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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO

Truths and Misconceptions about the Territorial Rights over Dokdo Lydia Cho Julie Chun Eugene Kim Doyle Yoon Supervising Teacher: Kiseok Yoon Korean School of Southern New Jersey Cherry Hill, New Jersey

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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO Abstract Which country does the territory of Dokdo belong to? Dokdo is administered by the Republic of Korea, and Koreans currently living on the island. It is under Korean effective control. However, the Japanese government recently claimed that Dokdo is their territory. Japan claims that (1) it has long recognized the existence of Dokdo, (2) There is no evidence that Korea recognized the existence of Dokdo in the past, (3) Republic of Korea is illegally occupying Dokdo, (4) Although Japan proposed to the Republic of Korea to refer this dispute to the International Court of Justice (“ICJ�), the Republic of Korea rejects doing so. This study examined historical documents in an attempt to explore the truths about territory of Dokdo. It shows what the truths about Dokdo are. This paper concentrates on four major issues: Ancient Documents prove recognition of Dokdo as Korean territory; Korea has recognized the existence of Dokdo a long time ago; Korea has legitimate sovereignty of Dokdo; and Korea does not have to appeal to the ICJ to resolve this territorial issue. This study concludes that Dokdo cannot be Japanese territory, it is not Japanese territory, but it is Korean territory.

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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO Truths and Misconceptions about the Territorial Rights of Dokdo I.

Introduction

Which country does the territory of Dokdo belong to? Dokdo Island (also called Liancourt Rocks by some nations and Takeshima by Japan) is 216 km from mainland Korea and 250 km from Japan proper. Dokdo can be seen with a naked eye in clear, fine days from the island, Ulleungdo. Dokdo and Ulleungdo are 90 kilometers apart from one another. (http://english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/SI/SI_EN_3_6.jsp?cid =623881, Steven J. Barber http://www.dokdotakeshima.com/) Dokdo is administered by the Republic of Korea, and Koreans living on the island currently. It

Figure 1 Dokdo-Takeshima Island. Retrieved from http://www.dokdo-takeshima.com/

is under Korean effective control. Japan recognized the strategic value of Dokdo in 1904 during the Russo-Japanese War. “Dokdo is in a great strategic location to establish a watchtower and install radio or submarine cables to detect the movements of enemy ships.” said Yamaza Enjiro (1866-1914), Director of the Political Affairs Bureau, Japan. (Facts about Dokdo. http://korea.prkorea.com/wordpress/english/2012/10/26/facts-about-dokdo/) Japan’s attempt at incorporating Dokdo in 1905 through Shimane Prefecture Public Notice No. 40 was done in the process of and as part of its occupation of Korea. It was not only an illegal act, infringing on Korea’s sovereignty over the island, but also null and void under international law. Dokdo was restored as Korean territory after World War II, and the Government of the Republic of Korea has been exercising Korea’s irrefutable territorial sovereignty over Dokdo ever since. (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Dokdo, Korean Territory (PP. 10-12). Retrieved from http://dokdo.mofa.go.kr/upload/eng1.pdf) The followings are four Japanese claims to attempt to raise territorial dispute on Dokdo. There are historical documents proving Japanese claims are false, but Dokdo belongs to Korea.

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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO II. Japan Claims: Japan has long recognized the existence of Dokdo Japan has long recognized Dokdo as Korean territory. The Japanese government presents “The Revised Complete Map of Japanese Lands and Roads” serve as proof that Japan has long recognized Dokdo as Japanese territory. However, older maps like The Map of Japan Coastal Areas and The Complete Map of Joseon do not mark Ullengdo and Dokdo as Japan’s. Dokdo and Ullengdo are located outside the longitudinal and latitudinal lines of the grid in the 1846 edition of this map and in the original edition completed in 1779. Official Japanese government documents also clearly show that Japan had not recognized Dokdo as its

territory until its illegal incorporation of the island in 1905. In 1877, Japan's most authoritative

