n®pIgn™m¬ AXv s]mXpacmaØphIp∏nse _‘s∏´ F≥Pn\obdpsS AwKoImctØmsS am{Xta \S∏m°m\mIq. tIcfw AXn¬\ns∂ms° hfsc ap∂nemWv. Cu kml-Nc - y-Øn¬ F\n°p a\knem-Ip∂n√ CØcØnep≈ Xocpam\w F¥psIms≠SpØp F∂v . P\߃ B{Kl߃°\pkcn®v hnIk\ AP≠ Xocpam\n°p∂Xn\p]Icw Ipd®v BfpIƒ°v `cWcwKØv ÿm\w \¬Ip∂Xn\pw AXphgn a‰p t\´ßƒ D≠m°p∂Xn\pw th≠nbm-Ip-∂psh∂XmWv {]iv\w. CXn¬ Iq´pI£n `cWØns‚ kΩ¿±ßƒ-s°ms° A∏pdap≈ Nne XmXv]cy-߃ Ds≠∂v Rm≥ `bs∏Sp∂p. Ah¿°v A[nImchn-tI{μo-IcW-tØmSv Bflm¿∞X-bns√∂p am{Xa√ A[nImcw tI{μo-Icn°Wsa∂h¿ B{Kln°pIbpw sNøp∂p. CXv "If£'\v klmbn°p-sa∂Xp-sIm≠mWv AX√msX bmsXmcp bp‡n-bpw Cu Xocpam\Øn¬ ImWp-∂n√. C∂sØ \h DZmchXvIcW-Øns‚ Cu ImeØv AØcw \b߃ cmPysغmSpw \S∏m°p∂ Cu L´Øn¬ k¿°mcns\ Zp¿_e-s∏SpØp∂

\b߃ \S∏m°pI, kmºØnI˛kmaqlycwKsØ P\]¶mfnØw C√mXm°pI XpSßnb Hfn AP≠ (Hidden Agenda) \S∏m°-s∏SpIbmWv. Cu \b߃s°Xnsc P\߃ sXcs™Sp∏pIfn¬ hn[nsb-gpXnbn´pw ho≠pw AtX \b߃ Xs∂ \S∏m°s∏Sp∂psh∂XmWv C¥ybnse Ahÿ. Cu XcØn¬ sXcs™Sp∏ns‚ P\m[n]Xy D≈S-°sØXs∂ \ntj[n°p∂ \S]Sn [\-Imcy aqe[\Øns‚ {]h¿-Ø\Øns‚ `mKamWv. k¿°m¿ hnZym`ymkØnepw BtcmKyØnepw a‰p tkh\taJeIfnepw ]Ww apS°p∂Xv henb IΩn°pImcW-amIpsa∂pw hntZi aqe[\w cmPyØv {]h¿Øn-°pI hgn k¿°mcn\Øcw _m[yXI-fn¬ \n∂pw ap‡amIm-sa∂pap≈ XcØn-ep≈ {]h¿Ø\w k¿°mcns\ ]q¿W-ambpw Xf¿Øn-bncn°p∂ kmlNcy-amWv C∂p \ne\n¬°p∂Xv. CØc-Øn¬ [\Imcy aqe[\-Øns‚ XmXv]cy-Øn\p hnt[bambn hnhn[ tkh\ taJeIfn¬\n∂pw k¿°m¿ ]n≥-hmßp∂ kml-NcyØn¬ tIcf-Øn¬ P\߃ hnIk\w t\Sp∂Xn-\mbn Dd®\ne]mtSmsS {]h¿Øn-°p∂p. sNdpkwcw`IcpsS DXv]mZ\ ap≥ssIøpIsf i‡ns∏Sp-Øns°m-≠pw Im¿jnItaJebn¬ DXv]mZ\w h¿[n∏n°p∂ {]h¿Ø\߃ \S∏m-°ns°m≠pw hyXykvXamb kao]\w ImgvNhbv°p∂p. Ign™ 5 h¿j-ß-fn¬ Im¿jnI taJebn¬ sXc-s™-Sp°s∏´ Xt±i`cW ÿm]\- ß sf IÆntN¿ØpsIm≠p \S∏m-°nb {]h¿Ø\߃ tIcfØns‚ `t£ym-X] v mZ\cwKØv henb am‰w D≠m-°nbn´p≠v. CXv Im¿jnI-taJ-ebnse {]Xnk‘n ]cnlcn°m≥ klmbn-®n´p≠v. bYm¿∞-Øn¬ {KmaoW taJe-bnse ]ptcmKXnbpsS km[yXIƒ°v G‰ Xncn®SnbmWv Xt±i`cW hIp∏p-Isf apdn®pam‰p∂-XneqsS D≠mbn-´p≈Xv. Cu coXnbn¬ tIcfØnse P\m[n]XyØns‚ D≈S°Øn¬ hfsc Kuchap≈ Xncn®Snbv°v FXncmbn hfcp∂ {]Xntj[Øn\v cmPysØßp\n∂pw ]n≥XpW D≠mIpw. R߃-°mhp∂Xpt]mse A[nImchntI{μoIcWØns‚ D≈S°sØ kwc£n°p∂Xn\pw, DtZym-Kÿ tI{μoIrXamb `cWkwhn[m\sØ sIm≠phcp-∂-Xns\Xnscbpw Iq´p-I£nIfpsS XmXv]cy߃-°pth≠n hnIk\sØ _en Ign°p-∂Xns\-Xnscbpap≈ {]h¿-Ø\-ßfn¬ R߃ \n߃s°m∏w D≠mIpsa∂v Dd∏p \¬Ip∂p.„ Pqembv 2011


Ih¿tÃmdn

tIcfw; A[nImchntI{μoIcWØns‚

GI amXrI tUm. tPm¿PvamXyp tIcf-Ønse P\߃ Cu \S]Sn-bnt∑¬ ISpØ hne \¬tI≠n hcpsa∂Xn¬ X¿°an√. `cWLS\-s°Xncmbn Hcp k¿°m¿ {]h¿Øn°ptºmƒ Xo¿®-bmbpw AXni‡-amb {]Xntj[-Øn\v \ap°v AhImi-ap≠v. tIcf-Øn¬ Cßs\ Hcp Ahÿ D≠mIp-sa∂v Rm≥ kz]v\-Øn¬t]mepw hnNmcn®ncp∂n√. tIcfØnse kmaqly{]h¿ØIcpw _p≤nPohn-Ifpw, cmjv{Sob AXn¿-hcºpIƒ t`Zn®psIm≠v CXns\Xnsc cwKsØ-Øp-sa∂Xn¬ X¿°an√.

C

∂v \ΩpsS cmPyw Hcp \n¿Wm-bIamb L´ØneqsSbmWv IS∂p-t]mIp∂Xv. BtKmf-hXvIcWhpw DZmchXvIcWhpw \S∏m°s∏Sp∂p. hm¿Øm-hn\nabØn¬ henb apt∂‰w D≠m-Ip∂p. ]t£ km[mcW P\ßfpsS PohnXØn\v \nch[n {]bmkß-fmWv D≠mIp∂Xv. i‡nIpd™hcpsS i‡n ho≠pw C√mXm°m\p≈ Htcm´amWv Fßpw \S°p∂Xv. AXv temIsØßpw \S°p∂p. C¥ybnepw. CXns‚ Hcp ^ew P\߃°v i‡nsImSp°mXncn°p∂Xn\p≈ {iaßfmWv. Power to the People. AXn\mbncp∂p kzX{¥cmjv { SØn\pth≠n Poh≥ If™hcpw {]h¿Øn®hcpw B{Kln®ncp∂Xv. ]t£ C∂v imkv{X-KXn

AXn\v FXncmb {]h¿Ø\w henb coXnbn¬ \S°p∂p. Fgp]XpIfpsS a[yw C¥ybpsS Ncn{XØnse IdpØ Hcp GSmWv. AXn\p-tijw A[nImcØn¬ h∂ k¿°m¿ sNbvX Ncn{X]camb hfsc {]k‡amb Hcp Imcyambn- c p∂p AtimI taØ IΩn‰nsb A[n-Imc hntI{μoIcWsØ∏‰n ]Tn°m≥ \ntbmKn®Xv. B AtimItaØ IΩn‰n-bn¬ F√mhcpw FSpØp-]d-bp∂ XmWv {io. C.-Fw.-F-kv. \ºq-Xn-cn-∏mSns‚ hntbmP\ Ipdn∏v. P\߃°v A[nImcw sImSp°p∂-Xn\p-th≠nbp≈ BZysØ \mgnI-I√mbncp∂p B hntbm-P\Ipdn∏v. AXp-sIm-≠v AXhkm-\n®n√. ]›na _wKmfmWv

BZyambn Xt±i`cW ÿm]\sa∂ A¿∞-Øn¬ BZyambn Hcp ]©mbØocmPv kwhn[m\w \S∏m°nbXv, AXn\p-th≠n ap≥ssIsbSpØXv tPymXn_-kp-hmbncp∂p. At±lsØ F√mhn[- Ø nepw ]n∂n¬\n∂p klmbn®Xv tIcfØnse CS-Xp-]£ t\Xm°fm-bncp∂p. ]›na_wKmƒ P\ßfn-te°v A[nImcw ]©mbØpIfn-eqsS \¬InbXv C¥ybpsS Ncn{XØnse hgnØncnhmbncp∂p. P\Iob t\Xm°∑m¿ F√mhcpw ]›na_wKmfns\ {i≤n-°phm≥ XpSßn. 1982˛¬ I¿WmSIØn¬ P\Xm]m¿´nbpsS cmaIrjvW slKvsU apJy-a{¥nbmbn. At±ltØmsSm∏w A_vZpƒ\ko¿ km_v a{¥nbpambn.

9


At±lw Ft∂mSv ]dbpambncp∂p At±lw hnizkn°p∂Xv "NuIºIcmjv{S'ØnemsW∂v. AXmbXv, {Kmaw, Pn√, kwÿm\w, tI{μw F∂nßs\. temlybpsS Nn¥mKXnbmWnXv. cmaIrjvW slKvsUbpw \ko¿-km_pw A[nImcØnseØn BZyw Hcp IΩn‰n D≠m°n. ]›na_w-Km-fnte°v Ab®p. 1978 apXep≈ A©p h¿j߃ ]›na_wKmfn¬ F¥p \S∂p F∂h¿ I≠p. AXns‚ ASn-ÿm-\Øn¬ AhcpsS \nb-a߃ am‰p∂Xn\p {ian®p. A{X henb am‰ßƒ D≠mbn´p- ≠ m- b ncp∂p. AhnSsØ tÉv BIvSn¬ t`ZKXn Bhiyambn h∂p. AXn\v {]knU‚ns‚ A\paXn thWambn-cp∂p. F∂m¬ {]knU‚ v AwKoImcw \¬Inbn√. ]›na_wKmfn\ptijw I¿WmSIbmWv A[nImchntI-{μo-IcWØn\v henb t\´w sIm≠p-h∂Xv. CXv Fw.Sn. cmadmhp a\ n- e m°pIbpw At±lw AXp ]n≥- X p- S - c p- I bpw sNbv X p. ]›na_wKmƒ, I¿WmSI, B{‘m-{]tZiv F∂o aq∂p kwÿm\ßfn¬ \S∏m°nb Cu ]cn]mSn henb N¿®Iƒ°p hnt[b-ambn. 1991˛¬ cmPohvKm‘n {][m\a{¥nbmbn. At±lw Cu {]h¿Ø\߃ {i≤n®p. kzm`mhnIambpw ta¬∏d™ kwÿm\ßfnep≠mb am‰ßƒ At±lsØ kzm[o\n®p. At±lw Cu Imcyßsf∏‰n aWni¶¿ Aøcpambn N¿® sNbvXp. P\ßfnte°v A[nImcw sImSp-°p∂-Xn\pth≠n Bflm¿∞ambn {]h¿Øn°p∂Xp-sIm≠mWv Cu kwÿm\߃ {it≤bambncn°p∂sX∂t±lw cmPohv Km‘ntbmSv ]d™p. CXns‚

10

C¥ybn¬ tI{μw, kwÿm\w, Pn√, AXn\p Xmsgbp≈ Xew F∂o hn[Ønep≈ Hcp s^Ud¬ k¿°m¿ D≠mtI≠Xv hfsc BhiyamWv. ASnb¥cmhÿbpsS \mfpIfn¬ ]d™Xv F√mw {][m\a{¥nbpsS Hm^okn¬ \nt∂ \S°pIbp≈q F∂mWv. Aßs\sb¶n¬ cmPyw Fßs\ apt∂m´pt]mIpw? AXpsIm-≠mWv Cu Hcp Nn¥ h∂Xv. tÉv Ign™m¬ ]ns∂bp≈Xv IfIvSdmWv.

ASnÿm\ØnemWv cmPohvKm‘n A[nImchntI{μoIcWw C¥ybn¬ \S∏m°p∂Xn\p≈ \S]SnIƒ Bcw`n®Xv. At±lw Pn√Ifnsems° IfIvS¿amcpsS t\XrXzØn¬ \nch[n ao‰nwKpIƒ hbv°pIbpw 64˛mw `cWLS\m t`ZKXn sIm≠phcn-Ibpw sNbvXp. 1987˛¬ I¿WmSIØn¬ sXcs™Sp∏p kabØv P\Xm]m¿´n t\Xmhmb A_vZpƒ\nkm¿ kmln_pambn N¿®sNøptºmƒ At±lw `cWLS\m t`ZKXnbpsS BhiyIXsb∏‰n ]dbpambncp∂p. 64˛mw `cWLS\m t`ZKXn ]mkmbn√. F∂m¬ t\Xm°fpsS Nn¥bn¬ hyXnbm\w D≠m°m≥ klm-bn® kw`hß-fmWv ta¬∏d™ 3˛4 ]SnIƒ. C¥ybn¬ tI{μw, kwÿm\w, Pn√, AXn\p Xmsgbp≈ Xew F∂o hn[Ønep≈ Hcp s^Ud¬ k¿°m¿ D≠mtI≠Xv hfsc BhiyamWv. ASnb¥cmhÿbpsS \mfpIfn¬ ]d™Xv F√mw {][m\a{¥nbpsS Hm^okn¬ \nt∂ \S°pIbp≈q F∂mWv. Aßs\sb¶n¬ cmPyw Fßs\ apt∂m´pt]mIpw? AXpsIm≠mWv Cu Hcp Nn¥ h∂Xv. tÉv Ign™m¬ ]ns∂bp≈Xv IfIvSdmWv. AXpsIm≠mWv IfIvS¿cmPv. Cu hyhÿnXnsb Fßs\ am‰m\mIpw. F¨]XpIfn¬ henb Hcp sFUntbmfPn°¬ s^¿a‚ v D≠mbn. AXn\p ]‰nbXmb Hc¥co£w C¥y apgph\mbn´v D≠mbn. CXn\pImcWw hfscb[nIw \ΩpsS t\Xm°ƒ tIcfØn¬ \n∂pw A[nImc hntI{μoIcW-Øn\mbn sNbvX ImcyßfmWv. 73˛Dw 74˛Dw `cWLS\m t`ZKXnIƒ D≠mbXv C¥ybpsS Ncn{XØnse G‰hpw hnπhIcambn´p≈ Hcp L´amWv. `q]cnjvIcWamWv C¥ysb G‰hpw ]cnh¿Ø\-Ønte°v sIm≠phcphm≥ klmbn®Xv. Ht∂m˛ct≠m kwÿm\ta sNbvXn´p≈q F∂XmWv HcpImcyw. `q]cnjvIcWw Ign™m¬ C¥ybn¬ G‰hpw hnπhIcamb \S]Sn 73, 74 `cWLS\mt`ZKXnbmWv. Cu `cWLS\m t`ZKXn F¥mWv ÿm]n®Xv? `cWLS\bpsS \n¿t±iI XXzßfn¬ ]©mbØns\∏‰n ]d™n´p≈Xv Units of Self Government F∂mWv. 73, 74˛mw `cWLS\mt`ZKXnbn¬ ]d™ncn-°p∂Xv Institutions of Local Self Government F∂mWv. Institutiions of Local Governments s\ `cWLS-\bn¬ AwKoIcn®n´v, ]m¿´v 9s‚ `mKPqembv 2011


am°nbn´v C¥ybn¬ 1993¬ G{]n¬ 24˛\v `cW-LS\mt`ZKXn \nehn¬ h∂t∏mƒ henb km[yXIfmWv D≠mbnh∂Xv. ]t£ C∂v GItZiw 18 h¿jw Ign™n´v C¥ybn¬ F{X kwÿm- \ ߃ 73,74 `cWLS\m t`ZKXnIƒ AXns‚ Bflm¿∞Xbn¬ (in letter & spirit) ]n≥XpScp∂p≠v? hfsc k¶S-Icamb Hchÿ Ign™ c≠mgv N apºphsc Hcp kwÿm\w am{Xta AXv ]n≥XpScp∂p≠mbncp∂p≈q. AXv tIcfambncp∂p. AXp Ign™n-´mWv Cu henb hyXymkap≠mbXv. AXn¬ {]Xntj[n°phm\mbn AXns\∏‰n Nn¥n°p∂Xn\mbn C{Xbpw BfpIƒ ChnsS h∂ncn°p-∂XpXs∂ tIcfw Cu `cWLS\m t`ZKXnbnepw A[nImchntI- { μo- I cWØnepw Dd®phnizkn°p∂Xp-sIm≠mWv. Rm≥ Ign™ 10 ZnhkØn\papºv 5 Znhkw Imivaocnse {Kmaßfn¬ apgp-h≥ t]mbn. ImcWw AhnsS ]©m-bØv sXcs™Sp∏p \S∂psIm≠ncn-°pIbmWv. AhnsS ]©mbsØ∂p tNmZn®m¬ P\߃°v AXns‚ A£c߃ t]mepw Adnbn√. Btcm ]d™Xns‚ t]cn¬ a’cn°p∂p. hnZym`ymkap-≈hcn√, F¥n\mWv ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ F∂pw Adn-bn√. ]©mbØn\hnsS Hm^okp-t] - mepw C√. CXmWv Imivao-cnse Ahÿ. AhnsS {]tXyI kmlNcyamWp≈Xv. AXpsIm≠v \ap°Xv Aßs\ ]cnKWn°mw. _olm¿ apJy-a{¥n {io. \nXojvIpam¿ ]©mbØns‚ Hcp SmkvIv-t^mgvkv D≠m°n Fs∂ AXns‚ sNb¿am- \ m°n. _olm¿ C¥ybpsS henb kwÿm\ßfnsem∂v. kmwkvImcn- I hpw Ncn{X]chpambn henb {]m[m\yap≈ kwÿm\w. tZiob t\Xm°-∑mcpsS P∑tZiw F∂nßs\ ]e {]tXy-IXIfpw D≠v. AhnsS \Ωƒ 73, 74 `cWLS\m t`ZKXn-sb∏‰n P\ß-tfmSv tNmZn®m¬ Ah¿-°Xns\∏‰n Hcp hnhchpan√. Cßs\bp≈ Hcp tZiobm-¥co£Øn¬ Cu `cWLS\mt`ZKXnsb Bflm¿∞ambn apt∂m´psIm≠pt]mbXv tIcfw am{XamWv. ]t£ henb Hcp k¶Sw D≠mIp∂Xv tIm¨-{Kkv ]m¿´n F¥n\nXp sNøp∂psh∂mWv. Rm≥ Hcp cmjv{Sob-]m¿´nbpsSbpw t]cne√, H_vPIvSohv tkmjy¬ kb≥kns‚ t]cnemWv CXp ]dbp∂Xv. hnt√Pv dn∏_vfnIv BZyw ]dbp∂Xv almflmKm‘nbmWv . F√m imkv{X-KXn

{Kmahpw dn∏ªn°mbncn°Ww AhcpsS Imcy߃ \SØm≥ IgnbWw F∂mbncp∂p kao]\w. F∂m¬ tIm¨{K- k nse henb t\Xm- h mbncp∂ Phl¿em¬ s\lv d p- h n\v ]©mbØocmPn¬ bmsXmcp hnizmkhpw C√mbncp∂p. At±lw {_n´ojv amXrIbpsS Bfmbncp∂p. At±lØn\v Km‘nbpambn´p- ≠ mbn- c p∂ G‰hpw henb hnhmZw CXmbn-cp∂p. Fkv.sI. tUbmWv s\lvdphns\ {Kma]©mbØpIfntebv ° v I¨h¿´p sNbvXXv. AXv henb I¨th¿j-\m-bncp∂p. XpS¿∂v _¬h¥dmbv taØmIΩn‰nbpsS dnt∏m¿´v e`n®Xn\ptijw ]©mbØpIfn¬ IqSntb apt∂m´pt]mIm≥ Ignbqsh∂v At±l-Øn\pw tXm∂n. At±lw BZyw Hcp ]©mbØv DZvLmS\w sNøp∂Xv cmPÿm\nemWv. \tSm¿ F∂mbncp∂p ]©mbØns‚ t]cv. B {KmaØn¬ s\lvdphpw Fkv.sI. tUbpw IqSnt]mbn´mWv ]©mbØv DZvLm-S\w sNbvXXv. Phl¿em¬ s\lvdphns‚ A∂sØ {]kwKw A[nImchntI-

{μoIcWØnep≈ At±lØns‚ henb XmXv]cyw {]ISam°p∂Xmbncp∂p. I¨h¿´v sNbvXh¿ C{Xbpw hnizkn°ptam F∂v AXnibn-∏n-°p∂Xpt]mep≈ {]kw-Ka - mWv At±lw AhnsS sNbvXXv. AXpIgn™n´v 1964˛¬ At±lw acn°p∂Xn\v 3˛4 Bgv N Iƒ°papºv Fkv . sI.tU At±lsØ ImWm≥ t]mbncp∂p. Fkv.sI. AXns\∏‰n FgpXnbXv Cßs\bmWv. “I recall just a few days before he passed away in 1964 Jawahar Lal called me at night. His head bent as he looked at me and said. Day, look, I want to ask you a question. Suppose the entire govt. falls against your community development programmes and Panchayathiraj. Will you be able to resist?” \nßfpsS F√m Khs◊-

‚pIfpw Cu ]©mb-Øocm-Pns\Xncmbn {]h¿Øn°p-IbmsW¶n¬ \n߃°v AXns\ {]Xntcm[n°phm≥ km[n°ptam? "Look my friend, sorry, you have no time, there is no programme, Panchayathiraj can’t be saved. Nor even your programme of Community Development.''

11


A∂sØ XmXv]cy߃, ÿm]nX XmXv]cy߃ I≠n´v A[nImc hntI{μoIcWw C¥ybn¬ \S°ns√∂v At±lØn\v t_m[ys∏´ncp∂p. tIm¨{Kkns‚ c≠masØ t\Xmhv s\lvdp-hn\ptijw CμncmKm‘n F√m-Øn\pw FXncmbn\n∂psIm≠v kI-eXpw \in∏n®p. AXn\ptijw cmPohv-Km‘n A[nImcØntebv°v h∂p. A∂sØ A¥co£w sIm≠v At±lw AXnte°p h∂p, At±-lØ - n\pw IqSpXsem∂pw sNøm≥ Ign™n√. C∂v tIm¨{Kkv ]m¿´n FhnsSbmWv. 1993 G{]n¬ 24 73˛mw `cWLS\m t`ZKXn `cWLS\bpsS `mKam-b-Xn\ptijw G‰hpw FXn¿Øn´p≈Xv tIm¨{Kkv ]m¿´n- b mWv ˛ a[y{]tZin¬ ZnKvhnPbknMv apJya{¥nbmbncp∂t∏mƒ At±lw BZyambn Xt±i`cW ÿm]\-ßfnte°v

12

sXcs™Sp∏v \SØn. AX√msX F√m tIm¨{Kkv `cWkwÿm\ßfpw CXns\Xncmbn´mWv {]h¿Øn®Xv. \cknwldmhphns‚ ImeØm-Wt√m 73, 74 `cWLS\mt`ZKXn D≠m°nbXv . At±lØn\dnbmw A[nImcw P\ßfntebv°p t]mIpIbmsW∂v. At±lw Hcp ssIsIm≠psImSpØv at‰ssIøpsIm≠v Xncn®phmßp∂ kao]\ambncp∂p. F√m Fw.]n.am¿°pw Hcp tImSn cq] hoXw sImSpØp. AXp]ns∂ h¿[n∏n®psIm≠ncn°p∂p. ]t£ ]©mbØn\v ]Wan√. Cu `cWkwkvImcw CXpt]mep≈ Hcp ]m¿´nbn¬ F¥psIm≠p≠mIp∂p F∂XmWv F\n°p a\knemImØXv. Cu ]›mØ-eØnemWv Cu hn`P\w. CXv Ipfnsh≈tØmsSm∏w Ip™ns\-°qSn°fbpI F∂ kao]\amWv. CXv 73, 74 `cWLS\m t`ZKXnbpsS, `cWLS\bpsS ASnØd C√mXm°p-

IbmWv. CXnt\mSp {]XnIcn®psIm≠v tkmWnbmKm‘n°v Rm≥ Hcp IØv FgpXnbncp∂p. Cu IØn¬ Rm≥ ]d™Xv Bkq-{XWØnepw hnIk\{]h¿Ø\߃ \SØp∂Xnepw t\cnSp∂ {][m\s∏´ {]iv\ßfn¬ H∂v \nch[n hIp-∏pIfpw hnIk\{]h¿Ø\Øn¬ \nch[n GP≥knIƒ CSs]Sp∂Xpw, Chsb kwtbmPn∏n°m≥ Ignbm-ØXpw, Cu hnhn[ kwhn[m\߃-°IØv klIcWw C√mØXpamWv F∂mWv. CXn\pImcWw kwÿm\ k¿°mcpIƒ ]©mbØpIsfbpw \Kck`Isfbpw {]mtZinI `cWIq-Sßfmbn {]h¿Øn°m≥ A\phZn°m-ØXpsIm≠mWv. {]mtZinI k¿°m- c pIfmbn Ah AwKoIcn°s∏Sp∂n√. `cWLS-\ ]dbp∂Xv Xt±i`cWÿm]\߃ k¿°mcm-sW-∂mWv. {Kmak`IfmWv Xocpam\-saSp-t°≠sX∂mWv. ]t£ AXn\-\p-hZn°p∂n√. Cu ]›mØeØn¬ tIcfØnse Xt±i`cWÿm]\߃ CXn¬\n∂p hyXykvXambn thdn´ {]h¿Ø\ amXrIbmbn \ne\n-¬°p∂p. cmPysØ 26 kwÿm\ßfn¬\n∂pw hyXykvXambn Hcp samØØnep≈ hnIk\ k¶ev]w, {Kma˛\Kc hnIk\߃ ap≥ ssIøpIsf Hcp hIp∏n\p Iogn¬ sIm≠p-h∂p-sIm≠v \S∏m°p∂p. Zu¿`mKyhim¬ Cu amXrI ]n≥XpScpIbpw ]I¿Øp-Ibpw sNøp∂Xn\p]Icw AXns‚ ISbv ° ¬ IØnhbv°p∂, \in∏n-°p∂ kao]\amWv tIcfØnse tIm¨{Kkv `cWIqSw FSp°p∂Xv. Cu cmPyØnep≈ GI \√ DZmlc-WsØ C√mXm°pIbmWv \nßfpsS ]m¿´n sNbv X Xv F∂v tkmWnbm- K m‘n- ° p≈ IØn¬ Rm≥ ]d™p. Rm≥ Hcp cmjv{Sob ]m¿´nbpsSbpw AwKa√. Hcp ]ucs\∂ \nebnemWv Cu A`n-{]mb {]IS\w \SØp∂Xv. tIcf-Ønse P\߃ Cu \S]Sn-bnt∑¬ ISpØ hne \¬tI≠n hcpsa∂Xn¬ X¿°an√. `cWLS\-s°Xncmbn Hcp k¿°m¿ {]h¿Øn-°ptºmƒ Xo¿®bmbpw AXni‡-amb {]Xntj[Øn\v \ap°v AhImi-ap≠v. tIcfØn¬ Cßs\ Hcp Ahÿ D≠mIpsa∂v Rm≥ kz]v \ - Ø n¬t]mepw hnNmcn®ncp∂n√. tIcfØnse kmaqly{]h¿ØIcpw _p≤nPohnIfpw, cmjv { Sob AXn¿- h cºpIƒ t`Zn®psIm≠v CXns\Xnsc cwKsØØp-sa∂Xn¬ X¿°an√.„ Pqembv 2011


Ih¿tÃmdn

hnI-k-\-Øp-S¿®-bv°v

FXn-sc-bp≈ \ne-]mSv kn.]n. \mcm-b-W≥ C¥ybnse Bkq{XW hnZ-Kv[cpw, k∂≤{]h¿ØIcpw, A°m-ZanI cwKØp {]h¿Øn°p∂hcpw F√mw tIcfØn¬ \S°p∂ {]h¿Ø-\ßsf `mhnbn¬ C¥ybnemsI \S∏mt°≠ {]h¿Ø\ambn´mWv t\m°n ImWp∂Xv. Cu Hcp ]›mØ-e-ØnemWv tIcfØnse A[nImc hntI{μoIcW {]h¿Ø\߃s°-Xntcbp≈ \S]SnIƒ ImtW≠Xv.

tI cfØn¬

1980 \ptijw sXcs™Sp∏pIfn¬ ap∂WnIƒ amdn amdn A[nImcØnseØp∂ coXnbmWp≈Xv. Aßs\ hcptºmƒ Ign™ 31 h¿j°mesØ \ΩfpsS A\p`hw heXp]£ ap∂Wn A[nImcØn¬ hcptºmsgms° CSXp]£ P\m[n]Xy ap∂WnbpsS ImeØv sNbvX Imcy߃ C√mXm-°p∂ coXn ]n≥XpScp∂p. AXv 1980˛¬ H∂ch¿-jambncp∂p. 1987˛¬ 4 h¿jambn-cp∂p. 1996˛2001, 2006˛2011 Imebfhn¬ 5 h¿jambncp∂p. Cu k¿°mcpIƒ \S∏m°nb P\ßsf kw_‘n°p∂ imkv{X-KXn

G‰hpw kp{][m\-amb Imcy߃ Iogvta¬ adnbv°pI F∂Xv Ah-cpsS AP≠bmbncp∂p. F∂m¬ bp.Un.F^v . k¿°mcpIƒ \S∏m°p∂ Imcy-߃ C√mXm°p∂ coXn F¬.Un.F^v. \S∏m°mdn√. ]©X{¥w IYbnse Ipcßs\-t∏mse sh≠ ssX \´pIgn™v Hmtcm Znhkhpw AXn\v thcpInfn¿-tØmsb∂v ]ngpsXSpØp t\m°p∂Xpt]msebp≈ kao- ] \a√ CSXp]£w ]n≥XpScp∂Xv. bp.Un.F^v. \S∏m°n-bXnt\mSv hntbmPn∏ps≠¶nepw \ne\n¿Øm-hp∂Xv \ne\n¿Øn t`ZK-XnIƒ

hcpØp∂ kao-]-\-amWv ]n≥XpScp∂Xv. 1991˛¬ A[nImc hntI{μoIcWsØ-t]mse C¥ybmsI A\pkvacn°p∂ H∂mWv, P\Iob ]¶mfnØtØmsS \SØnb kºq¿W km£cXm]≤Xn. C¥ybv ° v kzmX- { ¥yw In´nbXn\ptijw km¿h{XnI km£c-Xbv°pth≠n \nch[n ]cn]m-SnIƒ \S∏m°nbn´p≠v. cmjv{Sob t\Xm°∑mcpw DtZymKÿ ta[m-hnIfpw tN¿∂p \S∏m°nbXn\m¬ Ahsbms° ]cmPbs∏´p. P\ßfpsS ]¶mfnØw Cu ]≤XnIfn¬ C√m-ØXm-

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bncp∂p CXn\p- Im-cW - w. CXn¬-\n∂pw R߃ ]Tn®]mTw P\ß- ƒ °p {]tbmP\w sNøp∂ ]≤Xn-Ifn¬ P\ßsf ]¶mfnIfm°n- s °mt≠ \S∏m°m≥ Ignbq F∂Xm-bncp∂p. Cu AdnhmWv kºq¿W- k m£cXbpsS hnPbØnte°p \bn®Xv. F∂m¬ Cu kºq¿W km£cXm ]≤Xnsb C√mXm°nb A∂sØ apJya{¥n ]n∂oSv Imcy- ß ƒ a\knem°nbt∏mƒ ]cnX]n®p. P\-Io-bm-kq-{XW {]h¿Ø-\ß - sf FXn¿°p-∂-h-cpsS G‰hpw henb Bt£- ] w kmt¶- X nI D]- t Z- i I kanXn TAG s\∏‰nbmWv. CXv t\csØ VTC (k-∂≤ kmt¶-XnI kanXn) bmbncp∂p. AJnte¥ym-Xe-Øn¬ AXnt∏mgpw VTC F∂mWv ]dbp∂Xv. AXn\ptijw aWni¶¿ Aø¿ tIcfØn¬ h∂t∏mƒ tNmZn-®Xv \n߃ CsXms° am‰ntbm F∂mbncp∂p. VTC bn¬ D≠mbncp∂Xv dn´b¿ sNbvX A[ym]Icpw Poh\-°mcpsams°bmbncp∂p. ]©mbØv XeØnse P\{]Xn\n[n- I ƒ°mbmepw DtZymK- ÿ - ∑ m¿°mbmepw kmt¶-XnI ssh-`hw C√. AXp \¬IWw. kwÿm\- X eØnep≈- X pt]mep≈ Bkq{XW-t_m¿Uv ]©mb- Ø pIfn¬ ]‰n√. AXn\p]Icw

kmt¶XnI-sshZKv[y-ap≈ tbmKycmb BfpIfpsS tkh\w ]©mbØp-Iƒ°p e`yam°p∂-Xn-\mWv TAG s\ cq]oIcn®Xv Cu VTCbpsS klmbtØmsSbmWv ]≤Xn kmt¶- X nI anIhp≈Xm°n \S∏m°m≥ Ign-™Xv. AXn√mXm-°m≥ bp.-Un.-F^v. k¿°m¿ VTCbpsS {]h¿Ø\Øn\p \¬Inb ^≠v ]n≥hen®p. HºXmw ]≤Xnbn¬ Bkq{X-Wt_m¿Uv tI{μoIcn®mbncp∂p P\Iobm-kq{XWØns‚ sk¬ {]h¿Øn-®ncp∂Xv. F∂m¬ 2006˛¬ AXn\pam‰w hcpØn. Xt±i`cW-hIp∏n\v Ct∏mƒ Iptd A\p`hw D≠v. AXpsIm≠v Ahsc ap∂n¬ \n¿Øns°m≠mWv 11˛mw ]≤Xnbn¬ A[nImc hntI{μoIcW {]h¿Ø-\߃ \S∏m°nbXv. h∂psIm≠ncn-°p∂ am‰ßsf Dƒs°m≠p- s Im- ≠ mWv apt∂m´p- t ]mIp∂Xv. C.Fw.Fkv. ]d™Xv tIcf-Øn¬ h∂ G‰hpw {][m\s∏´ aq∂m-asØ am‰amWv P\Iobmkq{XWw F∂mWv. H∂matØXv C¥ybv°p kzmX{¥yw e`n®Xv. c≠matØXv 1956 \hw_¿ 1 tIcf kwÿm\w cq]oIcn°s∏´Xv. CXp-t]mseXs∂ {][m\amWv ]©mbØp-Ifpw \Kck`Ifpw {]mtZinI

C.Fw.Fkv. ]d™Xv tIcf-Øn¬ h∂ G‰hpw {][m\s∏´ aq∂m-asØ am‰amWv P\Iobmkq{XWw F∂mWv. H∂matØXv C¥ybv°p kzmX{¥yw e`n®Xv. c≠matØXv 1956 \hw_¿ 1 tIcf kwÿm\w cq]oIcn°s∏´Xv. CXp-t]mseXs∂ {][m\amWv ]©m-bØp-Ifpw \Kck`Ifpw {]mtZinI k¿°mcpIfmbn amdp∂Xv.

14

k¿°mcpIfmbn amdp∂Xv . Xs‚ PohnX-ImeØv Cu am‰Øns‚ k¿hkm[yXIfpw ImWm≥ Ignbn-s√∂pw AXn\p Imew FSp°psa∂pw At±lw XpS¿∂v ]dbp∂p≠v. Hmtcm L´w Ignbptºmgpw D≠mIp∂ A\p`h߃ Dƒt®¿ØpsIm≠v am‰w hcptØ≠nhcpw. Ign™ k¿°m¿ {io.-Fw.F.DΩ≥IΩn‰nbpsS ip]m¿i A\pkcn®v Xt±i`cWÿm]\-߃°v \¬Ip∂ XpI apsºm-cn-°epw C√m-Xn-cp-∂X - n-s\°mƒ h¿[n∏n®p. Hcp hm¿jnI ]≤XnbpsS 30 iXam\w \¬IWsa∂mWv. Cu h¿jw AXv 25 iXam\am°n am‰nbn´p≠v. Aßs\ 2750 tImSn cq] hm¿jnI ]≤Xn C\- Ø n¬. AXn\p]pdta Xt±i`cW ÿm]\߃°v \¬Ip∂ P\d¬ ]¿∏kv {Km‚nt‚bpw sabn‚\≥kv {Km‚nt‚bpw C\Øn¬ 1500 tImSn BsI 4250 tImSn cq] Ign™ h¿jw D≠mbXn\m¬ 1100 tImSn cq]bpsS h¿[\hmWv \¬Ip∂Xv . CØ- c - Ø n¬ ]Ww e`n-°p-tºmƒ `c-Wk - a - n-Xnsb klmbn°p∂ DtZymKÿ- ∑ m¿°v Ht´sd ]n≥XpWm kwhn[m\w th≠nhcpw. AXn\v ]‰p∂ coXnbn¬ kwÿm-\ k¿°mcns‚ kwÿm\-Xe-Ønepw Pn√mXeØnepap≈ DtZymKÿhrμØns‚ ]n≥XpW th≠n-hcpw. `c-WL - S- \ hn`m-h\w sNøp∂ XcØn¬ tIcfØn¬ am{XamWv Pn√m Bkq-{XW kanXn D≈Xv. bYm¿∞Øn¬ `cW- L S\m t`ZKXn- b n¬ hn`mh\w sNøp∂X\pk-cn®v Pn√m πm\nMv IΩn‰n-bpsS A[y£≥ Pn√m ]©mbØv {]knU‚mWv. F∂m¬ ]e kwÿm\- ß fnepw a{¥ntbm As√-¶n¬ ]m¿e-sa‚ v˛\nbak`m sXc- s ™- S p∏n¬ a’cn®v tXm‰hsctbm BWv A[y£\m-°p-∂Xv. F∂m¬ tIc-f-Øn¬ Nn´ h∂n-cn°p∂p. At∏mƒ Un.]n.kn.bv°v Hcp kwhn[m\w thWw. sk{I´dntb‰v thWw. AXp≠mt°≠Xp≠v. AXv tIcfØn¬ BhiyamWv. Cu coXnbn¬ C¥ybnse Bkq{XW hnZKv[cpw, k∂≤{]h¿ØIcpw, A°mZanI cwKØp {]h¿Øn°p∂hcpw F√mw tIcfØn¬ \S°p∂ {]h¿Ø\ßsf `mhnbn¬ C¥ybnemsI \S∏mt°≠ {]h¿Ø\ambn´mWv t\m°n ImWp∂Xv. Cu Hcp ]›mØe-ØnemWv tIcfØnse A[nImc hntI{μoIcW {]h¿Ø\-߃s°Xntcbp≈ \S]SnIƒ ImtW≠Xv.„ Pqembv 2011


Ih¿tÃmdn

hIp-∏p-hn-`P - \ - hpw

hnI-k-\-Ø-I¿®bpw tUm. tXmakv sFkIv \m´n¬ \S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ Imcy-ß-fpsS t\sc C{X-b-[nIw apJw Xncn-°ptºmƒ AXn-\p-]n-∂n¬ \n£n]vX XmXv]-cy-ß-fm-Wv. AXp-sIm≠v CXv XpS-°-amWv. C\n ]eXpw hcpw CXn-s\-Xn-cm-bn. Aßs\ hcp-tºmƒ A[n-Im-c-hn-tI-{μoI-c-WsØ kwc-£n-°p-∂-Xn¬ henb P\-Iob {]Xn-tcm[w hf¿Øn-sb-Sp-t°≠Xv AXym-h-iy-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p.

Xt±i`cW hIp∏n\v Hcp a{¥n, Hcp {]n≥kn∏¬, sk{I´dn, Hcp s]mXp k¿ho-kns‚ `mK-amb DtZym-K-ÿ¿, DtZymK- ÿ ¿ Ah¿ AXmXp- X eØnse sXc-s™Sp°s∏´ P\{]Xn\n[n--Iƒ°p Iogn¬, CXmWv A[nImc hntI{μo- I cW `cWkwhn[m\w kw_‘n-®p≈ BZ¿iw. bp.Un.-F^n-s‚ kao]\w CXn\p ISI-hncp≤amWv. Ct∏mƒ 3 a{¥n-am¿. s]mXp k¿ho- k n√. {KmahnIk\ hIps∏¶nepw sXcs™Sp°s∏´ P\{]Xn\n[nIƒ°v kam¥cambn \ne\n¬°p∂p. Cßs\ Hcp kwhn[m\amWv bp.Un.F^v. Ct∏mƒ \S∏m°p∂Xv. imkv{X-KXn

Ign™ 5 h¿jw \S∏m°n-s°m≠ph∂ hfsc kp{][m\amb `cW ]cnjvImcw, CXns‚ Hmtcm kabØpap≈ cmjv{Sob, `cW kwL¿j߃ sNdpX√mbncp∂p. Hcp a{¥nbpsS Iogn¬ Hcp tIma¨ tIU¿ sIm≠phcnI. {KmahnIk\ hIp∏ns\ ]©mbØpambn kwtbmPn-∏n°pI. CsXms° \o≠p\n∂ {]{InbbpsS ^eambn´p-≠mbn´p-≈XmWv. Ah-sb√mw Hcp ho≠p-hnNmc-hpan√msX, F¥mWv \S∂p-sIm≠ncn-°p∂sX∂ N¿®-t]mep-an√msX A´nadn®p. Ct∏mƒ AXpambn _‘s∏´p {]h¿Øn®hsc√mw CXp sX‰m-

sW∂p ]d™ ]›mØe-Øn¬ CXns\ms° \ymbw I≠p- ] nSn°m≥ {ian°pIbmWv. C¥y≥ FIvk{v ]kv Zn\]{Xw aWni¶¿ Aøcpambn \SØnb A`napJØn¬ At±lw ]d™Xv CXv XnI®pw sX‰mb \S]SnbmsW∂mWv. cmPohvKm‘n kz]v\w I≠ncp∂Xv tI{μØnepw {Kma˛\Kc hIp∏pIƒ H‰ hIp∏mIWsa∂mbncp∂p. AXpsNøm≥ Ign™n√. tIcfØn¬ Hcp]t£ cmPohv K m‘ntbmSp≈ BZchmbn´mImw, As√¶n¬ tIcfØn-t‚Xmb ImcW߃ sIm≠mImw, AXp \S∏m°nbXv. CXv C¥ybv°p

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apgph≥ amXrIbmtI≠XmWv. CXn¬ \n∂p≈ ]ndtIm´pt]m°v A[nImchntI- { μo- I cWØnt\‰ ]nt∂m´SnbmWv F∂mWv aWni¶¿ Aø¿ ]d™Xv. cmjv{Sob AXn¿ hcºpIƒ°∏pdØv A[nImc hntI{μo-IcWsØ°pdn®v KuchØn¬ Nn¥n°p∂ Ghcpw FSp°p∂ Hcp kao]\anXmWv. hIp∏p hn`-P-\sØ \ymboIcn°p∂Xn\v 4 ImcWßfmWh¿ I≠p]nSn®n´p≈Xv. H∂v a‰p kwÿm-\ßfn¬ {KmahnIk\ hIp∏v thsdbmWv. \Kchpw {Kmahpw thsdthsd a{¥n- a mcpsS IognemsW∂mWv . c≠matØXv tIcfØn¬Xs∂ hyXykv X ambncp∂t√m? IÆq¿ t{]m˛sshkv Nm≥ke¿ AeIvkv Imc-b° v ens‚ I≠p-]n-SpØw hfsc ckIcamWv . 1957˛¬ Sn.hn. tXmakn\mbncp∂p \KcImcyw. NmØ≥ amÃdn\m-bncp∂p ]©mbØpImcyw. F∂n´pw Hcp {]iv\hpw D≠mbncp∂n-s√∂mWv. tIcfØn¬ Xs∂ CØcØnep- ≠ mbncp∂psh∂mWv hmZw. aq∂masØ hmZw D∂-bn-°p-∂Xv {io. sI.kn. tPmk^pw apJya{¥nbpamWv. tI{μmhnjvIrX-]≤Xn-IfpsS \SØn∏v

tIcfØn¬ tami- a mWv . AXn\p th≠{X {i≤ sImSp-°m≥ ]‰p∂n√. aq∂mbn´p Xncn®m¬ th≠{X {i≤ \¬Im≥ Ignbpw F∂-XmWv. {KmahnIk\ hIp∏v hfsc ^e{]Zambn´v tI{μmhnjvIrX ]≤XnIƒ \S∏m°pw. Imcy£aX Iq´p∂Xn\v CXpthWw F∂mWp hmZw. Ahkm\ambn´p ]dbp∂Xv aq∂p a{¥namcps≠¶nepw GtIm]\-Øn\v Hcp {]iv\hpan√t√m? apJy-a{¥n A[y-£\mb Hcp kanXnbv°v- GtIm]\w \SØp∂Xn\p Ignbpw F∂XmWv. {]n≥kn∏¬ sk{I- ´ dn F√m hIp- ∏ n\pw s]mXp-hm-bn-´mWv. CXmWv A\pIqeambn Db¿Øp∂ 4 Imcy-߃. Cu hmZ-߃ ]cn-tim-[n-°p-I. C¥ybnse a‰p kwÿm\ßfpsS {]h¿Ø\w CXn¬ tIcfØn\p amXrIb√. tIcfØn¬ am{XamWv A[nImchpw ]Whpw A\ymZriyamb coXnbn¬ Xmtgbv°p \¬Inbn´p≈Xv. 2002˛03˛¬ C¥ybnse tI{μ˛kwÿm\ k¿°mcpIƒ F√mhcpw IqSn sNehgn®Xns‚ 10 iXam\w am{XamWv ]©mbØpw ap\nkn]men‰nbpw hgn sNehgn®Xv. A[nImchntI{μoIcWsams° Cu cq]Øn¬ D≠mbn

tIcfØn¬ am{XamWv A[nImchpw ]Whpw A\ymZriyamb coXnbn¬ Xmtgbv°p \¬Inbn´p≈Xv. 2002˛03˛¬ C¥ybnse tI{μ˛kwÿm\ k¿°mcpIƒ F√mhcpw IqSn sNehgn®Xns‚ 10 iXam\w am{X-amWv ]©mbØpw ap\nkn]men‰nbpw hgn sNehgn®Xv.