Figure 2 Northeast Asian History Foundation (n.d.). Ten Truth about Dokdo. Retrieved from http://www.nahf.or.kr/Data/board_100/dokdo_Truth/Eng lish.pdf

government office at that time, the State Council (Dakojan), issued an order which stated, “Concerning the inquiry about Takeshima and the other island, it is to be understood that this country [Japan] has nothing to do with them.” Here, Takeshima referred to Ulleungdo and the other island referred to Dokdo. Some Japanese scholars argue that the other island in this order is not Dokdo. However, The Simplified Map of Isotakeshima, completed in 1877 and submitted by Shimane Prefecture to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, made it clear that the other island was Matsushuma, that is, Dokdo. (Ten truths about Dokdo, Kim Hakjun, 2013) When Woosan State, which consisted of Ullengdo and Dokdo was merged into Shilla in 512, Dokdo historically became a territory of Korea. All the ancient records found in Japan are saying Dokdo is a territory of Joseon Dynasty. Even Japanese scholars admit this fact. All the eminent geographers in the west regarded Dokdo as a Korean territory. Many world maps record that Dokdo is a part of Korea. Takeshima is absolutely a misnomer. Japan must call Dokdo “Dokdo” because it is clearly a Korean 5


TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO territory. They made the word Takeshima to argue that Dokdo is Japanese. Takeshima is a product from Japan's shrewd way of distorting the truth. Nothing can substitute for the name of Dokdo. Dokdo is Dokdo. Takeshima must be deleted, Dokdo doesn't have another name. Although Dokdo has always been a Korean territory, Japan continuously says Dokdo had been officially recognized as a Japanese territory by international law. Japan doesn't have any true evidence proving Dokdo belongs to Japan. Only if Korea keeps sharpening its logic, which confirms its territorial right to Dokdo with a lot of evidence, Japan would finally stop this meaningless dispute. (VANK, 8 Core Facts about Dokdo, 2012) Korean title to Dokdo dates back to the 6th century. According to the records of Samguk Sagi -(History of the Three Kingdoms), Korean sovereignty over the island was established with the incorporation of Usanguk -(“guk” means “state”) into the Kingdom of Silla, one of the three ancient kingdoms of Korea, in 512 A.D. Dokdo was clearly marked as belonging to Gangwon Province, one of eight provinces of the medieval Korean kingdom. It is particularly worth noting that Paldo Chongdo -(Map of Eight Provinces of Korea) and Gangwondo Jido -(Map of Gangwon Province), both of which mark Ullengdo and Dokdo as belonging to Korea's Gangwon Province. The first documented Japanese mention of Dokdo appeared in the mid-17th century. Onshū Shichō Gōki, the 1667 topographical survey, was edited by a local official in the Izumo region, which was then a part of the present day Shimane Prefecture. It contains the following passage: “Onshū of Japan (present-day Oki Island) lies in the middle of the northern sea… Not connected to anywhere to the north and east, Matsushima (Dokdo) is located at a distance of two days and one night. From here, located at a distance of one day is Takeshima (Ulleungdo). While no one lives on the two islands, looking at Goryeo (Korea) from this island is the same as looking at Onshū from the Izumo region. Therefore, the northern limit of Japan is this Shū (Onshū or Oki Island).” No document had been filed concerning Matsushima far back then. There was a case in which Takeshima had been leased from Joseon for settlement for some time during the Genroku era. At that time, it was still an uninhabited island, as it had been. According to the Japanese interpretation, Japan regained its ownership of Dokdo by such fault.