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[\ImcyIΩoj\pIƒ°v cq]w \¬In {]h¿Øn°p∂ kmlNcyØnepw CXmWv C¥ybnse ÿnXn. `qcn]£w kwÿm\ßfnepw ]≠p sImSp-°p∂tX Ct∏mgpw \¬Ip∂p≈q. tIcfØnteXpt]mse thWsa∂mWv cmPohv Km‘n am{Xa√ Ct∏mƒ hoc∏ sambv e nbpsS AUv a n\nkv t{S‰ohv dnt^mw IΩn‰nbpw \n¿t±in°p∂Xv. 1957 se tIcf k¿°mcns\∏‰n ]d™t√m? icnbmWv c≠p a{¥namcmbncp∂p. ]t£ B k¿°m¿ A[n-Imc hntI{μoIcW \nbaw Ah-X-cn-∏n-®n-cp-∂p. B \nb-a-{]-Imcw c≠p a{¥nam¿ ]‰n√mbncp∂p. ]©mbØpw ap\nkn-]men‰nbpw D≠v. AXpIgn™m¬ apIfn¬ Pn√m Iu¨kn¬ D≠mbncp∂p. IfIvS¿ sk{I´dnbmbncp∂p. B \nbaw ]mkm-bncp-∂n-cp-s∂-¶n¬ NmØ≥ amÃdp-tSbpw Sn.hn. tXmaknt‚bpw hIp∏pIƒ HcmfpsS IognemtI-≠nhcpw. CXmWv 1957˛se BZ¿iw. ]t£ AXp \S∂n√. F∂m¬ hoc∏sambven AUvan\nkvt{S-‰ohv dnt^mwkv IΩn‰n ]d-bp-∂Xv 1957˛se t]mse Pn√m Iu¨kn¬ C¥y apgp-h≥ thWw F∂mWv. C\n GsX¶nepw kwÿm-\-Øn\Xnt\mSv FXn¿∏p- s ≠¶n¬ XmXv ] cyap≈ kwÿm\- ß ƒ°v Pn√m ]©mbØn\p]Icw Pn√m Iu¨kn¬ BIs´ F∂p \n¿t±in®ncn°pIbmWv . AXns‚ IcSv `cWLS\m t`ZKXn Ah¿ kwÿm\߃°v hnXcWw sNbvXp Ign™p. At∏mgmWv a‰p kwÿm\ßfmWv tIcfØn\p amXrI F∂p ]d™v Nne hnZzm∑m¿ Cdßnbn´p≈Xv. tIc-fØ - n\v a‰p kwÿm-\ß - ƒ amXrIb√. a‰p kwÿm\ßfn¬\n∂v hfsc hyXykv X amb henb Hcp `cW ]co£WamWv tIcfØnt‚Xv. c≠matØXv, tIcfØns‚ A\p`hw ]cn-tim-[n-°mw. P\Iobmkq{XW-ImeØv {KmahnIk\ hIp∏pw Xt±-i`cW hIp∏pw c≠mbn´p \n¬°pI- b mbncp∂p. AXns‚ {]iv \ ßfpw D≠mbn. tªm°v ]©mbØpambn´v kwtbmPnXa√mØ coXnbn¬ tªm°p \n¬°p∂Xv hntI{μoIcWØn\v XSkamsW∂ \nKa\ØnemWv FØnt®¿∂Xv. ]≤Xnbn¬ tI{μm-hnjvIrX kvIoapIsfm∂pw Iq´n-tN¿°m≥ Ignbn√. A[nImc hntI- { μo- I cWØns‚ ASnÿm\ XXz- Ø n\v FXncmWXv. Hmtcm X´nepap≈ DtZymKÿ¿ B X´nse P\{]Xn\n-[nIfpambn _‘s∏´mWv Pqembv 2011


{]h¿Øn- t °≠Xv . \m\mhn[- Ø nep≈ {]iv\ß - ƒ a\knem°nbn´mWv Un.B¿.Un.-F. \n¿Øem°p∂Xn\pw kwtbmPn-∏n°p∂Xn\pap≈ Xocpam\w 2000˛¬ FSpØXv. 2001˛¬ bp.Un.F^v. k¿°m¿ A[n-Im-cØ - n¬ h∂-t∏mƒ Un.B¿.Un.F. ]p\cp-÷ohn∏n®p. {KmahnI-k\-Øn\v thsdmcp hIp∏p a{¥n. Aß-s\ Imcy߃ am‰n-adn®p. Ign™ F¬.Un.F^v k¿°m¿ hcpØnb G‰hpw {][m\ am‰w 1996˛2000 ImesØ A\p`hØn¬ \n∂pw FØnt®¿∂ \nKa\ßfpsS ASnÿm-\-Øn-emWv. Un.B¿.Un.F. \n¿Ø- e m°pIbm- b n- c p- ∂ n√. Pn√m ]©mb-Øpambn ebn∏n°pI-bmWp sNbvXXv. tªm°pXe-Ønse DtZymKÿsc tªm°p ]©m-b-Øpambn ebn∏n®p. A\p`hØns‚ ASnÿm\ØnemWv Cu am‰ßƒ hcp-Øn-bXv. CXmWv tIcf- Ø ns‚ A\p`hw. Cßs\ \o≠ ]cn-{i-ahpw A\p-`hhpw ]cn-tim-[-\bpw tIcfØn¬ C°mcysØ-°pdn®p \S∂n´ps≠∂ hnhcw C√mØhcmWv Ct∏mƒ `cn°p∂Xv. N¿®-If - p-sSbpw [mc-Wb - psSbpw ASnÿm\Øn¬ a\ nem°nbn´p sNøp∂XmsW¶n¬ a\ nem°mw. N¿®bpw ]cntim[\bpan√. CXmWv c≠masØ Imcyw. tIcfØns‚ A\p`hw hyXykvXamWv. aq∂masØ hmZw, {KmahnIk\ hIp∏v thdn´v kzX{¥ambn´p \n¬t°≠Xv tI{μmhnjvIrX ]≤XnIƒ \S∏m-°m≥ hfsc {][m\amWv. tIcfØn\v Hcp]mSv ]Ww \jvSam-bns°m≠ncn°p∂p. IW°pIƒ ]cn-tim-[n°p-I. {KmahnIk\ hIp∏v Ign™ k¿°m-cns‚ ImeØv tªm°p]©mbØn¬ \n∂v thdn´p \n¬°pIbmbncp∂p. F¬.Un.-F^v. `cWImeØv kwtbmPn∏n®mWv \n¬°p∂Xv. tI{μ kv I oan¬ G‰hpw {][m\s∏´Xv ]n.Fw.Fkv.Pn.ssh. BWv. AXns‚ Ahÿ ]cn-tim-[n-°p-tºmƒ 2001-˛06˛¬ 376 Intem ao‰¿ ssZ¿Ly-ap≈ 194 tdmUpIƒ \n¿an-®p. F∂m¬ 2006˛11 ¬ k¿°m¿ 692 Intem ao‰¿ ssZ¿Lyap≈ 376 tdmUpIƒ ]q¿ØoI-cn®p. Atemt°-j≥ A\phZn®Xv 195 tImSncq] bp.Un.-F^v.k¿°mcpw; kwtbmPn∏n® F¬.Un.F^v. k¿°mcns‚ ImeØv 750 tImSn cq]bpam-sW∂mWv IW°v . GXmWv sa®w? Fkv.Pn.Fkv.ssh, 117 tImSn cq]bmbncp∂p 2001-˛06 ¬ sNehgn®Xv. 2006˛11 ¬ 215 tImSn cq]bpw. A\p-hZn®Xv c≠nSØpw 100 iXam\w sNe-hmimkv{X-KXn

Xmtgbv°v A[nImcw \¬In DtZym-K-ÿsc P\-{]-Xn-\n-[n-bpsS Xmtgbv°p sIm≠p hcp∂Xv Imcy-£-aX Iq´pw F∂XmWv A\p`hw. adn®v Imcy߃ Xocpam\n°m≥ UbdIvtS‰n¬ ^b¬ t]mIWw. AhnsS-\n∂v sk{I´dntb‰n¬ t]mbn Xncn®pht∂ ]‰q F¶n¬ AXv Imcy-£aX Ipd-bv°pIbmWv sNøpI. AXpsIm≠v Imcy£aX h¿[n∏n°m\mWv R߃ aq∂mbn´v Xncn°p-∂Xv F∂p ]dbp∂Xn¬ bmsXmcSn-ÿm\hpw Cs√∂p ]dtb≠nhcpw.

bn´p≠v. (Fkv.Pn.Fkv.ssh. bn¬ kvs]jy¬ Fkv.Pn.Fkv.ssh.Dw lcnbm-enbpw tN¿Øn´v) AXpsIm≠mWv IqSpX¬ ]Ww sNehgn®Xv. iXam\saSpØn´ps≠¶n¬ Hcp hyXymkhpan√. sF.F.ssh.bpsS ImcyØnepw GXm≠nXpXs∂bmWv \ne. sF.F.ssh 306 tImSn cq] bp.Un.F^v . ImeØv . F¬.Un.F^v . 4 h¿jw- s Im≠v 579 tImSn cq] sNehgn®p. \n¿hlWw tamiambn F∂ hmZ- Ø n\v ASn- ÿ m- \ - a n- √ . Fkv.Fkv.F. 2006-˛11 ¬ 557 tImSn cq] A\p- h Zn®Xn¬ ]IpXntb sNehgn®p≈q. 2006-˛11-˛¬ 733 tImSn cq]bmWv h∂Xv. 4 h¿jwsIm≠v 83 iXam\amWv sNe- h gn®Xv . (5˛10 h¿j- s Ø IW°m- ° nbn´n√). F≥.B¿.- F ®v . Fw. 2005- ˛ 06 emWv Bcw`n°p∂Xv . 11 iXam\amWv A∂sØ sNehv. F∂m¬ AXn-\pti-j-ap≈ Ime-b-f-hn¬ 2011 am¿®v 31˛mw XobXn AXphsc In´nb ]WØns‚ 82 iXam\w sNehgn®p. GXp `cWImeØmWv IqSpX¬ Imcy£aambn sNehm°nbXv. ]n.Fw.Pn.Fkv.ssh. ]Ww sNehgn-°p∂Xv a‰p kwÿm\ßsf°mƒ Aev]w Ipd™ncn°p∂Xn\p ImcWw am\ZWvUßfmWv. AXp-sIm≠v, Imcy£aXbv°p th≠n {KmahnIk\ hIp∏ns\ thdn´p \n¿ØWw F∂ hmZØn\v bmsXmcSn-ÿm\hpan√. IW°pIƒ CXns\- X ncmWv . Cßs\ hmZn°p∂h¿ bYm¿∞Øn¬ P\m[n]Xy A[nImc hntI{μoIcWsØ X≈n∏dbp-IbmWv. Xmtgbv ° v A[nImcw \¬In DtZym-K-ÿsc P\-{ ]-Xn-\n-[n-bpsS Xmtgbv°p sIm≠p hcp-∂Xv Imcy-£aX Iq´pw F∂XmWv A\p`hw. adn®v Imcy߃ Xocpam\n°m≥ UbdIvtS‰n¬ ^b¬ t]mIWw. AhnsS-\n∂v sk{I´dntb‰n¬ t]mbn Xncn®pht∂ ]‰q F¶n¬ AXv Imcy-£aX Ipdbv°pIbmWv sNøpI. AXpsIm≠v Imcy£aX h¿[n∏n-°m\mWv R߃ aq∂mbn´v Xncn°p- ∂ Xv F∂p ]dbp∂Xn¬ bmsXmcSn-ÿm\hpw Cs√∂p ]dtb≠nhcpw. 4˛atØXv GtIm]\w. Ct∏mƒ GtIm]\Øn\pth≠nbn´v Hcp a{¥nbpsS Iognembn´pt]mepw GtIm]\w {]iv\ap≠v. ImcWw aq∂p UbdIvS¿amcps≠∂p am{Xa√ a‰p hIp∏pIfpw hcp∂p≠v. Irjnbpambn _‘- s ∏´ hnj- b - ß - f n¬ F√m hIp∏pIfpw Xmtgbv ° p hcWw. A[nImc hntI{μoIcWw F∂Xv

17


sh¿´n°¬ _‘߃°p ]Icw tlmdntkm≠¬ _‘߃ hnhn[ hIp∏pIƒ XΩn¬ D≠m°emWv. Xmsg X´n¬ \n¿h-l-W-XeØn¬ F√m hIp-∏p-Ifpw ]©m-b-Øp-ambn kwtbm-Pn-∏n®p t]mI-Ww. kwtbm-Pn°p∂ ta¬-˛I - ogv _‘-ßf - mWv DtZymK-ÿ¿°p kzoIm-cyw. slmdn-tkm-≠¬ _‘-߃ apI-fnepw Xmsgbpw D≠m°-Ww. Xmg-Øp-≠m-°p-∂X - n-s\-°mƒ {]iv\w apI-fn¬ D≠m-°p-∂-Xm-Wv. XmgØv Iptd {]iv\ß - ƒ Ds≠-¶nepw P\- ß ƒ CS- s ]- S p- t ºmƒ AXn\p \n¿_-‘n-X-am-Ipw. Hmtcm hIp-∏n\pw a{¥n hgntb GtIm-]\w hcp-∂p-≈q. AXn\p th≠n-bn-´mWv tIm˛-Hm¿Un-t\j≥ IΩn‰n D≠m-°nbncp-∂X - v. Hcp a{¥n-bpsS Iogn-em-bn-cp-∂n-´p-t]mepw Xt±i-`c - W hIp-∏ns‚ C∂sØ Ah-ÿbn¬Xs∂ BgvNb - n¬ \mepw A©pw aWn-°q¿ t]mIp-∂Xv Cu GtIm-]\w kw_-‘n® tbmK-Øn-\p th≠n-bm-bncp∂p. hIp∏p hn`-P-\sØ A\p-Iq-en-®psIm- s ≠- g p- X nb Hcp teJ- \ - Ø n¬ DtZym-K-ÿ≥ A[y-£X hln-°p-∂Xn-\p-]-Icw apJy-a{¥n A[y-£X hln-°p-∂-Xt√ \√Xv F∂p ]d-™ncn-°p∂p. bmYm¿∞yw a\-kn-em-°m≥ Ign-bm-ØX - p-sIm-≠m-Wn-ßs\ ]d-bp-∂Xv. \n∂p Xncn-bm≥ ka-b-an-√mØ a{¥n-am¿ GtIm-]\ - Ø - n-\p-IqSn kabw Is≠-Øp-∂Xv hfsc {]bm-kI - c - a- m-W,v Xocp-am-\hpw Xo¿∏pw D≠m-In-√. CXp-hsc D≠m-°n-sb-SpØ c≠p Imcy-ßf - psS IS-bv°¬ IØn-hb - v°pI-bm-W.v H∂v s]mXp k¿ho-k.v F≥Pn\o-bd - nwKv s]mXp k¿hokv h∂p. C\n an\n-Ão-cn-b¬ Poh-\-°msc tIma¨ tIU-dn-tebv°p sIm≠p hcm-\p≈

18

kvs]jy¬ dqƒkv F√mw cq]-s∏SpØn sIm- ≠ n- c n- ° p- I - b m- b n- c p- ∂ p. AXmsI C√m- X m- ° n- b n- c n- ° p- ∂ p. s]mXp-k¿hokv D≠m-°n-°g - n-™m¬ \K-cØ - n¬ \n∂pw DtZym-Kÿ - sc ]©mb-Øn-te°v ssIam-dpw. ÿe-am-‰Ø - n\v Ct∏mƒ \K-ch - I - p∏p a{¥n-bpsS AwKoImcw thWw. {]mtbm-KnIXe-sØ-°pdn®v Nn¥n-®n-´√ Ch¿ CsXm∂pw sNøp-∂X - v. s]mXp k¿hokv cq]o-Ic - n°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ \o°w Ah-km-\n-°pIbmWv CXns‚ ^ew.c≠m-at- ØXv \K-ck - `- I - fpw ]©mbØpw GtIm-]n-Xa - mbn \n¬°p-∂X - psIm≠v \nc-h[n s]mXp-ÿm-]\ - ß - ƒ cq]-s∏-´n-´p-≠v. Hmw_pUvkvam≥, A∏e‰v AtXm-dn-‰n, IpSpw-_{io F∂nßs\ H´-\-h[n s]mXp-kw-hn-[m-\߃ cq]-s∏-´n-´p-≠v. C∂sØ ]{XØn¬ I≠Xv AXn\v GsX-¶nepw Hcp a{¥nsb G¬]n-®m¬ aXn-sb-∂m-Wv. GsX-¶nepw Hcp a{¥nsb G¬]n®mepw ssIImcyw sNøp∂ hIp-∏n¬ Cu s]mXp ÿm]\w AhnsS kzm[o\w sNep-Øpw. c≠p a{¥nam¿°pw Hcp hnj-b-Øn¬ GI A`n{]mbw ImW-W-sa-∂n-√. CsX√mw {]iv\ß - f - psS XpS-°a - m-W.v ^e-Øn¬ s]mXp ÿm]-\ß - f - msI A{]-[m-\a - m°- s ∏- S p- I - b m- W v . F¥n- \ mWv Cu kmlkw ImWn-°p-∂X - v. kmam-\y-bp‡nbv°p \nc-°mØ Imcy-ßf - mWv ]dbp-∂X - v. C∂v C¥y-bn¬ tIc-fØ - nse A[nIm-c-hn-tI-{μo-I-cW ]co-£-WsØ henb XmXv]-cy-tØmSp t\m°n-°mWp∂ tPm¿Pv amXyp-hns\t]mep-≈h¿ \nc-h[n t]cp-≠v. A[n-Imc hntI{μo-I-cWw C¥y-bn¬ bmYm¿∞y-amIWsa∂m- { K- l n- ° p∂ Ipsd \√

Bfp-Iƒ D≠v. \nc-h[n ]cn-an-Xn-I-fps≠-¶nepw Hcp Bim-\m-f-am-Wn-Xv. A\p-{K-l-am-bn´v apt∂m´v t]mIp-IbmWv ]nd-tIm´p t]mbn-´n-√. Pn√m Iu¨kn¬ cq]o-I-cn-®p. AXv Kf-lkvXw sNø-s∏-´p. AXn¬\n∂p hyXy-kvXa - mbn 1996-˛2001 ¬ P\Io-bm-kq-{XWw \S-∏m-°s - ∏-´p. as‰mcp k¿°m¿ h∂n´pw D≠mb Nn´-h´- ß - ƒ BsI XInSw adn-™n-√. Nne hyXymk-߃ h∂n-´p-≠v. AXv cmjv{Sob hyXym-k-ß-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ kzm`m-hn-Ia - mbn hcp-∂X - m-W.v ]nd-tIm´v ]q¿W-ambpw t]mIp∂ {]iv\-an-√. apt∂m-´mWv thKX Ipd-hm-sW-¶n-epw. ÿm]-\-h-XvI-cWw \mw hnNm-cn-®t]mse h∂n- √ . ]t£ XI¿∂n´v ]n∂oSv ]pXp°n ]Wn-tb≠ {]iv\-an√m-bn-cp-∂p. bp.-Un.-F^v `c-WI - m-eØv 2001 ¬ \n∂p ]ns∂bpw ]Sn- I ƒ apt∂m´p t]mIm≥ Ign-™p. 2011-˛¬ 2006 \p ap≥]p≈ Ime-L´-Øn-te°v tIc-f-Ønse A[n-Imc hntI-{μo-Ic - W - sØ sIm≠p-t]m-Ip-Ibm-Wv. CXv Hcp A´n-a-dn-°p∂ XpS-°am-Wv. AXp-sIm-≠mWv {]Xn-tj[w D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv. {]Xn-tj[w sIm≠v CXmsI Xncp-Øm≥ Ignbp-sa∂v Dd∏p-≈-Xp-sIm-≠-√. CXv A´n-a-dn-bpsS XpS-°a - m-sW-∂X - n-\m-em-W.v `mhn-bn-se¶nepw CØcw \S-]Sn Bh¿Øn-°cp-sX∂Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv. Nne-sc-¶nepw P\-]£ - Øp\n∂pw tNmZy-߃ tNmZn°p∂ Hcp kml-Ncyw D≠m-I-W-sa∂p-≈-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv. Cu kml-N-cyØn¬ Hcp tNmZyw kzm`m-hn-I-ambn Db¿∂p-hc - p-∂p. F¥n\mWn kmlkw ImWn-®Xv?. ap∂Wn kΩ¿±-߃ aqeam-sW-∂m-Wv aWn-i¶ - ¿ Aø¿ ]d-™Xv. cmjv{Sob kΩ¿±-߃, Iq´p-I£n `c-Ww XpS-ßnbhbm-W-Xn-tebv°p \bn-°p-∂s - X-∂m-W.v Hcp ]m¿´n-°p-≈net√ ]©m-bØpw \K-chpw hIp∏pIƒ D≈-X.v F¥v ap∂Wn cmjv{Sob kΩ¿±-am-W-hnsS D≈-sX∂p hy‡a√. Agn-aXn F∂ H‰ Imcy-am-{Xta CXn\p ]n∂n-ep≈q. ImcWw \K-cß - fnse sI´n-S-\n-IpXn Hgn-hm-°¬ Hcp Idh ]ip-hm-Wv. AXp-t\-cn´v I≠n´p≠v Ign™ bp.-Un.-F^v k¿°m¿ Ime-Øv. Xt±-i-kz-bw-`-cW hIp-∏pa{¥n Ip´n Al-ΩZv Ip´n-bmWv. At±l-Øn\v A[n-Im-c-hn-tI-{μo-I-c-WtØmSv ASn-ÿm\ {]Xn-_≤ - X - b - p-≠v. Ifhp ImWn-°p-Ibpw C√. At±lw Ah- k m- \ - \ m- f n¬ Hcp BIvknU‚ n¬s]´v as‰m- c mƒ°v Npa- X e sImSp-Øp. B L´-Øn¬ \ne-hn-ep≈ Su¨πm-\sd eosh-Sp-∏n®v as‰m-cmsf apI-fn¬ {]Xn-jvTn®v apgp-h≥ \nIpXn Pqembv 2011


Hgn-hm-°¬ ^b-ep-Ifpw 2˛3 amkw sIm≠v A\p-h-Zn®p sImSp-Øv tImSnI-ƒ X´n-sbSpØp. {io. Ip´n Al-ΩZvIp´n Xncn-®p-h-∂-Xn-\p-tijw CØ-cØn- e p≈ Ipd®p ^b¬ H∏n- ´ n- √ . Aßs\ CS-Xp-]£ k¿°m¿ h∂t∏mƒ ^b- e p- I ƒ k¿°m- c ns‚ ap∂n¬ h∂-t∏m-gmWv Cu°mcy-߃ Adn-bp-∂X - v. Agn-aX - n-b√ - msX as‰mcp \ymbhpw CXn¬ ImWp-∂n-√. Hcp ]m¿´n-bn-se-Xs∂ c≠p a{¥n-am¿°n-Sbn¬ ÿm\w ]¶p-h-bv°p-∂-Xns‚ bp‡nbpw \ymbhpw as‰m- ∂ m- W v . A√msX Hcp Iq´p-I£n`cW kΩ¿±sam-∂p-a√ - . kmam\y bp‡nbv°p \nc°mØ Imcy-߃ tIc-f-Ønse P\ß-tfmSp ]d-bm-sa∂v Chn-SsØ `c-Wm[n-Im-cn-Iƒ Nn¥n-°-cp-Xv. {Kma-hn-Ik - \ - h - I - p∏v FSp-Øp- am‰nbXv tI{μm-hn-jvIrX ]≤-Xn-I-fpsS \nb-{¥Ww ssI°-em-°p-∂X - n-\m-Wv. Cu ]≤-Xn-Iƒ \S-∏m-°p∂ kao-]-\Øn¬ tI{μ k¿°m-cn-\p-am‰w hcp-∂p. k¿°m¿ t\cn´p sNtø≠, k∂≤ kwL-S-\-Iƒ hgn sNømw. CXmWv ASn-ÿm-\] - c - a - mb am‰w. ]©m-bØp hIp-∏n-s\m-∏a - mWv {Kma-hn-Ik - \ hIps∏- ¶ n¬ ]©m- b Øp hgn- b - √ msX CsXm∂pw \S-∏m-°m-\m-In-√. k∂≤ kwL-S-\-Iƒ°v Ah-cp-tS-Xmb ]¶p≠v. ]t£ ]©m-bØ - ns‚ A[n-Imcw Ih-cm≥ Hcp k∂≤ kwL-S\ - s - bbpw tIc-f-Øn¬ A\p-h-Zn-°n-√. Fkv.-Pn.-F-kv.-ssh. ]≤Xn a‰p kwÿm-\ß - f - n¬ Ct∏mƒXs∂ k∂≤-kw-LS- \ hgn-bmWv \S-∏m-°p-∂X - .v ChnsS Fkv.P - n.-Fk - .v s - sh. ]≤-Xn-b° v p]-Icw F≥.-B¿.-F¬.-Fw. hcn-Ib - m-W.v AXv IpSpw-_{io hgn-bmWv \S-∏m-°p∂-X.v IpSpw-_{- io-bpsS IqSn amXrI FSpØp- s Im- ≠ mWv CØ- c - Ø n- e p≈ Ab¬Iq´ kwhn-[m\w D≠m°n AXneqsS Zmcn{Zyw AI-‰p-∂X - n-\p≈ \S-]S- nIƒ FSp-°p-∂Xv. AXn\v kvIow thWw. C¥y-bn¬ kzbw-klmb kwL kwhn[m\w ]©m-bØ - n\p-Iogn-ep≈ GI kwÿm\w Chn-sS-bm-W.v _m°n-sb-√mbn-SØpw k∂-≤k - w-LS- \ - I - f - m-W.v tIc-fØ - n¬ kzbw klm-bk - wLw th≠ Ab¬°q-´a - m-Ip∂-XmWv \√Xv F∂mWv Xocp-am-\n-®Xv. AXn-\p-Im-cWw Zcn-{Z-cm-bh - ¿ Xßsf klm-bn-°p∂-Xn-\m-cp-an-√; ]©m-b-Øp-an-√, ap\nkn-∏m-en-‰n-bp-an-√; \Ωsf klm-bn°m≥ \Ωƒ am{Xta F∂p≈ HcmZ¿i-am-Wp-≈-Xv. Zcn-{Z-cm-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv \mw kzbw klm-bn-°m-ØX - p-sIm-≠mWv F∂ Nn¥m-co-Xn-bm-WXv. Iqen Ipd™-tXm, hne-bn-Sn-™tXm t]mep≈ imkv{X-KXn

tIc-f-Øn¬ F≥.-B¿.-F¬.-Fw. \S-∏m-°p-∂Xv IpSpw-_{io hgn-bmWv a‰p kzbw-k-lmb kwL߃ hgn-b-√. tIc-f-Øn¬ IpSpw-_{io kwhn-[m\w D≠m-°n-sb-Sp-°p-∂-Xn\p ]n∂n¬ sNdnb A[zm-\a√ th≠n-h-∂-Xv. AXns‚ Nn´-Iƒ, coXn-Iƒ AXn\v kam-¥-c-am-bn-s´m-∂p-an-√. AXp-hgn F≥.-B¿.-F¬.Fw. ssI°-em-°mw. Dt±iw AXns‚ \nb-{¥Ww ssI°-em-°m-\p≈ {ia-am-Wv. Imc-Wß - ƒ sIm≠p-≠m-bX - √ Zmcn{Zyw adn®v kºm-Zn-°m-ØX - p-sIm-≠m-sW∂v Nn¥ D≠m- ° p- ∂ p. AXp- s Im≠v AXn\p ]cn-lmcw \Ωƒ kºm-Zn-°pI-bm-sW-∂-XmWv AXns‚ Bi-bw. Cu BZ¿isØ X≈n-∏d - b - m≥ th≠nbn-´mWv IpSpw-_{io cq]o-Ic - n-®t- ∏mƒ IpSpw-_{io Ab¬°q´w D≠m-°n-bX - .v tIc-f-Øn¬ F≥.-B¿.-F¬.-Fw. \S-∏m-°p-∂Xv IpSpw-_{io hgn-bmWv a‰p kzbw-k-lmb kwL-߃ hgn-b√. tIc-f-Øn¬ IpSpw-_{io kwhn[m\w D≠m- ° n- s b- S p- ° p- ∂ - X n\p ]n∂n¬ sNdnb A[zm-\-a√ th≠n-h∂-Xv. AXns‚ Nn´-Iƒ, coXn-Iƒ; AXn\v kam-¥c - a - m-bn-s´m-∂p-an-√. AXphgn F≥.-B¿.-F¬.-Fw. ssI°-em°mw. Dt±iw AXns‚ \nb-{¥Ww ssI°-em-°m-\p≈ {ia-am-Wv. ]©mb- Ø n¬\n∂p thdn- ´ p\n¬°p∂ {Kma-hn-Ik - \ hIp∏v AXn\p-Io-gn¬ Fkv.-Pn.-F-kv.-ssh.bv°v BZy-Im-eØv kzbw klm-b-kw-L߃ \S-∏m-°n-b-t]mse F≥.-B¿.F¬.-Fw.\v ]pXnb kwLw D≠m-°p∂-Xn-\mtWm e£yw? AX√ P\{io

hgn-bm-°p-Ibpw IpSpw-_{io th≠ F∂p Xocpam-\n-°m-\pamtWm? CXv XpS-°a - m-W.v CXv bmZr-On-Ia - mbn kw`hn-°p-∂-X-√. \n£n]vX XmXv]-cy-ßfpsS krjvSn-bmWv Cu hIp-∏p-Isf aq∂mbn sh´n-ap-dn-®X - v. AXp-sIm-≠nXv XpS-°-am-Wv. Ip™m-en-°p´n kmln_n\p tXm∂nb ho≠p- h n- N mcw t]mepw tIc-fØ - ns‚ apJy-a{- ¥n-bv°ns√-∂Xv hfsc Zu¿`m-Ky-Ic - a - m-bn-´p≈ ÿnXn-bm-W.v Cu hna¿i\w h∂-t∏mƒ R߃ ]cn-tim-[n°mw F∂p Ip™men-°p´n ]d-™p. F∂m¬ apJy-a{¥n C\nsbmcp ]p\x-]c - n-tim-[\ - b - p-an-s√∂p ]d-™t- ∏mƒ Fs¥mcp [m¿jvSyhpw Hu≤Xy-hp-am-Wv {]I-Sn-∏n-®Xv. \m´n¬ \S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ Imcyß-fpsS t\sc C{X-b[ - nIw apJw Xncn°p-tºmƒ AXn-\p-]n-∂n¬ \n£n]vX XmXv]c - y-ßf - m-Wv. AXp-sIm≠v CXv XpS-°a - m-Wv. C\n ]eXpw hcpw CXns\-Xn-cm-bn. Aßs\ hcp-tºmƒ A[nIm-ch - n-tI-{μo-Ic - W - sØ kwc-£n-°p-∂Xn¬ henb P\-Iob {]Xn-tcm[w hf¿Øn-sb-Sp-t°-≠Xv AXym-hi - y-am-bncn-°p-∂p.„

19


Ih¿tÃmdn kmaqly \nco-£W thZn-kwL-Sn-∏n® skan-\m-dn¬ kw_-‘n-®p-sIm≠v s{]m^.Fw.-F.-D-Ω≥, tUm.-sI.-]n.-I-Æ≥ F∂n-h¿ \S-Ønb {]kw-Kß-fpsS {]k‡ `mK-߃

P\-]-¶m-fnØ hnI-k-\-Øns‚

\ntj[w s{]m^. Fw.-F.-D-Ω≥ ]©m-bØv Hcmƒ°v, \Kcw thsdm-cmƒ°v, Bkq-{XWw as‰m-cmƒ°v F∂nßs\bmIp-tºmƒ Fhn-sS-bmWv hnIk\ Z¿i-\w? P\-ß-fpsS apºn¬ Ah-Xcn-∏n-°m-\p≈ ImgvN-∏mSv F¥mWv? C∂sØ Hcp Znh-ksØ Imcy-a-√n-Xv. `mhnsb-°p-dn-®p≈ Zo¿L-ho-£-W-Øns‚ ImX-emb Hcp {]iv\-amWv. AXp-sIm≠mWv Rm≥ CXns\ i‡-ambn FXn¿-°p-∂Xv.

Ign™ 10-˛15 h¿jw Hcp al-Ømb ]co-£Ww tIc-fØ - n¬ \S-Øs - ∏-´n-cp∂p. 1996 BKÃv 1 apX¬ C∂p-hsc \S∂ Xt±-iob P\m-[n-]Xy ]co-£Ww tIc-fØ - ns‚ aÆn¬ F{X-I≠v ^e{]-Za - mbn thcq∂n F∂ {]k-‡a - mb tNmZyw tNmZn-t°≠ Hcp Ncn-{X-aqlq¿Ø-Øn-te°v GXm≠v \mw \oßns°m- ≠ n- c n- ° pI- b m- W v . C¥y- b n¬

20

Ign™ 75 sIm√-ß-fmbn P\-߃ At\z-jn-®, B{K-ln-®, {]Xo-£n® ]¶m-fnØ P\m-[n-]X - y-Øns‚ B L´am-bn-cp∂p 73, 74 `c-WL - S- \m t`Z-KXn. AXn\p IqSp- X ¬ A¿∞hpw am\hpw \¬Ip-hm≥ Ign™p-. {]mXn\n[y P\m-[n-]Xyw Ign™ 200 h¿jß-fmbn \ne-hn-en-cp∂ ]co-£W - a - mWv. AXv hmkvX-h-Øn¬ ]cm-P-b-s∏´p

F∂Xv \ap-°d - n-bmw. Iptd Bfp-Isf sXc-s™-Sp-Øp-hn-´X - n-\p-tijw _me‰v s]´nbn¬ am{Xw Ah-km-\n-°p∂ P\m-[n-]Xyw icn-bmb P\m-[n-]X - y-a√ - . Hc¿∞-Øn¬ _me‰v s]´nbv°p-ti-jamWv ]e Imcy-߃°pw AXns‚ cq]hpw `mhhpw D≠mIp-∂X - v. Cu ASp-ØI - m-eØ - p≈ hnI-k\ kmlnXyw- ]cn-tim-[n-°p-Ib - m-sW-¶n¬ Pqembv 2011


hfsc hy‡-ambn Xs∂ tI{μo-IrX kao-]\ - a - √, hnI-k\ - Ø - n\v Xt±-io-bamb Xe-ap-s≠∂v s]mXpsh AwKo-Icn-°s - ∏-Sp-∂X - mbn a\-kn-em-Ipw. Xt±io-bX - e - Ø - n¬ P\ ]¶m-fn-Øt- ØmsS, Ah-cpsS `mhnsb \nb-{¥n-°m\pw \n›-bn-°p-hm-\p-ap≈ kuI-cyhpw A[n-Im-chpw Ah-Im-ihpw sImSp-°p∂ {]{Inb ASp-ØI - m-eØv hfsc i‡ambn XpS-ßn-bn-´p-≠v. hfsc {]i-kvX\mb imkv{X-⁄≥ {]W_v cØ≥, At±-lØ - ns‚ Hcp {]_‘w XpS-ßp∂-Xp-Xs∂ ‘World today is confronting in a rage towards decentralisation’ F∂mWv B rage s‚ `mKw IqSn-bm-bn-cp-∂p tIcf-Øn¬ \S∂ A[n-Im-ch - n-tI-{μo-Ic - Ww. F¥m-bn-cp∂p AXns‚ {]k‡n? P\-߃ Iq´-ambn Nn¥n®v Ah-tcmsSm∏w Ah- c psS A`n- { ]m- b - ß ƒ Adn™v \mSns‚ hnI-k\w GXp-Zn-ibn¬ sIm≠p-t]m-IW - s - a∂v Xocp-am-\n°m-\p≈ Ah-Im-ihpw kzmX-{¥yhpw tIhew \nb-a-]p-kvX-I-Øn¬ HXp°msX Xmtg°v \¬Ip-∂X - n\v {ian®p F∂-XmWv. P\-]¶ - m-fn-ØØ - ns‚ taJe-Isf hn]p-e-s∏-Sp-Øp-I, {Kma-k` hnfn-®p-Iq-´p-I, AXn-\p-ti-ja - p≈ hnIk-\-dn-t∏m¿´v, hnI-k\ skan-\m¿, h¿°nMv {Kq∏p-Iƒ, `c-WL - S- \ Xs∂ hyhÿ sNøp∂ Pn√m Bkq-{X-Wk-anXn F∂n-ßs\ ]e-Xe-Ønepw X´pI-fn-ep-ambn P\-ßsf Dƒs°m-≈n-®psIm≠v Ah- c psS ap≥K- W - \ - I ƒ

imkv{X-KXn

P\m-[n-]Xyw i‡-ambn apt∂m-´p-t]m-I-W-sa-∂ps≠-¶n¬ AXns\ Du´nbp-d-∏n-°p∂-Xn\mbn AXn\p t{]c-I-amb, ÿm]-\-]-c-am-b, \nb-a-]c-amb kuI-cy-߃ Hcpt°-≠-Xm-bn-´p-≠v. \ap°v Ht´sd {]iv\-߃ BgØn¬ Bflm¿∞-ambn Nn¥n-°p∂ Hcp kml-Ncy-Øn¬ \Ω-fpsS apºn¬ hcpw. F¥psIm≠v tIc-f-Øns‚ hnI-k-\sØ I£n cmjv{So-b-Øn-\-Xo-X-ambn ImWm≥ Ign-bp-∂n√ F∂ bmYm-¿∞yw \mw hnkva-cn-°m≥ ]mSp-≈-X-√.

\n¿W-bn-°p-∂X - n-\p≈ kml-Nc - y-samcp-°pI F∂Xv alØmb ]co-£W - am-Wv. P\m-[n-]X - ysØ∏‰n Nn¥n-°p∂-h¿°p am{Xta AXv F{X-am{Xw Kuc-ha - mb kao-]\ - hpw Xocp-am-\hpw BsW∂p a\- n-em-°m≥ Ign-bq. Cu ]›m-Øe - Ø - n¬ \mw N¿®sNtø≠Xv Cu Hcp hnjbw am{X-a√ - . F¥p-sIm≠v tIc-fØ - ns‚ aÆn¬ Xt±-iob P\m-[n]Xyw th≠{X thcq-∂p-∂n√ F∂Xpw IqSn-bm-W.v P\m-[n-]Xyw i‡-ambn apt∂m-´pt]m-IW - s - a-∂p-s≠-¶n¬ AXns\ Du´nbp-d∏ - n-°p∂-Xn\mbn AXn\p t{]c-Iamb, ÿm]-\] - c - a - m-b, \nb-a] - c - a - mb kuI-cy-߃ Hcp-t°-≠-Xm-bn-´p-≠v. \ap°v Ht´sd {]iv\ß - ƒ Bg-Øn¬ Bflm¿∞-ambn Nn¥n-°p∂ Hcp kmlN-cy-Øn¬ \Ω-fpsS apºn¬ hcpw. F¥p-sIm≠v tIc-f-Øns‚ hnI-k\sØ I£n cmjv{So-bØ - n-\X - o-Xa - mbn ImWm≥ Ign-bp-∂n√ F∂ bmYm-¿∞yw \mw hnkvac - n-°m≥ ]mSp-≈X - √ - . KpW-t`m‡r IΩn-‰nsb Ipdn®v sFk°pw dn®m¿Uv {^m¶nbpw tN¿s∂-gp-Xn-bn-´p≈ ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ hfsc Bg-Øn¬ hni-Za - mbpw \njv]£-am-bn´pw A∂sØ kml-Nc - y߃ hne-bn-cp-Øp-∂p-≠.v KpW-t`m‡r IΩn‰nsb∏‰n i‡-ambn ]e Imcy-߃ ]dbp-∂p-≠v. KpW-t`m‡r IΩn‰n tIc-fØn¬ am{X-a√ C¥y-bn¬Xs∂ Hcm-ib-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ B¿°pw \ntj-[n°m≥ Ign-bmØ Imcy-am-W.v ]t£ C∂v Icm-dp-Im-cpsS ssIIfn- t e°v `cWw t]mIp- t ºmƒ B k¶-ev]ß - ƒ F√mw XInSw adn-°s - ∏Sp-∂p. Cu ]d™ ]›m-Øe - Ø - n¬ \n∂p-sIm-≠p-am-{Xta Ct∏m-gsØ \S]-Sn-Isf F\n°p ImWm≥ Ign-bq. henb Hcp ]›m-Øe - Øn¬ am{Xta C∂sØ kml-Nc - ysØ∏‰n Nn¥n°m≥ Ign-bq. tIcfw Xs∂˛{Kma-˛\ - K - c (ruralurban continnum) XpS¿® BsW∂p \ap-°d - n-bmw. tIhew hIp-∏ns‚ `mKambn CXp Rm\pw at‰Xv thsdm-cmfpw F∂ kao- ] - \ - Ø n¬ ]©m- b Øv Hcmƒ°v, \Kcw thsdm-cmƒ°v, Bkq{XWw as‰m-cmƒ°v F∂n-ßs\bmIptºmƒ Fhn-sS-bmWv hnIk\ Z¿i-\w? P\-ß-fpsS apºn¬ Ah-X-cn-∏n-°m\p≈ ImgvN∏ - mSv F¥mWv? C∂sØ Hcp Znh-ksØ Imcy-a√ - n-Xv. `mhn-sb°p- d n- ® p≈ Zo¿L- h o- £ - W - Ø ns‚ ImX-emb Hcp {]iv\a - mWv. AXp-sIm≠mWv Rm≥ CXns\ i‡-ambn FXn¿°p-∂Xv.„

21


Ih¿tÃmdn

hIp-∏p -hn-`-P\w

`c-W-L-S-\m-ew-L\w tUm. sI.-]n. IÆ≥ sNbvXp h® ]eXpw ]nt∂m´p t]mIm-\p≈ km[yX D≠v. B km[yX X≈n°-f-bm≥ Ign-bn-√. Aßns\ hcp-tºmƒ CsXmcp ]nt∂m-´Sn BIm\p≈ km[yX D≠v. CXns\ adn-I-S-°m-\p≈ P\m-`n-{]mbw D≠m-I-Ww. F¶n¬ am{Xta CXn-s\-Xn-cm-bn-´p≈ Hcp Nn¥ D≠m-°n-sb-Sp-°m≥ Ign-bq. 243 (ZD) icn°pw hmbn-°p-Ib - m-sW¶n¬ Integrate rural & urban F∂m-W.v Aß-s\-bs - √∂p am{X-a√ AXn-s\-Xncm-bn-cn-°p∂p Imcy-߃... aq∂v t]cpsS ssII-fn-em-Wv. B¿°mWv ho£-Ww? Hmtcm-cp-Ø¿°pw Ah-ch - c - psS k¶pNnX Xm¬∏-cy-ßf - n¬ am{Xw \nev°ptºmƒ Fhn-sS-bmWv ka-{K-amb ImgvN∏mSpw Z¿i-\h - pw? AØ-cs - amcp Z¿i\w cmjv{So-ba- mbn apt∂m´p h®-Xv alm-flmKm-‘n-bmWv. ]t£ kzmX{¥yw In´nb-tXm-Sp-IqSn Nne Imcy-߃ `c-WL - S-\b - n¬ Fgp-XntN¿Øp-sh-¶n¬ Xs∂ ]©m-bØ - ns‚ Imcyw \n¿_-‘a - m-bn´v Fgp- X n- t N¿°- s ∏- ´ n- √ . kwÿm- \ k¿°m-cp-Iƒ°v Ah-cpsS hnth-N\ - m[n-Imcw D]-tbm-Kn-®p-sIm≠v ]©mbØp ÿm]-\ß - f - n¬ sXc-s™-Sp∏p \SØn ]©m- b Øp kwhn- [ m\w

22

D≠m°mw F∂ k¶-ev]-am-bn-cp-∂p. AXn\p ]n∂n¬ ]e LS-I-ßfpw ImWpw. Hcp-]t£ C¥y-sb-t∏m-ep≈ ]e `mj, kwkvIm-cw, ]e-Pm-Xn˛aXhn-`m-K-߃ D≈ Hcp kaq-l-Øn¬ CXp-t]m-ep≈ hntI-{μo-Ic - Ww cmjv{SØns‚ ÿnc-Xsb Xs∂ Zp¿_-es - ∏Sp-Øptam F∂ Bi¶ Hcp ]t£ BZy-Ime t\Xm-°ƒ°v D≠m-bn-cp-∂ncn-°mw. AXns‚ ^e-am-bn-cp-∂n-cn°mw tI{μo-Ir-Xa- mb Bkq-{X-Ww. AXp-sIm≠m-bn-cn°mw tI{μo-Ir-Xa- m-bn-´p≈ [\k-am-lc - Ww am{X-a√ AXns‚ hn\ntbm-Khpw Fgp-Xn-tN¿°s∏-´X - .v CsXm-s°-bm-sW-¶nepw P\m-[n-]X - yL-´-Øn¬ \n∂p-sIm≠v Nn¥n-°ptºmƒ Hcp Imen¬ \S-°m≥ Ign-bn√ c≠p Imente \S-°m≥ Ign-bq. apIfn¬ sNtø-≠Xv apI-fn¬ \n∂p Xs∂

cmPy-Øn\p s]mXp-hmbn sNtø-≠X - p≠v. kwÿm-\-߃°v s]mXp-hmbn sNtø≠ Imcy- ß ƒ D≠v . ]t£ AXn\p Xmsg sNtø≠ Imcy-߃ A\-h[n D≠v {]tXy-In®pw km[m-cW P\-ßf - psS Pohn-X{- I-ah - p-ambn _‘s∏´v hnI-k\w am{X-a√ \nb-a] - c - a - mb ]e Imcy-ßfpw. hoSp hbv°m\pw {]mtZ-in-Ia - m-bn-´p≈ {]mY-anI I¿Øhy-߃, ]cn-kc ipNn-Xzw, tdmUv, hnf°v, XpS-ßnb Imcy-߃ \S-Øn-sIm≠p-t]m-Im-\p-ap≈ kwhn-[m-\-߃ thWw AXp-sIm≠pXs∂ B[p-\n-Iam-bn-´p≈ ]e cmPy-ßfpw AwKo-Ic - n®n-´p≈XmWv IogvXe ap≥K-W\ - m-XXzw; (Principle of Subsidiarity) AXm-Xp-Xe - ß - fn¬ sNtø-≠Xv Ahn-sS-Xs∂ sNøpI F∂-X.v cmPy-c£ apIƒX-´nte sNøm\mIq hnZym-`ym-kw, BtcmKyw, ipNnXzw Pqembv 2011


XpS-ßn-bh {]mtZ-in-Ia - mtb sNøm≥ Ignbq Aßs\ ]d-bp-tºmƒ F√mØn\pw hntI-{μo-Ic - Ww thWw F∂p]-d-bm≥ Ign-bn-√. AtX ka-bØp Xs∂ tI{μo-Ic - W - a - mWv \√Xv F∂ imTy-hpw ]mSn-√. Cßs\ Hcp ]cn-t{]£y-Øn¬ \n∂mWv C¥y-bn¬ Ipsdsbms° Cusbmcp `c-WL - S- \ - m-t`-ZKXn \S-∏m-°n-bX - v. XpS-°-Øn¬ IΩyq-Wn‰n Uh-e∏vsa‚ v kvIoap-Iƒ \S∏m°nsb-¶nepw ]©m-bØvcmPns\ Du´n Dd-∏n-°p∂ kwhn-[m\ambn-cp-∂n-√. ]n∂o-SmWv Pb{]-Im-i\ v m-cm-bW - s‚ t\XrXzw; P\-Xm]m¿´n-bpsS hchv. Ah¿ CsXmcp apJy AP-≠b - mbn FSp-ØXpw I¿Wm-SI - bn¬ cm-aI - r-jvWs - lKvtU apJy-a{- ¥nbmbncp∂-t∏mƒ sNbvX Imcy-ßfpw ]n∂oSv ]›n-a_ - w-Km-fn¬ tPymXn-_kphns‚ t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ sNbvX Imcyßfpw amXr-I-bmbn h∂p. AXn\p ap≥]v Xs∂ CXn¬ Ipsd-sbms° \√ {]h¿Ø-\ß - ƒ \S-Ønb alm-cm-j{v S, KpP-dm-Ø,v cmP-ÿm≥ F∂o kwÿm\-ßfpw D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. ]t£ Ah¿ ]nd-tIm´p t]mbn. I¿Wm-SI - bpw ]›na-_w-Kmfpw A[n-Im-c-hn-tI-{μo-I-c-WØn\p i‡n ]I¿s∂-¶nepw Hcp L´w Ign- ™ - t ∏mƒ AXn\p apt∂m´p t]mIm\p≈ kml-Ncyw C√m-Xmbn F∂p Xs∂ ]d-bmw. tIcfw Ipd®p sshIn- b n- ´ mWv hfsc kPo-h-ambn h∂-Xv. F¶n¬ IqSnbpw Fs‚ A`n-{]m-bØ - n¬ ]e Imcy-Ønepw tIc-fØ - n¬ Hcn-°¬ Hcp Bibw AwKo-I-cn®p Ign-™m¬, AXp P\-߃°p t_m[y-s∏´p Ign™m¬ s]s´∂v hf¿∂p hcp∂ coXnbp≠v. Ip´n-If - psS hnZym-`ym-kØ - ns‚ Imcy-am-bmepw icn. GsX-¶nepw Hcp hnZym-`ym-ka - m-Wv \√Xv F©n\o-bd - n-

imkv{X-KXn

]e Imcy-Ønepw tIc-fØn¬ Hcn-°¬ Hcp Bibw AwKo-I-cn®p Ign-™m¬, AXp P\߃°p t_m[y-s∏´p Ign-™m¬ s]s´∂v hf¿∂p hcp∂ coXnbp≠v. Ip´n-I-fpsS hnZym`ym-k-Øns‚ Imcy-ambmepw icn. ]©m-bØv cmPv \s√mcp k¶-ev]-amWv. AXp-sIm-≠p-h-cWw F∂p≈ Hcp t_m[w Pß-fn¬ D≠m-Im-\p≈ Hcp A¥-co£w ChnsS D≠m-bn. Fs‚ A`n-{]mb-Øn¬ CXv P\-߃ AwKo-I-cn®p Ign™ B k¶-ev]-am-sW-∂m-Wv. AXp-sIm≠p Xs∂ AXn-\p-th≠n ap≥ssIsø-SpØp {]h¿Øn-®h¿°v CXns\ IqSp-X¬ apt∂m´p sIm≠p-t]mIp∂ Hcp L´-Øn-emWv AXn\p XS- -am-Ip∂XcØn-ep≈ \S-]Sn.

ßmWv F¶n¬ F√m-h¿°pw AXp-thWw F∂ coXn. ]©m-bØv cmPv \s√mcp k¶-ev]a - m-Wv. AXp-sIm-≠ph-cWw F∂p≈ Hcp t_m[w Pß-fn¬ D≠m-Im-\p≈ Hcp A¥-co£w ChnsS D≠m-bn. Fs‚ A`n-{]m-bØ - n¬ CXv P\-߃ AwKo-I-cn®p Ign™ B k¶-ev]-am-sW-∂m-Wv. AXp-sIm≠p Xs∂ AXn-\p-th≠n ap≥ssI-sø-SpØp {]h¿Øn-®-h¿°v CXns\ IqSp-X¬ apt∂m´p sIm≠p-t]m-Ip∂ Hcp L´Øn-emWv AXn\p XS- -am-Ip∂XcØn-ep≈ \S-]Sn. tI{μ-Øn-em-bmepw kwÿm-\Ø - nem-bmepw henb GtIm-]\ kz`mhap≈ (Integrated) kwhn-[m-\a - m-sW-∂mWv. F∂m¬ Aß-s\-b√. Hmtcm∂pw Hmtcm Ipg-em-Wv. Ah¿ XΩn¬ Xs∂ hn\n-abw \S-Øm≥ henb _p≤n-ap-´mWv. Hcp hIp∏v ]d-bp-∂Xv as‰mcp hIp∏n-\d- n-bn√ F∂Xm-Wh - ÿ. CØc-Øn-ep≈ ]e {]iv\-ßfpw D≠v. XmXvIm-en-Ia- mbn ]d-bp-tºmƒ (Political - n¿h-lW - Øns‚ executives) cmjv{So-b\ Xe-Øn¬ CsX√mw GtIm-]n-∏n-®psIm≠v t]mIp- s a- ∂ m- W v . ]t£ {]mtbm-Kn-Ia - mbn Aßns\ hcp-∂n-√. CØcw {]mtbm-Kn-Ia - mb {]iv\ß - ƒ t\cn-´p-sIm-≠mWv A[n-Im-c-Øns‚ hntI-{μo-Ic - W - w- ]©m-bØv cmPv \nba-Øn¬ IqSn-bm-IW - s - a-∂Xv \n›-bn-®Xv. DtZym-Kÿ hn\ym-kØ - n¬ Xs∂ {]iv\-߃ BZyta D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. AXn¬ Ah-cpsS `mKØp \n∂v Imcyamb ]n≥XpW D≠mbn F∂p ]d-bm≥ Ign-bn-√. \nc-h[n h¿j-߃ FSp-Øp. AXp-t]mse Xs∂ a‰p hIp-∏p-Iƒ GsX-√mw Imcy-ßf - mWv hn´p-sIm-Sp-t°≠-sX∂ {]iv\ß - ƒ D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. CXv Ipsd-sbms° ]cn-lc - n-°m\pw `c-Wk - w-hn-[m-\Ø - n\v GIo-Ir-Xa - mb kz`mhw sIm≠p-hc - m\pw Ign™ 10 h¿jw Bbn´v \ap°v km[n-®n-´p≠v AXp-sIm-≠mWv {Kma-hn-Ik - \ - h - I - p∏pw \K-cI - m-cy-hI - p∏pw ]©m-bØpw F√mw Hcp a{¥nbpsS Iogn-em-° n Ah¿ s]mXp- k ¿hokv sIm≠p h∂v AXns\ Iptd-°qSn kpK-aa - m°p-∂X - n\v {ian-®X - .v CØ-cØ - n¬ Hcp \n¿Wm-bI - amb L´-Øn¬ FØn-\n-¬°p-tºm-gmWv AXn\v Hcp hnLmXw t\cn- S p∂ Ahÿ D≠m-bn-´p-≈Xv. AXp-sIm≠p Xs∂ sNbvXp h® ]eXpw ]nt∂m´p t]mIm-\p≈ km[yX D≠v. B km[yX X≈n-°f - b - m≥ Ign-bn-√. Aßns\ hcptºmƒ CsXmcp ]nt∂m-´Sn BIm\p≈ km[yX D≠v. CXns\ adn-IS- ° - m-\p≈ P\m-`n-{]mbw D≠m-I-Ww. F¶n¬ am{Xta CXn-s\-Xn-cm-bn-´p≈ Hcp Nn¥ D≠m-°n-sb-Sp-°m≥ Ign-bq.„

23


BtcmKyw tUm. _n.-C-Iv_m¬, tUm. Fkv.-F-kv. kt¥m-jvIp-am¿ s{]m^. Sn.-]n. Ip™n-°-Æ≥, kn.-]n. kptc-jv_m_p

kzImcy {]mIvSokv \ntcm-[\w XpS-cWw tUmIvS¿am-cpsS [m¿an-I-X, am\p-jnI CS-s]-S¬, k¿°m-cns‚ klm-bw,-km-aqly-k-l-I-c-Ww, F∂n-h-sbms° IqSn tN¿∂m¬ tIc-f-Øn-se -s]mXp BtcmKy-cw-KØv A¤p-X-߃ krjvSn-°m≥ Ign-bpw. Cu co-Xn-bn¬ Imcy-ß-sf- hnim-e-am-bn- Im-Wm\pw CS-s]-Sm\pw P\-ß-sfbpw kaq-l-tØbpw {]m]vX-cm-°Ww. kzIm-cy-{]m-IvSokv \ntcm-[\w hnP-bn-®m¬ am{Xta a‰v \S-]-Sn-Iƒ XpS¿∂v \S-Øm\pw s]mXp-B-tcm-Ky-kw-hn-[m-\sØ IqSp-X¬ sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm\pw Ign-bq.

tIc-fØ - nse BtcmKy/ NnIn’m cwKsØ hnhn[ {]iv\-߃ ]cn-l-cn°m-\p≈ XpS-°a - mbpw Zcn-{Z¿°v sa®s∏´ klmbw e`n-°m-\p-≈ CS-s]-Sembpw BWv saUn-°¬ tImtfPv A[ym-]-I-cpsS kzImcy {]mIvSo-kv k¿°m¿ \ntcm-[n-®-Xv. Ht´sd FXn¿ {]N-mc-W-߃°n-S-bnepw Cu \S-]Snsb tIcf kaqlw s]mXp- h n¬ kzmKXw sNbv X n- c p- ∂ p. kzImcy {]mIvSokv \ntcm-[\ - Ø - ns‚ t\´-߃ saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pp-I-fn¬ {]tXyIn®pw tIcf kaq-l-Øn¬ s]mXphnepw A\p-`-h-s∏´p XpS-ßn-bn-cn-°bm-Wv. P\-߃ s]mXp-hn¬ Cu \S]-Sn-bp-ambn XmZmflyw {]m]n-®p-h-cptºm-gm-Wv, AYhm \ntcm-[-\-Øns‚ t\´-߃ IqSp-X-embn {]N-cn-®p-h-cptºm-gmWv ]pXnb k¿°m¿ \ntcm-[\w Hgn-hm-°m-\p≈ AWn-b-d-\o-°-߃

24

\S- Ø p- ∂ - X mbn Adn- b p- ∂ - X v . CXv saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pp-I-fnse A¥co£w Iep-jn-X-am-°pw. Cu \o°w Ahn-SpsØ NnIn-’°pw ]T-\Ø - n\pw Xncn-®S- n-bm-bn-cn-°pw. AXn-\m¬ \ntcm[\w Hgn-hm-°m-\p≈ \o°sØ sNdpØp-tXm¬]n-t°-≠Xp≠v. AXn-\mbn i‡-amb P\-Iob {]t£m-`-ßfpw {]Xn-tcm-[ß -- fpw Db¿Øn-s°m-≠p-hc - Ww. saUn-°¬ tImtfPv A[ym-]-IcpsS kzImcy {]mIvSokv Ah-km-\n∏n-°-W-sa∂v hfsc h¿j-ß-fmbn Bh-iy-s∏-´p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ kwL-S\m-bmWv tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cnj-Ø.v

]›m-Øew Btcm- K yhpw NnIn- ’ - b p- a mbn _‘-s∏´ Ht´sd X\Xv {]iv\-ßsf A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-°p∂ kwÿm-\-amWv

tIc-fw. Ah-bn¬ {][m\s∏´h Xmsg ]d-bp-∂h - b - mWv. $ h¿[n® NnIn’m sNehv. $ BtcmKy taJ-e-bpsS kzIm-cy-hXvIc - Ww. $ k¿°m¿ Bip-]{- Xn-If - psS ]n∂m°m-hÿ. $ kzIm- c y, kzm{ib saUn- ° ¬ tImtf-Pp-If - psS IS-∂p-hc - hv. $ Pohn-Xs - sieo tcmK-ßf - psS h¿[\hv. $ ]I¿®-hym-[n-IfpsS Bhn¿-`mhw. Ch-tbm-sSm∏w sshZy hnZym-`ym-kØns‚ KpW-\n-e-hm-c-Øn¬ hcp∂ XI¿®bpw {][m-\-am-Wv. Cu {]iv\ß-sf-sb√mw ka-{K-Xb - n¬ I≠p-sIm≠mWv tUmIv S ¿am- c psS kzImcy {]mIvSokv \ntcm-[n-°-W-sa∂ \n¿tZiw Db¿∂p-h∂ - X - v. Pqembv 2011


k¿°m¿ Bip-]-{Xn-I-fnse ASnÿm\ kuI-cy-߃ sa®-s∏-Sp-Øp-I, saUn-°¬ k¿h-I-em-ime ÿm]n°pI XpSßn Btcm-Ky-ta-J-e-bpsS ka{K \ho-I-c-W-Øn-\mbn \S-Ønb CS-s]-Se - p-If - psS `mK-am-bn-´mWv saUn°¬ tImtf-Pnse tUmIvS¿am-cpsS kzImcy NnIn’ Ah-km-\n-∏n-°m\p≈ Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp-Ø-Xv. saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pp-If - psS {]h¿Ø-\ß - ƒ KpW]- c - a mb sa®- s ∏- S p- Ø p- ∂ - X n- \ mbn \ntbm-Kn-°s - ∏´ IΩ-‰n-Ifpw kmaqly {]Xn- _ - ≤ - X - b p≈ tUmIv S ¿- a mcpw tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-jØv Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ kwL-S-\-Ifpw Cu \S-]Sn-°mbn \nc-¥cw Bh-iy-s∏-SpIbpw sNbvXncp∂p. kzImcy {]mIvSokv \ntcm-[\ - Ø - n\v ap≥]v \ΩpsS k¿°m¿ saUn-°¬ tImtf-PpIfnse ]cn-an-X-amb kuIcy-ßf - n¬ \s√mcp `mKw X´n-sb-SpØXv ho´n¬ t]mbn ]Ww-sIm-SpØv NnIn’ tXSp∂ ""kzImcy'' tcmKnIfm-bn-cp-∂p. {][m-\a - mbpw CS-Øc - ° - mcmb C°q-´¿ Bip-]{- Xn-If - n¬ Zcn-{Z-tcm-sSm∏w "Iyq'\n¬°m≥ Xøm-dm-bn-cp-∂n-√. Ah¿°v ap≥K-W\ \jvS-s∏-Sp-sa∂ `b-hpw, Ahsc klm-bn-°p∂ am[ya tem_nI-fp-amWv \ntcm-[\sØ Imcy-ambn FXn¿Ø-Xv. C°q-´¿°m-Is´ F√m coXn-bnepw ]cm-Xn-bm-bn-cp∂p. F∂m¬, \ΩpsS \m´nse ]´n-Wn-∏m-hß - ƒ - °v Bip-]-{Xn-bnse A]-cym-]vX-X-Isf Ipdn®v ]cm-Xn-Itfm ]cn-`h - ß - tfm D≠mbn-cp-∂n-√. Ah¿ F√mw \n»_vZw kln-°p-Ibm-bncp∂p. Bip-]{Xn°p Np‰pw IqWp-t]mse s]m¥n-h∂ - n-´p≈ kvIm\nwKv sk‚-dp-If - n-te°pw kzImcy {]mIvSokv sNøp∂ tUmIvS¿am-cpsS ASp-°t- e°pw IΩo-j≥ ASn-ÿm-\Øn¬ tcmKn-Isf ]nSn®p \¬Ip∂ GP‚p-am-cpsS Nqj-Wß - ƒ°v hnt[-bambpw Xß-fpsS tcmKw t`Z-am-bm-epw tcmKn acn-®mepw \μn ]d-™p-sIm≠v hntZz-ja - n-√msX-bmWv Ah¿ {]Xn-Ic - n®-Xv. ImcWw Zcn-{Z-cpsS NnIn-’m-hg - nbnse Ah-km\ B{i-ba- mWv k¿°m¿ saUn-°¬ tImf-Pp-Iƒ. hm¿Up-If - n¬ InS° In´m≥ am{Xa√ \neØp InS-°m≥ t]mepw tUmIvS¿-am¿°v ssI°qen \¬tI≠ Ah-ÿ; Hm∏-td-j≥ sNbvXv In´-W-sa-¶n¬, kuP\y \nc-°n¬ ]cn-tim-[\ \SØm≥, Ubm-en-kn-kn\pw B≥Pn-tbm{Km-an\pw sF.-kn.-bq-hn¬ InS-Øm\pw XpSßn F¥n\pw GXn\pw ssI°qen. Hc¿Y- Ø n¬, Cu ssI°qenbpsS t]cm-bn-cp∂p kzImcy {]mIvSo-kv F∂Xv. ssI°qen \¬ImØ ]mh-s∏-´h - \v imkv{X-KXn

amk-ßt- fmfw hcm-¥b - nse Xd-bn¬ InS∂mepw th≠{X NnIn’ e`n-°n-√. AtX-ka - bw NnIn’m ^oskm∂pw hmßm-sX- ]m-hs - ∏´ tcmKn-It- fmSv ImcpWyhpw {]Xn-_≤ - X - bpw ImØp kq£n°p∂ H´-t\Iw tUmIvS¿am-cpsS Bflm¿Y-Xsb \mw Ipd®p ImtW-≠X - p-an-√. Ah-cmWv saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pns‚ \s´√mbn F°m-eØpw {]h¿Øn-®p-h∂ -- X - .v H‰-bS- n°v Hcp H‰-aq-en-bmbn kzImcy-{]m-IvSokv \n¿Øp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂n√ sNbvX-Xv. CXv LS-\m-]-c-amb am‰Øns‚ XpS°w am{X-am-bn-cp-∂p. BZyambn saUn-°¬ tImtfPv A[ym-]I¿°v am\y- a mb iº- f hpw Aeh≥kpw \¬In. ]n∂oSv Ah-cpsS s]≥j≥ {]mbw Db¿Øn. \gvkp-amcpsSbpw a‰pw tkh\Øn\p-≠m-bncp∂ saUn-°¬ hnZym-`ymkw, saUn°¬ Ub-d-IvS-td‰v, F∂o Ccp-Xe \nb- { ¥Ww Hgn- h m°n˛ CXns\sbms° tIcf kaqlw ]q¿W-ambn ]n¥m-ßn. tUmIvS¿am¿°v aq∂n-c´n iº-fh - ¿[\ D≠m-bt- ∏mgpw AXv Bh-

{]XnZn\ H.]n. (icmicn)

iy-am-sW∂v P\-߃ AwKo-I-cn-®p. At∏mgpw FXn¿ {]N-c-W-°m¿ AhcpsS hmbvØmcn XpS-cp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. F∂m¬, C∂sØ ÿnXn- s b- ¥ msW∂v t\m°mw.

\ntcm-[-\-Øn\v tijw kzImcy {]mIvSokv \ntcm-[n®v H∂c-h¿jw ]n∂n-Sp-tºmƒ Imcy-߃ Gsd amdn-bn-cn-°p-∂p. Hm.]n hn`m-KØ - nepw sF.]n hn`m-KØ - nepw F√m Un∏m¿´sa‚p-If - nepw ap≥]-sØ-°m-tfsd tcmKnIƒ FØp-∂p. Xncp-h\ - ¥ - ] - pcw saUn°¬ tImtf-Pnse (SAT Bkv]{Xn HgnsI) IW°v ]´n-Ib - mbn Xmsg Xmsg \¬In-bn-cn-°p-∂p. G‰hpw {it≤-ba- mb hkvXpX Ign™ H∂c h¿j-ambn saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pn-se-Øp∂ Zcn{Z (BPL) tcmKn-If - psS FÆw IqSn F∂p≈-Xm-Wv. ap≥]v Ch-cpsS A\p-]mXw ]Øv apX¬ ]Xn-\©v iX-am-\a - m-bn-cp∂p. F∂m¬, C∂v 40 apX¬ 60 iXam\w hsc-bm-bn. Hcn-°¬ A{]m-]y-ambn-cp∂ sNe-th-dnb NnIn-’I - ƒ C∂h¿°v {]m]y-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p. kzImcy

2009

2010

2011

1240

1474

1660

BZy \mepamksØ H.]n. (icmicn) k¿Pdn

13150

15172

16468

Hm¿tØm]oUnIvkv

19131

20872

22510

saUnkn≥

17960

21126

23093

BZy \mepamksØ sF.]n. (icmicn) k¿Pdn

3745

4012

4275

Hm¿tØm]oUnIvkv

2650

2690

2741

25


Bip-]-{Xn-I-fn¬ H∂c apX¬ c≠v e£w cq]-hsc sNehv hcp∂ k‘n am‰n-h° - ¬ ikv{X-{Inb t]mepw C∂nh¿°v e`y- a m- W v . Ubm- e n- k nkpw B≥Pn-tbm-πm-Ãnbpw akvXnjvI ikv{X{In-bI - fpw ssI-°qen \¬In-bn-s√-¶nepw Ime-hn-fw_w IqSmsX Xs∂ \S-°p-∂p. AXym- l nX hn`m- K - Ø n¬ FØp∂hcn¬- ikv{X-{Inb th≠ an°h¿°pw A∂v Xs∂ ikv{X-{Inb \SØp-∂p. H∂-ch - ¿jw ap≥]v {]mIvSokv \ntcm[n-®t- ∏m-gp-≠mb {]N-cW - Ø - n¬ ]eXpw Aÿm-\-Øm-bn-cn-°p-∂p. Ign-hp-ff tUmIvS¿am-sc√mw ss{]h‰v Bip-]{- XnI-fn¬ tNt°-dp-sa-∂v ]d-™n-cp-∂p. F∂m¬ kzImcy {]mIvSokv \ntcm-[n®- t ∏mƒ 2009¬ D≠m- b n- c p- ∂ Xv tUmIvS¿am-cpsS 552 Hgn-hp-Ifmbn-cp-∂p. H∂c h¿j-Øn\p tijw 2011¬ 332 Hgn-hp-Iƒ am{X-am-Wp-≈X - v. \tc-{μ≥ IΩo-js‚ kmt¶-XnI \qem-am-eI - ƒ C√m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ CXv \qdn¬ Xmsg am{X-am-Ip-am-bn-cp-∂p. Gsd {it≤-ba- mb hkvXpX C∂v ]n Fkv kn 10 Hgn-hp-Ifn-te-°v dm¶v enÃn¬ \n∂pw DtZymKm¿Yn-Isf hnfn-®m¬ 9 t]cpw tPmenbn¬ {]th-in-°pw. ap≥]v AXv ]Øn¬ ct≠m aqt∂m Bbn-cp-∂p. {]mIvSokv \n¿Ø-em°n hfsc Db¿∂ iºfw tUmIvS¿am¿°v \¬In-bt- ∏mƒ IqSp-X¬ tUmIvS¿am-¿ saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pn¬ A[ym-]\ - Ø - n\v Xøm-dm-bn. _lp-`q-cn]£w tUmIvS¿amcpw C∂sØ ÿnXnbn¬ kwXr-]vXc - m-Wv. sshZy-imkv{X

Kth-jW cwK-Øm-Is´ hfsc Bimh-la - mb am‰-ßf - mWv D≠m-bX - v. tÉv t_m¿Uv t^m¿ saUn-°¬ - dntk¿®n\p (SBMR) Iogn¬ 30˛¬∏cw t{]mP-ISv p-IfmWv Ign-™-h¿jw (2010) am{Xw ka¿∏n- ® Xv . kzImcy {]mIv S okv \n¿Øp-∂X - n\p ap≥]v Cß-s\-sbmcp Nn{Xw Nn¥n-°m≥ t]mep-am-hn-√m-bn-cp∂p. Ct∏mƒ {][m\ H. ]nIƒ c≠v c≠- c - a Wnhsc {]h¿Øn- ° p- ∂ p. t\csØ CXv 12 aWn-tbmsS Ah-km\n-°p-am-bn-cp-∂p.

BcpsS Bhiyw? hmkvXh - Ø - n¬ tUmIvS¿am-cpsS Hcp kwL-S\ - bpw kzImcy {]mIvSokv Xncn®v sIm≠phc-Ws - a∂v Bh-iy-s∏-´n-´n√. "tUmIvS¿am-cpsS Bh-iy-a√ adn®v P\-ß-fpsS Bh-iy-amWv kzImcy {]mIvSokv' F∂mWv _lp-am-\-s∏´ BtcmKy a{¥n ]d-™-Xv. CXn¬ Fs¥-¶nepw Ig-ºpt≠m F∂v ]cn-tim[n-t°-≠X - m-W.v saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pp-Ifn¬ tUmIvS¿am-cpsS BsI 1948 XkvXnI-If - mWv \ne-hn-ep-≈X - v. AXn¬ ]IpXn-bn-e[ - nIw t]cpw kzImcy {]mIvSokv km[y-a√ - mØ hnj-bß - f - n¬ sshZ-K[ v yap-≈h - c - m-Wv. CXn¬ Xs∂ Nne hIp∏p-If - m-hs´ ]Tn-∏n-°m-\pw, Kth-jWw \S-Øp-hm\pw am{X-ap-≈X - m-W.v _m°n hcp∂ ]Ip-Xn-bn¬ 10 iX-am\w hcp∂ tUmIvS¿am¿°v am{X-amWv kzImcy {]mIvSokv D≠m-bn-cp-∂X - v. AXm-bXv Gdn-bm¬ \qtdm \q‰≥]tXm t]¿. Cu 150 t]sc I≠v NnIn’ tXSm≥ tIc-fØnse apgp-h≥ P\-ßfpw ImØv

\n¬°p-Ib - n√-t√m. tIc-fØ - n¬ A©v Pn√-Ifn¬ am{XamWv k¿°m¿ saUn-°¬ tImf-Pp-Iƒ D≈-Xv. At∏mƒ _m°n-bp≈ Pn√Ifnse P\-߃ GXp tUmIvSs - d-bmWv Xß-fpsS tcmK \nhm-c-W-Øn-\mbn B{i-bn°p-∂Xv? C\n ]I¬ sXmgn-seSp-°m≥ t]mIp-∂h - ¿°v sshIp-t∂-cß - fn¬ tUmIvSsd ImWm-\p≈ Ah-kc - amWv th≠-sX-¶n¬ AXn\p saUn°¬ tImf- P p- I - f n¬ Xs∂ F√m kvs]jym-en-‰n-I-fp-tSbpw kmbm” Hm.]n XpS-ßp-I-bmWv th≠-Xv. Hcp kabw Hcp tcmKnsb am{Xw ]cn-tim[n-°p∂ coXn-bn¬ tcmKn-If - psS kzImcy-Xbpw kwc-£n-°s - ∏-SW - w. CXn-\p≈ F√m kuI-cyhpw Ct∏mƒ Xs∂ AhnS-ßf - n¬ G¿s∏-Sp-Øm-hp-∂t- X-bp-≈q. saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pp-If - n¬ kzImcy {]mIv S okv \n¿Ø- e m- ° n- s b- ¶ nepw Btcm-Ky-hI - p-∏n\p Iogn¬ Bbn-cØn ap∂q-tdmfw Bip-]{- Xn-If - nse hnhn[ kvs]jym-en-‰n-I-fn-embn aqΔm-bn-ctØmfw hcp∂ tUmIvS¿am¿ Ct∏mgpw kzImcy {]mIvSokv sNøp-∂p≠v. AXn\m¬ saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pp-I-fnse GXm\pw Nne tUmIvS¿am-cpsS kzImcy {]mIvSokv hne-°n-bt- ∏mƒ tIc-fØ - nse P\-ßf - msI he™p F∂v ]d-bp-∂Xv AXn-it- bm-‡n-]c - a - m-W.v saUn-°¬ tImf-Pp-If - n¬ Xs∂ B¿s°m-s°-bmWv kzImcy {]mIvSokv D≠m-bn-cp-∂s - X∂v IqSn ]cn-tim-[n-°p∂Xv ck-Ic - a - m-bn-cn-°pw. G‰hpw IqSpX¬ {]mIvSokv D≠m-bn-cp-∂Xv hIp∏v ta[m-hn-Iƒ°pw bqWn‰v No^vam¿°pam-bn-cp-∂p. Ch-cmWv Bsc-sbms° InS°-bn¬ InS-ØW - s - a-∂pw B¿s°m-s°bmWv kuI-cy-߃ \¬tI-≠s - X∂pw Bsc-sbm-s°-bmWv Hm∏-td-j≥ sNtø≠-sX∂pw Xocp-am-\n-°p-∂X - v. Npcp-°Øn¬ Bip-]{- Xn-bnse ]cn-an-Xa - mb kuI-cy-ßf - psS hn[n-I¿Øm-°f - m-Wnh¿. Chsc ho´n¬ sN∂v ImtW-≠X - pt]mse I≠m¬ am{Xta Imcy-߃ \S°p- I - b p- ≈ q. AXp- s Im≠v Xs∂ kzImcy {]mIvSokv Ch¿°v IqSp∂-Xn¬ A¤p-X-an-√. ]s£ AXv Ah-cpsS sshZ-K[ v y-am-bpw hntij _p≤n-bmbpw Nn{Xo-Ic- n-°c- p-Xv F∂v am{Xw. saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pn-ep-≈-t∏mƒ sImSn-Ip-Ønb {]mIvSokv D≠m-bn-cp∂ ]e {]apJ tUmIvS¿am-cp-tSbpw kzImcy {]mIvSokv Ah¿ dn´-b¿ sNøp-∂X - ns‚ ASpØ Znhkw Xs∂ Ah-km-\n-°p-∂X - ns‚ cl-kyhpw CXp Xs∂-bm-W.v

\ntcm-[\ \n¿tZiw:

26

1979se ss] IΩn-‰n-bmWv BZyambn kzImcy NnIn’ ]cn-tim-[-\mPqembv 2011


hn-t[-ba - m-°n-bX - v. Btcm-Ky-hI - p-∏ns‚ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ s]mXp-hn¬ sa®-s∏Sp-Øp-∂-Xns‚ `mK-am-bn-´mWv ss] IΩn‰n C°m-cyhpw ]cn-tim-[n-®-Xv. F∂m¬ hnJym-X-cmb kzImcy NnIn’-I¿°v ap≥Xq-°a - p-≠m-bn-cp∂ ss] IΩn‰n C°m-cy-Øn¬ hy‡-amb \ne]m-sS-Sp-°msX Hgn-™p-am-dp-I-bm-Wp≠m-bX - .v ]n∂oSv 1996 ¬ \nb-an® Sn F≥ Pb-N-{μ≥ IΩo-j≥ L´w L´-ambn kzImcy NnIn’ \n¿Ø-em-°W - s - a∂ hy‡-amb \n¿tZiw apt∂m-´p-h-®p. BZy-L´- Ø - n¬ doPn-bW - ¬ Im≥k¿ sk‚-dnepw saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pp-Ifnepw kzImcy NnIn’ Ah-km-\n∏n-°-W-sa∂pw Pb-N-{μ≥ IΩo-j≥ ip]m¿i sNbvXn-cp-∂p. Pb-N-{μ≥ IΩo-j≥ \n¿tZ-iß - ƒ \S-∏n-em-°p-∂Xn\p ap≥]v `c- W - a m‰w D≠m- b n. ]pXnb k¿°m¿ hcn-Ibpw XpS¿∂v doPn- b - W ¬ Im≥k¿ sk‚- d nse kzImcy NIn’ Ah-km-\n-∏n-°pIbpw sNbvXp. Xmsg-Ø´- n-ep≈ Bip]-{Xn-I-fpsS {]h¿Ø\w sa®-s∏-SpØmsX saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pp-I-fn¬ kzImcy NnIn’ \n¿Ø-em-°p-∂Xv icn-bs - √∂ \ne-]m-SmWv A∂v kzoIcn-®X - .v cmjv{Sob Xocp-am-\Ø - ns‚ ASnÿm-\Ø - n¬ am{Xta kzImcy NnIn’ \n¿Øm≥ Ignbq F∂mWv ]n∂oSv Xocp-am-\n-®Xv. AXn-\nsS \ntbm-Kn® \nb-a-k`m FÃn-ta‰v IΩn‰n (1998˛2000). tIc-fØ - nse saUn-°¬ tImtfPp-I-fp-tSbpw A\p-_‘ ÿm]-\-ßfp-sSbpw {]h¿Ø\w sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ Cu ÿm]-\-ß-fnse A[ym-]-I-cpsS kzImcy {]mIvSokv \ntcm-[n-°W - s - a∂v \n¿tZ-in-®p. `cW {]Xn-]£ Fw F¬ F am-cS- ß - nb \nb-ak - `m IΩn‰n sFII-WvtTy\ ip]m¿i sNbvXn´pw kzImcy NnIn’ \n¿Ø-em-°m≥ BtcmKy-h-Ip∏p Xøm-dm-bn-√. saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pp-I-fpsS \ho-I-c-W-Øn-\mbn tUm. _n CIv_m¬ sNb¿am-\mbn cq]o-Ic - n® IΩn-‰nbpw (2007) saUn-°¬ tImtfPv A[ym- ] - I - c psS tkh\ thX\ hyh- ÿ - I ƒ ]cn- j v I - c n®v kzImcy NnIn’ Ah-km-\n-∏n-°-Wsa∂v \n¿tZ-in-®n-cp-∂p. sl¬Øv k¿ho-kn¬ \n∂v hyXykvX-ambn tcmK-Nn-In-’bv°p ]pdsa sshZy-hn-Zym-`ym-kw, Kth-jW - w, F∂o Npa- X - e - I ƒ IqSn \n¿h- l n- t °≠hcmWv saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pnse A[ym]-I¿. sshZy hnZym-`ym-kØ - ns‚ \nehmcw A\p-Zn\w XmWp-hc - n-Ib - m-sW∂ hna¿i\w Db¿∂p-h-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂p. saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pn¬ A[ym-]I-˛-hn-Zym¿Yn _‘w Bim-h-l-a-√. imkv{X-KXn

Xe-th-Z-\bv°v \yqtdm-f-Pn-Ãn-t\bpw s\©p-th-Z\bv°v Im¿Un-tbm-f-Pn-Ãn-s\bpw kao-]n-°m≥ tcmKn-Iƒ kzbw Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp-°p∂ C∂sØ coXn H´pw Bim-ky-a-√. Imcy-£-a-X-tbmsS kwhn[m\w sNbvXn-´p≈ Hcp d^-d¬ kwhn-[m-\-Øns‚ A`m-hhpw Imip apS-°n-bmte \√ NnIn’ In´q F∂ [mc-W-bpamWv kzImcy NnIn-’sb \ne\n¿Øp∂ apJy-L-S-I-߃. am{X-a-√, G‰hpw IqSp-X¬ kzImcy NnIn’ \S-Øp∂ A[ym-]I - sc XßfpsS `mhn-am-Xr-Ib - mbn IW-°m-°p-∂Xp-aqew sX‰mb aqey-t_m-[-Øn\v saUn-°¬ hnZym¿-∞n-Iƒ ASn-as - ∏-SpIbpw sNøp-∂p. sshZy-im-k{v X-Øn-s‚ al-Ømb am\hnI aqey-߃ ad-°s∏-Sp-∂p. CXn-s‚-sbms° ^e-ambn saUn-°¬ tImtfPv Imº-kp-I-fn¬ I®-h-S-a-\x-ÿnXn i‡n-s∏-´p-h-∂n-cp∂p. tIc-fØ - nse saUn-°¬ tImtf-PpI-fn¬ Kth-j-W-cw-KØv Imcy-amb bmsXmcp {]h¿Ø-\hpw \S-°p-∂n-√. hnJym-Xcpw Ign-hp-‰-h-cp-amb \nc-h[n NnIn-’-Isc saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pn¬ Is≠-Øm≥ Ignbpw. F∂m¬ A°mZ- a n°v A¥- c o- £ - Ø ns‚ A`mhw aqehpw kzImcy NnIn’ `qcn-]£w kabw A]-l-cn-°p-∂-Xns‚ ^eambpw sshZy-im-kv{X-Øn\v auen-Iamb kw`m- h - \ - s bm∂pw \¬Im≥ Ch¿°v Ign-bmsX t]mhp-∂p.

F¥p-sIm≠v kzImcy NnIn’? X߃°v hnizm-ka - p≈ tUmIvS¿amsc sXc- s ™- S p- ° m≥ tcmKnIƒ°p≈ Ah-Imiw \ne-\n¬°-Wsa- ¶ n¬ kzImcy NnIn’ \ne-

\n¬t°-≠-Xm-sW∂v Nne¿ Bflm¿∞-ambn hniz-kn-°p-∂p-≠v. tcmKn-Iƒ kzta-[bm tUmIvS¿amsc sXc-s™Sp-t°≠ C∂sØ ÿnXn, am¿°‰v aqey-߃ sshZy-im-kv{XsØ Iogvs∏Sp-Øn-b-Xns‚ ^e-am-bp-≠mb A\-`ne-j-Wo-b-amb Hcp {]h-W-X-bm-Wv. am¿°-‰nse a‰p¬∏-∂-ß-fpsS ImcyØn¬ KpW-ta-∑-tb-°mƒ ]e-t∏mgpw ]c-ky-Øns‚ kzm[o-\-Øn\v D]-t`m‡m-°ƒ hnt[-b-cm-hp-∂-Xp-t]mse kzImcy NnIn-’I - c - psS DuXn-ho¿∏n® t]cpw s]cp-a-bp-amWv Nne {]tXyI tUmIv S ¿am- c n- t e°v tcmKn- I sf BI¿jn-°p-∂-Xv. Ir{Xn-a-amb kwXr]vXn-bmWv CXp-hgn ]e¿°pw e`n-°p∂-X.v Xe- t h- Z - \ bv ° v \yqtdm- f - P n- à nt\bpw s\©p-th-Z\ - bv°v Im¿Un-tbmf-Pn-Ãn-s\bpw kao-]n-°m≥ tcmKn-Iƒ kzbw Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp-°p∂ C∂sØ coXn H´pw Bim-ky-a-√. Imcy-£-a-XtbmsS kwhn-[m\w sNbvXn-´p≈ Hcp d^-d¬ kwhn-[m-\-Øns‚ A`m-hhpw Imip apS-°n-bmte \√ NnIn’ In´q F∂ [mc-W-bpamWv kzImcy NnIn’sb \ne-\n¿Øp∂ apJy-L-S-I߃. k¿°m¿ Bip-]{- Xn-If - nse Xnc°v Ipd-bv°p-hm\pw e`y-amb kuIcyw

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]mh-s∏´ tcmKn-Iƒ°mbn {]tbm-P-\s∏-Sp-Øm\pw kzImcy NnIn’ ]tcm£-ambn klm-bn-°p-sa∂v Icp-Xp-∂h-cp-≠v. kz¥w hn{i-a-k-a-b-ap-]-tbmKn®v k¿°m¿ tUmIvS¿am¿ kmº-ØnI-ti-jn-bp-≈-h¿°v sshZy-tk-h\w \¬Ip-∂Xv k¿°m¿ ÿm]-\-ßsf klm-bn-°p-sa-∂mWv Ch-cpsS hmZw. k¿°m¿ kwhn-[m-\-Øn-ep≈ tkh\-ta-J-e-Iƒ sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm\pw ]mhs∏-´h - ¿°v {]tbm-P\ - s - ∏-Sp-Øm\pw Khs◊‚ v ap≥ssI-sb-SpØv kzIm-cy-ÿm]-\ß - sf t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww F∂mh- i y- s ∏- S p- ∂ - X n\v Xpey- a m- W n- X v . \ΩpsS k¿°m¿ Bip-]-{Xn-I-fpsS {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ H´-\-h[n XI-cm-dpIƒ Ds≠-∂Xv Hcp hkvXp-X-bm-Wv. Ah ]cn-l-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ aq¿Øamb \S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzoI-cn-°p-∂-Xn\v XS w \n¬°p∂ apJy LS-I-ß-fnsem-∂mWv kzImcy NnIn-’. kzImcy NnIn’ A\-`n-e-j-Wob-amb \nc-h[n {]h-W-X-Isf Bip]-{Xn-I-fn-te°v £Wn-®p-h-cp-Ønbn-cn°p-∂p. {]kn-≤cmb ]e kzImcy NnIn- ’ - I cpw Ah- c psS kzm[o\ taJe hn]p-e-am-°p-∂Xpw {]ikvXn h¿[n-∏n-°p-∂Xpw Kh-s◊‚ v Bip-]{Xn-I-fnse Xß-fpsS ]Z-hn-bpsS ]In´p-]t- bm-Kn-®m-Wv. k¿°m¿ Bip-]{- XnI-fn-te°v AUvan-j-\p≈ Ipdp-°p-hgn- b mbpw ikv { X- { In- b bv ° pw a‰pw ap≥K-W\ e`n-°p-∂Xn\pw kzImcy NnIn’ Zpcp-]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p-≠v. k¿°m¿ Bip-]{- Xn-If - nse tUmIvS¿am¿ XΩnepw tUmIvS¿amcpw a‰v Bip]{Xn Poh-\° - mcpw XΩn-ep≈ _‘w hj-fm-°p-∂-Xn\pw kzImcy NnIn’ Imc-Wa - m-hmdp-≠v. Bip-]-{Xn-I-fn¬ e`n-°mØ ]cnN-cWw tUmIvS¿am-cpsS hoSp-I-fn¬ \n∂v ]Ww apS°n hmßmw F∂ ZpxÿnXn \ne-\n¬°p-∂n-S-tØmfw