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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO In Article 2 of the San Francisco Peace Treaty it stated: “Japan shall renounce all right, title, and claim to Korea, including Jejudo, Geomundo, and Ullengdo” Japan asserts that Dokdo was not included in the list among the islands to be returned to Korea. Japan uses this interpretation as proof that Dokdo does not belong to Korea. Even bigger islands than Dokdo were not specifically listed in the treaty. If one follows the Japanese interpretation of the treaty, only three Korean islands would have been returned to Korea. Given the fact that there are more than 3,000 Korean islands, such an argument is invalid. (Part II: Korean Sovereignty over Dokdo - Facts and Evidence, Korea Awards, 2011) In the Cairo Declaration, it states: “Japan will be expelled from all other territories which she has taken by violence and greed.” The declaration indicates that Korea fully recovered its sovereign rights over its territories. Dokdo is no exception. Based on the Ullengo Boundary Dispute, the Daijokan stated the following, “Be assured that either Ullengdo or Dokdo has no relation to Japan.” About 7 years before, a Japanese official also filed a similar report. In the report titled Chosenkoku Kosai-Shimatsu Naitansho, he concluded that Ulleungdo and Dokdo had nothing to do with Japan. “How Takeshima (Ulleungdo) and Matsushima (Dokdo) became annexed to Joseon.” This statement shows that Japan recognized Ulleungdo and Dokdo as Korean territories. There was no disagreement over the sovereignty of these islands between Korea and Japan. Korea has long established its sovereignty to the court. Japan is constantly making claims of sovereignty over Dokdo. There is a real reason why Japan wants to take this issue to the international court. Japan is trying to make Dokdo a contested region. Dokdo will be brought into an unwanted territorial dispute. Dokdo is not a simple matter of a territorial dispute between Korea and Japan. It is instead a common issue of peace among all humanity. Japanese imperialism took the lives of many innocent people, and Japan has shown no regret for its past actions. The international community should encourage Japan to reflect on its history. Otherwise, imperialistic movements in Japan may gain momentum again. It should be ensured that imperialism will no longer be tolerated. (Facts about Dokdo, Voluntary Agency Network of Korea, 2012)

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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO III.

Japan claims: No evidence that Korea recognized the existence of Dokdo in the past Ancient maps and documents prove that Dokdo has been rightfully owned by Korea in the past.

It has been historically proven that Dokdo is recognized as a part of the island Ulleungdo. This is significant because during the Shilla Dynasty, the king of Shilla conquered Usan-guk in his thirteenth year of reign (www.dokdohistory.com). At that time Dokdo was referred to as Usan-guk and it is also known as Ulleungdo stating that Dokdo is Korea's land since Ulleungdo is Korea's. There are several historical documents that prove that Usando is the same as Dokdo. The documents that were issued by the Korean government were The Newly Enlarged Geographical Survey of Korea published during 1531, Reference Compilation of Materials on Korea (1770), The Book of Ten Thousand Techniques of Governance (1808), and the Revised and Enlarged Edition of the Reference Compilation of Documents on Korea (1908) (The Ten Truths). These documents clearly exemplify that Dokdo has been our land for a very long time and Japan has no right to take away the land that has belonged to Korea since the past. Not only does evidence lie in the historical documents, but there is also evidence in "The Map of the Eight Provinces of Korea." This map of Joseon clearly shows Ulleungdo and Dokdo are in the East Sea. Since these maps dated back a long time ago, the locations of the two islands are not evident, but it does show that they existed and had been mapped because they were recognized a long time ago. Not only does this map show the

Figure 3 Figure 2 Northeast Asian History Foundation (n.d.). Ten Truth about Dokdo. Retrieved from http://www.nahf.or.kr/Data/board_100/dokdo_Truth/English.pdf

presence of the two islands Dokdo, also called Usando at that time, and

Ulleungdo, but also maps that were published after the eighteenth century shows that Usando is east of the island, Ulleungdo. As these maps produced, the islands locations' grew more accurate. The Map of the 8


TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO Eight Provinces of Korea supports the fact that Usando has been recognized in the past. Also, King Sejong quoted in The Geographical Appendix to the Veritable Records, that Usan (that is Dokdo) and Mureung (that is, Ulleungdo) are located in the middle of the sea, due east of this country (The Ten Truths) There is also evidence found in the Takeshima Incident that explicitly demonstrates that Dokdo is an island that has rightfully belonged to Korea since the past. During the Takeshima incident, a man from Japan named Aizuya Hachiemon disobeyed the law that passage to foreign lands were controlled and forbidden without special voyage passes and traveled to Ulleungdo. In result to his defiance, Aizuya Hachiemon was executed. Japanese Takeshima lobbyists insist that “…The 1836 incident is important in the Dokdo/Takeshima debate because it shows that although travel to Takeshima (Ulleungdo) was banned, travel to Matsushima (Liancourt Rocks) was apparently not since Hachiemon traveled to Takeshima under the pretense of going to Matsushima…" From this belief, some Japanese go a step further stating “…because there was no travel ban, Matsushima (Dokdo) was thought to be part of Japan….” (Steven J. Barberhttp://www.dokdo-takeshima.com/the-takeshima-incident-of-1837.html). These claims made by Japan were proven to be false. It is evident that the Japanese involved in this Takeshima incident did regard Dokdo as an island that belonged to Joseon land. In Aizuya Hachiemon's testimony we see that there is no statement claiming that Japan considered Dokdo to be Japan's territory at all. Japan considered Dokdo as their land only because Aizuya Hachiemon disobeyed the laws and traveled there. In addition to Aizuya Hachiemon's testimony, there is a map that shows those who voyaged around Japan illegally. On this map Ulleungdo and Dokdo have been labeled as Joseon land. Ironically, Aizuya Hachiemon was the one who drew this map. He knew that these islands belonged to Korea because Japan declared that Ulleungdo and Dokdo could not be visited by the Japanese in 1695 without having a special voyage pass.

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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO IV.

Japan claims: That the Republic of Korea is illegally occupying Dokdo

There is lots of legitimate evidence that Dokdo rightfully belongs to Korea, while there aren’t many supporting Japan’s claim. As described in the introduction above, Japan’s attempt at incorporating Dokdo in 1905 through Shimane Prefecture Public Notice No. 40 was done in the process of and as part of its occupation of Korea; it was an illegal act, infringing on Korea’s sovereignty over the island, and against international law. Dokdo is administered by the Republic of Korea, and South Koreans currently living on the island. Approximately 100,000 South Koreans visit the island annually. There are no permanent Japanese residents on Dokdo, or Takeshima as they call it, nor are there any Japanese tourists visiting Dokdo. “Dokdo” means “Rocky Island”, but “Takeshima” means “Bamboo Island.” Dokdo is a rocky island, but does not resemble a bamboo tree, or even have any bamboo trees on it. Japan has no right to call Dokdo, “Takeshima,” as the meanings of the two names are entirely different. Nevertheless, with evidence and historical facts against them, they continue to unjustifiably claim Dokdo. (Dokdo Takeshima Island Liancourt Rocks The Historical Facts of the Dokdo / Takeshima Island Dispute Between Korea and Japan. (n.d.). Dokdo Takeshima

Liancourt Rocks The Facts of the Dispute RSS.

Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.dokdo-takeshima.com/dokdo-takeshima-related-historicaldata) During World War II, Japan took control over Korea, including Dokdo, but after the Allied Powers won World War II, Korea regained all of its land. Nearly 70 years have passed since Korea’s independence from Japan, yet they still argue that Dokdo is their land. Asahi Shimbun of Japan said, “An agreement between Japan and South Korea recognizes a wide area of the Sea of Japan as ‘provisional waters’ under joint administration, where fishermen of both countries are allowed to operate unencumbered by the dispute over sovereignty. This area does not include the 12- nautical-mile zone around the island, which South Korea claims as part of its territorial waters”. This “12-nautical-mile