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Imew k¿°m¿ Bip-]-{Xn-Iƒ sa®s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn-\p≈ \o°-߃ hnPbn-°n-√. Bip-]-{Xn-I-fpsS ASn-ap-Snbp≈ DS-®p-hm¿°-ens\ XS- -s∏-SpØn-s°m≠v Hcp "tk^vSn hm¬hp' t]mse kzImcy NnIn’ \ne-\n¬°p∂-Xp-sIm-≠m-WnXp kw`-hn-°p-∂-Xv. tI{μ Kh-s◊‚ns‚ Iogn-ep-≈Xpw kzbw `c-Wm-hI - m-ia - p-≈X - p-amb saUn°¬ tImtf-Pp-I-fn-sem∂pw Xs∂ kzImcy NnIn’ A\p-hZ- n-®n-´n-√. (DZml-cWw AIIMS \yqU¬ln) F¥n\v, kzImcy saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pp-I-fmb sh√q¿-˛-a-Wn-∏m¬ saUn-°¬ tImtfPp-I-fn¬ t]mepw kzImcy {]mIvSokv \ne-hn-en-√. tIc-f-Øn¬ Xs∂-bp≈ {ioNn{Xm saUn- ° ¬- ˛ - s k‚- d nepw kzImcy {]mIvSokv A\p-h-Zn-®n-´n-√. ]m¿e-sa‚ v 1982 ¬ AwKo-I-cn® BtcmKy \b {]Jym-]\ - Ø - n¬ Khs◊‚ v k¿ho-kn-ep≈ tUmIvS¿am-cpsS kzImcy {]mIvSokv {ItaW Ipd®v \n¿Ø-em-t°≠ \S-]S- n-Iƒ kwÿm\ Kh-s◊‚p-Iƒ kzoI-cn-t°-≠-XmWv F∂v tcJ- s ∏- S p- Ø n- b n- ´ p- ≠ v . ]e kwÿm\ Kh- s ◊‚p- I fpw Cu \n¿tZiw \S-∏n-em-°n-bn-´p-≠.v CsX√mw ]cn-KW - n®v kzImcy NnIn’ hgn AanX-hc - p-am\w e`n-°p∂ Hcp \yq-\] - £w tUmIvS¿am-cpsS kΩ¿Z-Øn\v hgßmsX 1979 se ss] IΩn-‰n-bpsS ImeØm-cw-`n® kzImcy NnIn’m hnhm-ZØn\v hncm-a-an-´p-sIm≠v saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pnse tUmIvS¿am-cpsS tkh-\˛- th-X\ hyh-ÿI - ƒ ]cn-jvIc - n-°p-∂tXm-sSm∏w kzImcy {]mIvSokv \n¿Øem-°pI-bm-bn-cp∂p. kzm{ib saUn°¬ tImtf-Pp-I-fpsS Bhn¿`m-htØmsS Btcm-Ky-ta-Je - b - nse kzImcy-h¬°-c-Whpw hmWn-Py-h¬°-cWhpw i‡n-s∏-´n-cn-°p∂ kml-Nc - yØn¬ k¿°m¿ saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pn¬ \ne- \ n¬°p∂ ]tcm£ kzIm- c y-

h¬°-cW k{º-Zm-b-amb kzImcy NnIn’ \ntcm-[n-t® aXn-bm-Iq. kzImcy NnIn’ Ah-km-\n-∏n-®Xn\p ]pdsa saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pp-Isf d^-d¬ Bip-]{- Xn-If - mbn am‰n-bn-cp-∂p. Xnc°v Ipd-bv°m\pw tcmKn-I-fpsS _p≤n- a p- s ´m- g n- h m- ° m\pw am{X- a - √ , saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pp-Iƒ°v Ah-bn¬ \n£n-]vX-amb XrXobXe NnIn’m tI{μ-ß-sf∂ ISa \n¿h-ln-°m\pw CtXmsS km[y- a m- b n- c n- ° - b m- W v . \n mc tcmK-߃°p t]mepw saUn°¬ tImtf-Pp-Isf B{i-bn-°p∂ ÿnXn CXp-hgn Hgn-hm-°m≥ Ign-™n´p-≠v. s]mXpsh Ah-K-Wn-°-s∏-Smdp≈ Xmsg X´n-ep≈ Bip-]-{Xn-I-fpsS {]h¿Ø\w Xt±i kzbw `cW ÿm]-\ß - f - psS klm-bt- ØmsS sa®s∏-Sp-Øm≥ Ign-™t- Xm-sS-bmWv saUn°¬ tImtf-Pm-ip-]-{Xn-Iƒ d^-d¬ Bip-]-{Xn-I-fm-°m≥ Ign-™-Xv. Cu am‰-ß-fp-sS-sb√mw ^e-ambn BZysams° kzImcy NnIn’ Ah-km-\n∏n-°-¬˛ d^-d¬ ]cn-jvIm-c-ßsf kwi-bt- ØmsS ho£n-®n-cp∂ s]mXpP-\-ß-fn-semcp hn`m-Khpw FXn¿∏pambn apt∂m-´p-h∂ tUmIvS¿am-cn-semcp hn`m-Khpw Cu am‰-ßsf kzmKXw sNøp-Ib - m-Wp-≠m-bX - .v

kzImcy {]mIvSokv \ntcm-[-\Øns‚ KpW-߃ H∂v, saUn-°¬ tImtf--Pp-If - n-se- A[ym-]I - ¿°v Ah-cn¬ \n£n-]vXa - mb tPmen- `w-Kn-bmbn \nd-th-‰m≥ Ahkcap≠m-°p-∂p. Ahsc \ntbm-Kn-®ncn-°p-∂Xv ]Tn-∏n-°m\pw ]pXnb Adnhv Is≠-Øm\pw hnI-kn-∏n°m\pw {]kcn-∏n-°m-\p-am-sW∂ ÿnXn hcp-∂p. c≠v, ""{]nb-s∏´'' tUmIvS¿am-cpsS kzImcy tcmKn-Ifm-hp-Ibpw saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pnse NnIn-’b - psS ap≥K-W\ - m{Iaw sX‰n-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ coXn-am‰n Pqembv 2011


(Z-cn-{Z¿-˛C - S- Øcw hyXym-ka- n-√msX) kaXp-en-X-amb kao-]\w tcmKn-I-tfmSv ssIs°m-≈m≥ tUmIvS¿am¿°v Ahkcw Hcp-°p-∂p. aq∂v , saUn- ° ¬ tImtf- P nse apXn¿∂ tUmIvS¿am¿ Ah-cpsS ho´n¬ hcp∂ CS-Øc - ° - m-cpw- ]-W°m-cp- a - mb tcmKn-Isf am{X-amWv {][m-\-ambpw NnIn-’n-®ncp∂-sX-¶n¬ Ct∏mƒ AhcpsS tkh\w Zcn{Z-cmb tcmKn-Iƒ°pw In´m≥ CS-bm-°p-∂p. tcmKn-Iƒ°n-Sbnse kmº-ØnI hn`-P\w ]cn-KW - n°-s∏-Sm-Xm-°p-∂p. \mev , saUn- ° ¬ tImtf- P nse hnZKv[ kwhn-[m\w IqSp-X¬ P\-ßfn-te°v Cd-ß-n-sb-Øp-∂p. NnIn’ Iptd-°qSn P\-Io-ba - m-Ip-∂p. A©v, kzImcy {]mIvSokv F∂m¬ s]m-Xp-kw-hn-[m-\-Øn-∂-I-sØ- kzImcyhXvIc-Wa - m-Wv. s]mXp-kw-hn-[m\sØ D]-tbm-Kn-®p≈ kzImcyhXvIcW- h p- a m- W v . saUn- ° ¬ tImtfPv Bip]-{Xn-bpsS ta¬hn-em-kw-D] - t- bmKn®v {]mIvSokv \S-Øp-∂h - ¿°v AXn∂v Ahkc-an-√mXm-hp-Ib - m-W.v Bdv , \Ωp- s S - k ¿°m¿ sa- U n°¬tIm-tf-Pp-Iƒ s]mXp-hn¬ sa-®s∏´hbm-W.v Ah-bn¬]-eX - n\pw C¥ybnse ]e {][m-\N - n-In-’m- ÿm-]\ - ß-tfm-Spw- In-S] - n-Sn-°m≥ Ign-t™-°pw.U¬ln-bnse Bƒ C¥ym C≥Ãn-‰yq´v (AIIMS), t]m≠n- t ®- c n- b nse JIPMER I¬°-Øb - n-sebpw NWvUo-KU - n-sebpw t- ]mÃv {KmtPz‰v C≥Ãn-‰yq-´p-Iƒ, sh√q-cnse {InkvXy≥ saUn-°¬ sk‚¿ (CMC), Xncp-h-\-¥-]p-csØ {ioNn{Xm C≥Ãn-‰yq-´,v sslZ-cm-_m-Znse ss\ mw C≥Ã-n‰yq´v, DØ¿{]-tZ-iv, k¿°m-cns‚ k - R - vPb - vK - m‘n C≥Ãn‰yq´v F∂n-ß-s\-bp≈ D∂-X-amb ÿm]-\-ß-fn-sem∂pw kzIm-cy-{]mIvSokv C√. AØcw ÿm]-\ß - f - n¬ tcmK-Nn-In’ ÿm]-\Ø - ns‚ DØ-chm-Zn-Xz-am-W.v tUmIvS¿-am-cpambp-≈- tcmKn-If - psS kzImcy kmº-ØnI _‘Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n-e√ - . tIc-fØ - nse k - ¿°m¿ saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pp-Isf Cu Xe-Øn-te°v Db¿Øn-s°m-≠p-hcn-Ib - mWv th≠-Xv. AXn-\m-Is - ´, Hcp apt∂m-Sn-sb-t∂mWw kzIm-cy-{]m-ISv okv Ah-km-\n-∏n-°W - w. Ggv, tIcf Btcm-Ky- am-Xr-Ib - psS {]tXy-IX Ipd™ sNe-hn¬ sa®s∏´ BtcmKyw F∂-Xm-Wv. Hcp icmicn tIc-fo-b\v Hcp icm-ic - n- C¥y-m°mc-t\-°mƒ ]Øv hb ns‚ Bbp v IqSp-Xe - m-W.v CXns‚ {][m\ ImcWw Chn-Sp-sØ k - m¿h-{Xn-Ia - mb s]mXp-BtcmKy- k w- h n- [ m- \ - a m- W v . AXn¬ k¿°m¿ saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pp-Iƒ imkv{X-KXn

hln® ]¶v hfsc \nkvXp-e-am-Wv. AØcw km[y-XI - ƒ I-tºmf CSs]Sep-If - m¬ XI¿∂psIm≠n-cn-°b - m-Wv. Cu X-I¿®°v XS-bn-SW - s - a-¶n¬ kzImcy-{]m-ISv okv C√m-Xm-IW - w. F´v, ]pXp-Xmbn sshZy-hn-Zym-`ymkw t\Sn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p∂ hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ Bsc-bmWv amXr-Ib - m-t°-≠X - v F∂ tNmZyw Db¿-∂p-hc- m-dp-≠.v A[m¿an-Ia- mbn kzImcy {]mIv-Sokv \SØn ]Ww D≠m°p-∂X - n¬ am{Xw hym]r-X\ - mb Hcp tUmIvSs - d-bmtWm? AtXm, imkv{Xob Kth-jWw hgn Adn-hp-Iƒ DXv]m-Zn-∏n°p-Ibpw {]k-cn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ A[ym-]I - c - mb tUmIv-S¿am-scbmtWm? c≠m-as - Ø- coXn B-sb-¶n¬ am{Xta \ΩpsS Btcm-Ky-cw-KØ - n\v `mhn-bn¬ hf¿®-bp-≈q. CXn-\m-Is´, kzImcy {]mIvSokv Ah-km-\n-∏n-°W - w. H≥]-X,v tIc-fØ - n¬ NnIn-’m-˛t- cmK-\n¿W-bc - w-Kß - f - n¬ XnI®pw Ahn-lnXhpw A[m¿an-I-hp-amb _‘-߃ i‡n-s∏-´n-cn-°b - m-W.v kzIm-cy-{]m-ISv okv \S-Øp-∂-h¿, saUn-°¬tjm-∏p-Iƒ, saUn-°¬ Iº-\n-Iƒ,-kz-Im-cy-em-_p-Iƒ, kvIm≥ sk‚-dp-Iƒ F∂n-hs - bm-s°-bmWv- C-Xnse Iq´p-I£ - n-Iƒ. IΩo-j≥, ]mcn-tXm-jn-Iw, kΩm-\w, ]tcm-]I - mcw

F∂n-hs - bm-s°-bmWv CXn¬ Ifn-°p-∂Xv. C°q-´c- psS ""I®-hSw'' Ct∏mƒ Xs∂ Ipd-™p-Xp-Sß - n-bX - m-bmWv IW-°p-Iƒ ImWn-°p-∂X - .v CØcw Ahn-lnX _‘߃ Ah-km-\n-∏n-t°-≠Xp-≠.v AXn\v apt∂m-Sn-bmbn kzImcy {]mIvSokv \ntcm[n-°W - w. ]Øv, C∂-tØXv Itºm-fØ - ns‚ IS∂m-{I-aW Ime-am-W.v Btcm-Ky-cw-KsØ kzIm-cy-hXvIcWw Zcn-{Z¿°v NnIn’ A{]m-]y-am-°p-Ib - m-W.v Fs¥ms° ]cnan-Xn- D-s≠-¶nepw Zcn-{Z-cpsS Ah-km\sØ AØm-Wn-bmWv sa-Un-°¬ tImtf-Pv Bip]-{Xn-Iƒ. AXn-\m¬ saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pnse NnIn’ Ip‰-a‰-Xpw, hnth-N\ - c - l - n-Xh - pw, D®-\o-NXzw ImWn-°m-ØX - p-am-IW - w. ]W-Øns‚ kzm[o-\Ø - n-\v Nn-In’ ASn-s]Sm≥ ]mSn-√. AXn-\m-Is´ kzIm-cy-{]m-ISv okn∂p≈ km-lN - cyw C√m-Xm-IW - w. Ct∏m-gsØ h¿[n® iºfw NnecpsS kzIm-cy-{]m-ISv okv hcpam\-tØ°mƒ Ip-dh - m-bn-cn°mw. F¶nepw C{Xbpw \¬Ip-∂Xv P\-ßf - psS ]Ww sIm≠pX-s∂-bm-Wv. Cu [m¿an-I-t_m[w Db¿Øn-∏n-Sn-°p∂hcm-IWw saUn-°¬ tImtfPv A[ym-]I - ¿. At∏mƒ am{Xta kaq-lØ - ns‚ bYm¿∞ AwKo-Imcw

tIc-f-Øn¬ NnIn-’m-˛-tcm-K-\n¿W-b-cw-K-ß-fn¬ XnI®pw Ahn-ln-Xhpw A[m¿an-I-hp-amb _‘߃ i‡n-s∏-´n-cn-°-bm-Wv. kzIm-cy-{]m-IvSokv \SØp-∂-h¿, saUn-°¬tjm-∏p-Iƒ, saUn-°¬ Iº-\nIƒ,-kz-Im-cy-em-_p-Iƒ, kvIm≥ sk‚-dp-Iƒ F∂nh-sbm-s°-bm-Wv- C-Xnse Iq´p-I-£n-Iƒ.

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B¿Pn-s®Sp°m≥ Ah¿°v Ign-bq. AXn-\m¬, {]mIvSokv \ntcm-[\w XpScp-Ibpw ÿnXn-KX - n-Iƒ IqSp-X¬ sa®s∏-Sp-Øm≥ Xmsg ]d-bp∂ Imcy-߃ IqSn ]cn-K-Wn-°p-Ibpw thWw.

tkh\w sa®s∏-Sp-Øm≥ kzImcy {]mIvSokv \ntcm[n-®X - p-sIm≠p-am{Xw F√mw `{Z-am-Ip-∂n-√. AXns‚ t\´-߃ P\-߃°v e`n-°W - sa-¶n¬ as‰m-t´sd cwK-ßf - n¬ am‰w- h-tc-≠X - p≠v. AXp-ambn _‘-s∏´ Nne \n¿tZ-iß - fmWv C\n kqNn-∏n-°p-∂X - .v H∂v, tUmIvS¿am-cpsS Kth-jW ˛ D]-cn-]T- \ km[y-XI - ƒ sa®-s∏-Sp-ØW - w. CXn-\mbn et_m-d´- d- n, sse{_dn F∂nhh - n-]p-es - ∏-SW - w. h¿°vtjm-∏,v skan\m¿, CME F∂n-h° - p≈ bm{X AS-°ap≈ kuI-cy-߃ D≠m-h-Ww. a‰v GP≥kn-If - n¬ \n∂v Kth-jW s{]mPIvSp-Iƒ Gs‰-SpØv \S-Øp-∂X - n\p≈ HutZym-KnI \qem-am-eI - ƒ Hgn-hm-°W - w. CXn-\p≈ kzm-X{¥yw \¬I-Ww. A°mZ-anIv t\´-߃, tkh-\w, s{]mtam-j≥ F∂n-hs - bms° ]c-kv]cw _‘-s∏SpØn tUmIvS¿am-cpsS {]h¿Ø-\ß - s - f h - n-eb - n-cp-Øm\pw t{]m’m-l\w \¬Im\pw anI® tkh-\sØ AwKo-Ic- n-°m\pw \S-]Sn-Iƒ D≠m-hW - w. c≠v, kzIm-cy-{]m-ISv okv Ah-km-\n∏n-°pI hgn Bip]{Xn-If - n¬ e`n-°p∂

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tUmIvS¿am-cpsS h¿[n® ka-bsØ ^e{]-Za - mbn {]tbm-P\ - s - ∏-SpØpw hn[w \gvkn-ß,v - em-_d- ´- d- n, ^m¿akn XpS-ßnb kwhn- [ m- \ - ß - f psS {]h¿Ø\w ]p\x{Iao-Ic - n-°W - w. aq∂v, B`y-¥c kzIm-cy-hXvIc - Ww Ah-km-\n-∏n-°W - w. CXns‚ `mK-ambn KHRWS kwhn-[m\w k¿°m¿ Bip-]{Xn-If - n¬ C-√m-Xm-°Ww. KHRWS C∂v sNøp-∂s - X√mw HDC Isf-tbm, saUn°¬ tImtf-Pp-Isf Xs∂tbm t\cn´v G¬∏n-°m-hp-∂X - m-W.v \mev, saUn°¬ tImtfPv hnIk\kan-Xn-Iƒ Ahn-SsØ F√m hIp∏n-tebpw tUmIvS¿am-cp-sSbpw a‰v Poh\-°m-cp-sSbpw {]Xn-\n-[n-Isf IqSn tN¿Øv hn]p-es - ∏-Sp-ØW - w. A©v, saUn-°¬ tImtfPv Bip]{Xn-If - psS {]h¿Ø\w d^-d¬ B°Ww. AXn-\m-Is´ Xmsg CHC, PHC Pn√m Bip]{Xn F∂n-h-bpsS {]h¿Ø-\߃, kml-Nc - y-߃, kuI-cy-߃ F∂n-hs - b√mw sa®-s∏-Sp-ØW - w. Xmsg Bip]-{Xn-If - n¬ \n∂v tcmKn-Isf saUn°¬ tImtf-Pp-If - n-te°v d^¿ sNøp-∂Xp-t]mse saUn-°¬ tImtfPv XeØnse hnZ-Kv[-Nn-In’ Ign-™m¬ XpS¿Nn-In-’-°mbn Xmtg°v d^¿ sNøm≥ \S-]S- nbpw kuI-cyhpw D≠mh-Ww. CXv Xnc°v Ipd-°m≥ klm-bn-

°pw, Bh-iy-°m¿°v hnZvK[ v N - n-In’ In´m\pw klm-bI - a- m-W.v Bdv, saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pp-Ifpw XmgsØ k¿°m¿ Bkv]-{Xn-Ifpw {]mtZ-inI `cW kan-Xn-If - pw XΩn-ep≈ _‘w IqSp-X¬ GtIm-]n-∏n-°W - w. Hcp saUn-°¬ tImtf-Pns‚ ]cn-[n-bn¬ hcp∂ Pn√-I-fn-se -Pn-√m-]-©m-bØv {]kn-U‚p-am¿, saUn-°¬ tImtfPv {]n≥kn-∏¬, kq-{]-≠,v tIm¿]td-j≥ tab¿, ap≥kn-∏¬ sNb¿t]-gk v ¨am¿, DMO am¿ F∂n-hc - S- ß - nb GtIm-]\ - k-an-Xn-Iƒ cq]o-Ic - n-°W - w. {]iv\ß - fpw km[y-XIfpw N¿® sNbvXv ]cn-lc - n°m\pw ]c-k] v cw D]-tbm-Ks- ∏-Sp-Øm\pw kuI-cy-߃ sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm\pw Ign-bWw. Ch¿°n-Sb - n¬ Hcp ¢Ã¿ coXn hnIkn-®p-hcm≥ \S-]Sn D≠m-hWw. Ggv, kzImcy Btcm-Ky-ÿm-]-\ßsf kmaq-ly-ambn \nb-{¥n-°W - w. AhbpsS kuI-cy-߃, Ah CuSm-°p∂ ]Ww, e`n-°p∂ NnIn-’, AXns‚ K - pW-\n-eh - mcw F∂n-hsb KpW-Ønepw KW-Ønepw ]cn-tim-[n-°m≥ kmt¶XnI/hnZ-K[ v c - S- ß - nb IΩ-‰n-Iƒ D≠m-hWw. {]mtZ-in-I`- c - W - k - a- n-Xn-Iƒ°v CXn\p≈ A[n-Imcw \¬I-Ww. cmjv{Sob∏m¿Sn-If - p-ambn k¿°m¿ C°mcyw ap≥Iq¿ N¿® sNbvXv [mc-Wb - n-seØWw. F´v, kzImcy {]mIvSokv \ntcm-[\ - tØm-sSm-∏w B - i - p]{Xn {]h¿Ø-\Ø - n\p≈ \n¿tZ-iß - ƒ, Bip]{Xn amt\Pvsa‚n-s‚ ] - p\x{Iao-Ic - Ww NnIn’m t{]mt´m-t°mƒ Xøm-dm-°¬, acp-∂ns‚ e`y-X- D-d∏ - m-°¬, et_m-d´- d - n-If - psS {]h¿Ø\w ]p\xkwL- S n- ∏ n- ° ¬; th≠{X ]mcm-sa-Un-°¬ Poh-\° - msc e`y-am-°¬, Ahiy D]-Ic - W - ß - ƒ D≠m-I¬ F∂o Imcy-ßsf√mw \S-°Ww. Ct∏m-g-tØ-Xv, Hcp A¥cmf L´amWv. Cu L´-Øn¬ Nne Ahy-‡-XIƒ D≠m-tb-°mw. F∂m¬, tUmIvS¿amcpsS [m¿an-IX - , am\p-jnI CS-s]-S¬, k¿°m-cns‚ klm-bw,-km-aq-ly-kl - I - c- Ww, F∂n-hs - bms° IqSn tN¿∂m¬ tIc-fØ - n-se s - ]mXp Btcm-Ky-cw-KØv A¤p-Xß - ƒ krjvSn-°m≥ Ign-bpw. Cu co-Xn-bn¬ Imcy-ßs - f- hn-im-ea - m-bn- ImWm\pw CS-s]-Sm\pw P\-ßs - fbpw kaql-tØbpw {]m]vXc- m-°W - w. kzIm-cy-{]mIvSokv \ntcm-[\w hnP-bn-®m¬ am{Xsa a‰v \S-]S- n-Iƒ XpS¿∂v \S-Øm\pw s]mXpB-tcm-Ky-kw-hn-[m-\sØ IqSp-X¬ sa®s∏-Sp-Øm\pw Ign-bq. AXn-\m¬ kzImcy {]mIvSokv \ntcm-[\w ]n≥h-en-°m-Xncn-°m≥ F√m-hcpw H∂n®v {]h¿Øn-t°≠nbncn-°p-∂p.„ Pqembv 2011


kmaq-ly-imkv{Xw kn.-]n. cmtP-{μ≥

a\p-jy≥ At\z-jn-®p-sIm-t≠-bn-cn°pw. ss\k¿Kn-I-amb Cu At\zj-W-Xz-c-bpsS kmwkvIm-cnI ]cnWm-a-amWv imkv{Xw. \ΩpsS `c-WL-S-\-Iƒ am‰-߃°p-hn-t[-b-amIpw. kmº-Øn-I-L-S-\-Iƒ amdns°m-≠n-cn-°pw. Cu am‰-ßsf kzmwio-I-cn-°m\pw ]pXnbXns\ kzmKXw sNøm-\p-ap≈ kaq-lØns‚ Ign-hns\ i‡n-s∏-SpØm≥ imkv{X-t_m-[-Ønt\ km[y-am-Ip-I-bp-≈q. Aßs\ a\pjy-kzm-X-{¥y-Øns‚ km[y-X-Iƒ hn]p-e-am-bn-s°m-≠n-cn-°pw.

imkv{Xhpw aX-\n-c-t]-£-Xbpw a

X-\n-ct- ]-£X c≠v Bi-bß - f - m¬ _‘-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p. \m\m-PmXn hnizmk-ßsf A\p-h¿Øn-°p∂ ]uc-∑msc√mw \nb-aØ - n-\p-ap-∂n¬ Xpey-cm-sW∂p-≈X - mWv AXn-sem-∂.v cmjv{So-bhpw aXhpw XΩn-ep≈ th¿Xn-cn-hmWv c≠ma-tØ-Xv. GsX-¶nepw aX-Øn-s‚tbm hnizm-kØ - n-s‚sbm t]cn¬ BtcmSpw hnth-N-\-a-cp-sX∂v aX-\n-c-t]-£X A\p-im-kn-°p-∂p. Hcp aX-Øn-s‚-bpw, AXp `qcn-]£ - a - m-Is´ \yq\-]£ - a - m-Is´, ta¬-t°mbva aX-\n-ct- ]-£X A\ph-Zn-°p-∂n-√. kmaqly k¶o¿W-Xb - m¬ _‘n-Xa - mb \ΩpsS cmPy-Øns‚ `cW-LS- \ - b - psS ASn-ÿm\w Xs∂ aX\n-ct- ]-£X - b - m-W.v s]mXp-ka- q-lØ - n¬ Db-cp∂ tNmZyß-fpsS Xo¿∏p-Iƒ°p-th≠n hcp∂ {]h¿Ø- \ - ß - f n¬ hy‡n- ] - c - a mb hnizm-k{- ]-am-Wß - ƒ°p {]k-‡n-bn-√. AhnsS Db-cp∂ A`n-{]m-bß - f - ntem N¿®-If - ntem aX-kw-_‘amb {]am-Wimkv{X-KXn

߃ ASn-ÿm-\a - m-bn-°q-Sm. AhnsS ASn-ÿm-\a- m-tI-≠Xv am\p-jn-Ia- q-ey-ßfm-Wv. `mc-XØn¬ aX-\n-c-t]-£X {]mh¿Øn-I-am-°p-∂-Xn¬ A\-h[n Kuc-ht- a-dnb ]mI-∏n-gI - ƒ kw`-hn-®n´p-s≠-¶nepw sh√p-hn-fn-Isf t\cn-´p-sIm≠p-Xs∂ AXn-t∏mgpw \ne-\n¬°p-∂psh-∂Xp henb Imcy-am-Wv. ]e \oNamb A\p-jvTm-\m-Nm-cß - fpw t]cn-s\¶nepw C√m-Xm-°m≥ km[n-®n-´p-≠v. sXm´q-Iq-Smbva C√m-Xm-°n-bX - nepw PmXn\n-tj-[hpw kmaq-ln-Ia- mbn ]nt∂m°w \n¬°p-∂h - ¿°p-th-≠n-bp≈ ]≤-Xn-Ifp-sa√mw aX-\n-ct- ]-£X F∂ Bib-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n¬ \n∂p cq]s∏-´h - b - m-W.v imkv{Xhpw aX-\n-c-t]-£-Xbpw XΩn-ep≈ _‘w KmV-am-Wv. aX-\n-ct]- £ - X - b psS \ne- \ n¬]n\p imkv{Xhpw imkv{X-Øns‚ kmaq-lnI-amb hnP-bØ - n\p aX-\n-ct- ]-£X - bpw i‡-ambn \ne-sIm-t≈-≠X - p-≠v. Cu

_‘-Øns‚ Bh-iy-IX - s - b-°p-dn®p a\- n-em-°W - s - a-¶n¬ imkv{X-sa-∂m-ses¥∂pw AXn\p kaq-l-hp-am-bp≈ _‘-sa-¥m-bn-cn-°W - s - a∂pw Adn-tb≠-Xp-≠v. Np‰p-ap≈ temI-sØ-°p-dn®p≈ hkvXp-Xm-ti-Jc - W - hpw AXns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ s]mXp-\n-b-a-߃ D≠m-°p-I-bp-amWp efn-X-ambn ]d™m¬ kb≥kn-eqsS (imkv{Xw F∂ hm°p- X s∂ A\z¿∞- a mb hm°s√∂p ]d-tb-≠n-hc - pw. imkv{X-sa∂p ]d- b p- t ºmƒ am‰- a n- √ m- Ø - s X∂pw A¿∞w tZymXn-∏n-°p-∂p) \mw sNbvXpsIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂X - v. hkvXp-\n-jvTa - mb temI-sØ-bmWv imkv{Xw \nco-£n-°p∂-Xv. Bi-bß - fpw \nb-aß - f - p-sa√mw B temIsØ hni-Zo-Ic - n-°m≥ D]-tbmK-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. AXn-\m¬ Xs∂ B Bi-bß - ƒ ]co-£W - ß - ƒ°p hnt[b-am-tI-≠Xpw Ah Xncp-Ø-s∏-Sm≥ k∂-≤a- m-bn-cn-°p-Ibpw thWw. ]pXnb Is≠-Øe - p-Iƒ apºp≈ Bi-bß - sf

31


Xncp-Øp-Itbm ]cn-jvI-cn-°p-Itbm \ntj-[n-°p-Itbm sNøp-∂p. hn⁄m\-Øns‚ N{I-hm-fß - ƒ Aßs\ \nc¥-ca- mbn hnI-kn-®p-sIm-t≠-bn-cn-°p-∂p. imkv{X-Im-cs‚ {]h¿Ø-\ß - ƒ ASnÿm-\] - c - a - mbn Hcp \ntj[w Xs∂-bmWv. kb≥kv Hcp {]Ir-Xy-XoX i‡nsbbpw AwKo- I - c n- ° p- ∂ n- √ . Hcp hnizmk {]am-Ws - Øbpw ASn-ÿm-\am-°p-∂n-√. DØcw In´mØ ka-kyIƒ°p Imew sN√p-t¥mdpw ]pXnb Is≠-Øe - p-If - n-eqsS DØcw ImWm-\mIp-sa-∂mWv {]Xo-£n-°s - ∏-Sp-∂X - .v Ccp-]Xmw \q‰m-≠ns‚ a[y-tØm-SbmWv `mc-XØ - n¬ B[p-\nI imkv{X˛-km-t¶-XnIhnZy-bpsS {]Nmcw hn]p-eam-Ip-∂X - v. AtXm-sSm∏w Db¿∂p-h∂ hyh-km-bß - ƒ ]pXn-sbmcp sXmgn-emfn h¿KsØ krjvSn-°p-Ibpw kmaq-ln-Iamb am‰-߃°v AXp hgn-h-bv°pIbpw sNbv X p. AXn- \ p- a pºp kzmX{¥y ka-cI - m-eØ - p-Xs∂ imkv{X˛-km-t¶-Xn-Ih - n-Zy-sb-°p-dn®pw AXv kaql-Øn¬ D≠m-°p∂ kzm[o-\ß - s - f-°pdn®pw \nc-¥c - a - mb N¿®-Iƒ \S-∂n-cp∂p. [nj-Wm-im-en-If - mb Hcp kwLw imkv { X- ⁄ ¿ AXn\p t\XrXzw \¬Ip-Ibpw sNbvXp. kn.-hn.-cm-a≥, Fkv.F - ≥.-t_m-k,v taL\mZv kml XpSßn-b-h¿ AXn¬s∏-Sp-∂p. C≥Uy≥ kb≥kv tIm¨{K-kp-Iƒ cmjv{Sob t\Xr-Xz-Øn\p imkv{X-Im-c∑ - m-cp-ambn kwh-Zn-°m-\p≈ thZn-Iƒ Hcp-°n-s°mSp-Øp. Ph-l¿em¬ s\{lp-hn-s\-t]mep≈ t\Xm-°∑m¿ Cu {]h¿Ø-\ß-fpsS ap≥]-¥n-bn¬ Xs∂-bp-≠m-bncp- ∂ p. imkv { X- Ø n\p C≥Uysb t]mep≈ Hcp ]pcm-X\ cmPy-Øn¬ i‡-amb am‰-߃ D≠m-°m≥ km[n°p-sa∂v Ah-sc√mw hniz-kn-®p. 1958˛¬ ]m¿e- s a‚ n¬ Ah- X - c n- ∏ n® kb≥kv t]mfnkn sdk-eyq-j\ - n¬ B hnIm-cß - ƒ {]I-Sa - mbn Xnf-ßp-∂Xp ImWm-hp-∂X - m-W.v F∂m¬ Cu hnImc-߃°-\p-kr-X-ambn C≥Uy-bnse imkv{X-K-th-j-W-cwKw hf¿∂pthm F∂pw kaq-lØ - n¬ imkv{X-t_m[w Bgv∂nd-ßnsbm F∂pap≈ Imcy-߃ N¿® sNø-s∏-tS-≠X - m-Wv. krjvSn-]c - X-bp-tSbpw k¿Km-fl-I-X-bp-sSbpw A`mhw C≥Uy≥ kb≥kn¬ ImWm\p-≠.v AXn¬ A\-h[n kmaq-ln-Ihpw cmjv{So-bhpw LS-\m-]c - h - p-amb Imc-Wß-fp-≠v. AXn-te°v Ct∏mƒ IS-°p∂n-√. imkv{X-t_m[w s]mXp-ka - q-lØn¬ am{X-a√ - , imkv{X-⁄c - psS CSbn¬Xs∂ Ipd-hmb cmPy-am-Wn-sX∂p am{Xw Ct∏mƒ ]d-™p-sIm-≈s - ´. ChntSbpw `qcn-]£ - h - ¿Kob-Xb - psS Nn”-

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amb PmXn-hy-hÿ - bpw AXp-≠m-°p∂ kmaq- l y- a mb t{iWo_- ‘ - ß fpw AXns\ Np‰n-∏‰ - n-bp≈ IpSpw-_h - y-hÿbpw ss[j-Wn-Ia - mb Cu ]nt∂m°m-hÿ - b - n¬ ]¶p-hl - n-°p-∂p-s≠∂p Rm≥ Icp-Xp-∂p. aX-]c - a - mb Xo{h-hm-Zß - ƒ imkv{Xt_m[w apt∂m´p hbv°p∂ ]pXnb Ah-t_m[ kwkvIm-c-Øns‚ {]k‡nsb tNmZyw sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cn-°pI-bm-W.v C°m-cy-Øn¬ Ncn{Xw \ap°p Nne ]mT-߃ \¬Ip-∂p-≠.v aX-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-ep≈ `c-W-Iq-S-߃ \ne-hn-ep≈ Hcp cmPyØpw imkv{X-˛km-t¶-XnIhnZy A`n-hr-≤n-s∏-Sp-∂ns√∂p ImWm≥ km[n- t ®- ° pw. kmwkvIm-cn-I-X-bpsS Cu‰n-√-amb Cdm≥ Xs∂-bmWv Hcp {][m\ DZm-lc-Ww. t]¿jy≥ k¿Km-fl-I-X-bpsS apI-fn¬ Hcp I´n-Iº - fw t]mse jnbm C…m-an-IX InS-°p-Ib - m-W.v ss[j-WnI-Xb - psS ]pXnb \mºp-Iƒ Db-cp-∂Xn\p apºp-Xs∂ hmSn- Icn-bp-Ib - m-Wv. C≥Uy-bn¬Xs∂ aX-Xo-{h-hm-ZØn\pw lnμp-Xz-hm-ZØ - n\pw ap≥-Xq°w In´nb kμ¿`-Øn¬ imkv{X-cw-KØ - p-

≠mb ss[j-Wn-Ihpw kmwkvIm-cn-I]-ch - p-amb CSn-hp-Iƒ AXn\v DZm-lc - W-ßf - m-Wv. kzmX-{¥ym-\¥ - c C≥Uybn¬ aX-\n-c-t]-£-Xbv°v G‰hpw henb {]l-ca - p-≠m-bXpw CtX Imeb-fh - n-emWv F∂v AtXm-sSm∏w ]d-tb≠-Xp-≠v. 1992 Unkw-_¿ 6˛mw XobXn Hcp Ncn-{X-k-‘nsb kqNn-∏n-°p∂ Zn\-amWv (a-X\ - n-ct- ]-£Xm Zn\-ambn F¥psIm≠p \ap- ° nXp Ah[n {]Jym- ] n- ° msX BN- c n- ® p- I qSm?). A∂mWv Hcp kwLw Xo{h-hm-Zn-Iƒ lnμp-Xz-Øns‚ t]cn¬ Atbm-[y-bnse _m_dn akv P nZv XI¿°p- ∂ - X v . AXns\ i‡-ambn XS-tb≠ `c-WIqSw hnd-ße - n®p \n∂Xpw cmjv{SsØ sR´n-®p. Hcp kwLw t\Xm-°∑ - m¿ ÿeØp Xº-Sn®p C≥Uy-bpsS ASnÿm-\X - X - z-amb aX-\n-ct- ]-£X XI-cp∂Xp ssIb-Sn®p t{]m’m-ln-∏n®p sIm≠n-cp-∂p. cmam-bW - Ø - nse cma\pw Ct∏m-gsØ Atbm-[y-bp-ambn Hcp _‘-hp-an-s√∂pw Hu[v F∂ ÿew Atbm-[y-bm-bXp B tZi-°m-c\ - mb Xpf-ko-Zmkv 16˛mw \q‰m-≠n¬ "cma-N{- μam-\kw' F∂ IrXn Fgp-Xn-bX - n-\p-tij-am-sW∂pw Adn-bm-Øh - c - m-bn-cp-∂n√

aX-]-c-amb Xo{h-hm-Z-߃ imkv{X-t_m[w apt∂m´p hbv°p∂ ]pXnb Ah-t_m[ kwkvIm-c-Øns‚ {]k-‡nsb tNmZyw sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. C°m-cy-Øn¬ Ncn{Xw \ap°p Nne ]mT-߃ \¬Ip-∂p-≠v. aX-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-ep≈ `c-WIq-S-߃ \ne-hn-ep≈ Hcp cmPyØpw imkv{X-˛-kmt¶-XnIhnZy A`n-hr-≤n-s∏-Sp-∂n-s√∂p ImWm≥ km[n-t®-°pw.

Pqembv 2011


B t\Xm-°∑ - m¿. cmjv{So-be - m-`Ø - n-\pth≠n P\-ßf - psS A‘-amb hnizmk-{]-am-Wß - sf Ah¿ NqjWw sNøpI-bm-bn-cp-∂p. C√mØ sXfn-hp-Iƒ D≠m-°n-sb-Sp-°m≥ Hcp ^mknÃp {]h¿Ø\ coXn-bmWv ]n∂o-Sh - ¿ Ahew-_n-®-Xv. "B¿°n-tbm-fPn' F∂ imkv{XsØ Ah¿ Zpcp-]t- bm-Ks - ∏-SpØn. 1970-˛I-fn¬ B¿°n-tbm-fP - n-°¬ k¿sh \S-Ønb D¬J-\-\-ß-fn¬ _m_vdn akvPn-Zn\p apºp Hcp lnμp t£{Xan√m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂p-am-{X-a√ a\p-jy-hmkw Xs∂ Ipd-hm-bn-cp∂ ÿe-am-bn-cp∂psh∂p-Xs∂ sXfn-™ncp-∂p-sh∂p Hm¿t°-≠X - p-≠v. AtX Ime-Øp-Xs - ∂-bmWv thZnIv KWn-Xs - a∂ t]cn¬ ]pXn-sbmcp KWnX-im-Jb - p-s≠-∂p≈ [mcW ]c-Øm≥ t_m[-]q¿h-amb {ia-߃ lnμp-Xz-hmZn-Iƒ \S-Øn-bX - .v tPymXn-js - a∂ I]S-im-k{v XsØ bqWn-th-gk v n‰n {Km‚ k v v IΩo-j≥ ]pXnb ]mTy-hn-j-b-am-°nbXpw A°m-eØ - m-W.v Bcy-∑m¿ at≤yjy-bn¬\n∂pw h∂-hc - s - √∂pw C≥Uybn¬ Xs∂ D≈-hc - m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂p-ap≈ IY-Iƒ ]c-Øn-bXpw A°m-eØ - m-Wv. Iymwt_ IS-ens‚ ASn-Ø´- n¬ FÆmbncw h¿jw ]g-°a - p≈ Hcp Bcy \K-cØ - ns‚ Ah-in-jSv ß - ƒ Is≠-Ønsb∂pw Ah¿ ]d- ™ p- ≠ m- ° n. AXn\p Ah¿ Nne imkv{X-⁄sc D]-tbm-Kn-®p. imkv{XsØ hf-s®m-Sn-®p. B[p-\n-I- imkv{Xw Is≠-Ønb Imcy߃ thZ-ßf - nepw D]-\n-jØ - p-If - nepw ]pcm-W-ß-fnepw ]d-™p-h-®n-´p-s≠∂p≈ hm¿Ø-Iƒ ÿnc-ambn ]pd-Øph-∂p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p. lnμpXz Xo{h-hmZw C≥Uy-bn¬ sNbvX Imcy-߃ Xs∂bmWv ]e C…m-anI cmPy-ßf - nepw \S°p-∂X - v. aX-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n¬ imkv{X-sØ hf-s®m-Sn-°p-I-bm-Wv. Xo{h-hm-Zß - ƒ aX-\n-ct- ]-£X - bv°pw imkv{X-t_m-[Ø - n\pw FXn-cmbn \nesIm≈p∂h-bm-Wv. a[y-\q‰m-≠nse {InkvXob Xo{h-hmZw Xs∂-bmWv AXn\p≈ {][m\ DZm-l-c-Ww. AXn-\ptijw ]Xn-s\´mw \q‰m-≠n¬-t]mepw hnIvtSm-dn-b≥ Cw•≠v Um¿hns‚ ]cnWma kn≤m-¥sØ AwKo-Ic - n-°m≥ Iq´m-°n-bn-√. aX-hn-izm-khpw imkv{Xt_m[hpw IqSn-t®cm-\m-ImØ c≠p kmwkvIm-cnI-[m-cI - f - m-Wv. A]q¿W-amb hn⁄m\- s Øbpw A\n- › n- X - X z- s Øbpw imkv{Xw kzmKXw sNøp-∂p. kXyamWv AXns‚ hgn-Im-´n. ss__n-fntem Jpdm-\ntem thZ-ß-fntem imkv{XØns‚ km[pX tXSm≥ \nhr-Øn-bn√. hnizm-ksØ ]co-£W - ß - f - n-eqsS kao-]n-°m-\m-hn-√. hy‡n-K-X-amb imkv{X-KXn

A\p-`h - ß - f - n-eq-sStbm {]tXyI am\kn-Im-hÿ - I - f - n-eq-sStbm shfn-]m-Sp-If - neq-sStbm \b-]c - a - mb BI-kvan-IX - I - fn-eq-sStbm BWv aX-]c - a- mb hnizmkw Bhn¿`-hn-°p-∂X - v. B hnizm-kß - ƒ am‰-߃°p hnt[-ba - √ - . Hmtcm imkv{X-Im-c\pw hy‡n-]c - amb am\-knI hym]-mc-߃ Ah-cpsS krjvSn-I¿a-ßf - n¬ kzm[o\w sNepØm-sa-∂n-cn°nepw imkv{X-Im-cs‚ I¿a- a - W v U ew hkv X p- \ n- j v T - a mb temIsØ B{i-bn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. Ahcn¬ ]ecpw hnizm-kn-If - p-am-bn-cn-°mw. Keo-en-sbm, sI]vf¿, \yq´¨, cmam-\pP≥ XpS-ßn-bh - ¿ hnizm-kn-If - m-bn-cp∂p (A-hn-izm-kn-bmb Pn.-F® - .v lm¿Un-tbmsSm-∏a - mWv cmam-\p-P≥ Xs‚ an° Kthj- W - { ]- _ - ‘ - ß fpw Fgp- X n- s b∂ Imcyhpw hnkva-cn-°-cp-Xv). F∂m¬ Ah-cpsS imkv{Xob kao-]\ - ß - sf aXZ¿i-\ß - ƒ°p kzm[o-\n-°m≥ km[n®n-´n-√. hkvXp-XI - ƒ \bn-°p∂ hgnIƒ am{X-amWv Kth-jW - Ø - n¬ Ah¿ Xnc-s™-Sp-ØX - .v imkv { X- Ø n¬ Ah- k m- \ - h m°v Fs∂m-∂n-√. \yq´-Wp-t]mepw sX‰p ]‰n-bn-´p-≠v. {]Imiw IWn-I-I-fm¬ D≠m-°s - ∏-´XmsW∂v sX‰mbn hniz-kn®p. Izm≠w sa°m-\nIvkv Aim-kv{Xob-am-sW∂p sF≥ssÃ≥ Icp-Xn-bn-cp∂p. imkv{X-Øn¬ Znhy-∑m-cmbn Bcpan-√.

Ncn-{X-]c - a - mbnXs∂ imkv{Xw aX\n- t j- [ - a mb {]h¿Ø- \ - Ø n- e qsS hf¿∂ph∂-Xm-Wv. bqtdm-∏n¬ \thm∞m\ Ime-L´w ]pjv]n-®-Xp-Xs∂ aXm-‘X - sb FXn¿Øp tXm¬∏n-®psIm-≠p-X-s∂-bm-Wv. Keo-en-sbmbpw {_qtWmbpw t]mep≈h¿ AXn-\pth≠n Ah-cpsS kzmX-{¥yhpw PohnXhpw Zm\w sNbvXp. bqtdm-∏n¬ a[yi-XI - ß - f - n-emWv hn⁄m-\Ø - ns‚ ImeL´w Bcw-`n-®s - X-¶n¬ C¥y-bn¬ ]pcmX-\- Im-eØpXs∂ cmas\ [n°-cn® Nm¿hm-I∑ - m¿ D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Aa-¿Xysk-∂ns‚ “Argumentative Indian” F∂ {KŸ-Øn¬ `mc-XØ - nse X¿°-ßf - psSbpw \ntj-[ß - f - p-sSbpw N¿®-If - psSbpw ]ucm-Wn-I-amb ]›m-Øew hnh- c n- ° p- ∂ p- ≠ v . Nm¿hm- I \pw Km¿Knbpw am{X-a√ _p≤-\pƒs∏-Sp∂ {ia-W∑ - m¿ A∂p \ne-hn-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ aX-Z¿i-\ß - sf tNmZyw sNbvXn-cp-∂p. Aß-s\-bp≈ aX-\n-ct- ]-£hpw Hc-fthmfw P\m-[n-]-Xy-]-c-hp-amb Hcp Ncn{X ]›m-Øe - a - mWp `mc-XØ - n-ep≠m-bn-cp-∂X - .v AXm-bn-cn-°Ww \ΩpsS ]mc-ºc - y-ambn Db¿Øn-∏n-Sn-t°-≠X - v. hmkvX-h-Øn¬ C≥Uy-bn¬ B Ah-t_m-[Ø - ns‚ Iqº-Sb - p-∂Xv Hcp ]t£ F.-Un. \memw iX-IØ - n¬ FgpXnb a\p-kvar-Xn-bpsS Ime-tØmsS Bbn-cn-°mw. sXmgn¬ hn`-P\w AXnI-Tn-\-amb PmXn-hy-h-ÿ-bm-Ip-Ibpw

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Aßs\ a\pjy kzmX-{¥y-Øn\p ]utcm-ln-XX - z-Øns‚ Iq®p-hn-eß - p-Iƒ Xo¿°p-Ibpw sNbvXt- XmsS `mc-XØ - n¬ hnNm-ch - n-πh - Ø - n-s‚bpw k¿Km-flI - X - bp-sSbpw Imew Ah-km-\n®p F∂p ]d-bmw. kmaq-ln-I-amb ASn-a-ØØns‚ XpS¿® aXm-‘X - bv°pw A‘hn-izm-k-߃°pw A¿∞-c-ln-X-amb BNm-cm-\p-jvTm-\ß - ƒ°pw hgn-h® - p. kmt¶-Xn-I-X-bn¬ C∂p ap∂n¬\n¬°p∂ Ata-cn-°≥ sFIy-\m-Sp-Ifn¬ t]mepw {InkvXob Xo{h-hm-Zn-Iƒ aX-\n-c-t]-£X-bvs°Xnsc ]pXnb sh√p-hn-fn-Iƒ Db¿Øp-∂p-≠.v ]cn-Wma-kn-≤m¥w kvIqfp-If - n¬ ]Tn-∏n-°p∂Xns\-Xnsc Ah¿ sXcp-hp-If - n¬ am{Xa√ tImS-Xn-I-fn-eq-sSbpw sNdp-Øp\n¬]p \S-Øn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-Ib - m-Wv. ssÃwsk¬ Kth-jWw \S-Øp-∂X - ns\-Xn-scbpw K¿`-\n-tcm-[\ - Ø - n-s\-Xnscbpw Ah¿ sNdp-Øp-\n¬]p XpS-cp∂p. Imem-hÿ hyXn-bm\w Nne imkv{X-⁄c - psS `mh-\m-hn-em-ka- m-sW∂p {]N-cn-∏n-°p-∂p. C…m-anI cmPyß-fn¬ kv{XoI-fpsS hy‡n-KX kzmX{¥y-ßf - n¬ ssII-SØ - p-Ibpw Ah-cpsS k¿Km-flI - a - mb {]hr-Øn-Isf XS-bpIbpw sNøp-∂p. lnμp-Xz-hm-Zn-Iƒ thZß-fn¬ ImWp-∂X - p-t]mse C…m-anI Xo{h-hm-Zn-Iƒ Jpdm-\n¬ imkv{X-kw-_‘-amb F√m Imcy-߃°pw DØ-ca - ps≠∂p {]N-cn-∏n-°p-∂p. PqX Xo{h-hmZn-Iƒ ssZh-hp-ambn Ah-cp-≠m-°nb Hcp Icm-dns‚ ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n¬ A\ycpsS `qan ssItb-dp-Ibpw Ah-cp-tSXmbn Hcp cmPy-Øns‚ AXn¿Øn-Iƒ kzbw \n›-bn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. aX-Xo-{h-hm-ZØ - ns‚ sh√p-hn-fn-Iƒ C≥Uy-bpƒs∏-sS-bp≈ ]e cmPy-ßfnepw i‡-ambn \ne-\n¬°p-∂p. aXXo-{h-hm-Zhpw ^mkn-khpw Hcp \mWb-Øns‚ c≠p hi-ßf - m-Wv. A‘-Imc-Øns‚ \mfp-If - n-te°n\n Xncn-®p-t]m°n√ F∂p hniz-kn-°p-∂Xp auVyam-Wv. aX-Xo-{h-hm-Z-Øn-s\-Xnsc Hcp henb Iq´mbva D≠m-t°-≠X - ns‚ Bhiy-IX - b - n-te-°mWv Cu sh√p-hn-fn-Iƒ hnc¬ Nq≠p-∂-Xv. \ΩpsS temIw C∂pw Un°≥kns‚ "c≠p \K-cß - fpsS IY'bn¬ ]d-™n-cn-°p-∂-Xpt]mse-Xs∂ XpS-cp-Ib - mWv: “....It is the best of times, it is the worst of times. It is the age of light, it is the age of darkness, it is the season of hope, it is the season of despair...” AsX, Bi-bp-sSbpw \ncm-

i-bp-sSbpw AXn¿h-c-ºp-Iƒ CS-Ie¿∂ temI-Øn-eq-sS-bmWv \man-t∏mgpw \S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂X - .v P\m-[n-]X - yhpw kzmX-{¥yhpw C√mØ-bn-Sß - f - n¬ imkv{Xhpw imkv{X-t_m-

34

[hpw thcp-]n-Sn-°p-Ib - n-√. imkv{X-t_m[hpw imkv{Xob kao-]\ - ß - f - p-an-√msX aX-\n-ct- ]-£X - b - n¬ Du∂n-bp≈ a\pjy-kzm-X{¥yw hnI-kn-°p-Ibpan√. hna¿in-°m\pw kwh-Zn-°m\pw \ntj[n-°p-hm-\p-ap≈ kzmX-{¥y-ap≈ kaql-ß-fn¬ am{Xta imkv{X-Nn-¥bpw imkv{Xm-ht- _m-[hpw ]pe-cp-Ib - p-≈q. aX-Xo-{h-hmZw IqSmsX B[p-\n-ItemIw a‰p sh√p-hn-fn-Ifpw t\cn-Sp-∂p≠v . Ak- a - X z- a mb kmº- Ø nI hf¿®bpw hnI-k-\hpw P\-ß-fn¬ Akw-Xr-]vXnbpw \ncm-ibpw hf¿Øp∂p-≠v. kº-Øns‚ tI{μo-I-cWw Zmcn{Zyw hf¿Øp-∂p. ]mh-s∏-´h - c - psS Pohn- X - \ n- e - h mcw apº- s Ø- ° mƒ Xmgv∂p-t]m-Im\pw CS-bm-°p-∂p. Cu \ncm-is - b aX-Xo-{h-hmZw apX-se-Sp-°p∂p-≠v. t•m_-sse-tk-js‚ `mK-ambn Db¿∂p-h∂ D]-t`m-Kk - w-kvImcw a[y-

aX-Xo-{h-hm-Z-Øns‚ sh√p-hn-fn-Iƒ C≥Uybpƒs∏-sS-bp≈ ]e cmPy-ß-fnepw i‡-ambn \ne-\n¬°p-∂p. aX-Xo{h-hm-Zhpw ^mkn-khpw Hcp \mW-b-Øns‚ c≠p hi-ß-fm-Wv. A‘-Im-cØns‚ \mfp-I-fnte°n\n Xncn-®p-t]m-°n√ F∂p hniz-kn-°p-∂Xp auVy-am-Wv. aX-Xo-{h-hmZ-Øn-s\-Xnsc Hcp henb Iq´mbva D≠m-t°-≠Xns‚ Bh-iy-I-X-bn-te°mWv Cu sh√p-hn-fnIƒ hnc¬ Nq≠p-∂-Xv.

h¿Øn kaq-l-Øn¬ Ak-¥p-en-Xmhÿ D≠m-°p-∂p-≠v. AtXm-sSm∏w Xs∂ aX-{`m¥pw PmXn-Nn-¥bpw ]ptcmK-a\ - Ø - ns‚ Cu‰n-√s - a∂p hnti-jn-∏n°-s∏-Sp∂ tIc-fØ - n¬ ]q¿hm-[nIw i‡n-tbmsS thcp ]nSn-°p-∂Xpw Nn¥\o-ba - m-W.v BƒssZhßfpsS am¿°‰v F∂-sØ-°mƒ IqSn-bn-cn-°p∂ ka-bam-Wn-Xv. A‘-amb `‡n, Agn-a-Xn, aX-Xo-{h-hm-Zw, D]-t`m-K-kw-kvIm-cw, kv{Xo]o-U-\w, ]cn-k-c-a-en-\o-I-cWw XpS-ßnb Imcy-ßs - f√mw At\ym\yw _‘-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p. AXp-sIm≠p \maam-{X-amb kzmX{¥yw Ds≠∂p ]d-™Xp-sIm≠p Imcy-am-bn-√. B kzmX{¥yw bYm¿∞-amb am\-ho-b-X-bn-te°pw ]pXn-sbmcp Ah-t_m-[Ø - n-te°pw Dbtc-≠X - p-≠v. hy‡n-]c - hpw kmaq-ly-]c-hp-amb Pm{KX AXn-\p-th≠n \mw ]pe¿tØ-≠X - p-≠.v imkv { Xw aqeym- X o- X - a m- s W∂p (value-neutral) ]ecpw Icp-Xp-∂p-≠v. a\p-jy-aq-ey-ßf - p-ambn imkv{Xw KmVambn _‘s∏´n- c n- ° p- ∂ p- s h∂p t{_mtWm-hvkvIn-bpsS ""imkv{Xhpw am\p-jnI aqey-ßfpw'' F∂ at\m-lc - amb sNdp-{K-Ÿ-Øn¬ km£y-s∏-SpØp-∂p-≠v. kXy-sØ-bmWv AsXt∏mgpw tXSn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂X - v. AXp hf-cp-∂X - m-Is´ \ntj-[Ø - n-eq-sSbpw hna¿i-\Ø - n-eq-sS-bp-am-Wv. “Right to dissent” F∂p ]d-bp-tºmƒ Nn¥m-kzmX{¥yw ]cn-c£ - n-°pI F∂p-IqSn ]dtb-≠n-h-cpw. Hcp aX-\n-c-t]-£-amb kaq-lØ - n¬ am{Xta AØcw kzmX{¥y-Øn\p \ne-\n¬∏p-≈q. AXn-\m¬ Xs∂ imkv{X-Nn-¥bpw aX-\n-ct- ]-£Xbpw knw_-tbm-´n-°mbn _‘-s∏-´ncn-°p-∂p. H∂pw A¥n-aa - √ - . Hcp DØ-chpw Ah-km-\- hm-°√ - . CXmWv imkv{Xk-ao-]\ - Ø - ns‚ ImX¬. Pohn-XØ - nepw kaq-lØ - nepw D≈ F√m {]iv\ß - tfmSpw Cusbmcp kao-]\ - a- m-bn-cn-°Ww k¶o¿W-X-Isf A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-°m≥ G‰hpw ]‰nb am¿K-sa∂p tXm∂p-∂p. a\p-jy≥ At\z-jn-®p-sIm-t≠-bn-cn°pw. ss\k¿Kn-Ia - mb Cu At\z-jW-Xz-cb - psS kmwkvIm-cnI ]cn-Wm-aamWv imkv{Xw. \ΩpsS `c-WL - S- \ - I - ƒ am‰-߃°p-hn-t[-ba - m-Ipw. kmº-Øn-IL-S\ - I - ƒ amdn-s°m-≠n-cn-°pw. Cu am‰ßsf kzmwio-Ic - n-°m\pw ]pXnbXns\ kzmKXw sNøm-\p-ap≈ kaq-lØ - ns‚ Ign-hns\ i‡n-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ imkv{Xt_m-[-Ønt\ km[y-am-Ip-I-bp-≈q. Aßs\ a\p-jy-kzm-X-{¥y-Øns‚ km[y-X-Iƒ hn]p-e-am-bn-s°m-≠n-cn°pw.„ Pqembv 2011


I]S-imkv{Xw _nt\mbv F a‰-a\

hmkvXp-imkv{Xw bYm¿∞-Øn¬ Bh-iy-an-√msX ]WnXv Iq´p∂ hoSns‚ `mK-߃ hcpwXe-ap-dbv°pw kaq-l-Øn\pw Hcp `mc-amWv. `mh-\-bn¬ am{Xw `qan-bn¬ InS-°p-∂ hmkvXp ]pcp-js\ shdpsX hnSp-I.

im

kv{Xw D¤-hn-®-Xns‚ Hcp IYbp-≠v. _m_n-tem-Wn-b-bnse Hcp cmPm-hns‚ sIm´m-c-Øn¬ [mcmfw ⁄m\n-If - pw, ]WvUn-X∑ - mcpw tPymXnjnIfpw D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. AhnsS cmPmhn\v Hcn-°¬ Hcp kwibw h∂p. IpXn-c-Iƒ°v F{X ]√p≠v? Xs‚ kwib \nhm-c-W-Øn-\mbn At±lw Xs‚ a{¥n-amsc hnfn®v At\z-jn-®p. Ah¿°v Adn-bn√m F∂v DØcw In´n. DS≥ ]WvUn-X∑ - msc hnfn-®p. Ahcpw BZy-am-bmWv AØ-cs - amcp tNmZysØ A`n- a p- J o- I - c n- ° p- ∂ - X v . Ah¿°v DØcw Xcm≥ høm- X m- b - t ∏mƒ Ah¿°--dn-bm-hp∂ hnZzm-∑msc hcp-Øn. Ahcpw tNmZy-Øn\p apºn¬ ]I-®p. cmPmhv hfsc hnj-aØ - n-em-bn. cmPmhv hnj-an-°p-∂Xv I≠v Hcp km[m-cW `S≥ At±-l-tØmSv tNmZn®p. imkv{X-KXn

"Xncp-ta\n Aßv hnj-an-°p-∂-sX¥n\v ? AX- d n- b m≥ ⁄m\n- I sf sIm≠p-h-∂-sX-¥n-\v, Hcp IpXn-csb ]nSn®v FÆn-t\m-°n-bm¬ t]msc?' CXv tI´v AhnsS k∂n-ln-Xc - m-bncp∂ F√m ]WvUn-X-∑mcpw Ahs\ ]cn-l-kn-®p. IpXn-c-bpsS ]√v FÆn t\m°p-Itbm AXv ]mSn√m! \Ωƒ thZ {KŸ-߃ t\m°-Ww, ]q¿hn-I∑ - m-cpsS Fgp-Øp-Iƒ t\m°-Ww. A√msX IpXn-c-sb-]n-Sn®v FÆp-Itbm AXp ]mSn√! At∏mƒ `S≥ ]d-™p. "Xncp-ta\n Aßv hnj-an-°p-∂Xv I≠v Rm≥ A©mdv IpXn-cI - f - psS hm s]mfn®v FÆn t\m°n. \√ IpXn-cIƒ°v 36 ]√p-Iƒ D≠v' F√m ⁄m\n-Ifpw ]WvUn-X∑ - mcpw, tPymXn-jn- Ifpw B `Ss\ ]p—n®v X≈n, ImcWw Ah≥ ⁄m\n-b√ - . C\n

taem¬ Aßs\ sNøm\pw ]mSn√ F∂v \n¿t±-ihpw \¬In. ]s£ cmPmhn\p `S≥ sNbvXXp CjvS-s∏-´p. At±lw Xs‚ IpXnc emb-Ønse F√m IpXn-cI - f - p-sSbpw hmbnse ]√pI-fpsS FÆw FSp-Øp. {]mb-am-bX - ns\bpw A]-ISw ]‰n-bX - n-s\bpw am‰n\n¿Øn-bm¬ `S≥ ]d-™Xv icn-bmsW∂v cmPm-hn\v a\- n-em-bn. IpXn-c°v F{X ]√p≠v F∂-Xn\p Xocp-am-\a- m-bn. imkv{X-Øns‚ XpS°w CXmWv F∂XmWv IY. At∏mƒ imkv{Xw As√¶n¬ kb-≥kv F∂v ]d-bp-∂X - ns‚ ASnÿm\w F¥mWv? {]Ir-Xn-bnse Hmtcm {]Xn-`m-khpw \nco-£Ww \SØn AXns‚ Imcy-Im-cWw ]Tn®v Hcp XXzw D≠m-°p-∂ coXnbmWv imkv{Xw. imkv{Xw AYhm kb≥kv F∂p ]d-™m¬ F¥mWv F∂v AXns‚

35


\n¿h-N\w t\m°n-bm¬ hy‡-am-Ipw. {]Ir-Xn-bn¬ \S-°p∂ {]Xn-`m-kß - sf \nco-£n®v AXn\v Dt]m¬_-eI - a - mbn hcp∂ XXz-ßsf Bhn-jvI-cn-®v, ]co£Ww \SØn AXv icn-bm-sW∂v t_m[y-amb kwK-Xn-bmWv imkv{Xw. GsXmcp {]i-kvX-amb \nL≠p ]cntim-[n-®mepw Cu \n¿h-N\w CXp Xs∂-bm-Wv. Hcp Imcyw imkv{Xo-bamWv F∂p ]d-b-W-sa-¶n¬ AXn\p icn-bmb imkv{Xob kao-]\w thWw. AXm-bXv Hcp \nco-£Ww s]mXphmbn I≠Xv FSp-sØmcp XXz-kwlnX D≠m-°p-I. ]n∂oSv AXv ]co£n®v t\m°p-I. ho≠pw AtX ]co£Ww \S-Øp-tºmƒ AtX DØ-ctam AXn-t\m-SS- pØ DØ-ctam In´p-I. In´nbm¬ F¥p-sIm-≠mWv Aßs\ h∂sX∂v ]Tn-°p-I. AXn\p ImcWw Is≠-Øp-I. DZm-lc - W - Ø - n\v hmXIw NqSm-°n-bm¬ hnI-kn°pw; AXns‚ a¿±w IqSpw. AXv XΩn¬ Hcp A\p]mXw D≠v. Cu {]Xn-`mkw ]e coXnbn¬ sNbvXv Hcp s]mXp XXz-Øn¬ FØp-I. AtX ]co-£Ww AtX Np‰p]m-Sn¬ Ft∏mƒ sNbvXmepw FhnsS h®v sNbvXmepw icn-bm-bn-cn-°-Ww. As√-¶n¬ Htc {]Xn-`mkw F¥psIm≠v Aßs\ kw`-hn-°p-∂Xv F∂v ]Tn-°p-I. At∏m-gmWv XXzw imkv{Xam-Ip-∂X - v. adn®v ]pcm-X\ {KŸ-Øn¬ FgpXn F∂v ]d-bp-∂X - p-sIm≠v AXv imkv{X-am-In-√. `mh-\-bn¬ \ΩpsS ]q¿hn-I¿°v tXm∂n-bXv kXy-am-IW - sa-∂n-√. \ΩpsS ]q¿hn-I¿°dn-bm-

36

hp∂ coXn-Iƒ Fgp-Xn-h-®Xv C∂v imkv{Xo-b-ambn \ymbo-I-cn-°m-\p≈ {ia-߃ Hc-p-]mSv ImWm≥ ]‰pw. AXn¬ H∂mWv hmkvXp-im-k{v Xw. HcSn-ÿm-\h - p-an-√msX shdpw `mh-\b - psS _e-Øn¬ D≠m-°n-bn-cn-°p∂ Hcp IW- ° mWv AXv . A√msX Hcp imkv{X-a√ - . hmkvXp-im-k{v X-Øn¬ ]d™n-cn-°p∂ Nne Imcy-߃ icn-bmtb-°mw. ]t£ AXv imkv{Xo-ba - mbn sXfn-bn-°-Ww. AXn\v Nne hgn-I-fp≠v. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v BZy-]-Sn-bmbn Hcp {]Xn-`m-kØ - ns‚ Imc-Whpw A\¥-c-^-e-hp-ambn Hcp _‘w D≠m-°pI. DZm- l - c - W - Ø n- \ v , 16 tIm¬ 8 AwKpew As√- ¶ n¬ 20 tIm¬ 8 AwKpew F∂nh Hcp InS∏papdn°v DØ-a-amb DƒNp-‰-f-hp-I-fm-Wv. AXpt]mse Xs∂ hoSns‚ DØ-a-amb ]pdw Np‰- f - h p- I - f p- a p- ≠ v . Cßs\ hmkv X p imkv { X- { ]- I mcw F√mw XnI™v DØ-aa - m-bn-cn-°p∂ 10 sIm√sa-¶nepw ]q¿Øn-bm-°nb 50 hoSp-Iƒ FSp-°p-I. CXn\v Hcp {]mtbm-KnI _p≤n-ap´v F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv ]WnX hoSns‚ Np‰-fhv FSp-°m≥ Bcpw kΩXn-°m-dn-√. an°-hmdpw AXv sX‰m-bn´m-bn-cn°pw InS-°p-∂X - v. \ofw Af-°p∂- X ns‚ am\- Z - W v U - a mb tIm¬, AwKpew F∂n-hbv°p hy‡-amb ASn-ÿm-\-an-√. Hmtcm-cp-Øcpw Ahc-h¿ ]Wn-bm≥ D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ Afhp-tIm¬ BWv icn-sb∂v hmZn-°pw. F∂m¬ Hcp ao‰¿ F∂-Xn\v \n¿h-N\-ap-≠v. t\csØ AXv ]mco-kn¬

IrXy- a mbn NqSnepw a¿±- Ø nepw kq£n-®n-cp∂ Hcp teml-Z-WvUns‚ \of-am-bn-cp-∂p. C∂Xv 1/299,792,458 sk°‚n¬ {]Im-ic - ivan k©-cn-°p∂ Zqc-am-Wv. ]pXnb knhn¬ F≥Pn-\o-bdnßpw hmkvXp imkv{Xhpw Hcp-an®v sIm≠p-t]m-Im≥ s]mXp-P\ - sØ I_fn-∏n-°m-\p-ambn GtXm Hcmƒ Hcp _‘w I≠p ]nSn®p! Hcp AwKpew F∂v ]d-™m¬ 3 sk‚n-ao-‰-dm-sW∂v. C∂v AXv Xncn®v D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂p. aq∂v sk‚n-ao-‰-dns\ Hcp AwKpe-ambn I≠v F√m knhn¬ F≥Pn-\ob¿amcpw Xs‚ ASp-°¬ hoSv πm≥ sNøm≥ hcp-∂h - s\ Xr]vXn-s∏-Sp-Ønhn-Sp-∂p. AsX-¥m-bmepw 3 sk‚n-ao‰¿ Hcp AwKpew F∂ A\p-]mXw h®p-sIm≠v XncnsI imkv{X-Øn-te°v hcmw. hmkvXp-im-k{v X-{]-Imcw D∂-Xs - a∂v hn[n-sb-gp-Xnb Krl-߃ t]mse hmkvXp-imkv{Xw t\m°m-Ø-Xp-ambn IW°v sX‰n®v InS-°p-∂-Xp-ambn ]Øv h¿j- Ø n- \ p- t a¬ D]- t bm- K n°p∂ 50 hoSp-Iƒ IqSn Xnc-s™-Sp°p-I. F∂n´v B ho´n¬ Xma-kn-®n-cp∂-hc - p-sS-tbm, Xma-kn-°p-∂h - c - p-sStbm A\p-`-h-߃ tiJ-cn-°p-I. Ah-cpsS Ign™ ]Øv sIm√w-sIm-≠p-≠mb \√Xpw NoØ-bp-amb F√m A\p-`-hßfpw Ãm‰n-Ãn-°e - mb coXn-bn¬ tiJcn-°p-I, F∂n´v AXns\ hni-I-e\w sNøp-I. IW°v DØ-a-amb KrlØn¬ Xma-kn-®-h¿°v \√ A\p-`-h߃ IqSp-X-emtWm? A√m-Ø-h¿°v PohnXw Zp -la - mtWm? CX-t\z-jn-°p∂-Xn\pw hni-I-e\w sNøp-∂-Xn\pw tImtf-Pp-I-fnse Ãm‰n-Ãn-°¬ hn`mK-sØ G¬]n°mhp∂XmWv. C\n Aßs\ hmkvXp-hn-[n-{]-Im-c-ap-≠m°nb Krl-ß-fn¬ GsX-¶nepw IqSpX-embn \√ A\p-`-h-ap-≈-hcpw A√mØ-h-bn¬ NoØ A\p-`-h-ap-≈-hcpw Ds≠-¶n¬ AXv F¥p-sIm≠v F∂v At\z-jn-°-Ww. hy‡-amb Imc-W߃ I≠p-]n-Sn-°-Ww. F∂n´v AXv A¥¿tZ-iob tP¿W-ep-I-fn¬ {]kn≤o-I-cn-°-Ww. AXv {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°Wsa¶n¬ Ah- c psS tNmZy- ß sf hy‡-ambpw hkvXp-\n-jvTa - mbpw t\cnS- W w. Aß- s \- b mWv Hcp Imcyw imkv{X-ambn F∂v ]d-bm≥ ]‰p-∂X - v. Kth-j-I¿ F¥mWv Hmtcm {]Xn`m-k-Øn-s‚bpw ImcWw F∂v Npgn™-t\z-jn-°W - w. A√msX ]q¿hn-I¿ Fgp-Xn-h®p F∂-Xp-sIm-≠p-am{Xw AXv icn-bmWv F∂v Icp-Xp-∂Xv sX‰mWv. kqcy\pw N{μ\pw tZh-∑m-c√ F∂p \mw a\- n-em-°n. N{μ≥ kzbw Pqembv 2011


{]Im-in-°p-∂n√ F∂pw a\- n-em-°n. F∂n´pw hmkvXp-]p-cp-j≥ `qan-bn¬ ibn-°p-∂-Xmbn \Ωƒ hniz-kn-°p∂p. F∂n´v AXns\ \membn apdn®v Hmtcm tImWnepw Hmtcm Imcy-߃ ]d™v h®n-´p-≠v. ]t£ hmkvXp-]pcp-js‚ InS∏v amk-߃ A\p-k-cn®v amdn-amdn hcpw. I∂n, Xpemw, hr›nIw amk-ßf - n¬ Ing-t°m-´pw, [\p, aI-cw, Ipw`w amk-ß-fn¬ sXt°m´pw F∂nßs\ ]e Zni-If - n¬ Xe h®mWv InS°p- ∂ - X v . Npcp- ° n- ∏ - d - ™ m¬ Hcp ÿeØv Hcp Krlw ]Wn- X mepw h¿j-Ønse ]e amk-ßf - nepw Krlw hmkvXp-]p-cp-js‚ ]e Ah-b-h-ß-fnem- b n- c n°pw F∂mWv hmkvXpimkv{Xw ]d-bp-∂-Xv. \mS≥ hmkvXpim-k{v X-Øn¬ I∂n-aq-eb - n-emWv inemÿm-]\w \S-Øp-∂X - .v Aßs\ inemÿm-]\w \SØn sFizcyw Ib-dnb Hcp hy‡n Xs‚ ap≥ hisØ ]dºp-IqSn hmßn-bm¬ Krlw \n¬°p∂ ÿm\w {]iv\-am-Int√? As√-¶n¬ At±lw B ÿe-Øn-s‚ Ipd-®p-`mKw hn¬t°-≠n-h-∂m¬ ÿm\w tZmj-aqe- b n¬ Krlw BImw. At∏mƒ hmkvXp-]p-cp-j≥ Npcp-ßn°-dßn ]pcbn-SØ - ns‚ ]pXnb AXn¿Øn-bn-te°v Npcp-ßp-Itbm As√-¶n¬ hnI-kn-°pItbm sNøp-Ib - mtWm? hmkvXp-]p-cpj≥ hnt√Pv Hm^o-knse As√-¶n¬ cPn-ÿ Hm^o-k-nse tcJ-I-f-\p-kcn®v hf- ™ pw Xncn™pw InS- ° p- I bmtWm? C\n as‰m-cp-Xc - Ø - n¬ BtemNn-°p-I. Hmtcm-cp-Øc - p-sSbpw ÿeØv Hmtcm hmkv X p- ] p- c p- j ≥ ibn- ° p∂pt≠m? Aß-s\-sb-¶n¬ tImSn-°W-°n\v hmkvXp-]p-cp-j-∑m¿ `qan-sbNp-‰ntbm As√-¶n¬ `mcXw apgp-h\pw AXp- a - s √- ¶ n¬ tIcfw apgp- h \pw hym]n®v InS-°p-I-bmtWm? AtXm Hmtcm-cp-Øcpw `qan hn¬°p-Itbm hmßp- I tbm sNøp- ∂ - X - \ p- k - c n®v apdn™v FÆw IqSp- I tbm AXpt]mse H´n-t®-cp-Itbm sNøp-∂pt≠m? CØcw A_-≤-hn-izm-k-ßsf GsX¶nepw imkv{X-hp-ambn _‘-s∏-SpØn AXns\ imkv{Xo-b-h-XvI-cn®v ]mhw P\- ß sf A‘- h n- i zmkw ASnt®¬∏n®v AXv hn‰v Imim°n Iptdt∏¿ Pohn-°p-∂p. F¥n\v bqWn-thgvkn-‰n-t]mepw AXn\v AwKo-Imcw sImSp-Øn-cn-°p-∂p. C\n as‰mcp I]Simkv{X-hX - vIc - W-amWv t]mkn-‰ohv F\¿Pn ^vtfm, s\K-‰ohv F\¿Pn ^vtfm Fs∂-√mw. \mS≥ hmkvXp-im-k{v X-{]-Im-ctam As√¶n¬ ssN\okv hmkvXp-im-kv{X-{]-Imctam ÿm\-{I-ao-Ic - Ww \S-Øn-bh - oimkv{X-KXn

`qan-bpsS DØ-c-{[p-h-Øn¬ \n∂v Z£n-W-{[p-h-Ønte°v {]h-ln-°p∂ Im¥nI Hgp°v D≈-Xp-sIm≠v Xe hS-t°m´v As√-¶n¬ sXt°m´v h®v InS-°-cp-Xv. ^¿Wo-®-dp-Iƒ ÿm\w am‰n \n›nX ÿeØv h®pI-gn-™m¬ t]mkn-‰ohv F\¿Pn Hgp-In-h-cpw. I°qkv hgn s\K-‰ohv F\¿Pn HgpIpw XpSßnb "imkv{Xob hnh-c-߃' Cu ]WvUn-X-∑m¿ Cu ]mhw hnizm-kn-ItfmSv ]d™p ^en-∏n-°p-∂p. ´nse F\¿Pn ^vtfm \ap°v \√Xv hcpØp-sa-∂v. `qan Hcp henb Im¥-ambn {]h¿Øn-°p-∂p. `qan-bpsS DØ-c{- [ph-Øn¬ \n∂v Z£n-W{- [p-hØ - n-te°v {]h-ln-°p∂ Im¥nI Hgp°v D≈-XpsIm≠v Xe hS-t°m´v As√-¶n¬ sXt°m´v h®v InS-°c - p-Xv. ^¿Wo-®dp-Iƒ ÿm\w am‰n \n›nX ÿeØv h®p-Ig - n-™m¬ t]mkn-‰ohv F\¿Pn Hgp-In-h-cpw. I°qkv hgn s\K-‰ohv F\¿Pn HgpIpw XpSßnb "imkv{Xob hnh-c-߃' Cu ]WvUn-X-∑m¿ Cu ]mhw hnizm-kn-ItfmSv ]d™p ^en∏n-°p-∂p. CXnse bp‡n H∂m-temNn®v t\m°p-I. `qan Hcp henb Im¥am-Wv. AXv imkv{Xo-ba - mbn sXfn-bn-®Xp-am-Wv. ImcWw Hcp sNdnb Im¥w Nc-Sn¬ Xq°n-bn-´m¬ AXv hS°v˛sX°v Zni-bn¬ Xncn-™n-cn-°pw F∂-Xp-Xs∂ sXfn-hm-Wv. \Ωƒ hS-t°m´v Xe h®m¬ am{X-amtWm Cu Im¥-he - bw Xe-bn-eqsS {]h-ln-°p-Ib - p-≈q. FWo‰n-cn-°p-tºmtgm Ing-t°mt´m ]Sn-™mtdmt´m Xe- h ®v InS- ∂ mepw Cu Im¥nI ^vfIvkv Xe-bn-eqsS {]h-ln°p-Ib - n-t√. hS-t°m´v Xe-h®v InS-∂m¬ F¥mWv \ap°v kw`-hn-°p∂ Ipg-∏߃ F∂p hy‡-ambn ]Tn-®n´v thWw AXns\ imkv{Xo-ba - m-°m≥. Ce-Iv{Sn°¬ F\¿Pn°v s\K-‰ohv hihpw

t]mkn-‰ohv hihpw D≠v. AXv s\K‰ohv `mK-Øp-\n∂pw t]mkn-‰ohv `mKtØ°v Ce-Itv {Sm-Wp-Iƒ Hgp-Ip-∂X - mWv F\¿Pn^vtfm As√-¶n¬ Du¿P-{]-hmlw. A√msX Hcp tai Hcp aqebn¬\n∂v as‰mcp aqe-bn-te°v am‰n, As√-¶n¬ Hcp apdn-bpsS `nØn-s]mfn®v am‰n c≠Sn \o°n-h® - m¬ Du¿P{]-hmlw D≠mIpw Fs∂√mw ]d-™me-Xn-se-¥p-am{Xw bp‡n-bp≠v? AtXk-abw sX°p˛]Sn-™mdv `mKØv InS∏p-ap-dn-Iƒ hbv°m-Xn-cp-∂m¬ ]I¬ `nØn-bn¬ shbn¬ ASn®v apdn NqSmIp-∂Xv Hcp ]cn-[n-hsc Ipd-bv°m≥ ]‰pw. sX°p-]S- n-™msd aqe-bn¬ h®ncn-°p∂ Hcp InS-∏p-apdnbn¬ cm{Xn-bpsS knwl-`m-Khpw NqSm-bn-cn-°pw. AhnsS InS-∂p-dß - p-∂h - ¿ ^m\n-\p-th-≠nbpw F.-kn.°p th≠nbpw IqSp-X¬ Du¿Pw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂p. B Du¿P-{]-hm-lsØ-b√ hmkvXp ]d-bp-∂-Xv, adn®v sX°p-]-Sn-™msd aqe-bmWv InS-∏papdnbv°v G‰hpw \√-sX∂mWv ]et∏mgpw \n¿t±- i n®v I≠n- ´ p- ≈ - X v . Hcev ] w bp‡n- t bmsS Nn¥n- ® m¬ \ap°v a\- n-em-Ipw bqtdm-∏n-te-bpw, Ata-cn-°b - n-tebpw F√m sI´n-Sß - fpw Cu hmkvXp-imkv{Xw t\m°n-b√ ]WnX-X.v Ah¿°v D≠mb hf¿® Ah-cpsS ITn- \ m- ≤ zm- \ - Ø ns‚ ^e- a m- W v .

37


hmkvXp{]Imcw ]Wn-X- hoSpIfn¬ sFizcyw ImWm≥ Ign-™Xv hmkvXphns‚ KpW-a-√, adn®v `mc-X-Øns‚ samØw kmº-ØnI ÿnXn \∂m-bXv P\ß-fpsS hoSp-If - nepw {]Xn-^e - n®p F∂p-am{Xw a\- n-em-°n-bm¬ aXn. Hcmƒ Imdp-hm-ßn, \√ `£-Wß - f - mbn, Ip´n-Iƒ°v \√ tPmenbpw hnhmlhpw \S∂p F∂v ]d-bp∂Xv cmPyØns‚ kmº-ØnI hf¿®sIm-≠m-W.v A√msX hmkvXp-im-k{v X-{]-Imcw hoSp]-Wn-Xh - ¿°v am{Xw kw`-hn® Imcy-a√. Npcp-°Ø - n¬ hoSn-s‚tbm AXn-\IsØ apdn-bp-sStbm Np‰-fhpw As√¶n¬ AXns‚ Bt]-£n-Ia - mb ÿm\N- e - \ hpw Xmak°mcs‚ `mhnbpamtbm, sFiz-cy-hp-amtbm bmsXmcp _‘-hp-an-√. bYm¿∞-imkv{Xw hnIkn-°p-∂X - n\p apºv D≠mb Nne IW°p-I-fp-]-tbm-Kn®v a\p-jys‚ `bsØbpw A‘-hn-izm-ks - Øbpw apXse-SpØv Nne¿ sNøp∂ I_-fn-∏n-°emWv CØcw A‘-hn-izm-kß - ƒ hfcm≥ CS-h∂ - X - v. CØcw A‘-hn-izmk-߃ hf¿Øm≥ bqWn-th-gvkn-‰nIfpw Kh-s◊‚pw {ian-°m-Xn-cn-°W - w. t]mfntbm hmIvkn≥ t]mfntbm hcmXn-cn-°m-\m-Wv, A√msX {]Xyp-Xv]m-Z\-tijn \in-∏n-°m-\√ F∂p-Xp-Sßn U¶n-]\ - n°v FXnsc Fs¥√mw Imcyß-fmWv sNtø-≠X - v, As√-¶n¬ hntZiØv tPmen°v {ian-°p-∂h - ¿ I_-fn∏n-°-s∏-Sm-Xn-cn-°m≥ {i≤n-°p-∂Xv t]mse, hmkvXp-hn-Zybpw Hcp A‘hn-izm-ka- m-sW-∂p-ds - °-∏d- b - m≥ AXn¬ I_- f n- ° - s ∏- S - c p- s X∂pw k¿°m¿ Xpd∂v {]N-cn-∏n-°W - w. Hcmƒ Hcp hoSv ]Wn-bm≥ Dt±-in°p-s∂-¶n¬ AXv Fßs\ thWw F∂v Abmƒ Xocp-am-\n-°p-I. AXn\v Abm-fpsS PohnX coXn-bn¬\n∂v thWw πm\nwKv XpS-ßm≥. cmhnse I´n-en¬ \ns∂-Wo-°p-∂p. B I´n-en\v `mcybv°pw `¿Øm-hn\pw InS-°m-\p≈ hoXn thWw. AXn¬\n∂v c≠p-t]¿°v c≠p-hi - t- Ø°v kzX-{¥-ambn Cd-ßm\p≈ ÿew thWw. A©Sn hoXnbp≈ I´n-emWv c≠p-t]¿°v A`n-Imayw. AXns‚ {][m\ hiØv aq∂-Snbpw, a‰p hiØv c≠-Snbpw D≠m-bm¬ Bh-iy-Øn\v hoXn-bm-Ipw. AXm-bXv Hcp InS∏v apdn°v 3+5+2 F∂ IW°n\v 10 ASn hoXn thWw. AXpt]mse Hcp I´n-ens‚ \ofw 61/2 ASnbpw, AXns‚ ]n∂n¬ Hcp sNdnb aq∂Sn hoXn-bp≈ tai-bpw, Hcp Itkc-bn-Sm≥ 2 ASn-bpw, CSbv°v Itkc H∂p ]nd- t Im´p am‰n, Ccn- ° p∂ Bƒ°v FWo‰v amdp-hm≥ 1 ASnbpw

38

Bbn 12-˛13 ASn \ofw C´m¬ kuI-cyam-bn´v InS∏p apdn D]-tbm-Kn-°mw. C\n B apdn hS-°v˛- I - n-gt° aqe-bn¬ πm≥ sNbvXm¬ cmhn-se-bp≈ kqcy-{]-Imiw ASn-°pw. F∂mepw G‰hpw Ipd™ shbn¬ ASn-°p∂ `mK-am-bX - n-\m¬ InS∏p apdn G‰hpw NqSp-Ip-d™ apdnbm-hp-Ibpw \nß-fpsS InS∏v kpJ-amhp-Ibpw sNøpw. AXp-t]mse G‰hpw IqSp-X¬ D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ ASp-°f πm≥ sNøp-tºmƒ AhnsS tPmen sNøp-∂-h¿°v \n∂-\n¬∏n¬ F√m ]mN-I-km-[-\-ßfpw FSp-°p∂Xn\p Ignbp∂XcØnepw GXm≠v AXn-t\mS-SpØv ]m{X-߃ Igp-Im-\p≈ hmjv t_kn≥ hbv°p∂ XcØnepw πm≥ sNøp-I. ASp-°f - b - n¬ Bfp-Iƒ IqSpX¬ kabw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂X - p-sIm≠v AXv IqSp-X¬ shbn¬ ASn-°mØ ÿew t\m°n hbv°W - w. IqSp-X¬ shbn¬ ASn-°p∂ `mK-߃ hkv{Xw DW-ßp-∂-Xn\pw (km-[m-cW Bcpw CXn\v ÿew Hcp-°m-dn-√, F∂m¬ ÿncw Bh-iy-am-Wp X - m-\pw) tÃm¿ dqam- b pw, sÃb¿sIbv k v Bbpw A[nIw Bfp-Iƒ D]-tbm-Kn-°mØ apdn-Iƒ πm≥ sNøp-I. tSmbve‰- p-Iƒ°v kzIm-cyX \ne-\n¿Øn-bpw, AtXmsSm∏w AXns‚ πºnwKv efn-Xa - m-bpw sNøWw, ]n∂oSv Ft∏mgpw dn∏-bd- nwKv

Bhiyw hcpw F∂v IW-°m°n πm≥ sNøp-I. A√msX AXn-eqsS s\K-‰ohv Du¿P-{]-hm-ls - am-∂p-ap-≠m-hp-Ib - n-√. hoSp- I - f nse apdn- I ƒ A©v sIm√tam ]Øp sIm√tam Ign-™m¬ \nß-fpsS Ip´n-Iƒ F{X-am{Xw \ΩpsS ASp-Øp-≠mIpw F∂v IW-°p-Iq´n πm≥ sNøp-I. Hcp hoSv 25-˛30 sIm√tØbv°v πm≥ sNbvXm¬ aXn-bm-Ipw. ImcWw \ΩpsS Ip´n-I-fpsS Bhiyhpw XmXv]c - y-ßfpw hyXy-kX v a - m-bncn-°pw. aq∂v Xe-ap-dbv°v th≠p∂ ^¿Wn-®¿ ]Wn-Xn-´m¬ 5 sIm√-Øn\Iw AXn\v D]-tbm-Ka - n-√msX hcpw. DZm-lc - W - Ø - n\v 5 sIm√w apºv Iºyq´-dn-t\m, Sn.-hn.bvt°m \n¿an® ^¿Wo®-dp-I-fn∂v F¬.-kn.Un Sn.-hn.-bpw, em∏vtSm∏v Iºyq-´d- p-am-bt- XmsS D]-tbmK-iq-\y-am-bn. B¿`m-S-Øn-\p-th≠n sNøp∂ Hmtcm ]Wnbpw ]n¬°m-eØv \Ω-fpsS kmº-Øn-Iÿ nXn Ct∏m-gsØ-t∏mse \√ \ne-bn¬ XpS¿t∂°ptam F∂p IqSn Nn¥n-®n-´p-thWw henb henb hoSp-Iƒ ]Wn-bm≥. bYm¿∞- Ø n¬ Bh- i y- a n- √ msX ]WnXv Iq´p∂ hoSns‚ `mK-߃ hcpw Xe-ap-dbv°pw kaq-lØ - n\pw Hcp `mcamWv. `mh-\b - n¬ am{Xw `qan-bn¬ InS°p-∂ hmkvXp ]pcp-js\ shdpsX hnSp-I.„ Pqembv 2011


kap-{Z-imkv{Xw tUm. F. _nPpIpam¿, hn. {ioP

IS¬PohnIfpsS Imt\jpamcn CXnlmk kmlnXyw, ]cnÿnXnimkv{Xw, kmaqlyimkv{Xw F∂o taJeIfn¬ {]h¿Øn°p∂ hnZKv[cpsS klmb-tØmsS IS¬ PohnIfpsS amdp∂ ssh-hn[yhpw, hnXcW{Iahpw, _mlp-eyhpw Ncn{X ]›mØeØn¬ tcJ-s∏-SpØphm\pw Cu ]≤Xnbn-eqsS km[n®p.

Po

haWvUeØns‚ 70 iXam\Øne[nIhpw kap{Zßfm¬ BhcWw sNøs∏´ncn°p∂p. kap{Zßfnse Pohs‚ km∂n[ysØ∏‰n, {]tXy-In®v Bg°Sense ssPhsshhn[ysØ°pdn®v, ]sØmºXmw \q‰m≠ns‚ Ahkm\Øn¬ a\pjy-cmin°p≠mbncp∂ Adnhv AhcpsS At\z-jW XXv]cXtb°mfpw, BhiyIXtb°mfpw hfsc ]n∂nemWv F∂ hkvXpX ]e {]apJ kap{Z]cyth£Iscbpw hymIpecm°n. XpS¿∂v kap{ZPohnIfpsS sshhn[yw, hnXcW{Iaw, _mlpeyw F∂nh imkv{Xobambn tcJs∏SpØpI F∂ Dt±iytØmsS c≠mbncmam≠v BZyw Bcw`n® _rlØmb Hcp ]≤Xn (t{]mPIvSv) BWv "sk≥kkv Hm^v assd≥ sse^v'. GsX√mw XcØnep≈ ssPhsshhn[yamWv kap{Zßfn¬ ImWs∏Sp∂Xv ? Hmtcm∂pw FhnsS hkn°p∂p? Hmtcm PohnbpsSbpw km∂n[yw F{XtØmfamWv? imkv{X-KXn

F∂ aq∂v {][m\ tNmZy߃°p≈ DØcßfmWv {]kvXpX ]≤XnbneqsS Is≠Øphm≥ {ian®Xv. kap{Zsshhn[ysØ∏‰nbp≈ ]cnanXamb Adnhns\ Dƒs°m≠v \S∏nem°nb ]≤XnbpsS dnt∏m¿´v 2010˛¬ ]pdØph∂p. Bg°Sens‚ sshhn[yam¿∂ taJeIfn¬ C¥y Dƒs∏sS 80 cmPyßfnse 2,700 imkv{X⁄¿ GItZiw 540˛¬∏cw ]cyS\ßfneqsS klIcn®v \S∏nem°nb, h¿Øam\-ImesØ G‰hpw _rlØmb Cu ]≤Xn°v GXm≠v 65 tImSn Atacn-°≥ tUmfdmWv sNehv h∂Xv. hnhn[ k¿°mcpIƒ, kzImcy ^ut≠j\pIƒ, tIm¿∏td‰pIƒ, k∂≤kwLS\Iƒ, k¿hIem-ime-Iƒ, A©v sslkvIqfpIƒ F∂nh-cmWv Cu ]≤Xnbnse ]¶mfnIƒ. {][m-\s∏´ kap{Z Bhmk hyhÿ-Isfbpw, Pohnh¿Kßsfbpw Dƒs∏Sp-Øm\mbn 14 ^o¬Uv t{]mPIvSpIfpw aq∂v a‰v

t{]mPIvSpIfpamWv sk≥k-kv hn`mh\w sNbvXXv. AKm[ kap{Zßfnse PohnIsf∏‰n ]Tn°m\p≈ sk≥kkv Hm^v ssU-th-gvkn‰n Hm^v A_nk¬ assd≥ sse^v, sk≥kkv Hm^v A‚m¿´nIv assd≥ sse^v, B¿´n°v Hmjy≥ ssUthgvkn‰n, tIm≠ns\‚¬ am¿Pn≥ Ct°mknÃwkv , ]k^n°v Hmjy≥ sj¬^v {Sm°nMv t{]mPIvSv, sk≥kkv Hm^v tImd¬ do^v, C‚¿\m-jW¬ sk≥kkv Hm^v assd≥ ssat{Im_v k v , anUv AXv e m‚ nIv dnUvPv do^v Ct°mknÃw t{]mPIvSv, \m®pd¬ Pntbm{Km^n Hm^v C≥tjm¿ Gcnbmkv , Kƒ^v Hm^v Hmsa≥ t{]m{Kmw, t•m_¬ sk≥kkv Hm^v assd≥ sse^v Hm¨ koau≠vkv, SmKnMv Hm^v ]k^nIv {]ntUt‰gvkv, _tbmPntbm{Km^n Hm^v Uo∏v hm´¿ Iotamkn¥‰nIv Ct°m knÃwkv, sk≥kkv Hm^v assd≥ kq πm¶vS¨ F∂nhbmWv ^o¬Uv t{]mPIvSpIƒ.