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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO zone” around Dokdo is the territory that the Republic of Korea would lose, where there are many natural resources. Not only is this claimed as South Korea’s territorial waters, but they are administered to them. (Selden, M. (n.d.). Small Islets, Enduring Conflict: Dokdo, Korea-Japan Colonial Legacy and the United States 小さな島、長続きする葛藤−−日朝の植民地時代よりの遺物と米国 :: Japan Focus. Retrieved from http://www.japanfocus.org/-mark-selden/3520) In the late 17th century, “The Ulleungdo Boundary Dispute” book was created, recording interactions between Korea and Japan regarding Dokdo. In the year 1693, Japanese fishermen from the Tottori Domain were seen fishing near Ulleungdo, in Korean waters. They were seen by Korean fishermen, including Ahn Yong-Bok. Ahn traveled to Japan, and protested the trespassing of Japanese fishermen into Korean territory. In turn, the Japanese fishermen also reported to their government that Korean fishermen were in the area. The Japanese government requested that the Tottori Domain investigate the area, to see if it was the part of their territory. In the document below, in 1695, the “daimyo” lord of the Tottori Domain answered the Edo Shogunate of the Japanese Government: Ulleungdo and Dokdo do not belong to the Tottori Domain. Accordingly, the Japanese Government renounced permission for ships to enter the Ulleungdo and Dokdo Area.

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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO

Figure 4 Northeast Asian History Foundation (n.d.). Ten Truth about Dokdo. Retrieved from http://www.nahf.or.kr/Data/board_100/dokdo_Truth/English.pdf (Ahn Yong-bok told of Dokdo, Ulleungdo. (n.d.). Ahn Yong-bok told of Dokdo, Ulleungdo. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/issues/2013/04/139_134022.html, Facts about Dokdo. (n.d.). Friendly Korea. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://korea.prkorea.com/wordpress/english/2012/10/26/facts-about-dokdo/) Right after its establishment in 1948, the Republic of Korea made Dokdo’s address “1, Dodong, Nam-myeon, Ulleung-gun, North Gyeongsang Province”. The Republic of Korea made Dokdo’s occupancy clear, and no countries had a problem with that, including Japan. There are two Korean residents now living on Dokdo, Seong Do Kim, and his wife Shin Yeol Kim. There are about 37 people, with police officers and public officials guarding Dokdo. There is a lighthouse, radiation detector, and one large residential building. There are also telephone towers, for carriers such as SK Telecom, KTF, and LG Telecom. There are ferries on Ulleungdo that sail to Dokdo, carrying around 100,000 tourists every year. The Republic of Korea has labeled Dokdo as the “Natural Monument No. 336: Dokdo Breeding Ground for Seabirds” in 1982 and as an “Environmentally Protected Area” in 1999. (Northeast Asian History Foundation (n.d.). Ten Truths About Dokdo Not Known in Japan. Seoul, Korea)

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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO Many maps have been made recently in Japan, which include Dokdo as their land. This is an attempt to teach children in Japanese schools that Dokdo, or Takeshima, is owned by Japan. This is not true, as there are many maps made much earlier, in the 19th century which exclude Dokdo as Japanese territory. All Korean maps made in the past, and maps made currently include Dokdo as Korea’s land. This map (below), made by Matsuzuki Hanzo in 1881, shows no Japanese islands in the west of the Oki Islands. Many maps made before Japan’s misleading claim in 1904, such as the 1891 Map by Sagano Hikotaro, which omits both Dokdo and Ulleungdo, the 1899 Map by Nogiwa Kaoru, the 1893 Map by Izawa Komakichi, and the 1894 map by Yamamoto Homeji, which all do not have Dokdo on them. There are countless many more, but after 1904, maps have been changing little by little, with more of “Takeshima” than “Dokdo”, and more of “Sea of Japan” rather than “East Sea”.