39


Hmjy≥ _tbmPntbm{Km^nIv C≥^¿taj≥ knÃw, ^yq®¿ Hm^v assd≥ A\na¬ t]m∏ptej≥kv, lnÃdn Hm^v assd≥ A\na¬ t]m∏ptej≥kv F∂nhbmWv ^o¬Un\p ]pdØp≈ t{]mPIvSpIƒ. {]IrXym D≠mIp∂ am‰ßfpw, a\pjy CSs]SepIƒ sIm≠p≠mIp∂ am‰ßfpw kap{Z sshhn[yØn¬ D≠m°p∂ kzm[o\w \n¿Wbn°m\p≈ cq]tcJbpambn Bcw`n® t{]mPIvSns‚ hniZmwi߃, ]pkvXI߃, imkv{X {]kn≤oIcW߃, sh_v s sk‰pIƒ, Ne®n{X߃, hoUntbmIƒ, `q]S߃, Um‰mt_kpIƒ F∂nhbneqsS C∂v e`yamWv. imkv{XNcn{XØnse G‰hpw _rlØmb ]≤XnbpsS {][m\ Is≠ØepIƒ Fs¥ms°sb∂v ]cntim[n°mw.

sshhn[yw {]mtZinImSnÿm\Ønepw BtKmfXeØnepap≈ kap{Zssh- h n[yØns‚ XmcXay]T\w km[yambXv GXm≠v 3 tImSn \nco£WßfneqsSbmWv. Cu ]T\߃ F√mw UnPn‰¬ hnhctiJcßfm°n kq£n®n´p≠v. Cu ]≤XnbneqsS 20,000˛¬∏cw PohnIsf ]pXnbXmbn Is≠Øn. ISense ssPhssh-hn[yØns‚ Afhv 2,30,000˛¬ \n∂v 2,50,000 Bbn h¿[n®p. Chbn¬ 1,200 PohnIfpsS hnhcWw ]q¿Ønbmbn. _m°nbp≈hbn¬ 600 PohnIƒ imkv{XtemIØn\pXs∂ ]pXnbXmWv F∂mWv \nKa\w. hncfsa∂p IcpXnbncp∂ ]e ssPhPmXnIfpw ISen¬ km[mcWamsW∂ hnhchpw Cu dnt∏m¿´n-

40

{]mtZinImSnÿm\Ønepw BtKm-fXeØnepap≈ kap{Zssh-hn[y-Øns‚ XmcXay]T\w km[yambXv GXm≠v 3 tImSn \nco£WßfneqsSbmWv. Cu ]T\߃ F√mw UnPn‰¬ hnhctiJcßfm°n kq£n-®n´p≠v. Cu ]≤XnbneqsS 20,000˛¬∏cw PohnIsf ]pXnbXmbn Is≠-Øn. ISense ssPhsshhn[yØns‚ Afhv 2,30,000˛¬ \n∂v 2,50,000 Bbn h¿[n®p. Chbn¬ 1,200 PohnIfpsS hnhcWw ]q¿Ønbmbn. _m°nbp≈-hbn¬ 600 PohnIƒ imkv{XtemIØn\pXs∂ ]pXnbXmWv F∂mWv \nKa\w.

eqsS ]pdØph∂p. sk≥kkn¬ Is≠Ønb ]e ]pXnb PohnIfpw hyXykvXßfmb PohnXcoXnIƒ Ahew_n- ° p∂hbmWv. skdmt‰mt\m´kv Ão\n≥tPdn (Ceratonotus steiningeri) F∂ hnNn{Xamb Ip™≥ sIm©ns\ Is≠ØnbXv B{^n°≥ XocsØ AXvem‚nIv kap{ZØn¬ 3 ssa¬ BgØn¬ \n∂mWv. ChnsS\n∂pw 8,000 ssa¬ AIsebp≈ a[y ]k^nIv kap{ZØn¬\n∂pw Chsb Is≠ØnbXv ChbpsS hnkvXrXamb hnXcW {IaamWv hy‡am°p∂Xv. C{Xbpw sNdnb PohnIƒ C{Xbpw hnZqcßfn¬ Fßs\ FØns∏Sp∂psh∂Xv imkv{X⁄sc AXnibs∏SpØp∂ Hcp hkvXpXbmWv. 3000 ASn XmgvNbn¬ \n∂v tiJcn® hnNn{Xamb, 23 ASn \ofap≈ Hcp IWh (squid) Cu sk≥kknse Hcp ]pXnb Is≠ØemWv. ChbpsS ssIIƒ°pw {Kmln (tentacle) Iƒ°pw ssIap´pt]mse hfhpIfp≠v. ChbpsS k©mcw BZyambn ^nenan-em°m\pw Cu ]≤XnbneqsS km[n®p. AXvem‚ n°n¬ ImWs∏- S p∂ ssIt\m {Umt°m lmapte‰kv (Chinodraco hamulatus) F∂ sFkv a’yØn\v a‰p a’yßfpsS c‡w I´]nSn°p∂ XWp∏ns\bpw AXnPohn°m≥ Ignbpw F∂Xpw Cu ]≤XnbneqsS Is≠Øn. B[p\nI kmt¶XnIhnZyIƒ D]tbmKn®p \SØnb P\nXI A]{K-Y\ßfn¬ hnhn[ hn`mKßfn¬s∏´ 35,000 PohnIsf∏‰nbp≈ hnhcWßfmWv ]pdØph∂Xv. CXv kap{ZPohnIfpsS P\nXILS\- s b- ∏ ‰n \qX\amb ]e Dƒ°mgvNIfpw kΩm\n®p. Un.F≥.F. _m¿tIm- U nMv F∂ kmt¶XnIhnZybneqsS \S∏nem°nb ]T\߃ hyXykvXam-sW∂p IcpXnbncp∂ ]e PohnIfpw P\nXIambn kam\XIfp-≈hbm-sW∂pw kq£vaPohnIfpsS sshhn- [ yw hfscb[nIamsW∂pw hy‡am°n. a\pjys‚bpw, Nnºm≥knbpsSbpw P\nXI kam\XIƒt]mse Xs∂, hyXykvXßfmbn ImWs∏Sp∂ ]e IS¬ a’yßfpw P\nXIambn Gsd kmayap≈hbmsW∂pw sk≥kkv hy‡am°p∂p. IS¬ a’y߃ XΩnep≈ P\nXI hyXnbm\w 2 apX¬ 15 iXam\w hsc am{XamWv. sk≥kkn\ptijhpw ISense ssPhsshhn[yØns‚ samØw FÆsØ∏‰n, {]tXyIn®v C\nbpw Xncn®dnbs∏´n´n√mØ PohPmXnIPqembv 2011


fpsS km∂n[ysØ∏‰n, IrXyamb IW°pIƒ e`yas√¶nepw G‰hpw Ipd™Xv ]Øp e£Øn\Sp-Øp≠mhpw F∂mWv A\pam\w. kq£vaPohnIfpsS sshhn[yw Zie£°W°n\papIfnepw BIm\mWv km[yXsb∂pw Cu dnt∏m¿´v hy‡am°p∂p.

hnXcW{Iaw sk≥kkns‚ `mKambn ]cyS\w \SØnb kap{Z`mKßfnse√mw Pohcq]ßfpsS km∂n[yw {]ISambn. temlßsft∏mepw Dcp°p∂ NqSnepw IS¬sh≈w a™pI´bm-Ip∂ XWp∏nepw {]Imihpw, {]mWhmbphpw C√mØ kap{Zm¥¿`mK-ßfnepw PohnIfpsS BhmkhyhÿIƒ \ne\n¬°p∂psh∂mWv ]T\ßfneqsS hy‡ambXv. ssPhkºØn\m¬ kar≤-ambXpw Gsd hyXncn‡ambXpamb Bg°S¬ Hcp Bhmk hyhÿbmWv F∂v sk≥kkv hy‡am°p∂p. IqSmsX Im¿_¨ kw`cWØnepw Imemhÿm \nb{¥WØnepw, t]mjI Nw{IaWØnepw Cu taJe Imcyamb kw`mh\ \¬Ip∂p≠v. A¥mcmjv{S {[phh¿jßfn¬ (2007˛2009) sk≥kkv ]cyth£WßfneqsS hnXe (abyss) kap{Z`mKßfn¬\n∂v 700˛Hmfw ]pXnb PohnIsf Is≠Øn. ISens‚ AKm[Xbn¬\n∂pw \qdpIW°n\v PohnIsfbmWv sk≥kkneqsS Is≠ØnbXv. P∏m\p kao]w dyqIyq InSßnse (Ryukyu trench) Hcp tImºv sP√n (Comb Jelly) sb tiJcn®Xv 6,000 ao‰¿ XmgvNbn¬ \n∂mWv. 4070 C hsc Xm]\nebp≈ sslt{UmsX¿a¬ sh‚pIfnepw (Hydrothermal Vents) Pohs‚ km∂n[yw Zriyambn. \mev Intem{Kmw `mchpw, 50 sk‚oao‰¿ \ofhpap≈ I¬dmfns\, (lobster) aUKmkv I ¿ XocØp\n∂p Is≠Øn. Akmam\y hen∏ap≈ PohnIsf Is≠ØnbXv A‚m¿´nIv kap{Zßfn¬\n∂mWv. kap{Zsshhn[yw Gdnbpw Ipd™pw Ccn°p∂ `mKßfpw, Hmtcm ssPhPmXnbpsSbpw hnXcW{Iahpw sh_vssk‰nep≈ (F≥sskt¢m]oUnb Hm^v sse^v) `q]Sßfn¬ \n∂v Adnbm≥ km[n°pw. Z£nW im¥ kap{ZØn-emWv Xockap{Z ssPhsshhn[yw G‰hpa[nIw {]ISambXv. F∂m¬ `qa[ytcJtbmSp tN¿∂ Xpd∂ kap{Z (open ocean) `mKßfnemWv ssPhsshhn[yw G‰hpa[nIw ImWs∏Sp∂Xv. Bg°Senepw, ASnØ´nepw PohnIfpsS hn\ymkØn¬ {]tXyI amXrI-Ifpw tcJs∏SpØnbn´p≠v. imkv{X-KXn

ssPhkºØn\m¬ kar≤-amb-Xpw Gsd hyXncn‡ambXpamb Bg-°S¬ Hcp Bhmk hyhÿbmWv F∂v sk≥kkv hy‡am°p∂p. IqSm-sX Im¿_¨ kw`cWØnepw Imemhÿm \nb{¥WØnepw, t]mjI Nw{IaWØnepw Cu taJe Imcyamb kw`mh\ \¬Ip∂p≠v. A¥mcmjv{S {[phh¿jßfn¬ (2007˛2009) sk≥-kkv ]cyth£WßfneqsS hnXe kap{Z`mKßfn¬\n∂v 700˛-Hmfw ]pXnb PohnIsf Is≠Øn. ISens‚ AKm[Xbn¬\n∂pw \qdpI-W°n\v PohnIsfbmWv sk≥kkn-eqsS Is≠ØnbXv.

sk≥kkneqsS CXphsc Adnbs∏SmØ kap{Z`mKßfnse Pohs‚ km∂n[ysØ∏‰nbp≈ hnhcßfpw e`yambn´p≠v . kap{ZØns‚ 20 iXam\w `mKwt]mepw CXphsc ]T\hnt[bam°nbn´n√ F∂pw sk≥kkv hy‡am°p∂p.

_mlpeyw a’y kºØns‚ IW°pIƒ, t\cn´p≈ tcJs∏SpØepIƒ, `£W- i meIfnse ]´nIIƒ XpSßn \nch[n Ncn{XtcJIƒ ]cntim[n®v \nehnep≈ IS¬PohnIfpsS FÆØnepw hep∏Ønepw h∂n´p≈ hyXnbm\hpw sk≥kkneqsS Xn´s∏SpØnbn´p≠v. sk≥kkneqsS kwc£W {]h¿Ø\߃°v Du¿Pw ]I¿∂v _mlpeyw ]p\xÿm]n® Nne ssPhPmXnIsfbpw Xn´s∏SpØpIbp≠mbn. a\pjy≥ IS¬ PohnIsf Blmcam°m≥ XpSßnbn´v hfsc \mfpIfmsb¶nepw AhbpsS Ct∏mgsØ \miØns‚ tXmXv \nehnep≈ [mcWsb°mƒ hfsc hepXmsW∂pw sk≥kkv dnt∏m¿´v hy‡am°p∂p. kap{Zßfnse 90 iXam\tØmfw ssPh-PmXnIfpw `mcØns‚ ASnÿm\-Øn¬ kq£va PohnIfmImsa∂pw sk≥kkv A\pam\n°p∂p. kap{ZPeØnse kq£vaPohnIfpsS tImißfpsS FÆw GXm≠v 1029 BWv. Chbv°v samØambn 240 _ney¨ B{^n°≥ B\IfpsS `mcap≠mIpw. Hcp en‰¿ IS¬ sh≈Øn¬38,000 Xchpw Hcp {Kmw aWen¬ 5,000 apX¬ 19,000 hsc Xchpw _mIvSocnbIƒ D≠mhpsa∂pw sk≥kkv dnt∏m¿´n¬ ]dbs∏Sp∂p. 1899 apXep≈ \nco£W- ß fpsS shfn®Øn¬ BtKmf-

41


tIcf imkv{X-km-ln-Xy-]-cn-j-

XeØn¬ ISense DXv]mZIcmb kkyπhIßfpsS Afhn¬ Ipdhp≠m-bXmbn Is≠Øn. IqSmsX apIfn¬\n∂v Xmtg°v \n]Xn°p∂ kkyπhIßsfbmWv kap{ZØns‚ ASnØ´nse sshhn[yam¿∂ Pohk-ºØv \ne\n¬∏n\mbn B{ibn°p- ∂ Xv F∂pw dnt∏m¿´v hy‡am°p∂p. ASnØ´n¬ Pohs‚ km∂n[yw G‰hpa[nIw {]ISambXv a[ytc-JmPe {]hml-߃ AI∂p-amdp-Ibpw t]mjImwiw \nd™ XWpØ Pe{]hml߃ apIfnte°p hcn-Ibpw sNøp∂ `qJWvUßfpsS ]m¿izßfnepw, {[ph{]tZißfnep-amWv. Bg°Sens‚ hißfn¬ _mIvSocnbIfpsS ]mfnIfpw, Intemao‰dpIƒ \o≠ ]hng∏p‰pIfpsS \ncbpw Is≠ØnbXv XnI®pw BIkvan-Iambncp∂p. `£yNßebpsS ASnØ´n¬ ImWp∂ kkyπhIßfpsS FÆØn-se Ipdhpw D∂Xßfnse henb kap{ZPohnIfpsS Ipdhpw kap{Z ssPh]nWvUØns‚ timjWØns‚ kqNIßfmbn IW°m°msa¶nepw samØw kap{Z ssPh]nWvUØns‚ Afhv Ipdbp∂pt≠m F∂ hkvXpX hy‡ambn´n√.

t\´ßƒ sk≥kkv Hm^v assd≥ sse^v Hcp Zim_vZ°meambn \SØnb _rlØmb KthjW߃ Adnhp-tiJcWw, kmt¶XnIhnZy, sXmgn¬ ioe߃ F∂o taJeIfn¬ hfsc henb kw`mh\Iƒ \¬InbXmbn \ap°v A\pam\n°mw. ]q¿Wambpw kuP\yambn Uu¨temUv sNøm-hp∂ 2600 teJ\ßfmWv Cu IWs°-Sp∏ns‚ ImeL´Øn¬ ]pdØph∂Xv. sk≥kkneqsS Xbmdm- ° nb ASnÿm\

42

ÿnXn hnhc°W°pIƒ, hnhn[ cmPy߃°pw, A¥mcmjv{S kwc£W kwLS\Iƒ°pw kap{Z ssPhsshhn[y kwc£W ]cn]mSnIfpw I¿a]≤XnIfpw \S∏nem°m\p≈ B[mcamWv. IqSmsX Imemhÿm-hyXnbm\hpw, aen\oIcWhpw a‰pw krjvSn°p∂ BLmXw hy‡ambn IW°m°m\pw Cu ]≤Xn hgn km[y-amIpw. PohnIsf P\nXI]cambn Xncn®dnbm≥ Un.F≥.F. _m¿tImUnMv F∂ \qX\ kmt¶XnIhnZy ^e{]Zam-bn D]tbmKn°phm≥ sk≥kkn\p Ign™p. kap{ZPohnIfpsS bm{X tcJs∏SpØp∂ ssat{Imt^mWp-IfpsS irwJe, ]hng∏p‰pIsf \nco£n°phm\pXIp∂ kzbw \nb{¥nX kwhn[m\߃, [zm\nIw (acoustics) B[mcam°n PohnIfpsS _mlpeyw Is≠Øp-hm≥ klmbn-°p∂ kwhn[m\߃ XpSßnbh hnIkn∏ns®Sp°phm≥ Cu ]≤Xn-bneqsS Ign™p. Cu kmt¶XnI-hnZyIsf√mw kap{ZPeØnse Pohs‚ km∂n[yw, Pe Dujvamhv, XncameIƒ F∂nh \nco£n°m\p≈ BtKmf kap{Z \nco£W hyhÿbpsS (Global Ocean Monitoring System) XpS°Øn\v \nZm\ambn. ]e taJeIfnep≈ imkv { X ]cyth£Isc hnhn[ cmPyßfn¬\n∂pw Is≠Øn Hcp IpS°ogn¬-s°m≠ph∂p F∂Xpw Cu ]≤Xn-bpsS {]tXyIXbmWv. CXnlmk kmlnXyw, ]cnÿnXnimkv{Xw, kmaqlyimkv{Xw F∂o taJeIfn¬ {]h¿Øn°p∂ hnZKv[cpsS klmb-tØmsS IS¬ PohnIfpsS amdp∂ ssh-hn[yhpw, hnXcW{Iahpw, _mlp-eyhpw Ncn{X ]›mØeØn¬ tcJ-s∏-SpØphm\pw Cu ]≤Xnbn-eqsS km[n®p.„

Øns‚ Ign™h¿j-sØ {][m\ {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn-sem-∂m-bn-cp∂p `qhn\n-tbm-K-Øn¬ kmaq-ly-˛-\n-b-{¥Ww Bh-iy-s∏-´p-sIm-≠p≈ ""`qan s]mXpkzØv'' Imº-bn≥. Cu Imº-bn-\p-ambn _‘-s∏´v tIcfØnse ]e-`m-K-ßfnepw kwLm-SI kan-Xn-Iƒ cq]o-Icn®v {]h¿Øn- ® n- c p- ∂ p. AØcw kwLm-SI kan-Xn-If - n¬ H∂m-bn-cp∂p Xriq¿ Pn√-bnse sImS-Ic taJ-e-bnte-X.v sImS-Ic - ° - m¿ `qan s]mXp-kzØv Imº-bn-\ns\ F°m-eØpw Hm¿°m\mbn Hcp kvac-WnI {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°W-sa∂v Xocp-am-\n-®p. AXns‚ ^eamWv ""s\Sp-ho¿∏v˛- a - Æ - n-s‚bpw a\- ns‚bpw'' F∂ ]pkvXIw (kp-h-\o¿). C.-Un. tUhnkv BWv FUn-‰¿. Cu ]pkvXIw sI´nepw a´nepw hfsc efn-Xa - m-Wv. AtX-ka - bw D≈S°w ]e-Xp-sIm≠pw {it≤-bhpw ImenI-hp-am-W.v \mev Ipdn-∏p-Iƒ, \mev teJ\-߃, sNdpXpw hep-Xp-amb ]Xn-\mdv Ihn-XI - ƒ, c≠v dnt∏m¿´p-Iƒ, Hmtcm kvac-Wbpw sNdp-IY - bpw F∂n-ßs\ ]Øpap-∏Xp k¿K-kr-jSv n-Iƒ AS-ßnb-XmWv ]pkvX-I-Øns‚ D≈-S-°w. Hmtcm krjvSnbpw Hcp {]tXy-I[ - ¿aw \n¿h-ln-°m-\mbn Fgp-Xn-bX - m-sW∂v H‰-hm-b\ - b - n¬ Xs∂ \ap°v A\p-`h - s∏-Spw. krjvSn-If - psS A\p-hm-NI coXn A{Xbpw kpXm-cy-am-W.v `qan s]mXp-kz-Øm-bn-cn-°-Ww, AXns‚ hn\n-tbm-KØ - n¬ kmaq-ly-\nb- { ¥Ww A\n- h m- c y- a mWv F∂v Bh¿Øn- ® p- s Im- ≠ n- c n- ° p- ∂ - X mWv Hmtcm Fgp-Øpw. AXv ]t£ tIh-eam-sbmcp {]Jym-]-\-sa∂ \ne-°-√, {kjvSm-°-fpsS A\p-`-h-Øns‚ km£m--XvIm-c-sa∂ \ne-°m-Wv. Fßs\ Cu ]pkvXIw hm¿∂p-hoWp F∂v kwLm-SI - k - a - n-Xn-bpsS P\-d¬ I¨ho\¿ Sn.-B¿. cmtPjv ]d-bp-∂X - v, sImSI-c-ta-J-e-bn¬ `qan s]mXp-kzØv Iymº-bns‚ `mK-ambn \S∂ G‰hpw {it≤-ba - m-sbmcp A\p-_‘ - ]cn]m-Snbm-bn-cp∂p taJ-e-bnse k¿K-[-\-cmb-hsc hnfn®v kwL-Sn-∏n® k¿K-kwK-aw. `qkw-c-£W Imº-bns‚ kØsb {]Im-in-∏n-°p∂ \nc-h[n k¿Kkr-jvSn-Iƒ Cu kwK-a-Øn¬ {]ImPqembv 2011


s{]m^. Sn.-]n. Ip™n-°-Æ≥

s\Sp-ho¿∏v aÆn-s‚bpw a\- n-s‚bpw {]kn-≤o-Ic - Ww : `qan s]mXp-kzØv Iymº-bn≥, sImS-Ic taJ-e, kwLm-SI kanXn (Pq¨ 2010) hne : 20 cq].

`qanbv°mbp≈

s\Sp-ho¿∏p-Iƒ ""Cu `qan H‰-s∏´ hy‡n-I-fpsS kzØ-√. Hcp kaq-l-Øn-s‚tbm Hcp cmjv{S-Øn-s‚tbm kzØ-√. F¥n-\v, `qan-bn-ep≈ F√m a\p-jy-cp-sSbpw Iq´p-kz-Øp-a√ AXv. `qan-bpsS KpW-t`m-‡m-°ƒ am{X-amWv \Ωƒ. \ap°v e`n-®-Xn-t\-°mƒ sa®-s∏´ coXn-bn¬ hcpw Xe-ap-d°v AXv ssIam-dm≥ _m[y-Xs - ∏-´h - c - mWv \Ωƒ''. in-X-am-bn. IqSmsX {]tXyI A`y¿∞\ am\n®v Fgp-Xn-X∂ ]T-\-ßfpw teJ-\ß - f - pw. Cu krjvSn-If - psS ka\z-b-amWv Cu ]pkvX-Iw. Cu DZy-aØ - n¬ k¿K-kr-jSv n-If - psS km{μ-Xa - m-{X-a√ - , amXr-Im-]c - a - mb Hcp kwL-S-\m-{]-h¿Ø-\hpw Dƒt®¿∂ncn-°p∂p F∂v Xncn-®d - n-tb-≠n-bn-cn-°p∂p. ]cn-jØv Hcp Imº-bn-\n-eqsS apt∂m-´p-h® Hcp Bi-bsØ aq¿Øamb {]mtZ- i nI {]iv \ - ß - f p- a mbn tIm¿Øn-W-°n-bn-cn-°p-∂p. CXp-h-gn, ]cn- j Øv Imº- b n- \ pw, ]pkv X - I Øns‚ D≈-S° - hpw Htc kabw {]mtZinI {]k-‡a - m-bn-Øo-cp-∂p. AXm-bXv imkv{X-KXn

Imº-bns‚ D≈-S-°-Øn-te-°p-am-{X-a√, kwLm-S\ coXn-bn-te°pw sImS-Ic-°m-cpsS {]h¿Ø\w amXr-Im-]c - a - mb kw`m-h\ - b - m-Wv. Cu ]pkvXI - Ø - ns‚ ]pdwN´-bn¬ \¬Inb Imd¬ am¿Ivkns‚ GXm\pw hcn-Iƒ D≤-cn®ps°m≠v Cu Ipdn∏v Ah-km-\n-∏n-°p-∂Xv IqSp-X¬ A\ptbm-Py-am-Ip-sa∂v Icp-Xp-∂p. Ah C{]Im-ca - m-Wv. ""Cu `qan H‰-s∏´ hy‡n-IfpsS kzØ-√. Hcp kaq-lØ - n-s‚tbm Hcp cmjv{S-Øn-s‚tbm kzØ-√. F¥n\v, `qan-bn-ep≈ F√m a\p-jy-cp-sSbpw Iq´p-kz-Øp-a√ AXv. `qan-bpsS KpWt`m-‡m-°ƒ am{X-amWv \Ωƒ. \ap°v

e`n-®X - n-t\-°mƒ sa®-s∏´ coXn-bn¬ hcpw Xe-ap-d°v AXv ssIam-dm≥ _m[y-Xs - ∏-´h - c - mWv \Ωƒ''. aqe- [ \w H∂mw thmfy- Ø n¬ am¿Ivkv tcJ-s∏-Sp-Ønb Cu hcn-Iƒ am\-h-cm-in°v F∂pw F°m-eØpw Hcp ap∂-dn-bn-∏m-Wv. ChnsS sImS-Ic°m-cpsS ]pkvX-Iw-t]mse am¿Ivkns‚ hcn-Ifpw ]cn-jØv \S-Ønb `qan Iymº-bn-\ns‚ cmjv{Sob {]k‡n hnfn-t®m-Xp-I-bm-Wv. AXn\v ImtXm¿°m≥ \mw Hmtcm-cp-Øcpw _m[y-ÿcm- s W∂v \ap- ° p- N p‰pw \S°p∂ Hmtcm {]Ir-Xn-ssI-tb-‰hpw \sΩ Hm¿a-s∏-Sp-Øn-s°m-≠n-cn-°b - mWv.„

43


imkv{Xw tUm. B¿.-hn.-Pn. tat\m≥

4.3 GX≥kpw ¢mkn- ° ¬ kns‚ injy-\m-bn-cp∂ A\-Ivk-tKm- Øw Pzen-°p-∂-Xm-sW∂pw At±lw cm-kns\ (Anaxagoras,Pohn-X-Imew, hmZn-®p. F∂p-am-{X-a√ N{μ\v kzbw {Kokpw ss]X-tKm-dn-b≥ ]c-ºc Xncn-®-Sn-Iƒ t\cn-´p-sIm≠ncp∂-t∏mƒ {Kokns‚ kmwkvIm-cnI Xe-ÿm\w F∂ \nebn-te°v hf¿∂psIm-≠n-cp∂ GX≥kn¬ Hcp ]pXnb hn⁄m\ ]mc-ºcyw cq]w sIm≈p-Ib - m-bn-cp-∂p. tkm{I´o-kv, tπt‰m, Acn-tÃm-´n¬ F∂o {Xnaq¿Øn-Iƒ BWv Ah-cn¬ G‰hpw Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂Xv F¶nepw `uXnI imkv{X-ßf - psS hnIm-kØ - n\v Ah-sc°mƒ IqSp-X¬ kw`m-h\ \¬Inb a‰p ]ecpw B Iq´-Øn¬ D≠m-bncp∂p. anse-‰ - nse Ah-km\ BNm-cy≥ F∂v ]d-bm-hp∂ A\m-Ivkn-sa-s\-

{In. ap. D. 488-˛428) s]cn-¢nkv [4] GX≥knse ss[j-WnI PohnXw kº∂w B°m-\mbn Atßm´p £Wn-®psIm-≠p-h-∂p F∂mWv sFXn-lyw. tπt‰m ]d-bp-∂Xv AXn-bmb kºØv Dt]-£n-®mWv A\m-Ik v n-sa-s\kv Hcp ss[j-WnI PohnXw kzoI-cn-®Xv F∂m-Wv. Hcp `uXn-Ih - m-Zn-bmb At±l-Øn\v BIm-iØ - nse tXtPm tKmf߃ tZh-XI - ƒ BsW∂pw Ah¿ a\pjy-cpsS `mK-t[-bß - f - n¬ CS-s]-Sp∂p F∂pw a‰p-ap≈ hnizm-k-߃ kzoImcyw Bbn-cp-∂n√. Ahbpw `qan-sbt∏mse Xs∂ I√pw aÆpw \nd-™Xm-sW∂pw i‡-amb {`aWw \nan-

{]Im-ia- n-s√∂pw kqcys‚ {]Im-isØ {]Xn-^-en-∏n-°p-I-bmWv sNøp-∂Xv F∂pw AXn¬ `qan-bpsS \ng¬ hogp∂-XmWv N{μ-{K-lWw Bbn A\p-`h- s ∏- S p- ∂ Xv F∂pw- I qSn At±lw Is≠-Øn. kqcy-{K-lW - s - Øbpw AXpt]mse N{μs‚ adhv Bbn At±lw hni-Zo-I-cn-®p. {]]-t©m-Xv]-Øn-sb-∏‰nbpw Atbm-Wn-b≥ XXz Nn¥-I-sct∏m-se-Xs∂ XnI®pw `uXn-I-hm-Z-]c-amb kn≤m-¥-߃ At±lw BhnjvI-cn-®p. F√m {Zhyhpw IqSn tN¿∂p≈ Hcp an{inXw Bbn-´m-bn-cp∂p {]]-©-Øns‚ BZn cq]w. AXv Idßn-s°m-≠n-cp-∂p. {`a-W-Øns‚ ^e-

tUm. B¿.-hn.-Pn. tat\ms‚ "imkv{X-km-t¶-XnIhnZy-bpsS Ncn{Xw' F∂ ]pkvXIØnse A©mw A[ym-bØns‚ c≠mw `mKw

{Ko°v ss]XrIw

44

Pqembv 2011


ambn AXn¬ Npgn-Iƒ cq]-s∏´p. {`aW thK-X-aqew AXn¬\n∂v hmbphpw Pehpw taLßfpw ]md- I fpw th¿s]´v G‰hpw I\w IqSnb hkvXp°ƒ tI{μ-Ønepw A√m-Øh Np‰nepw Bbn ÿm\w ]nSn-®p. CuX- d ns‚ {]`mhw aqew AXn¬\n∂v ]md-Iƒ th¿s]´v Pzen®v BImi tKmf- ß ƒ Bbn cq]m-¥-c-s∏-´p. Cßs\ t]mbn At±-l-Øns‚ Nn¥Iƒ. c≠m-bncw h¿j-߃°ptijw emπmkv F∂ {^©v imkv{X-⁄≥ apt∂m-´p-h® Npgn kn≤m-¥hpw (Nebular hypothesis) Bbn A\-Ivk-tKm-cmkns‚ Nn¥m- K - X n°v \√ kmayw ImWmw F∂Xv XnI®pw bmZr-—nIw BsW∂v ]d-tb-≠Xn-√-t√m. A\-Ivk-tKm-cmkv Hcp ]Sn IqSn apt∂m´p t]mbn CXp- t ]mse a‰p {]]- © - ß ƒ D≠mImw F∂pw Ahn-sSbpw \sΩt∏m-ep≈ a\p-jy¿ D≠mImw F∂phsc ]d-™p-h-®p. CsXms° s]mXpth hnizm-kn-Ifmb AXo-\n-b-∑msc h√msX {]tIm]n-∏n-®p. bh-\¿°v Ah-cpsS ssZhß-tfmSv henb {]nbw Bbn-cp-∂p. Ah-cpsS (A-Xm-bXv ssZh-ß-fp-sS) A]-Zm-\ß - ƒ t]mse Xs∂ Ah-cpsS Zu¿_-ey-ßfpw Ipkr-Xn-Ifpw bh-\cpsS {]nb-s∏´ Imhy hnj-b-߃ Bbn-cp-∂p. A\-Ivk-tKm-cm-kns‚ `uXnI kn≤m-¥ß - ƒ \nKqVw Bbncp∂ ]e Imcy-ßfpw bp‡n-kl - a - mbn hni-Zo-I-cn-s®-¶nepw ssZhnI CS-s]-Sep-Isf A{]-k-‡-am-°p∂ CØcw `uXnI kn≤m- ¥ - ß ƒ Ah¿°v sX√pw ]nSn-®n-√. Ah¿ At±-lsØ ssZh- \ nμ NpaØn Ip‰- h n- N m- c W sNøm-\mWv apXn¿∂-Xv. km£m¬ s]cn- ¢ n- k ns‚ CS- s ]- S ¬ Xs∂ th≠nh∂p A\-Ivk-tKm-c-mkns‚ Poh≥ c£n-°m≥ F∂mWv tIƒhn. At±-lsØ in£nt®m AtXm Ip‰hn-ap-‡≥ B°ntbm F∂-Xn-s\-∏‰n c≠v A`n-{]mbw D≠v. GXm-bmepw At±lw GX≥kv hn´v kz¥w \mSmb Atbm-Wn-b-bn-te°v Xncn-®p-t]mbn F∂-Xn¬ kwibw C√. Ime-Øn-\paptº \S∂ ]e imkv{X-⁄¿°pw D≠mb A\p-`hw Xs∂-bmWv A\Ivkt- Km-cm- kn\pw D≠m-bX - v.

tπt‰mbpw Acn-tÃm-´nepw bh\ Zm¿i-\n-I-cn¬ {]ap-J-\mb tπt‰m _n.-kn. 429 ¬ GX≥kn-emWv imkv{X-KXn

hmXn¬°¬ Cßs\ FgpXn h®n- c p- ∂ p- h t{X: ""KWn- X ⁄¿ A√m-Ø-h¿°v {]thi\w C√!'' (No one may enter, who is not a mathematician!)

P\n-®-Xv. _n.-kn. 407 ¬ At±lw tkm{I-´o-kns‚ injy-\mbn tN¿∂p. AXo-\n-b-∑m¿ as‰mcp [m¿anI Xncbn-f-°-Øn¬ tkm{I-´o-kns\ Ip‰-hnNm-cW sNbvXv sIm√m≥ hn[n-®t- ∏mƒ tπt‰m \mSp-hn´v tZim-S\ - Ø - n-\p-t]m-bn. hnhn[ cmPy-߃ kμ¿in®v Ahn-Sß-fnse KWn-Xhpw tPymXn-»m-k{v Xhpw Hs° ]Tn® tijw _n.-kn. 380 ¬ GX≥kn¬ Xncn- s ®- Ø nb tπt‰m AhnsS Hcp hniz-hn-Zym-ebw ÿm]n®p. A°m- Z an F∂p- t ]- c mb B ÿm]\w GXm≠v Hcp kl-{km-_vZtØmfw bh\ hn⁄m- \ - Ø ns‚ {iotIm-hn¬ Bbn {]tim-`n-®p. Hcp Zm¿i-\n-I≥ F∂ \ne-bnemWv tπt‰m-bpsS Io¿Øn F¶nepw At±lw tami-a-√mØ Hcp KWn-X⁄≥ IqSn-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ]t£ Iyq_v Cc-´n-∏n-°m-\p≈ as‰mcp \n¿anXn A√msX Imcy-amb thsd KWnX kahm-Iy-߃ H∂pw At±-lØ - n-s‚-Xmbn \ap°v In´n-bn-´n-√. F∂n-cn-°n-epw, KWn-XØ - ns‚ hf¿®-bn¬ hen-sbmcp ]¶v At±lw hln-®p. ap≥Km-an-If - mb ss]X-tKm-dn-b-∑msc t]mse-X-s∂, KWnXw AXns‚ Aaq¿Ø-amb kuμcy- Ø n\p th≠n- b mWv A√msX `uXnI {]tbm-P-\-Øn\p th≠n-b√ ]Tnt°-≠-sX∂v At±-lhpw hmZn-®p. B A¿∞- Ø n¬ ]Tn- ® m¬ AXv AXns‚ Ak-∂n-Kv≤-Xbpw bp‡n-`{Z-Xbpw IrXy-Xbpw sIm≠v F√m hn⁄m\ imJ-Iƒ°pw Hcp amXrI Bbn-cn°pw F∂v At±lw hniz-kn®p. At±-l-Øns‚ A°m-Z-an-bpsS

KWn- X - Ø ns‚ Imcyw F¥m- b mepw `uXn- I sØ kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw tπt‰m Hcp im]w Bbn-cp∂p F∂mWv ]e-cp-sSbpw A`n-{]m-bw. {]ikvX imkv{X Ncn-{X-Imc≥ Bb k¿ sPbnw-kv Po≥kns‚ hm°p-If - n¬ ""`uXnIw AXns‚ ssiih Zi-bn¬ Bbn-cp-∂t- ∏mƒ AXv tπt‰m, Acn- t Ãm- ´ n¬ F∂o c≠v Nn¥-I-cn¬ \n∂v henb Xncn®-Sn-Iƒ t\cn-´p. tπt‰mbv°v `uXn- I - t ØmSv ]ca ]p—w Bbn-cp-s∂-¶n¬ Acn-tÃm-´nen\v AXp \n¿h-ln-t°≠ [¿aw F¥m-sW∂v a\-kn-emb-tX-bn-√.'' [5] tπt‰m-bpsS A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ a\- mWv ]c-a-amb bmYm¿∞yw. _mly {]]-©-Øn\v AXp a\- n¬ D≠m-°p∂ {]Xn-{]h¿Ø-\Ø - n-eqsS am{Xta \ne-\n¬∏p≈q. \Ωƒ P\n- ° p- ∂ Xv Xs∂ F¥mWv Jcw, F¥m-Wv {Zmh-Iw, F¥mWv tKmfw, F¥mWv NXp-cw, F¥mWv \ndw F∂n- ß - s \- b p≈ \n›n-X-amb [mc-W-I-tfm-sS-bm-Wv. AXp-sIm-≠mWv \ap°v Ahsb Xncn®-dn-bm≥ BIp-∂-Xv. a\- nse Cu [mc-W-I-fmWv kXyw, ]pd-sa-bp-≈h Ah-bpsS A]q¿W-amb {]Xn-^-e\w am{Xw. Aßs\ BXy- ¥ n- I - a mbn t\m°n-bm¬, {]]©w Pe-a-b-tam, hmbp-a-b-tam, ]c-am-Wp-°-fm¬ \n¿anXtam A√, at\m-abw am{Xw! Cßs\ at\m-ab \n¿an-Xn-I-fpsS ]mc-am¿∞nX- b n¬ tamln- X - \ mb tπt‰m- b v ° v `uXnI {]]-©-Øns‚ ]T\w Xs∂ Atcm-NIw Bb-Xn¬ A¤p-X-an-√. At±-l-Øns‚ Z¿i\w A\p-k-cn®v a\p-jys‚ At\z-j-W-Øn\v A¿lamb kwK-Xn-Iƒ kXyhpw kuμcyhpw am{Xw Bbn-cp-∂p. Cu c≠v KpW-ß-sfbpw Ah¿ H∂mbn Xs∂ I≠p. Cu kao-]\ - Ø - ns‚ Zm¿i-\nI kmwKXyw F¥p Xs∂-bm-bn-cp-∂mepw AXv `uXn-IØ - ns‚ hf¿®bv°v A\pIqew Bbn-cp-∂n√ F∂v ]d-tb-≠X - n√-t√m. ]t£ CXn-t\-°mƒ t{Zmlw BWv At±-lØ - ns‚ injy-\mb AcntÃm-´n¬ (_n.-kn. 384-˛322) sNbvX-Xv. amkn-tUm-Wn-bb - nse kvSmPn-db - n¬ P\n® Acn-tÃm-´n¬ ]Xn-t\gmw hb n¬ tπt‰m-bpsS Iogn¬ ]Tn-°m-\mbn

45


GX≥kn-se-Øn. 20 h¿j-Øn-\p-tijw tπt‰m acn-®-t∏mƒ A°m-Z-an-bpsS "t]m°v' icn-bs - √∂ptXm∂nb At±lw tZim-S\ - Ø - n\p t]mbn. Gjym ssa\-dnepw sekvt_m-knepw a‰pw \S-Ønb Cu bm{X-bn-emWv At±-lØ - ns‚ auenI-amb Poh-imkv{X \nco-£W - ß - ƒ°v Ah-kcw D≠m-bXv F∂v Icp-Xs - ∏-Sp∂p. _n.-kn. 343 ¬ At±lw amkn-tUmWn-bb - nse ^nen∏v cmPm-hns‚ ]p{X\mb Ae-Ik v m≠¿ cmP-Ip-am-cs‚ Syq´¿ Bbn \nb-an-°s - ∏-´p. _n.-kn. 335 ¬ Acn-tÃm-´n¬ GX≥kn¬ aS-ßn-sbØn A°m-Za- n°v _Z-embn sseknbw F∂ hnZym-ebw ÿm]n-®p. XpS¿∂p≈ hymgh-´° - m-eØ - mWv At±-lØ - ns‚ apJy IrXn-Iƒ c-Nn-°s - ∏-´X - .v _n.-kn. 323-˛¬ Ae-Ivkm-≠d - psS ac-Ws - Ø-Øp-S¿∂v GX≥-knse A¥-co£w amkn-tUm-Wnb≥ hncp≤ hnImcw sIm≠v Iep-ja - mbn. Acn-tÃm-´n¬ bh\ tZh-XI - sf "th≠{X' am\n-°p-∂n√ F∂ ]cmXn Db¿Ø-s∏-´p. A]-ISw a\- n-em-°nb Acn-tÃm-´n¬ ""AXo-\n-b∑ - m¿°v Kpcp-lXy°v c≠m-as - Xmcp Ah-kcw sImSp-°cpXv'' F∂ \ymbw ]d™v P∑ tZitØ°v aS-ßn-t∏m-bn. ASp-Øh - ¿jw acn°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. kakvX hn⁄m\ taJ-eI - s - fbpw Bt«-jn® alm a\o-jn-bm-bn-cp∂p Acn-tÃm-´n¬. XXz-Nn-¥, aoamw-k, kmln-Xyw, kuμcy imkv{Xw XpSßnb taJ-e-I-fn¬ am{X-a√ ssPh imkv{X-Ønepw At±-lØ - ns‚ kw`mh\ auen-Ia - m-Wv. kq£va \nco-£W - ß-fn-eqsS At±lw cq]w sImSpØ ssPh h¿Ko-I-cW ]≤Xn ens∂-bqkns‚ (Carolus Linnaeus 1707-1778) Imew hsc B¿°pw adn-IS- ° - m≥ Ign™n-√. ]t£ CsXm∂pw `uXn-IØn¬ At±-lsØ XpW-®n-√. F∂pX-s∂-b-√, At±lw cq]w sImSpØ A`yq- l nI (Deductive) k{º- Z mbw `uXn-IØ - ns‚ hf¿®bv°v hn\-bm-hpIbpw sNbvXp.

46

B[p-\nI `uXn-I-Øns‚ coXn hnhn[ {]Xn-`m-k-ß-fpsS Imcy-˛-ImcW_‘w Is≠-Øe - m-Wt- √m. DZm-lc-W-ambn F¥p-sIm≠v N{μ-{K-lWw D≠m-Ip∂p F∂ tNmZy-Øn\v \mw sImSp-°p∂ DØ-cw, `qan-bpsS \ng¬ N{μs‚ ta¬ ]Xn-°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v F∂m-bn-cn-°pw. F∂m¬ Acn-tÃm-´nens‚ hymJym\w ""{KlWw F∂Xv N{μs‚ kz`mhw Bb-Xp-sIm≠v'' F∂v Bbn-cn-°pw. At±lw FgpXn ""Hcp hkvXp-hns‚ kz`m-hhpw AXn\p≈ Imc-Whpw H∂p-Xs - ∂-bm-sW∂v hy‡-am-W.v '' Hcp-]t£ ssPh-im-k{v XØn¬ henb {]iv\w krjvSn-t°-≠Xn-√mØ Cu kao-]\w Xo¿®-bmbpw `uXn- I - Ø n¬ henb {]Xn- k ‘n Xs∂ krjv S n- ® p. Nen- ° p∂ Hcp hkvXp as‰-s¥-¶nepw AXns\ XSbpw hsc Nen®p sImt≠-bn-cn°pw F∂v sUtam-{In-´kv ]d-™n-cp-∂p. ]t£ Acn- t Ãm- ´ n- e m- I s´ F√m Ne- \ sØbpw ss\k¿Kn-I-amb kz`m-hØns‚ _ln-kv^p-cWw Bbn-´mWv I≠-Xv. Hcp hnØn\v apf-bv°m≥ D≈ kzm`m-hnI t{]c-Wt- ]mse Xs∂-bmWv I\w IqSnb hkvXp-°ƒ°v Xmgm\pw I\w Ipd-™h - bv°v s]mßm\pw D≈ {]h-WX F∂v At±lw hn[n-®p. F√m Ne-\hpw as‰-s¥-¶nepw hkvXp-hns‚ X≈¬ sIm≠mWv F∂v At±lw Icp-Xn. kzbw Nen-°p∂ Pohn-I-fn¬ CXv D≈n¬ \n∂p≈ t{]cW BImw. PU-h-kvXp-°-fn¬ Cu X≈¬ _mly i‡n-If - n¬\n∂p In´- W w. Hcp sX‰m- e n¬ (catapult) \n∂p sXmSpØp hnS-s∏´ I√ns\ apt∂m´p \bn- ° p- ∂ Xv AXns‚ ]n∂n¬ \n∂p X≈p∂ hmbp BWv. Nen- ° p∂ I√ns‚ ]n∂n¬ Hcp iq\yX D≠m-Im-\p≈ {]h-WX D≠v. F∂m¬ {]IrXn iq\y-Xsb A\p-hZn-°p-∂n-√. (Nature abhors a vacuum) AXp- s Im≠v B iq\y- X - b n- t e°v hmbp X≈n-°-b-dpw. Cu X≈-emWv

I√ns\ apt∂m´p \bn- ° p- ∂ - X v . Cßs\ t]mbn Acn- t Ãm- ´ n- e ns‚ kn≤m-¥w. iq\y-Xsb \ntj-[n-°p-∂Xp- s Im- ≠ p- X s∂ At±lw AWp kn≤m-¥-sØbpw \ntj-[n-®p. AWp°fpw Ah-bv°n-S-bn¬ iq\y-Xbpw F∂-Xn-\p-]I - cw {]]©w F∂Xv {ZhyØns‚ XpS¿®-bm-Wv. tPymXn-»m-kv{X-Ønepw tπt‰m-bpsSbpw Acn-tÃm-´n-en-s‚bpw kzm[o\w hn]- c o- X - ^ ew BWv sNbv X - X v . F¥mWv kap-NnXw F∂-Xn-s\-∏‰n kz¥-amb k¶-ev]\ - ß - f - n¬ A[n-jvTnX-am-bn-cp∂p tπt‰m-bpsS {]]© amXrI-Iƒ. {]]©w ssZh krjvSn BIbm¬ AXv ]cn-]q¿W-X-bpsS {]Xo-Iamb tKmfm-Ir-Xn-bn¬ Bbn-cn-°-Ww. AtX \ymbw sIm≠p-Xs∂ {Kl-ßfpsS {`aW ]Yhpw hrØm-Ir-Xn-bn¬ Bbn-cn-°-Ww. Ne\w krjvSn-bpsS Bcw-`-Øn¬ ssZh-Z-Ø-ambn D¤-hn®-Xp-sIm≠v AXv {Ia-_‘ - nXw Btb Xocq. F∂m¬ {Kl-Ne - \ - ß - ƒ ImgvNbn¬ {Ia- h n- c p≤w BsW- ∂ Xv tπt‰msb Ipg- ° n. {Kl- N - e \w bYm¿∞-Øn¬ {Iam-\p-krXw BsW¶nepw Nne {Kl- ß ƒ Nne- t ∏mƒ io{L-K-Xn-bnepw Nne-t∏mƒ aμ-K-Xnbnepw Nne-t∏mƒ hn]-co-X-K-Xn-bnepw ImW-s∏-Sp-∂Xv F¥p-sIm≠v F∂v hni-Zo-Ic - n-°pI F∂-XmWv tPymXn-»mkv{X-⁄-cpsS [¿aw F∂v tπt‰m \n¿t±-in-®p. tπt‰m-bpsS Kpcp-hmb tkm{I-´okv tPymXn-»m-kv{XsØ ""shdpw kabw ]mgm-°¬'' F∂v Ah-⁄t- bmsS X≈n°-f™p F∂v Hm¿°p-tºmƒ tπt‰m AXv ]Tn-°m-\p≈ k∑-\s ¶nepw ImWn-®t√m F∂v kam-[m-\n°mw! πq´m¿°ns‚ hm°p-If - n¬ ""tπmt‰m-bpsS CS-s]-Se - n-eqsS tPymXn-imkv{X ]T-\Øns‚ A]-I¿jX \oßn-°n-´n.'' Acn-tÃm-´n-ens‚ kao-]\ - hpw ASnÿm-\] - c - a - mbn tπmt‰m-hn-t‚Xv Xs∂bm-bn-cp-∂p. `qan tI{μ-ÿm-\Øpw

Pqembv 2011


AXn-\p-Np‰pw ]e tKmf-h-e-b-ßfpw BbmWv At±lw {]]-©sØ I≠Xv. `qtKm-fsØ hebw sNbvXv Pe aWvUe - hpw hmbp aWvUe - hpw A·n aWvUe - hpw D≠v. Cu \mev ASn-ÿm\ `qX-ß-fpsS aWvU-e-߃°v ]pdta Acn-tÃm-´n¬ CuX¿ F∂ A©masØ `qX-aW - vUew IqSn k¶-ev]n-®p. B aWvUe - Ø - n-emWv kqcy N{μm-ZnIfpw \£-{X-ßfpw Dd-∏n-®n-cn-°p∂ tKmf-߃. G‰hpw ASp-Øp≈ tKmfh- e - b - Ø n¬ N{μ≥ `qansb Np‰n {`aWw sNøp-∂p. AXn\v A∏pdw {Iaambn kqcy≥, ip{I≥, _p[≥, sNmΔ, hymgw, i\n F∂nh Dƒs°m-≈p∂ tKmf-߃ ÿnXn sNøp-∂p. G‰hpw ]pd- s a- b mWv ÿnc \£- { X- ß ƒ ÿm]n-®n-cn-°p∂ \t`m-aW - vUew (celestial sphere). Cu Hmtcm tKmfhpw \n›nX thK-Xb - n¬ `qansb {`aWw sNøp-∂p. Hmtcm tKmf-sØbpw Id-°p∂Xv AXn\v sXm´p-]p-ds - a-bp≈ tKmfam-Wv. G‰hpw ]pd-Øp≈ \£-{X-aWvUe - sØ Id-°p-∂X - m-Is´ AN-©e Nme-I≥ (Primum Mobile-The Unmoved - n-[m-Xmhv. Mover) Bb {]]-©h Cu {]]© amXrI Cbp-tUmIvkkv (Eudoxus 408-350 B.C.) t\csØ apt∂m´p h®n-cp-∂X - m-W.v F∂m¬ Cbp-tUm-Ivkkv CXns\ Hcp KWnX amXrI Bbn Dt±-in-®n-cp-∂-t∏mƒ Acn-tÃm-´n-em-Is´ A£-cm¿∞-Øn¬ tKmf-ßfpw ]¬-®{- I-ßfpw F√mw-IqSn sI´n-a-dn-bp∂ Hcp b{¥-kw-hn-[m\w B°n-am-‰n. A`yq-lnI k{º-Zm-bØ - n\v (Deductive logic) cq]w sImSp-ØXv Acn-tÃm´n¬ BsW∂v kqNn- ∏ n- ® p- h - t √m. GXm≠v c≠m-bncw h¿j-tØmfw imkv { X- Ø ns‚ AwKo- I rX coXnimkv{Xw Bbn CXv \ne-\n-∂p. NnecpsS A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ CXv At±-lØns‚ `uXn- I - s Ø- ° mƒ tZmjw sNbvXp. GXp kwK-Xnbpw Dd-∏mbn Adn-bm-hp∂ at‰-sX-¶nepw hkvXp-Xbn¬\n∂p I¿i-\a - mb Xm¿°nI coXnbn-eqsS Dcp-Øn-cn-s®-Sp-°Ww F∂ At±-l-Øns‚ \n¿_-‘sØ Ip‰w ]d-bm-\m-hn-√. Cu coXn°v s]mXpth ]d™p hcp∂ G‰hpw efn-X-amb DZm-lc - Ww CXmWv: F√m a\p-jy¿°pw acWw D≠v. tkm{I-´okv Hcp a\p-jy≥ BWv. (AXp-sIm-≠)v tkm{I-´o-kn\p acWw D≠v. BZy- t ØXv k¿h- k - Ω - X - a mb s]mXp XXzw BWv. c≠m-a-tØXv hy‡-amb hkvXpX BWv. aq∂m-asØ A`yqlw BZysØ c≠v {]kvXm-h\ - I - f - n¬\n∂p Xm¿°nI imkv{X-KXn

kakvX hn⁄m\ taJe-I-sfbpw Bt«-jn® alm a\o-jn-bm-bn-cp∂p Acn-tÃm-´n¬. XXz-Nn-¥, aoamw-k, kmln-Xyw, kuμcy imkv{Xw XpSßnb taJ-e-I-fn¬ am{Xa√ ssPh imkv{XØnepw At±-l-Øns‚ kw`m-h\ auen-I-am-Wv. kq£va \nco-£-W-ß-fneqsS At±lw cq]w sImSpØ ssPh h¿KoI-cW ]≤Xn ens∂-bqkns‚ Imew hsc B¿°pw adn-I-S-°m≥ Ign-™n-√. ]t£ CsXm∂pw `uXn-I-Øn¬ At±-lsØ XpW-®n-√. F∂p-X-s∂-b-√, At±lw cq]w sImSpØ A`yq-lnI k{º-Zmbw `uXn-I-Øns‚ hf¿®bv°v hn\-bm-hpIbpw sNbvXp.

imkv{X-{]-Imcw Dcp-Øn-cn-bp-∂X - m-Wv. BZysØ {]kvXm-h\ icn Bbncn-°p-∂n-S-tØmfw Imew aq∂m-asØ A`yqlw icn Xs∂ Bbn-cn-°pw. CXmWv KWn-XØ - ns‚ coXn. AXp-sIm≠mWv KWnX {]kvXm-hß - ƒ imizX kXy-߃ Bbn IW-°m-°-s∏-Sp-∂Xv. Cu Dd∏v F√m imkv{X {]kvXmh-߃°pw thWw F∂v Acn-tÃm-´n¬ \n_-‘n-®p. CXmWv {]iv\-am-b-Xv. `uXn-I-Øn¬ Aßs\ s]mXp XXzß-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n¬ D≈ {]kvXmh-߃°v A{]-am-ZnXzw I¬]n-°m≥ Bhn- √ . {Kl- ß ƒ `qan°p Np‰pw hrØm-Ir-Xn-bn-ep≈ {`aW ]Y-Øn¬ Nen-°p∂p F∂v tπt‰m ]d-bm≥ ImcWw Cß-s\-bp≈ s]mXp XXzØn-ep≈ Du∂-em-Wv. s]mXp XXz߃ Fßs\ cq]-s∏-Sp∂p F∂Xv H´pw hy‡-a-√. AXv ]e-t∏mgpw ap≥ hn[n-I-fp-sStbm aX-]-c-amb hnizm-kß-fp-sStbm ^e-am-Imw. F∂p-X-s∂b-√, s]mXp XXzw Bhn-jvIc - n®p Ign™m¬ aq∂m- a sØ A`yq- l nIw AXn¬Xs∂ A¥¿lnXw BWt√m; AXn¬ ]pXp-Xmb Adnhv H∂p-an-√. F√m a\p-jy¿°pw ac-W-ap≠v F∂p ]d™p Ign-™m¬ ]ns∂ tkm{I-´okn\p acWw D≠v F∂p-≈Xv ]pXnb Adn- s hm- ∂ p- a - √ - t √m. CXv KWn- X Øns‚ Hcp kz`mhw BWv. AXn¬ Ipg-∏-an-√. ]t£ `uXn-I-Øn¬ AXv aXn-bm-hn-√. AhnsS ]pXnb ]pXnb Adn-hp-Iƒ \n¿an-°m≥ klm-bn-°p∂ coXn-imkv{Xw BWv th≠-Xv. AXn\v

47


A A`yq-lnI k{º-Zm-bØ - nse Du∂¬ XS -ambn F∂p-]d - b - msX hø. c≠m-bncw h¿jw th≠n-h∂p AXn\p ]‰nb Hcp ]pXnb coXn-imkv{Xw Is≠-Øm≥. AXp- h sc `uXnIw Acn- t Ãm- ´ n¬ Xo¿Ø Ccpºv N´-°q-Sn¬ _‘-\-ÿam-bn-In-S∂ - p. {Ko°v imkv{X-cw-KØv Acn-tÃm-´n¬ Hcp hgn-Øn-cn-hm-bn-cp-∂p. {]]-©Ø - n\p apgp-h-\mbn ka{K kn≤m-¥w sIm≠ph∂ Ah-km-\sØ Zm¿i-\n-I≥ Bbncp∂p At±-lw. Xs‚ BZy-Ime tPymXn»mkv{X {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ ap≥Km-an-Isf-t∏mse Xs∂ Acn-tÃm-´nepw hfsc Zp¿_-e-amb hkvXp-X-I-fpsS ASn-Ø-dbn¬ Hcp-]mSv kn≤m-¥-߃ sI´n-s∏m°n. ]t£ At±-l-Øns‚ ]n∂o-Sp≈ ssPh-imkv{X kw`m-h\ - I - ƒ IrXy-amb \nco-£W - ß - f - p-sSbpw hn]p-ea - mb hnhc tiJ-cW - ß - f - p-sSbpw ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n-ep≈-h-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Ah XpS¿∂p≈ t\´ßƒ°v ASn-Ød Hcp-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. tπt‰m-bpsS A°m-Z-an°v _Z¬ Bbn-´m-Wt√m Acn-tÃm-´n¬ sse-knbw (Lyceum) XpS-ßn-b-Xv. _n.-kn. 322-˛¬ AhnsS At±-lsØ ]n≥Xp-S¿∂Xv Xntbm-{^m-kv‰kv (Theophrastus 372-287 B.C.) Bbn-cp-∂p. {]]© {]Xn-`m-k-ßfpsS Imc-Wß - s - f-∏‰ - n-bp≈ At\z-jW - Øn¬ Acn-tÃm-´n¬ ]e-hn[ Imc-Wß - sf- ∏ ‰n ]d- ™ n- c p- ∂ p. Ah- b n¬ {]mh¿ØnI ImcWw (Efficient cause) am{Xta imkv{X-Øns‚ taJ-eb - n¬ hcp∂p≈q F∂v Xntbm- { ^m- k vSkv \njvI¿jn®p. [6] Xntbm-{^m-Ãkns\ XpS¿∂v ew]mkvI-knse kv{Smt‰m (Strato of Lampascus, c.335-c.265 B.C.) ssekn-b-Øn-s‚ BNm-cy≥ Bbn. At±lw ssk-≤m¥nI N¿®-Iƒ°-∏pdw ]co-£-W-ß-fntebv°v IS-∂p. At±lw Hcp ac-°´ \o‰p-∂-Xn\p (Nq-Sm-°p-∂-Xn-\p) apºpw

48

]nºpw AXns‚ Xq°hpw hym]vXhpw Af-∂p. hym]vXw amdp∂n-s√∂pw Xq°w Ipd-bp∂p F∂pw Is≠-Øn. NqSm-°p-tºmƒ AXn¬\n∂v {Zhyw ]pd- Ø p- t ]m- I p∂p F∂pw AXn-s‚-^-e-ambn AXn¬ s]m≈- I ƒ D≠m- I p∂p F∂pw At±lw A\p-am-\n-®p. as‰mcp ]co£-W-Øn¬ `mKn-I-ambn iq\y-am-°s∏´ Hcp ]m{X-Øn-te°v sh≈w hen-s®-Sp-°s - ∏-Sp∂p F∂v At±lw sXfn-bn-®p. CXv hmbp-hns‚ IWn-IIƒ°n-S-bn-ep≈ iq\y-X-bn-te°v sh≈w Ib- d p- ∂ - X mWv F∂v At±lw Duln-®p. ]Zm¿∞-߃ IWn- I - I fpw Ah- b v ° n- S - b n- e p≈ iq\y-Xbpw CS-I-e¿∂-XmWv F∂v At±lw Icp-Xn. AXp-sIm-≠mWv sh≈-Øn-eqsS {]Imiw IS-∂p-t]mIp-∂Xpw Xm]w ]I-cp-∂Xpw F∂v At±lw hmZn-®p. Cu Ime-L-´-Øn-se√mw tZim-SI¿ hnZqc tZi-߃ kμ¿in®p hnhc-߃ tiJ-cn®p hcn-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ]I-ens‚ ssZ¿Lyw ]e ÿeØpw ]e ImeØpw hyXykvXw BsW∂Xv ]pXnb Adn-hm-bn-cp-∂p. CXv A£mwiw A\p-kc - n®v BsW∂pw tcJmw-i-Øn\v CXn¬ kzm[o\w Cs√∂pw Ah¿ a\- n-em-°n. CXv `qan-bpsS tKmfm-Ir-Xn°v ]pXn-sbmcp sXfn-hm-bn. A°m-esØ Hcp sFXnlm-knI IYm-]m-{X-amb FIv^m‚kv (Ecphantus) Cu tKmfw kz¥w A®pX-≠n¬ Xncn-bp∂p F∂v hmZn-®n-cp∂-Xmbn ]d-bs - ∏-Sp-∂p. t]m\vS  - nse slcm-ss¢-Unkv (Heraclides of Pontus c.390-310 B.C.) CtX Bi-b-߃ {]N-cn-∏n-®n-cp-∂p. F∂p am{X-a-√, kqcy\pw hymgw, i\n, sNmΔ F∂o h≥ {Kl-ßfpw `qansb Np‰p-tºmƒ _p[≥, ip{I≥ F∂nh kqcy-s\bmWv Np‰p-∂Xv F∂pw IqSn At±-

imkv{X-KX - nsb kw_-‘n® A`n-{]m-b-ßfpw IØp-Ifpw

FUn-‰¿ imkv{X-K-Xn, ]cn-jZv`h≥, IpXn-c-h´w sebv≥, Xncp-h-\-¥-]pcw ˛ 695 001 Csa-bn¬ : kssptvpm@yahoo.com F∂ hnem-k-Ønepw hcn-kwJy, ]cm-Xn-Iƒ F∂nh amt\-PnMv FUn-‰¿ ]cn-j-Zv`-h≥, Nme-∏pdw ]n.-H., tImgn-t°mSv ˛ 2 Csa-bn¬ : ksspmagazine@gmail.com F∂ hnem-k-Ønepw Ab-b° v pI

Pqembv 2011


lw ]d-™p-h-®p. c≠m-bncw h¿j߃°p- t ijw ssSt°m {_msl CtXt]m-ep≈ Hcp kn≤m¥w apt∂m´p h®p F∂Xv ck-I-c-am-Wv.

GX≥kns‚ A]-N-b-Imew Acn-tÃm-´n-ens‚ ac-WØ - n-\p-ti-jap≈ Imew GX≥kn¬ cmjv{So-bambpw ss[jWn-I-ambpw ssk\n-Iambpw Akz-ÿ-X-Iƒ \nd-™-Xm-bncp-∂p. amkn-tUm-Wn-bb - n¬ \n∂p h∂ ^nen-∏n-s\bpw Ae-Ivkm-≠-sdbpw GX≥kp- I m¿ "hc- Ø ¿' BbmWv I≠n-cp-∂-Xv. Ah-cpsS B[n-]Xyw kzmX-{¥y-t{]-an-Iƒ Bb AYo-\n-b∑msc A]-I¿j-_m-[n-X-cm-°n. XßfpsS taml `wK-ßfpw Xncn-®-Sn-Ifpw ad- ° m≥ klm- b n- ° p∂ XXz- i mkv{Xhpw aXhpw Bbn-cp∂p Ah¿°mh-iyw. F]n-Iyq-cn-bm-\n-khpw tÃmbnkn- k hpw BWv AXn\v Ah¿°v klm-bI - a - m-bX - .v Ch c≠pw ASn-ÿm\-]c - a - mbn Zm¿i-\nI ]≤-Xn-Iƒ Bbncp-∂p-sh-¶nepw Ahbv°v imkv{X-Nn¥-bnepw kzm[o\w D≠mbn F∂-XpsIm≠v Cu N¿®-bnepw Ah {]k‡-am-Wv. kmtam- k nse F]n- I yq- d kv (Epicurus of Samos, 342-270 B.C.) efnX-amb Pohn-Xhpw im¥nbpw kam-[m\hpw \nd™ s]cp-am-‰hpw D]-tZ-in® BNm-cy≥ Bbn-cp-∂p. Zu¿`m-Ky-him¬ At±-l-Øns‚ \maw kpJ-temep- ] - X - b psS ]cymbw BbmWv s]mXpth Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. At±lw "kpJw' BWv PohnX e£y-ambn \n¿h-Nn-®Xv F∂Xp icn-Xs - ∂. ]t£ bYm¿∞hpw imiz-Xhpw Bb kpJw \∑ \nd™ \nd™ PohnXw sImt≠ ssIh-cn-°m-\mhq F∂mWv At±lw D]- t Z- i n- ® - X v . (B `mKw ]n∂oSv h∂-h¿ kuI-cy-]q¿hw hnkvacn®p!) AtXm-sSm∏w a\p-jy-cpsS PohnXsØ \bn-°p-∂Xv ssZh-ßf - psS CSs]-S-ep-Iƒ A√ F∂pw At±lw Hm¿an-∏n-®p. BIm-iØ - nse tXtPm-tKmf-ß-fpsS ssZhn-I-X-sbbpw At±lw \ntj-[n-®p. _mly {]]©w ]c-amWp-°-fpsS bmZr-—n-I-amb kwLm-XamWv F∂pw At±lw ]Tn-∏n-®p. P\ßsf aX-˛A - ‘ hnizm-kß - f - psS \ocmfn-∏n-Sn-ØØ - n¬ \n∂p hntam-Nn-∏n-°m\mWv At±lw {ian-®-Xv. tÃmbn-knkw F∂ Zm¿i-\nI ]≤Xn- b psS t{]mXv L m- S - I ≥ skt\m (Zeno) Bbn- c p- ∂ p. ^n\o- j y- b n¬ P\n® At±lw _n.- k n. 311- ˛ ¬ GX≥kn-seØn Hcp XXz-Nn¥m hnZymebw ÿm]n-®p. At±-lhpw XymK]q¿W-amb Pohn-Xa - mWv D]-tZ-in-®X - v. imkv{X-KXn

Acn-tÃm-´n-ens‚ ac-W-Øn-\p-ti-j-ap≈ Imew GX≥kn¬ cmjv{So-b-ambpw ss[jWn-I-ambpw ssk\n-I-ambpw Akz-ÿ-X-Iƒ \nd-™-Xm-bn-cp-∂p. amkn-tUm-Wn-b-bn¬ \n∂p h∂ ^nen-∏n-s\bpw Ae-Ivkm-≠-sdbpw GX≥kp-Im¿ "hc-Ø¿' BbmWv I≠n-cp-∂-Xv. Ah-cpsS B[n-]Xyw kzmX{¥y-t{]-an-Iƒ Bb AYo-\n-b-∑msc A]-I¿j-_m[n-X-cm-°n. a\p-jy¿ Ah-cpsS a\- m-£n-sb-bmWv A\p-k-cn-t°-≠Xv B{K-l-ß-sftbm hnIm-cß - s - ftbm A√. XnI®pw `uXnI- h m- Z - ] - c - a mb Hcp kao- ] - \ - a mWv At±lw imkv{X-tØmSv kzoI-cn-®-Xv. \yq´\v c≠m-bncw h¿jw apºv {]]©-Ønse F√m {]Xn-`m-kß - fpw \nba-߃ A\p-k-cn-®mWv \S-°p-∂Xv F∂v tÃmbn-°p-Iƒ ]d-™p. \£{X-ßfpw {Kl-ßfpw \n›n-Xa - mb \nba-߃ A\p-kc - n-®m-bn-cn-°Ww Nen-°p∂-Xv. CsX√mw ssZh \n›n-X-amb ]cn-]q¿W-X-bpsS `mKw BsW∂pw F∂m¬ a\p-jy¿°p AXv `mKn-Ia - mbn A\p-`h thZy-am-°m≥ Ignbpw F∂pw Ah¿ Icp- X n. B km[y- X - b mWv a\pjy Pohn- X - Ø n\p e£y- t _m[hpw al-Xzhpw \¬Ip-∂-Xv. CsXm-s°-bm-sW-¶nepw tÃmbn-°pIƒt°m F]n-Iyq-dn-b-∑m¿t°m AcntÃm-´n-en\p e`n® B[n-Im-cn-I-Xsb sNdp-°m≥ Ign-™n-√. Ah-cpsS `uXnI- h m- Z - ] - c - a mb kao- ] - \ - s Ø- ° mƒ P\Øn\v {]nbw ssZhn- I - X - b n¬ s]mXn™ temI-ho-£Ww Bbn-cp∂p. ]n∂oSv ItØm-en°m aXm-[n-Imcn-Ifpw IqSn `qansb {]]-©-Øns‚ tI{μ-ÿm-\Øv {]Xn-jvTn-°p∂ AcntÃm-´n-ens‚ temI-ho-£Ww kz¥-

ambn kzoI-cn-®-tXmsS `uXnIw AcntÃm-´n-ens‚ N´-°q-Sn¬ Dd-®p-t]m-bn. AXn¬\n∂p IpXdn amdm≥ Keo-entbm-bpsS Imew hsc ImØn-cn-t°-≠nh-∂p. AXv hgnsb ]d-bmw.„ Ipdn-∏p-Iƒ : [4] s]cn-¢nkv: [Pericles, Pohn-X-Imew {In.-]n. 495-429] cmPy-X-{¥-⁄≥, tk\m \mb-I≥, hm‹n F∂ \ne-bn-se√mw {]K¤\pw {]i-kvX\pw Bbn-cp∂ s]cn-¢nkv GX≥kns‚ kph¿W- b p- K - Ø ns‚ {kjvSm-°-fn¬ Hcmfpw AXns‚ {]XoIhpw Bbn-cp-∂p. [5] Sir James Jeans: The Growth of Physical Science [6] ImcWw F∂m¬ Hcp hkvXp-hns‚ Ahÿ Fßs\ D≠mbn F∂-Xns‚ hni-Zo-Ic - Ww F∂mWv XXz-Nn-¥I - ¿ hnh£n-°p-∂X - v. Acn-tÃm-´n¬ \mep-hn[ Imc-Wß - s - f∏‰n ]d-bp∂p: Hcp tai-bpsS hkvXp-]-camb ImcWw (material cause) XSn BWv; XSn sIm≠m-Wt√m AXv D≠m-°n-bn-cn°p-∂X - .v AXns‚ cq]-]c - a - mb ImcWw (formal cause) \mev Imepw X´pw F∂-Xm-Wv. AXv AXns‚ cq]hpw Bbn _‘-s∏-´ncn-°p-∂p. tai Fßs\ D≠m-°p∂p F∂ {]{Inb BWv AXns‚ {]mh¿ØnI ImcWw (efficient cause or moving cause). Ahkm-\-ambn AXv F¥n-\mtWm Dt±-in-°s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂Xv AXmWv AXns‚ BXy¥nI Imc-Ww (final cause).

49


IpXnsIm≈p∂ imkv{Xw kn.-hn. N{μ≥

B‚ n_tbm-´n-°p-Iƒ Ime-lc - W - s - ∏-Sp-∂pthm? _mIvSo-cn-b-߃s°-Xnsc am{¥nI acp-∂p-I-fmbn KWn-°-s∏-´n-cp∂ B‚n _tbm-´n-°p-Iƒ Ahbv°p apºn¬ \njv{]-`-am-Ip∂ cwK-ß-fm-Wn-t∏mƒ imkv{X-⁄¿°pap-ºn¬ Ac-tß-dp-∂-Xv. Hcn-°¬ AWp-_m-[-tb‰v C\n-sbm-cn°epw a\p-jy≥ acn-°n-s√∂v {]Jym-]n-®-h¿ C∂v B‚n_tbm-´n-°pIƒ°papºp≈ Ime-tØ°v \mw Xncn-®p-t]m-Ip-∂pthm F∂ Bi-¶-bn-em-Wv.

B‚n-_-tbm-´nIv hnπ-hØns‚ Bcw`w B¬_¿´v Ae- I vkm- ≠ ¿ Hcp t]meokv tIm¨Ã-_nƒ Bbn-cp-∂p, e≠-\n¬. 43 hb v. c≠p amk-ambn Abmƒ Bip-]{- Xn-bn¬ NnIn-’b - n¬ Bbn- c p- ∂ p. £ucw sNøp- t ºmƒ hmbv ° cnInep- ≠ mb Hcp sNdnb apdnhv ]gpØv {hW-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p. Ct∏mƒ apJw ]mXn-tbm-fhpw AWp_m-[b - m-bn, ]gp∏v ImcWw CS-Xp-IÆv HcmgvN apºv \o°w sNbvXn-cp-∂p. Abm-fpsS Zb-\o-bm-hÿ - bv°v Imc-Wamb c≠p- X cw _mIv S o- c n- b - ß fpw (kvs{S-]vt‰m-tIm-°-kpw, Ãss^-temtIm-°-kpw) Ct∏mƒ he-Xp-tXmfpw izmk-tIm-iß - fpw Iog-S° - n-°g - n-™p. _mIvSo-cnbßsf \in-∏n-°m≥ t]cptI´ kƒ^m acp- ∂ p- I ƒ ]eXpw \¬In-t\m-°n. ^e-an√. tUmIvS¿am¿ ]d-™p, C\n c£-bn-√.

50

CØ- c - s am- c - h - ÿ - b n- e mWv 1941 s^{_p- h - c n- b n¬ B¬_¿´ns\ Nmƒkv ^vsf®¿ F∂ bph-K-th-jI≥ Is≠-Øp-∂X - v. GXm- s ≠m- c p- a mkw apºmWv ^v s f®¿ HmIv k v t ^m- U nse Xs‚ s{]m^- k - d mb F¬.- s P.- h n- ‰ v k pw, Bkvt{S-en-b-bnse anI® tcmKmWp Kth-jI - \ - mb tlmhm¿Uv ^vtfmdnbpw XΩn-ep≈ kw`m-jWw {i≤n-®-Xv. Hcp Zim-_vZØ - n-\p-apºv Ae-Ivkm≠¿ ^vsfanMv Dt]-£n-®p-t]mb Hcp ]≤Xn hnP-bn-∏n-°m≥ klmbw tXSnbmWv ^vtfmdn, hn‰vkns\ kao-]n-®Xv. ^vtfmdn Xs‚ kl-{]-h¿Ø-Ic - mb t\m¿a≥ lo‰ven, GWÃv sNbv≥ (ln‰ved - psS \mkn th´bn¬\n∂v c£s∏´v \mSp-hn´v ]n∂oSv Kth-j-I-\m-bnØo¿∂ P¿a≥ PqX- \ m- b n- c p∂p sNbv≥) F∂n-h-cp-ambnt®¿∂v s]\nkn-enbw s\mt´‰w F∂ ]q∏-en¬\n∂v

AXns‚ AWp-\m-iI - L - S- Iw ip≤o-Icn-s®SpØn-cp-∂p. tcmKm-Wp-°-fmb _mIvSo-cn-bß - ƒs°-Xnsc Hcp ""am{¥nI-sh-Sn-bp≠''bmbn CXp-]-tbm-Kn-°msa∂v Ah¿ Is≠-Øn-bn-cp-∂p. Ae-Ik v m-≠¿ ^vsfan-ßns‚ kp{]kn≤ Is≠-Ø-em-bn-cp-∂t√m s]\nkn-en≥. e≠-\nse sk‚ v tacokv Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬h®v bmZr-—n-I-ambn Is≠-Øn-bX - m-bn-cp∂p AXv. Ãss^tem-tIm-°kv F∂ _mIvSo-cn-bsØ hf¿Øn-sb-SpØ t]mjI emb-\n-bn¬ hf¿∂p-h∂ s]\n-kn-en≥ _mIvSo-cnbsØ \in-∏n-°p-∂-Xmbn At±lw Is≠-Øn. ^vsfanMv A∂p Icp-Xn-bXv hf¿®- s b- Ø nb _mIv S o- c n- b - ß sf s]\n-kn-en≥ \in-∏n-°p-∂p-sh-∂m-Wv. F∂m¬ C∂v \ap- ° - d nbmw AXv hmkvX-h-Øn¬ tImi-ßsf hf¿®mL-´Ø - n¬X-s∂-bmWv \in-∏n-°p-∂s - X∂v. tImi-`n-Øn-I-fp-≠m-Ip-∂Xv XSPqembv 2011


™p-sIm-≠mWv s]\n-kn-en≥ Cu kwlmcw \n¿h-ln-°p-∂-Xv. Xs‚ \nco-£Ww {]kn-≤-s∏-SpØn-sb-¶nepw s]\n-kn-en≥ ip≤o-Icn-s®-Sp-°m≥ ^vsfanMv sa\-s°-´n-√. Hcp bmZr-—n-IX - b - n¬\n∂v AXy-[nIw {]tbm-P-\-{]-Z-amb Hcp acp∂v \n¿an°m≥ Ign- b p- a m- b n- c p∂ Ah- k cw Aßs\ \jvS-am-bn. ^vtfmdnbpw Iq´cpw C°m-cy-Øn¬ hnP-bn-°p-Ibpw Fen-If - n¬ \S-Ønb ]co-£-W-ß-fn¬\n∂v CXn-s‚ D]tbmKw ÿm]n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂p. Ct∏mƒ Ah¿°v B acp∂v {]tbmKn®p t\m°m≥ Hcp a\p-jys\ thWw. Hcp ""a\pjy Kn\n-∏∂n''. Cu Bh-iyhp-ambn ^vtfmdn s{]m^. hn‰vkns\ kao-]n-®t- ∏m-gmWv ^vsf®¿ Ah-cpsS kw`m-jWw {i≤n-°m-\n-Sh - ∂ - X - .v XpS¿∂p \S-Ønb At\z-jW - Ø - n-emWv At±lw B¬_¿´n-s\-°p-dn®v tIƒ°p∂-X.v B¬_¿´ns‚ _‘p-°fpw tUmIvS¿amcpw C°m-cy-Øn¬ XS w \n∂n√. acWw Dd-∏m-bn-°g- n™ Hcp tcmKn F∂ \ne-bn¬ Abmsf c£-s∏-Sp-Øm\p≈ GXv {iahpw Ah¿°v kzoIm-cyam-bn-cp-∂p. Aß-s\-bmWv Nmƒkv ^vsf®¿ s]\n-kn-en≥ a\p-jy-\n¬ kpc-£n-Xambn {]tbm-Kn® BZysØ tUmIvSd - mhp-∂X - .v 1941 s^{_p-hcn 12-˛mw XobXn ^vsf®¿ 200 an.{Kmw s]\n-kn-en≥ t]meokv tIm¨Ã-_n-fmb B¬_¿´v AeIvkm-≠d - n¬ IpØn-h® - p. B¬-_¿´v At∏mƒ ac-Ww-am{Xw ap∂n¬ I≠p-InS-°p∂ tcmKn-bm-W.v XpS¿∂v aq∂p-aW - n°q¿ CS-hn´v sNdnb am{X-Iƒ \¬In. Ccp-]Øn\mep aWn-°q-dn-\Iw tcmKn-bpsS \ne sa®-s∏-Sm≥ XpS-ßn. he-Xp-IÆv km[m-cW \ne-bn-te°v Xncn®p h∂p. I≠p\n∂h¿ A¤pX ]c-X{- ¥-cm-bn. F¶nepw C°Y ip`-]cy-hk - mbn Bbn-√. Imcy-ßf - n-ßs\ \oßp-tºm-tg°pw ^vtfmdn-bpsS ]°ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ s]\n-kn-en≥ Xo¿∂p XpS-ßn-bn-cp-∂p. C\n-bn-t∏mƒ s]\n-knen≥ ]pXp-Xmbn ip≤o-Ic - n-s®-Sp-°m≥ Gsd kabw thWw. \ncm-it- bm-sS, ]cn-{`m-¥n-tbm-sS, ^vtfmdnbpw Iq´cpw tcmKn-bpsS aq{X-Øn¬\n∂v s]\n-knen≥ ip≤o-Ic - n-s®-SpØv ho≠pw IpØnh-®p. tcmKn°v Bizmkw e`n-®p. ]Xps°, Cßs\ In´m-hp∂ s]\n-kn-ens‚ Afhp Ipd™p h∂p. {Ia-Øn¬ Cu sNdnb am{X-Iƒ°pta¬ Ãss^tem tIm°kv ]nSn-ap-dp-°n.

kw`hw sshZy-im-kv{X-Ønse Bthi-Ic - a - mb H∂m-bn-cp-∂p. B‚n-_t- bm´nIv hnπhw AhnsS Bcw-`n-°p-I-bmbn-cp-∂p. Xma-kn-bmsX Xs∂ s]\nkn-en≥ hymh-km-bnI DXv]m-Z\ - Ø - ns‚ ]mX-bn-se-Øn. tcmK NnIn-’-bn-epw, bp≤-Øn¬ apdn-th-‰-h¿°v \¬Ip-tºm-gp-sams° "A¤p-X-a-cp∂v' F∂ JymXn c≠mw temI-a-lm-bp≤ ImeØpw AXns\ XpS¿∂pw \ne-\n¿Øm≥ s]\n-knen\p Ign™p. Bbp¿ssZ¿Lyw IqSp-∂-Xnepw tcmK-\n-hm-cW - Ø - nepw B¬_¿´ns‚ ac-W-Øn\v Bdp Zi-I-߃°p-tijhpw s]\n-kn-en≥ AXns‚ ssP{Xbm{X XpS¿∂p.

_mIvSo-cn-b-߃ {]Xn-tcm-[Øn-te°v s]\n-kn-ens\ØpS¿∂v a‰p ]e kq£vaP - o-hn-Is - fbpw D]-tbm-Ks - ∏-SpØn sa®-s∏´ B‚n-_t- bm-´n-°p-Iƒ \n¿an°m≥ imkv{X-⁄¿°p Ign-™p. H∏w sshZy-im-kv{X-Øn¬ hnI-kn-®p-h∂ ]pØ≥ kmt¶-XnI hnZy-If - pw. Chsbm-s°-Øs∂ tcmKm-Wp-Im-cn-If - mb kq£vaP - o-hn-Isf ^e-{]-Za - mbn sNdp°m≥ a\p-jys\ {]m]vX\ - m-°n. B‚n-_t- bm-´nIv hnπhw imkv{X⁄-scbpw tcmK-Nn-In-’I - s - cbpw Bthi- `-cn-Xc - m-°n. Adp-]X - p-If - psS BZyw Ata-cn-°≥ k¿P≥-˛-P-\-d-em-bn-cp∂ hneyw Ãph¿´v kss[cyw {]Jym-]n-®p. "]I¿®-hym-[n-Isf kw_-‘n® ]mT-]pkvXI - ß - ƒ AS-®p-hb - ° v m≥ ka-ba- m-bn. Ata-cn-°b - n¬ \mw ]I¿®-hym-[n-Isf ]q¿W-ambpw XpS®p \o°n-°g- n-™p.' Ãph¿´v CXp ]d-bp-tºmƒ C∏-

d™ tcmK-mW - p-°f - n¬ sXmÆqdp iXam-\hpw s]\n-knens\-Xnsc {]Xntcm[w sI´n-∏-Sp-°p-hm≥ ]cn-Wm-aØns‚ hgn-Iƒ tXSp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. kq£va-Po-hn-Iƒ Cu {Kl-Øn¬ A[n-h-kn-°m≥ Bcw-`n-®Xv ap∂q-‰ºXv tImSn h¿j-߃°p-ap-ºm-Wv. a\p-jy≥ Gdn-bm¬ c≠p Zi-e-£w. a\p-jy≥ krjvSn® A{]-Xo-£n-Xa - mb Cu A]-I-S-tØmSv {]Xn-I-cn-°m≥ Ah-cpsS ]°-ep≈ Bbp[w ]cnWmaw Xs∂. Um¿hns‚ {]IrXn \n¿[m-cW kn≤m-¥-Øns‚ G‰hpw {]Xy£-amb sXfn-hmbn CXn-s\-ImWp-I-bmWv tUhnUv enh¿aq¿. enh¿aq¿ Ct∏mƒ temIsØ G‰hpw anI® B‚n-_-tbm-´nIv KthjW tI{μ-amb Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory

bpsS Ub-dI - vSd - m-Wv. (1945-˛¬ enh¿aqdns‚ A—s‚ AΩ Hcp A∏‚nIvkv ikv{X-{In-bs - b-Øp-S¿∂v A¥-cn-°p-Ibm-bn-cp-∂p. ikv{X-{Inb A{X sshZKv[y-ap-≈X - m-bn-cp-∂n√ F∂-Xp-am-{X-ambn-cp-∂n√ acW Imc-Ww. Ah¿ ]ehn[ AWp-_m-[I - ƒ°v hnt[-bb - m-hpI-bm-bn-cp-∂p. B¬_¿´v Ae-Ivkm≠¿ acn-®n´v \mep-h¿j-tØm-f-am-sb¶nepw s]\n-kn-en≥ hym]-I-ambn hn]-Wn-bn-se-Øn-Øp-Sß - n-bn-cp-∂n-√.) ]cn-Wm-a-Øns‚ ]mX-bn¬ apt∂dnb _mIvSo-cn-b-߃ Xma-kn-bmsX sNdnb hnP-b-߃ ssIh-cn®p XpSßn. Methicillin F∂ acp-∂n-s\-Xnsc {]Xn- t cm[w t\Sn- ° - g n™ Hcn\w (Staphylococus aureus) Bip- ] - { Xn- I fn¬ {]Xy- £ - s ∏- S m≥ XpS- ß n. At∏mƒ AXn-s\-Xnsc Vanomycin F∂ B‚n-_-tbm-´nIv am{Xta ^e-

am¿®v 15-˛\v B¬_¿´v acn-®p. B¬_¿´ns\ c£-s∏-Sp-Øm-\m-bns√-¶nepw 1941 s^{_p-h-cn-bnse B imkv{X-KXn

51


{]-Z-am-bn-cp-∂p-≈q. 1997-˛¬ tSmtIymhnse Hcm-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ AXn-s\bpw adn-IS- ∂ _mIvSo-cnbw {]Xy-£s - ∏-´p. amk-߃°Iw P∏m-\nse a‰v Ac-Uk≥ Bip-]-{Xn-I-fn¬ AXv Xs‚ km∂n[yw Adn-bn-®p. XpS¿∂p≈ h¿j-ß-fn¬ Ata-cn-°≥ Bip-]-{XnI-fn¬ h¿jw-tXmdpw ]Xn-\m-em-bn-cØn-tesd Bfp-Iƒ AWp-_m-[-bm¬ acn-°m≥ XpS-ßn. "kq∏¿_Kv' F∂ t]cn¬ A°me-Øp-Xs∂ Cu _mIvSo-cnbw (MRSAMethicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) am[y-a-{i-≤-bm-I¿jn-®n-cp-∂p. A∂v i‡-sa∂v Icp-X-s∏-´n-cp∂ Methicillin t]mepw ^en-°msX h∂-Xm-bn-

cp∂p Imc-Ww. Bdp Zi-I-߃°p-apºv s]\n-knen≥sIm≠p≈ a\p-jys‚ B{I-a-WØn\v hnt[-b-amb Ãss^-tem-tIm°kv Xs∂-bmWv Cu ]cn-Wm-a-bp-≤Øn¬ a\p-jy-s\-Xnsc hnPbw t\Snb kq£vaP - n-hn-If - psS ap∂-Wn-t∏m-cm-fn-bmb-sX-∂Xv ]cn-Wm-aN - c - n-{X-Ønse Hcp bmZr-—n-IX - b - m-hmw. acp-∂p-Iƒs°-Xnsc {]Xn-tcm-[-apb¿Øn- ° - g n™ _mIv S o- c n- b - ß ƒ thsd-bp-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. £b-tcm-KØ - n\p≈ hnhn[ acp-∂p-Iƒs°-Xnsc {]Xn-tcm[w t\Snb _mIvSo-cn-b-߃ (MDR-T.B.--Multidrug resistant tuberculo-

sis) h¿jw-tXmdpw 44 e£-tØmfw tcmKn-I-fn¬ {]Xy-£-s∏-Sp-∂-Xmbn IW-°m-°-s∏-Sp-∂p-≠v. CXn¬ H∂-ce-£t- Ømfw t]¿ acn-°m-\p-an-Sb - m-Ip∂p. acp-∂p-Iƒs°-Xnsc {]Xn-tcm[w t\Snb as‰m-cp-hn-`m-Khpw (XDR-T.B.-Extensively drug resistant tuberculosis)

64 cmPy-ß-fn¬ dnt∏m¿´p sNø-s∏-´n´p-≠v. ae-º-\n-s°-Xnsc t\csØ D]tbm-K-Øn-ep≈ chloroquin, sulphadoxine-pyremethamine F∂n- h - b v s °Xnsc {]Xn-tcm[w t\Snb _mIvSo-cn-b߃ ae-º\n _m[nX cmPy-ß-fn¬ hym]-Ia - m-bn-°g - n-™p. Shigella aqe-ap-≠m-Ip∂ hb-dn-f-°Øn\v Ct∏mƒ temIm-tcmKy kwLS\ \n¿t±-in-°p-∂Xv Ciproflaxin am{Xam-Wv. _m°n acp-∂p-Iƒs°-Xnsc _mIvSo-cn-b-߃ {]Xn-tcm[w t\Sn-°gn-™p. ssewKnI tcmK-amb sKmtWm-dnbbv°v Ah-km-\-°-øm-bp-]-tbm-Kn- nse acp°p∂ Cephalosporin hn`m-KØ ∂p-Ifpw ^e-{]-Za - √ - m-Xm-bn-Øp-Sß - n-bncn-°p-∂p. ap≥Im-e-ß-fnse sshZyimkv{X t\´-ßsf \njv{]-`-am-°p∂ ]mX-bn¬ _mIvSo-cn-b-߃ Ht´sd apt∂-dn-°-gn-™p. 2015-˛t- e°v sFIy-cm-j{v S-k` e£yan-´n-´p≈ Millenium Development Goals

Bdp Zi-I-߃°p-apºv s]\n-kn-en≥sIm≠p≈ a\p-jys‚ B{I-a-W-Øn\v hnt[-b-amb Ãss^-temtIm-°kv Xs∂-bmWv Cu ]cn-Wm-a-bp-≤-Øn¬ a\pjy-s\-Xnsc hnPbw t\Snb kq£va-Pn-hn-I-fpsS ap∂-Wn-t∏m-cm-fn-bm-b-sX-∂Xv ]cn-Wm-a-N-cn-{X-Ønse Hcp bmZr-—n-I-X-bm-hmw.