(Dokdo Through the Ages. (n.d.). Dokdo Through the Ages. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://dokdo-research.com/temp17.html, Dokdo Takeshima Island Liancourt Rocks The Historical Facts of the Dokdo / Takeshima Island Dispute Between Korea and Japan. (n.d.). Dokdo Takeshima Liancourt Rocks The Facts of the Dispute Japanese Ancient Maps Excluded Dokdo Takeshima Part I Comments. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.dokdo-takeshima.com/japanese-historicalmaps-excluded-dokdo-i.html) Dokdo has been a topic of controversy for centuries between Korea and Japan. Both sides have evidence, historical maps and documents to support their claims, but the legitimacy of their assertions are 13


TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO entirely different. There are Korean and Japanese documents and maps that both show how Dokdo is not Japanese territory, but Korean territory. Even though Japan is telling the world that Dokdo is theirs, and is trying to get the name “Takeshima” printed on maps to represent Dokdo, the historical and current reality is against them. Japan’s take on Dokdo became different as soon as they realized the economic and political advantages they could gain if they acquired the island. But before that, Japan left Dokdo alone, and recognized it as Korean territory.

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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO V.

Japan proposed to the Republic of Korea to refer this dispute over Dokdo to the International Court of Justice, the Republic of Korea rejects doing so Japanese government declares that it is right to refer this dispute over Dokdo to the International

Court of Justice (“ICJ”). The republic of Korea, however, does not agree on doing so. Although the Japanese government proclaims that the Dokdo conflict should be submitted as a case to the international court of justice, the South Korean government denies their suggestion because it is an obvious fact that Dokdo is an integral part of Korean territory through history and geography. Going to the court over a territorial dispute isn’t as easy as going to the court with any individual case. Territorial dispute is very sensitive both politically and emotionally to the county. It is notoriously difficult to resolve peacefully or enduringly. The result of settlement on border issues is unpredictable, and political leaders often are very unwilling to accept the risks of losing territory. The outcomes of ICJ can develop the conflict into serious conditions such as a war. Therefore, peaceful agreement among the countries directly involved is preferred to being dependent on the ICJ’s meaningless resolution. In a case of territorial dispute, both countries should agree to going to ICJ. As mentioned before, however, resolving territorial dispute peacefully is highly uncommon; it could lead up to another dispute and Dokdo is not exceptional. UN Figure 5 Japan Submits Takeshima/Dokdo Dispute to International Court of Justice Japan Probe. Retrieved from http://www.japanprobe.com/2012/08/17/j apan-submits-takeshimadokdo-disputeto-international-court-of-justice/

Security Council will intervene in the dispute in that case, and political solution is to be proposed regardless of the involved parties

as shown in the next process in graphic. ICJ may make a legal decision based on political recommendations of the UN Security Council. Japan’s political force may also influence on this matter as they aim to be a permanent member of the UN Security Council. While Dokdo is in

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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO effective control of South Korea, it is not a sensible way to let ICJ make a legal decision which is not completely free from politics. Territorial disputes involving Japan are not only with Dokdo, but also with Diaoyu and Kurile Island. The disputes are linked to Japan’s 20th-century military expansion across Asia, which ended in World War II, and persist until today. While Japan submits Dokdo dispute to ICJ, Japan’s senior Foreign Ministry official indicated there is no need to refer a territorial dispute between Japan and China to the ICJ with the reason that Japan owns the Senkaku (Diaoyu) Islands in the East China Sea. Japan’s different attitude toward their territorial disputes tells how important effective control is on the matter.

Figure 6 Territorial Disputes Involving Japan (2012) New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/09/20/world/asia/Territorial-Disputes-InvolvingJapan.html?ref=territorialdisputes&_r=1&

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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO VI.