F∂ hnI-k\ e£y-Øn-te-°p≈ {]bmWw {ia-Ic - a - m-°m≥ _mIvSo-cn-b߃ Hcp-ßn-°-gn-™p. AXn-Po-h-\Øns‚ Kpcp-t{i-jvT-cmb _mIvSo-cn-b߃ Xß-fpsS ]cn-Wm-a-bp≤w Ahkm- \ n- ∏ n- ° p- ∂ n- √ . ]pXnb acp- ∂ pIƒs°Xn-scbpw Ah s]mcp-Xp-IbmWv.

]pXnb "kq∏¿ _Kv' _mIvSo-cn-bß - ƒs°-Xnsc am{¥nI acp-∂p-If - mbn KWn-°s - ∏-´n-cp∂ B‚n _tbm-´n-°p-Iƒ Ahbv°p apºn¬ \njv{]-`-am-Ip∂ cwK-ß-fm-Wn-t∏mƒ imkv{X-⁄¿°pap-ºn¬ Ac-tß-dp-∂Xv. Hcn-°¬ AWp-_m-[t- b‰v C\n-sbmcn-°epw a\p-jy≥ acn-°n-s√∂v {]Jym]n- ® - h ¿ C∂v B‚ n _tbm- ´ n- ° pIƒ°papºp≈ Ime-tØ°v \mw Xncn®p-t]m-Ip-∂pthm F∂ Bi-¶b - n-em-W.v C∏-d-™Xv AXn-i-tbm-‡n-b-√. C°-gn™ BKÃv 11-˛\v saUn-°¬ cwKsØ B[n-Im-cnI tPW-ep-I-fn¬ ap≥\n-c-bn-ep≈ ‘Lancet Infectious Diseases’ ¬ s{]m^. Snw hm¬jpw kl{]-h¿Ø-Icpw tN¿∂v {]kn-≤-s∏-SpØnb {]_-‘-Øn-emWv Cu Bi¶ {]I-Sn-∏n-®n-cn-°p-∂X - v. "B‚n-_t- bm-´n°p-If - psS A¥y-amtbm?' F∂m-Wh - ¿ tNmZn- ° p- ∂ - X v . B‚n- _ - t bm- ´ n- ° pIƒs°-Xnsc {]Xn-tcm[w t\Sm≥ klm-bn-°p∂ ‘NDM-1’ F∂ _mIvSocn-b¬ Po\ns‚ hni-Zmw-i-ß-fmWo {]_-‘-Øn¬. hm¬jv Is≠-Ønb Cu Po\n\v as‰mcp khn-ti-jX IqSnbp- ≠ v . CXn\v Hcp _mIv S o- c n- b Øn¬\n∂v as‰m-∂n-te°v amdm-\pw Ign-bpw. "F‚-tdm-_m-IvSo-cn-tbkn' F∂ _mIvSo-cn-bm-Ip-Spw-_Ø - n¬ am{XamWv Ct∏mƒ Cu {]Xn-`mkw Is≠Øn-bn-´p-≈X - v. E.Coli, Klebsiella F∂nh CXn¬s∏-Spw. ‘NDM-1’ F∂-Xns‚ ]q¿W-cq]w New-Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1

52

F∂m- W v . \yq U¬ln- b n- e m- W nXv Is≠-Øn-b-Xv. C¥y-bn¬ CXv hym]I-ambn Is≠-Øn-bn-´p-ap-≠v. CsX-Øp∂-tXm, BtKm-f-bm-{X-I-fn¬ \n∂pw, saUn-°¬ Sqdn-k-Øn¬\n-∂pw. ‘NDM-1’ GXm-s≠-√m-Øcw B‚n_- t bm- ´ n- ° p- I ƒ°p- s a- X nsc {]Xntcm[w sI´n-∏-Sp-°p-∂-Xn\v _mIvSo-cnbsØ klm- b n- ° p- ∂ p. Ahkm\hn[n-bmbn D]-tbm-Kn-°m-dp≈ Im¿_m-s]-s\-ap-Iƒs°-Xn-sc-t∏mepw. ‘NDM-1’ Po\pw AXp \n¿an-°p∂ KPC F∂ F≥sskapw (Klebsiella pneumoniac carbapenemase) Im¿_ms]-s\-ap-Iƒs°-Xnsc {]Xn-tcm[w krjvSn-°m≥ _mIvSo-cn-bsØ klmPqembv 2011


bn-°p-∂p. Ct∏mƒ Ata-cn-°, C{ktb¬, {Kokv F∂n-hn-S-ß-fnepw CXv hym]-I-am-b-Xmbn dnt∏m¿´v sNø-s∏Sp-∂p. Ign™ h¿jw-Xs∂ Health Protection Agency saUn-°¬ cwK-Øp-≈h¿°v ‘NDM-1’ s\∏‰n ap∂-dn-bn∏v \¬In-bn-cp-∂p. taP¿ ikv{X-{In-b-Ifn¬ ({Sm≥kvπm‚ ,v DZ-cw, A∏‚n-Ik v )v D≠m-Im-\n-Sb - p≈ A]-IS- km-[y-XI - ƒ kqNn-∏n-®p-sIm-≠v. \yptam-Wn-b, c‡Ønse hnj-_m[ F∂n-hb - psS NnIn’-bnepw Cu A]-IS- k - m-[y-XI - f - p-≠v.

C¥y-bn¬ "em≥k‰n'se Kth-jW {]_-‘߃°m-[m-ca - mb {]mY-anI ]T-\ß - ƒ \S-∂Xv C¥y-bn-em-Wv. IpSn-sh-≈Øns‚ kmw]n-fp-Iƒ cta-iv\K - ¿ Pn√bn¬ bap-\m-\Z- n-bpsS ]Sn-™mdp `mKØp-\n-∂pw, Du‰p-sh-≈Ø - ns‚ kmw]nfp-Iƒ KwKmdmw tlmkv]n-‰e - n-\S- p-Øp\n-∂pw, tKmƒam¿°-‰n¬\n-∂p-sam-s°bmWv tiJ-cn-®X - v. U¬ln-bnse Xm]\n-ebpw Cu _mIvSo-cn-bß - ƒ°v klmb-Ic - a - m-sW∂v Is≠-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. Ct∏mƒ \S-∂n-´p-≈Xv {]mY-anI ]T-\-ßfpw AXn¬\n-∂p≈ \nK-a-\ß-fp-am-Wv. AXp-sIm-≠p-Xs∂ Zn√nbpsS ]cn-k-c-{]-tZ-i-߃°p-]p-dsa a‰p \K-c-ß-fnepw IqSp-X¬ hym]-Iamb ]T-\-߃ th≠n-bn-cn-°p-∂psh∂v {]_-‘-I¿Øm-°ƒ A`n-{]mb-s∏-Sp-∂p.

{]iv\w Kpcp-Xcw Ct∏mƒ ‘NDM-1’ \mfn-Xp-hscbp≈h-bn¬ i‡-amb B‚n-_-tbm-´n-°pIƒs°Xnsc {]Xn-tcm[w krjvSn-®psIm≠v ]cn-Wm-ab - p-≤Ø - n¬ ta¬ss° t\Sn-bn-cn-°p-Ib - m-Wv. {]Xn-tcm[w sI´n-∏-Sp-°p-∂-Xn\v _mIvSo-cn-bß - sf klm-bn-°p∂ apJyL-SI - ß - ƒ sX‰mb tcmK-\n¿W-bhpw acp-∂p-Iƒ \n¿t±-in-°p-∂X - n¬h-cp∂ ]ng-hp-am-Wv. Cßs\ \n¿t±-in-°-s∏Sp∂ acp-∂p-Iƒ km[m-cW _mIvSo-cnb-ßsf \in-∏n-°p-Ibpw tcmK-Im-cn-Ifm-b-hsb shdpsX hnSp-Ibpw sNøp∂p. kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw Ah IqSp-X¬ Icp-Ø-cmbn amdp-∂p. _mIvSo-cn-b-ß-fpsS kpJ-hmktI{μ- ß ƒ Bip- ] - { Xn- I ƒX- s ∂. temI-sa-ºm-Sp-ap≈ ]e saUn-°¬ tImtfPv Bip-]-{Xn-I-fn-embn \S∂ ]Øv ]T-\-ß-fn¬, \n¿t±-in-°-s∏´ B‚n-_-tbm-´n-°p-I-fn¬ 40 apX¬ 91 iX-am\w hsc sX‰mb \n¿t±-i-ß-fmbn-cp-∂p-sh∂v Kth-jI hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ Is≠-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. imkv{X-KXn

Hcp hiØv ]cn-Wm-a-Øns‚ t]m¿®-´-b-Wn™v ka-c-k-∂-≤-cmbn \n¬°p∂ tcmKm-Wp-°-fpw, adp-h-iØv AXn-t\mSv apJw Xncn®v DZm-ko-\-cmbn \n¬°p∂ acp∂p Iº-\n-Ifpw Ah-cpsS Kth-jW∏Sbpw \ne-sIm-≈p-tºmƒ \ap°p apºn-ep≈ G‰hpw i‡-amb Bbp[w ipNnXzw Xs∂. s]mXp-P\ - m-tcmKy hyhÿ Zp¿_e-amb hnI-kzc cmPy-ß-fn¬ CXns‚ tXmXv h¿[n® \ne-bn-em-hm-\mWv km[y-X. temIm-tcmKy kwL-S\ - X - s∂ Kpcp-X-c-sa∂p hnti-jn-∏n® Cu hnjb-Øn¬ BtcmKy {]h¿Ø-I¿°v apJy-amb ]¶p-≠v. F¶nepw acp∂p \n¿t±-in-°p-∂h - ¿, hnX-cWw sNøp-∂h¿, arK tUmIvS¿am¿, Bip-]{Xn amt\-P¿am¿, em_-d´- d- n-Iƒ, tcmKn-Iƒ, kμ¿i-I¿, A¥m-cmjv{S GP≥knIƒ F∂n-ßs\ sshZy-kw-_‘ - a - mb kaq-l-Øns‚ ka-{K-ta-J-e-I-sfbpw Hcp-an®p \n¿Øn-s°m-≠p≈ {]h¿Ø\-Øn-\p-am-{Xta CXn-s\-s¥-¶nepw ]cnlm-ca - p-≠m-°m-\m-Iq.

acp-∂p-I-º-\n-I-fpsS DZm-ko-\X "c≠m-gvN-tbmfw am{Xw th≠n-hcp∂ Hcp ]pXnb B‚n-_-tbm-´n-°n\mbn {ia-I-c-amb Kth-j-W-߃°v ]Ww Nne-hm-°tWm AtXm Pohm-hkm\w hsc \nXyhpw Ign-°m-\p≈ hnjm-Z-tcm-K-a-cp-∂p-I-fp-≠m-°tWm F∂ tNmZyw hcp-tºmƒ acp-∂p-I-º\n-Iƒ BZy-tØXv Hgn-hm-°p-∂p.' F∂mWv ASp-Ø-Im-eØv "\yqtbm¿°dn'¬ Hcp teJ-I≥ Nq≠n-°m-´n-bXv. GXm-bmepw ]pXnb C\w B‚n_-tbm-´n-°p-Iƒ \n¿an-s®-Sp-°m≥ acp-

∂p Iº-\n-Iƒ XmXv]cyw ImWn-°p∂n√ F∂Xv Hcp bmYm¿∞y-am-Wv.

ipNnXzw Hcp hiØv ]cn- W m- a - Ø ns‚ t]m¿®-´-b-Wn™v ka-c-k-∂-≤-cmbn \n¬°p∂ tcmKm-Wp-°f - pw, adp-hi - Øv AXn-t\mSv apJw Xncn®v DZm-ko-\c - mbn \n¬°p∂ acp∂p Iº-\n-Ifpw AhcpsS Kth-jW∏Sbpw \ne-sIm-≈ptºmƒ \ap°p apºn-ep≈ G‰hpw i‡-amb Bbp[w ipNnXzw Xs∂. \√ coXn-bn¬ Bip-]-{Xnbpw ]cn-kchpw hrØn-bm-°p-∂X - pw, tPmen-°m¿ IrXy-ambn ssIIƒ ip≤-am-°m≥ Xbmdm-Ip-∂-Xpw, kμ¿i-Icpw tcmKn-Ifpw \n¿_-‘-ambpw ipNnXzw ]men-°p∂Xpw Hs° AWp-_m[ KWy-ambn Ipd-bv°m≥ klm-bn-°p-∂p-sh∂v ]e Bip-]{- Xn-Ifpw sXfn-bn-®n-´p-≠v. Bip-]-{Xn°v ]pd-Øp≈ ipNnXzhpw ]c-a{- ]-[m\w Xs∂. C¥y-bn¬ 650 Zi-e£w t]¿ I°qkv kuI-cyan-√m-Ø-h-cm-Wv. Zn√n-bn¬Xs∂ Adp]-Xp-i-X-am\w P\-ßfpw s{Ubn-t\Pv kuI-cy-an-√m-Øh - c - pw. ]I¿®-hym-[n-Isf-°p-dn-®pw, AXn¬ ]cn-kc ipNn-XzØns‚ {]m[m-\y-sØ-°p-dn®pw P\ßsf t_m[-h-XvI-cn®v Kpcp-X-c-amb Cu {]iv\-Øn\v ]cn-lmcw Is≠Øm≥ {ian- t °- ≠ Xv A¥n- a - a mbn cmjv{Sob t\XrXzw Xs∂.„

53


imkv{X-IY tUm. Fw. jmP-lm≥

imkv{X-KXn \S-Ønb imkv{X-IYm a’-c-Øn¬ ]cn-K-W-\m¿l-amb IY

tUm´v tImw cmP-Ip-amcn AacnZzo]nse Km‰nkv cmPm-hns‚ am\-k-]p-{Xn-bm-bn-cp∂p tUm´vtImw. AXo-hk - p-μc - n-bm-bn-cp∂p Ahƒ. H∏w AXn-_p-≤n-a-Xn-bpw. aq∂p ]´-a-ln-jnam-cnepw Ip´n-If - p-≠m-ImsX hnj-an-®ncp∂ cmPm-hn\v tZhX kΩm-\n-®-XmWs{X Ah-sf. Xs‚ CjvS ssZh-amb C≥t^m-tZ-hX - b - psS hc-Zm-\w. IS¬ IS-s∂-Ønb Hcp ]WvUnXs‚ D]-tZ-i-{]-Imcw sXmÆqdp ZnhksØ {hXm-\p-jvTm-\-߃ cmPmhv \S-Øn-bn-cp-∂p. XpS¿∂p≈ ]Øp Znhk- ß - f n¬ ]pe¿s® ]cn- h m- c - ß - f n√msX \n»-_vZ-\mbn C≥t^m-bpsS I¬a-WU v ] - Ø - n¬ sN∂p {]m¿∞n-°m\m-bn-cp∂p HSp-hn-esØ \n¿t±-iw. Zn\-߃ Ign-bp-t¥mdpw cmPmhv IqSp-X¬ \ncm-i-\m-bn-s°m-≠n-cp-∂p. A¥x-]p-cØ - n¬\n∂pw bmsXmcp ip`hm¿Øbpw ]pd-tØ°v hcp-∂n-√. tZhX-bpsS sh_vssk-‰m-Is´ Ct∏mƒ {]Z¿in-∏n-°m≥ ]‰n√ F∂pw ]d-™psIm-≠n-cp-∂p. sXmÆq‰n Hº-Xns‚

54

A∂v ]t£ Imcy-߃ amdn-a-dn-™p. sh_vssk-‰n¬ kzmK-Xhpw Xncbq F∂ kqN-\bpw amdn-amdn an∂n-s°m≠n-cp-∂p. BÀm-ZN - n-Ø\ - mbn sIm´mcw hn´nd-ßnb cmPmhv ]t£ I¬aWvUw hsc \n»-_vZX ImØp kq£n-®p. aWvU] - Ø - ns‚ \ne-hn-f° - n\p apºn¬ At∏mƒ {]k- h n® \nebv ° v Hcp s]¨Ip´n InS- ° p- ∂ p. s]m°nƒs°mSn \o≠ apSn-bn-gI - ƒsIm≠v sI´nb-a-´n¬. Np‰pw hnP-\w. \n»-_vZw. Ip™p-t]mepw Ic-bp-∂n-√. angn-bn-WIƒ am{Xw CS-bv°nsS NnΩn-Øp-d-∂psIm-≠n-cp-∂p. Xs‚ DØ- c o- b - Ø n¬ Ahsf s]mXn-s™-SpØv sIm´m-c-Øn-te°v sIm≠p hcp- t ºmgpw dmWn- a m¿°v ssIam-dp-tºmgpw cmPm-hns‚ Aº-c∏v amdn-bn-cp-∂n-√. {hX-Nc - y-Iƒ IrXy-ambn ]men-®X - n¬ A`n-am-\hpw tXm∂n-s°m≠n-cp-∂p. tZhX Ip™ns\ kΩm\n® Imcyw ]pe-cpw-apsº Zzo]n¬

Im´pXo t]mse ]S¿∂p. {]P-Iƒ BÀm-Z-Øn¬ Bdm-Sn. ]WvUn-Xs\ cmPmhv kΩm-\ß - ƒ sIm≠p-aq-Sn. lm°¿ F∂ Hcp hnL-S\ {Kq∏pam{Xw as‰mcp IY \m´n¬ {]N-cn-∏n°m≥ {ian-®p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p. ]WvUnXs‚ IqsS kpμ-cn-bmb Hcp kv{Xobpw IS¬ IS-s∂-Øn-bn-cp-s∂-∂pw, K¿`nWn-bm-bn-cp∂ Ahsf I¬a-WvU-]Øns‚ ]cn-k-cØv ImWm-dp-≠m-bncp∂p F∂pw. BÀm-tZm-’-h-Øns‚b∂v Ahsf A¥x-]p-cØ - ns‚ ]n∂mºp-dØpw I≠n-cp-∂-s{X. sshdkv aZyw IpSn®p {]⁄ \jvS-s∏-´n-cp∂ {]P-If - m-hs´ Cu {]iv\w A{X Imcyam-°n-b-Xp-an-√. AsXms° ]gb IY. Imew Hcp]mSv Ign-™p. Km‰nkv cmPm-hns‚ aq∂v dmWn-amcpw BbnsS Zzo]n¬ ]S¿∂p ]nSn® CuUmkv tcmKw-aqew AIm-eØ - n¬ Nc-aa - S- ™ p. cmPmhpw tcmK-iø - b - n-em-bn. AXp-sIm-≠p-Xs∂ Xs‚ IÆ-Sb - p-∂X - n-\p-apºv tUm´v tImw Pqembv 2011


cmP-Ip-am-cn-bpsS kzbw-hcw \S-∂p-ImWm≥ B hr≤-a\ - v h√msX sImXn®p. aIƒ°v IrXyw ]Xn-t\gv hb p XnI-bp∂ A∂p-Xs∂ kzbw-hc - Ø - ns‚ {]Jym-]\w h∂p. sIm´mcw sh_vssk‰n¬ hm¿Øh∂ A∂p-Xs∂ temIsa-ºmSpw \n∂v At]-£I - c - psS {]hml-am-bn. Aa-cn-Zzo-]ns‚ kmº-ØnI ÿnXn Ip{]-kn-≤a - m-bn-cp-∂p. {]Xm-]Im-eØv Aiz-ta[w \SØn t\Snb Hcp]mSv FÆ C∂pw Ahn-SsØ hnJym-Xamb knen°m Xmgvhc-bpsS _¶-dp-Ifn¬ `{Z-ambn Ccn-°p-∂p. a\p-jy-c‡w Ie¿Øn {]tXyI tNcp-hb - n¬ kq£n®n-cn-°p∂ B \n[n Bcnepw sNdpØp-\n¬°m-\m-ImØ Hcm-{Klw P\n∏n°p-∂XpXs∂. Ahn-SsØ GI-O{Xm[n-]X - n-bm-hm-\p≈ B{Klw bph-a\- p-Isf h√msX kzm[o-\n-®p. _ºv sNbvXpw t]m]vA - ]v sNbvXpw Ah¿ sIm´mcw sk¿hsd ieyw sNøm≥ XpSßn. {]iv\w cmP-k-`-bn¬ N¿® sNøs∏-´p. h¿j-Øn-sem-cn-°¬ am{Xw kμ¿i\w \S-Øm-dp≈ ]gb hr≤ ]WvUn-X\pw N¿®-bn¬ k∂n-ln-X\ - mbn-cp-∂p. aq∂p L´-ß-fn-embn sXcs™-Sp∏v \S-Øm≥ Xocp-am-\-am-bn. H∂m-a-sØbpw aq∂m-a-sØbpw L´ßƒ cmP-Ip-am-cn-bpsS kzmX-{¥y-Øn\p hn´p. \nKq-Vamb c≠mw- L´w cmPsIm- ´ m- c - Ø ns‚ tZiob kpc- £ mtbmKw F∂ {]Zq-j-Ihrμw kz¥w \nb-{¥-W-Øn¬ HXp-°n. H∂mw-L´- Ø - nse {]Xy-£Ø - n¬ efn-Xs - a∂v tXm∂n® tNmZym-he - n-bn¬ ho≠pw bph-P\ - ß - ƒ Cubmw-]m-‰I - s - ft∏mse ]d-∂p-h∂p hogm≥ XpS-ßn. Hfn-®p-h® - n-cp∂ ªq en¶pIfn¬ Im¬ hgpXn Ah¿ kz¥w hnZym-`ym-kt- bmKy-XI - ƒt]mepw GsX∂v ad∂v D∑-Øsc-t∏m-se-bm-bn. A`ym-kn-Is - f-t∏mse \me- © p- I - c Ww adn™p \nh¿∂ GXm\pw t]¿ am{Xw X߃ Xnc-s™Sp-°s - ∏-´n-cn-°p∂p F∂-dn™v Aº-c∂p. At∂°v aq∂p amkw XnI-bp∂ Zn\-Øn¬ knen°m Xmgvhc-bn¬ FØnt®-cW - s - a∂ \n¿t±-ih - p-ap-≠m-bn. BÀm-Z-Nn-Ø-cmbn kzcm-Py-ß-fnte°v aS-ßnb B `mKy-hm-∑m-sctØSn {]Zq-jI - h - r-μØ - n-t‚-Xmb c≠mw L´-Øns‚ ktμ-i-sa-Øn. Xm¥m-ßfpsS cmPy-ß-fnse G‰hpw IpSpw_alnabp≈-h¿ Xß-fm-sW∂v a‰p aq∂v {]apJ IpSpw-_ß - f - psS km£y-]{Xw IqsS- sIm≠phc- W - s a- ∂ v . AXpw aq∂mw L´-Øn-te-°p≈ am\-Z-WvUam-sW-∂pw. imkv{X-KXn

]n∂oSp≈ sXmÆqdp Znh-kß - f - n¬ temIw A£-cm¿∞-Øn¬ ]nSn-®p-Ip-ep°-s∏-SpI Xs∂ sNbvXp. ]e `mK-ßfnepw Iem-]ß - ƒ, hwio-bt- ]m-cm-´ß - ƒ, bp≤-߃, IpXn-c° - ® - h - S- ß - ƒ. `c-WI - qS-߃ h≥a-cß - s - f-t∏mse IS-]p-gIn hoWp. ac-߃ hoWn-SØv ih-°p-∂pIƒ Db¿∂p-h∂ - p. ssIIm-ep-Iƒ \jvSs∏´ _me-∑m¿ sXcp-hn-eqsS \ncßn \oßn. hnNn-{X-amb as‰m-∂p-Iq-Sn-bp-≠mbn- Nne cmPy-ßf - n¬. Im´p-sN-Sn-If - psSbpw ]g-ßf - p-sS-bpw, [m\y-ßf - p-sSbpw hnØp-Iƒ Nne hntZ-in-Iƒ IS¬ ISØn-s°m-≠p-t]m-bn. Hcp-]mSp P\-ßsf Bscm-s°tbm tN¿∂v Fhn-tSt°m ]nSn®p-sIm-≠p-t]m-bn. bp≤-߃ krjvSn® Ak-¥p-en-Xm-hÿ - a- qew {]Ir-Xn-t]mepw t£m`n-®p. kpc-£n-Xs - c∂v A`n-am-\n-®ncp∂ Nne Ab¬Zzo-]p-Iƒ {]Ir-Xn-bpsS `oI-cX - m-WU v hw I≠v `b-NI - n-Xc - m-bn. Ncn-{X-Im-c∑ - m¿ aßnb shfn-®Ø - n¬ Ip\n-™n-cp∂v Idp-Ø-Zn-\-ß-fpsS hmIvNn-{X-߃ cNn-®p. sXmÆqdmw Znhkw Aa-cn-Zzo-]nse {]P-Iƒ H∂-S¶w knen°m Xmgvhc-

bn¬ HØp-tN¿∂p. C∂-h-cpsS {]nbs∏´ cmP-Ip-am-cn-bpsS kzbw-h-c-am-Wv. tcmKm-Xp-c-\mb Km‰nkv cmPm-hns\ Xmgvhcbnse {]tXyIw k÷-am-°nb ioXo-Ic - W - a - p-dn-bn¬ FØn-®p. Cu ka- b Øv sIm´m- c - Ø nse AWvUm-Ir-Xn-bn-ep≈ cl-ky-ap-dn-bn¬ as‰mcp N¿® \S-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. hnjbw XnI®pw hyXy-kvXw. Aa-cnZzo-]ns‚ [q¿Øpw, sISp-Im-cy-ÿ-Xbpw, {Iqc-Xbpw Db¿Øn-hn´ temI-hym]-I-amb {]Xn-tj-[-s°m-Sp-¶m-‰ns\ Fßs\ t\cnSmw F∂v tbmK-Øn¬ ]s¶- S pØ kpc£m DtZym- K - ÿ ¿ Nph∂ C≥{^m IW-ß-fp-]-tbm-Kn®v \n»_vZw N¿®-sN-bvXp. tbmK-Xo-cp-am\-{]-Imcw Xqsh≈ hkv{X-ßf - W - n™ Hcp-Iq´w bphm-°sf P\-°q-´-Øn-te°n-d° - n-hn-´p. Aa-cn-Zzo-]ns\ i{Xp-°ƒ B{I-an-°m≥ t]mIp∂p F∂v Ah¿ ImXp-I-fn¬ a{¥n-®p. H∏w shfpØ i_v Z hpw i‡- a mb shfn- ® hpw Xmgvhcsb s]mXn-™p. Ch aq∂pw tN¿∂p krjvSn® ambn-Im-¥-co-£Øn¬ {]P-Iƒ ho≠pw {]⁄ \jvS-

]n∂oSp≈ sXmÆqdp Znh-k-ß-fn¬ temIw A£cm¿∞-Øn¬ ]nSn-®p-Ip-ep-°-s∏-SpI Xs∂ sNbvXp. ]e `mK-ß-fnepw Iem-]-߃, hwio-b-t]m-cm-´-߃, bp≤-߃, IpXn-c-°-®-h-S-߃. `c-W-Iq-S-߃ h≥a-c-ß-sf-t∏mse IS-]p-gIn hoWp. ac-߃ hoWn-SØv ih-°p-∂p-Iƒ Db¿∂p-h-∂p. ssIIm-ep-Iƒ \jvS-s∏´ _me-∑m¿ sXcp-hn-eqsS \ncßn \oßn

55


s∏-´-h-sc-t∏mse D®-Øn¬ tZio-bKm\w Be-]n-°m≥ XpS-ßn. AsXmcp h≥ap-g-°-ambn Xmgvhcsb Nqgv∂p \n∂p. hnfw-_-c-a-WvU-]-Øn¬ Ib-dn-\n∂p-sIm≠v bqlm F∂ hr≤≥ aq∂pX-hW Imlfw DuXn-bt- XmsS _l-f߃ ian-®p. \n¿Wm-b-I-amb aq∂mw L´-Øns‚ XpS-°w. A¥na a’-cØ - n\p Xnc-s™-Sp-°s∏´ Ggp-t]¿ tUm´vtImw cmP-Ip-am-cnbpsS ap∂n-te°v B\-bn-°s - ∏-´p. kuμcy-Øn¬ Ggp-t]cpw cmP-Ip-am-cn°v A\ptbm-Py¿. Ah-cpsS ap∂n-embn at\m-lc-ßf - mb Ggp t]S-Iß - ƒ lmP-cm-°s∏-´p. Ah-bpsS AS-∏p-If - n-embn HºXp-Im-epIfp≈ Hmtcm \£-{Xw. ImepI-fpsS A{K-ßf - n-embn \nKq-Va- mb A°ßƒ. t]S-IØ - ns‚ apIƒ`m-KØv Hcp hi-Ømbn Hcp ac-XI - ° - √pw ]Xn-®n-cp∂p. aq∂p \mgnI ka-bØ - n-\p-≈n¬ Cu t]S-Iß - ƒ Xpd-°m≥ Ign-bp∂ bphmhm-bn-cn°pw hnPbn. Xmgv h c- b n¬ Ce- t ]mepw A\ßmØ \n»-_vZX - . t\¿Ø IS¬Im‰v am{Xw P\-°q-´s - Øbpw Xe-]p-I™ psIm- ≠ n- c p∂ Ggp bphm- ° - s fbpw XgpIn hoin-s°m-≠n-cp-∂p. kml-Nc - yØns‚ Kmw`o-cyhpw DXvIW - T v bpw aqew {]P-Ifpw hr≤-\mb Km‰nkv cmPmhv Xs∂bpw t\¿Ø ab-°-Øn-te°v hgp-Xn-hoWp XpS-ßn. BIp-e\ - b - \ - ß - tfmsS tUm´v tImw cmPIpamcn am{Xw bphm- ° ƒ°p- a p- º n¬ Hcp kpμ- c inev]w t]mse \ne-sIm-≠p. ImØncn-∏ns‚ \o≠ \nan-j-߃. I\w IqSn-s°m-≠n-cp∂ Ah-km-\\n-an-j-߃s°m-Sp-hn¬ bphm-°-fpsS \nc-bn¬ Hcp Ne-\w... P\-°q´w Cf-In... cmP-Ip-amcn FWo-‰p... a[y-Øn-embn Ccp-∂n-cp∂ ko\mtZ-isØ {_uk¿ cmP-Ip-am-c≥ FWo‰n-cn-°p-∂p. apJØv Bbncw ]q¿W N{μ-∑m¿. Xm≥ Hfn-∏n-®p-h® ^nt_m\m®n t{iWnsb icn-bmb {Ia-Øn¬ ac-XI - ° - √ - p-ambn ka-\z-bn-∏n®v t]SIw Xpd∂ Xs‚ `mhn-hc - s\ apJ-ap-b¿Øn t\m°m≥ cmP-Ip-am-cn-°m-bn-√. kmh[m\w Db¿∂ cmP-Ip-am-cn-bpsS heXp-ssI-∏Ø - n-bn¬ {_uk¿ cmP-Ip-amc≥ Npw_n-®p. P\-°q´w Hcp \nanjw i¶n-®t- ijw A£-cm¿∞-Øn¬ Cf-In a-dn-™p. BÀm-Zm-ch - ß - f - psS Ae-am-eI - ƒ. hr≤\mb Km‰nkv cmPmhv F√mw \n¿∂n-taj-\mbn t\m°n-\n-∂p. Ct∂°v Ggmw \mƒ hnhmlw F∂ {]Jym-]\w h∂tXmsS {]P- I ƒ kt¥m- j - ] q¿hw

56

]ncn™p t]mbn. Xs‚ IqSm-cØ - n¬ {_uk¿ cmPIp-am-c≥ as‰mcp hnj-bØ - n¬ Akzÿ-\m-bn-cp-∂p. t]S-I-Øn-\p-≈n¬ ImW-s∏´ \o≠ apSn-®p-cp-fp-Iƒ Hcp]mSp Zpcq-lX - I - ƒ a\- n¬ DW¿Ønhn-´p. cmP-Ip-am-cn-bpsS tZh-Xm-Zm\w F∂ D¤h IY Ft∂ Ime-lc - W - s∏-´n-cp-∂p. bYm¿∞ amXm-hns‚ hnhc-߃ Adn-bm≥ Aa-cn-Zzo-]ns‚ clkym-t\z-j-W-hn-`mKw \S-Ønb {iaßsf {]Zq-jI - h - rμw hnP-bI - c - a - mbn XS™psIm≠n-cn-°p-Ib - m-bn-cp-s∂∂pw {_uk¿ cmP-Ip-am-c≥ a\- n-em-°n-bncp-∂p. Cu Npcp-fp-Iƒ B kv{Xobp-tSXmImw F∂ Bibw a\- n¬ s]mßnh∂ B \nan-jØ - n¬Xs∂ BNm-chm-°p-Iƒ ]d-™p-sIm≠v cmP-Ip-am-cnbpsS D‰-tXmgn sFt°m¨ IqSm-cØ - nte°v IS-∂p-h∂ - p. "AΩ-bpsS apSn-®pcp-fp-If - mWv Xm¶-fpsS ssIbn¬. hnhml-Zn-\-Øn¬ AΩ D≠m-I-W-sa∂v Rm≥ B{K-ln-°p∂p' F∂ cmP-Ip-amcn-bp-tS-Xmb cl-ky-kt- μiw Ipam-c\v ssIam-dn. Xbm-sd-Sp-∏p-Iƒ°mbn kzcm-PytØ°p aS-ßnb {_uk¿ t]SIw sIm≠p-t]m-bn. sN∂ DSs\ ]pcmhkvXp J\nP imkv{X-⁄-cp-sSbpw P\n-XI imkv{X-⁄-cp-sSbpw Hcp ASn-b-¥n-c-tbmKw tZiØv hnfn-®p-Iq´-s∏-´p. apSn-bn-g-I-fpsS {]mbw IW°m°n C∂p Pohn-®n-cn-°p-s∂-¶n¬ \nKqV kv{XobpsS {]mbw F¥m-bncn-°p-sa∂v KWn-s®-Sp-Øp. B {]mb-

Øn¬s]´ kv{XoI-tfmSv apSn-bn-g-Iƒ ASn-b¥ - n-ca - mbn ]cn-tim-[\ - bv°v Ab®p-sIm-Sp-°m≥ sh_vssk-‰n¬ Bhiy-s∏-´p. {]Xn-I-cWw Aº-c-∏n-°p-∂-Xm-bncp- ∂ p. aq∂mw- Z n- h kw ko\m- t Ziw icn°pw Hcp tIi-]m-cm-hmcw Xs∂bm-bn. Fßpw apSn-bn-g-Iƒ Iqºm-cwt]mse Xqsh≈ \nd-Øn-ep-≈-Xm-bncp∂p A[n-I-hpw. XpS¿∂p≈ \m¬∏-Øn-sb´p aWn°q-dn¬ P\n-XI - i - m-kv{X-⁄∑ - m¿ apSn\m-cng Iodn ]cn-tim-[-\bn¬ apgp-In. Ah-cpsS ]cn-tim-[-\m-ap-dn-bn-te°v A∂-]m-\o-bß - ƒ FØn-®p-sIm-≠n-cp∂p. s]mXp Ah[n {]Jym-]n-°-s∏-´ncp-∂-Xn-\m¬ P\X apgp-h≥ {]m¿∞\- I - t fmsS ]cn- t im- [ - \ m- a p- d n- b psS ]pdØv XSn-®p-Iq-Sn. XyPn-°-s∏´ apSnbn-gI - ƒ IØn-°p-tºmƒ D≠mb cq£K‘w {Iqc-Xt- bmsS P\-ßf - psS \mkmc-{‘-߃ tXSn-s®-∂p. ko\m-tZ-iamsI Akz-ÿa - m-bn. A£-ac - mb P\߃ apºn-√m-Ø-hn[w A{I-a-hm-k-\Iƒ {]ISn-∏n-®p-Xp-S-ßn. HSp-hn¬ A©mw-\mƒ ]cn-tim-[\ - map-dn-bpsS hmXn¬ Xpd∂v apJy ]cntim-[-I≥ _qj F∂ bphmhv {]Xy£-s∏-´p. Db¿Øn-∏n-Sn® he-Xp-ssIbn¬ apSn-\m-cn-g-bpt≠m F∂p Npgn™p-t\m-°nb Xo£vW-\-b-\-߃ AXp NnI- s ™- S p- ° pI Xs∂ sNbv X p. kz¿W- h ¿W- Ø n¬ Hcp sIm®ptcma-cm-Pn. "Is≠- Ø n- b n- c n- ° p∂p \nKqV kv{Xosb....' F∂ Ae-apd ae-\n-cI - sfbpw ISepw IS∂v N{I-hm-f-ß-fnte°v IpXn-®p. F√mw awK-fa - mbn ]cnW-an-®X - n¬ BbnsS cq]-s∏´ hymP-aX-ßf - psS ssk≤m-¥n-I∑ - m¿ kwXr]vXn {]I-Sn-∏n-®p. Iem-]-߃°p tIm∏p Iq´n-bn-cp∂ ZpjvSi - ‡ - n-Iƒ Nncn-bpsS aqSp-]Sw FSp-ØW - n™v BÀm-Zm-ch - ß - fn-te°v Aen-™n-dß - n. Bdmw Znhkw ko\m-Xo-cØv I∏en-dß - nb kz¿W-ap-Sn-bp≈ hr≤-bpsS IÆp-If - nse iq\y-Xm-`mhw Bcp-tSbpw {i≤-bn¬s∏-´n-√. Hcp \ntbm-Kw-t]mse NS-ßp-Iƒ°v kl-I-cn-°p-tºmgpw Ah-cn¬ Hcp D’m-l-°p-dhv {]I-S-ambn-cp-∂p. {`m¥-amb Hcm-th-i-Øn¬ tZio-b-Km\w Be-]n-®p-sIm-≠n-cp∂ ko\m-{]-P-Iƒ ]t£ CØcw Xc-fnX-`m-h-ßsf hI-h-®-tX-bn-√. \nd™v Ihn™ aq∂v I∏-ep-Iƒ D’m-l-Øn-an¿∏n¬ Aa-cn-Zzo-]ns\ e£y-am°n \oßn. \n›-bn-®{- ]-Imcw Xs∂ Ggmw Zn\-Øn¬ tUm´v tImw cmP-Ip-am-cn-bpsS hnhmlw kaw-Kfw \S-Ø-s∏-´p.„ Pqembv 2011


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57


imkv{Xhm¿Ø-

Xøm-dm-°n-bXv : tUm. Fw. B¿. kpZ¿i\ Ipam¿

sa®-s∏´ {]Xn-{Zhy Ip∏n bqtdm-∏nse imkv{X-kwLw B‚ n ssl{U-P≥ B‰-ßsf Bbncw sk°-t‚mfw sa®-s∏´ Ip∏n-bn¬ tiJ-cn®p h®p. CXv t\csØ km[n- ® - X n- t \- ° mƒ Bdm- b ncw Cc´n ka- b - a mWv ! ssl{U- P - \ m- ‰ - Ø n¬ Hcp t{]mt´mWpw AXns\ hebw sNbvXv Hcp Ce-Itv {Sm-Wp-am-Wt√m D≈-Xv. B‚n ssl{U-P-\n-eXv B‚n t{]mt´mWpw t]mkn-t{Sm-Wpam-W.v B‚n t{]mt´mWpw t]mknt{SmWpw t{]mt´m-Wn-t‚bpw CeIvt{Sm-Wn-t‚bpw {]Xn-I-W-ß-fmWv. t{]mt´m-Wns‚ amkpw s\K‰ohv Nm¿Pp-ap≈ IW-amWv B‚n t{]mt´m¨. t]mkn-‰ohv Nm¿Ppw Ce-Ivt{Sm-Wns‚ amkp-ap≈ IW-amWv t]mkn-t{Sm¨. Pq¨ 5˛se t\®¿ ^nkn-Ivkn-emWv P\o-h-bnse IW `uXnI em_nse imkv{X-kwLw Cu ]co-£-W-^ew dnt∏m¿´v sNbvX-Xv. {]Xn-{Z-hysØ Ipdn-®p≈ [mcmfw kn≤m-¥-߃ ]cn-tim-[\m hnt[bam°p-hm≥ CXp klm-bI - c - a - m-Ipw. HcpZm-l-c-W-Øn-\v, Bt]-£nI kn≤m-¥-a-\p-k-cn®v Kpcp-XzmI¿j-W-Øn\v {Zhy-Ønepw {]Xn-{Z-hy-Ønepw Htc {]`m-ham-Wp-≈X - v. AXp-t]mse IW `uXn-IØ - nse Ãm≥tU¿Uv tamU¬ {]Imcw ssl{U-P\pw B‚n ssl{U-P\pw Htc {]Imiw Xs∂ ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn-°-Ww. Ch-bpsS km[pX ]co£W hnt[-b-am-°p-hm≥ imkv{X kwL-Øns‚ Kth-jW t\´w Imc-Wa - m-Ipw.

tImihpw Z¿∏-W-ßfpw D]-tbm-Kn®v tek¿ krjvSn-®p lm¿hm¿Uv k¿h-I-em-im-e-bnse `uXn-I-im-kv{X⁄¿ tImi-ßf - p-]t- bm-Kn®v tek¿ krjvSn-®p. tImiw ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn-°p∂ ]®-{]-Imiw Z¿∏-W-ß-fn¬ ]Xn-∏n®mWv tek-dm-°p-∂X - v. ]® ^vfqd-sk‚ v t{]m´o-\p-If - p]-tbm-Kn-®mWv ‘Malte Gather Dw ‘Seok-Hyan Andy Yun Dw tek¿ krjvSn-®-Xv. Aequorea Victoria t]mep≈ P√n ^njp-Iƒ DXv]m-Zn-∏n-°p∂ Xnf-ßp∂ hkvXp-hmWv ]® {]Imiw ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn-°p-∂-Xv. tek¿ t]mb‚-dp-Ifnepw _m¿ tImUv doU-dp-I-fnepw tek¿ DXv]m-Zn-∏n°p-∂Xv a\pjy \n¿anX hkvXp-°-fm-Wv. ]® ^vfqdsk‚ v t{]m´o-\p-If - p-Xv]m-Zn-∏n-°p-hm≥ Ganther Dw Yun Dw tImi-ß-fn¬ P\n-XI t{]m{Kmw sNbvXp. Cß-s\bp≈ Hcp tImisØ c≠v kam-¥c Z¿∏-W-߃°n-Sbn¬ Hcp Zzmc-Øn¬ ÿm]n-®p. Cu tImi-Øn¬ \oe shfn®w ]Xn-∏n-®-t∏mƒ ]pd-s∏Sphn® ]® shfn®w kam-¥c Z¿∏-W-ß-fn¬ Atßm-´p-an-tßm´pw {]Xn-^en®v tek¿ krjvSn-°-s∏-´p. ssPh ]Zm¿∞-ßfn¬\n∂v IqSp-X¬ Imcy-£-a-amb tek¿ DXv]m-Z-\Øn\v Cu Kth-j-W-^ew Imc-W-am-Ipw. (www.nytimes.com)

h{PtØ°mƒ Xnf-°-ap≈Im¿_¨ cq]m-¥c- ß - ƒ h {P- t Ø- ° mƒ Xnf- ° - a p≈ h≠ns‚ cmk-h-kvXp-°ƒ Hcp sNdnb C\w h≠mb

‘Delphastus Catalinae’

i{Xp-Io-Sß - sf \nb-{¥n-°p-hm≥ D]-tbm-Kn-°m-dp≠v. Ch a‰p ]e jUv]-Z-ß-tf-°mƒ hocy-ap≈ cmk-]-Zm¿∞-߃ ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn-°pw. Ch-bpsS em¿h-bpsS tcma-ßf - nse FÆ-ab - a - p≈ lm\n-Ic-amb cmk-hk - X v p-°f - mWv i{Xp-°f - n¬\n-∂n-hsb kwc-£n-°p-∂-Xv. tIm¿W¬ k¿h-I-em-im-e-bntebpw {Sn\n‰n tImtf-Pn-tebpw imkv{X-⁄¿ ]Øv jUv]-Z-ßsf Kth-jW hnt[-b-am-°n-bXn¬ {]Ir-Xn-bn¬ CXp-hsc ImW-s∏-SmØ cmk]-Zm¿∞-ß-fmWv Ch-bn-ep-≈-sX∂v Is≠-Øn. ‘Polyketides’ F∂m-Wn-hsb hnfn-°p-∂X - v.

Im¿_¨ cq]m-¥c - ß - f - p-s≠∂v knapej≥ hgn imkv{X-⁄¿ Is≠-Øn. {Kmss^‰pw h{P-hp-amWv Im¿_-Wns‚ kp]-cn-Nn-Xc - mb cq]m-¥c - ß - ƒ. {K^o≥, M-Carbon, Bct-Carbon F∂n- h bpw Im¿_- W ns‚ cq]m- ¥ - c - ß - f m- W v . \yqtbm¿°nse Stony Brook k¿h-Ie - mim- e - b nse Artem Oganov ]e a¿±Ønepw Dujvam-hnepw Im¿_¨ B‰ß-fpsS {Iao-I-cWw knap-te-j≥ hgn ]T\ hnt[-b-am-°n. hp3, tI12, tp12 F∂o aq∂v ÿnc-X-bp≈ cq]m-¥-c-߃ \n¿an-°m≥ km[n-°p-sa∂pw Organov Ah-Im-i-s∏-´p. aq∂v cq]m-¥-c-߃°pw h{P-tØ-°mƒ Xnf-°a - p-≠mIpw. Cu aq∂p cq]m-¥c - ß - fpw AXn-Nm-eI - X {]Z¿in∏n-°p-sa∂pw imkv{X-⁄¿ Ah-Im-i-s∏-´p. (www.newscientist.com)

Xncp-h-\-¥-]pcw alm-flm-Km‘n tImtf-Pnse ck-X-{¥-hn-`mKw A≤ym-]-I-\mWv teJ-I≥ Printed & Published by T.P. Sreesankar on behalf of Kerala Sasthrasahithya Parishad & Printed at A-One Offset Printers, Ramanattukara, Calicut-1 and published at Parishad Bhavan, Chalappuram, Calicut - 673 002. Editor-R.V.G. Menon. Approved by CSIR for financial support Volume 47 No. 1, Sasthragathy 2011July, 60 Pages

Sastragathi July 2011  

Sastragathi July 2011 issue

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