CONCLUSION

Japan claims Japan has long recognized the existence of Dokdo, but their recognition starts after the WWII. Japan claims there is no evidence that Korea recognized the existence of Dokdo in the past, but there are many historical documents of both Korea and Japan described as Dokdo belonged to Korea. Japan claims that Korea is illegally occupying Dokdo, but Dokdo rightfully belongs to Korea as it has always been. Japan’s attempt at incorporating Dokdo in 1905 through Shimane Prefecture Public Notice No. 40 was rather illegal and void under international law. Japan claims that Korea rejects against to Japan’s proposal to refer this dispute to ICJ, but it is not a matter for any judgment by third party. It is a matter of national sovereignty. Japan even has different attitude over three similar territorial disputes involving Japan. In order to continue to defend Korea’s sovereignty over Dokdo, Korea needs to reinforce effective control over Dokdo Island by improving on tourism business. Historical truth based-documents proving that Japan’s claim is a false statement are to be researched and developed to advertise internationally. Such documents written in Korean should be translated to English. Korean American youths should certainly be aware of the historical fact and be involved in programs such as class activities, forums, and debates over the international matters; so that they can generate more interest on truth over Dokdo. Spreading the truth all over the world peacefully by doing as shown above is one of the task Korean American youths should be responsible for. When this territory dispute is settled based on this kind of effort, it will positively influence on other international disputes. The claims of Japan proved as false. There are multifarious documents of historical facts that prove that Dokdo is territory of Korea. Throughout this essay we have expanded upon some of the truths and misconceptions about Dokdo that have not been cleared up with Japan. Many people may wonder what the big deal is about the island Dokdo, but that may be because they are not exposed to the relationship between Japan and Korea. Koreans must speak up in order to prosper and overcome those that try to take away Dokdo which rightfully belongs to Korea. As the future generations of Korea, what

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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO actions can Korean people make to help end this territorial dispute among Korea and Japan? Making a difference in the world and trying to come together to end this dispute peacefully is not easy; however, it is not impossible. We must continue to fight and prove to Japan that Dokdo has been and will always be our land. By dragging the matter and dispersing the true facts about Dokdo, we can convince other nations and other Koreans that Dokdo is ours. We must continue to fight this battle and not let Japan take away what belonged to Korea first no matter how hard it might be. Since our ancestors have completed this task, we can continue forward and do the same. Dokdo belongs to Korea!

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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO References Barber, Steven J. (2013) The Japanese 1870 Secret Report on Joseon (Korea). Retrieved from http://www.dokdo-takeshima.com/the-takeshima-incident-of-1837.html Barber, Steven J. http://www.dokdo-takeshima.com/gallery Barber, Steven J. http://www.dokdo-takeshima.com/the-takeshima-incident-of-1837.html Dokdo Takeshima Island Liancourt Rocks The Historical Facts of the Dokdo / Takeshima Island Dispute Between Korea and Japan. (n.d.). Dokdo Takeshima Liancourt Rocks The Facts of the Dispute Japanese Ancient Maps Excluded Dokdo Takeshima Part I Comments. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.dokdo-takeshima.com/japanese-historical-maps-excluded-dokdo-i.html Dokdo Through the Ages. (n.d.). Dokdo Through the Ages. Retrieved from http://dokdoresearch.com/temp17.html Facts about Dokdo, Voluntary Agency Network of Korea, 2012 Japan Probe (2012) Japan Submits Takeshima/Dokdo Dispute to International Court of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.japanprobe.com/2012/08/17/japan-submits-takeshimadokdo-dispute-tointernational-court-of-justice/ Korea Tourism Organization (2008) Dokdo Islet & Ulleungdo Island. Retrieved from http://english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/SI/SI_EN_3_6.jsp?cid=623881 Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (2012). Dokdo, Korea’s Beautiful Island. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved from http://dokdo.mofa.go.kr/upload/eng1.pdf Northeast Asian History Foundation (2008). Ten Truths About Dokdo Not Known in Japan. Northeast Asian History Foundation. Part II: Korean Sovereignty over Dokdo - Facts and Evidence, Korea Awards, 2011 The New York Times (2012) Territorial Disputes Involving Japan. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/09/20/world/asia/Territorial-Disputes-InvolvingJapan.html?ref=territorialdisputes&_r=0

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TRUTHS ABOUT THE TERRITORIAL RIGHTS OVER DOKDO The Ten Truths About Dokdo. Seodaemun-gu, Seoul: Northeast Asian History Foundation. VANK (2012) 8 Core Facts about Dokdo. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=54bZHHnUd8 Www.dokdohistory.com Seodaemun-gu, Seoul:Dokdo Research Institute Northeast Asian History Foundation.

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Truths and Misconceptions about the Territorial Rights over Dokdo