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AimA]

vekiCy

~ b u d y and

TO

and

+ b ~ t h+ables

of

AND, OR, NOT

gates.

EXOR

~ p p a ~ a + u- S T b ~ i h e bi

Bbesd

boaad, c o n n e c & i h j w i b e s ,

xcs .

PND 3akeIt has N i n p w t ~( N ~ L )a d one o u t p w - h . Digit41 s$w aye spplieol o,t t h e i n p u t t e z m i n s l s maaked A and g. The a u k p ~ ~ is t ob+q;ned ~t t h e o u - L p u t *earn; naI mo,a-/ signal. The AND o p e m + i o n i s de-Fin d 4 n A N D g s t e is I ;$ and o n b if sll t h e i n p u t s w e I - Mqthems-l-icsliy, Y = A AND 0 FIND C - . - - AND N Th Coby

I)

=

A.6.C.

..-. .r\l

ABc

N

,--

T h e vqwi4bles

one

oF the

Eq9

(1)

+LOO

- (11

sae binqaY i . ~a. c h p o ~ble ~ i

wmaiqbte cqn

Qssurne c

ua\ues, 0 or 1 .

is knodn ss &he 800)ean qua+ion 0% \ o j i c q ( epuafjo

AND ja-te.

04

F o y an

AND o p e a d i o n

+ h e inputs sxe pa-esent. ~ c s\ogicsl equation is

sll

" 'I

eps\s

A

AND

B I)

y t e opens (Y= l ) o n l ~w h e i . e st logic I level. .I= 86 and is bead qs

Che


I C No.

7'432.


2)

OR

jste

-

It has s i 3 w l ~42e

inputs o p P ~ i e d st

The o u t p u t

and

it i s

I ~ g e a) nd

optsined

is

slso

+he

s

d9itql

at

-

AII

OR

B

of? C - - - - - O R

A + 8 f C.---

The

inpuhs

"

y epusls

i

ope3afjon

OR

qse

I-

-(2)

t- bf

i n p u t s ske

snd

N

+he vwisbIe~ i,e, inpwt qnd

ore

A

the o ~ c t p u t tebmInclI

sijhq/.

if o n e oa moae Ms~hems+ieaIly,

A

o u t p u t Digi-ba

i n p u t tearninsls

if and, o n 9

Y=

one

output

vaaiables

sac

g q t e opens [ Y = I ) wk p'b4senk !.aat logic 1 /eve! o f 4n O R g a t e . It csn A OR

8 ".


3)

N O T

3 ~ 4 ~ -

is qlso known sS an invea-teaI+ h q s one- i n p u t (A) ~ n d ohe o u t p u t ( Y I . T h e srnclll cibcles in t h e symbol OF NOT gc\+e is gs+e

Nor

khomn

QS

bubble,

The s y m b o l F o r NOT g s t e csn be (sl o a (b). Its l o g i c ~ g u a + i o ~is u-w-i++er, a s Y:

NOT

=

fi

+

,A

;read s s " Y e ~ w l s~ 0 - r A " o b " y e ~ u q l s complement OF A ". The Nm opeasSion is s l s o beqfebed to 9s an 4 i o n . T h e pesence o f a

1%

is


+ Vcc

i

z -..


4)

ExoR g a t e (J) It h a s

f . u o of - o w e

( 2 ) ~ h e logicel eguahion .Fa7

Q) T h i s

cixcur'+

inpuCS

crnd only

one

ok+pu+.

E A O R g ~ t ecan be w 3 i 4 t e n asT-

Finds spplicsfian w h e ~ et u o digiksl signs

mwe. +o be compsaesd.


4 NAND

Gate

Symbol

. -. ~

Y

I

I

I

1

! ! ; I

i!

I

I I

1

I

0

1

I

I

.

~

Ii

~

!

I 0

.-

-: -F. D ~.. .~ -.- . . . ~ ~

p-r-fi;.~t y :-;>

3 ~

ON

i

i

I

I

on' 0.I

!

~~

I

1

I

!

(2F ,g

I

i


a 1)

Aim- Zrnplem~nLf % l l o w i y gaIes ~ s i ybasic j a h e s - N ~ N oNOR , 4 EX@

AND g a t e The NOT-AND o p e n t i o n . r+ h s s Fijuae" s h o w 3 AND The ou-kpu-b OF

opebstioh

N (N

is Known as Che HAND inpu+S

gccte f o l l o u l e d

3s-te

AND

be

.

snd one o u t p u t . by s WoT j s + e .

Y ' csn be wbi%+en

cLS

Y' rdow,

The

9

A.H

OF t h e

ON+PU+

logical

+he N A N D

as

NOT j a 1 e

Y

opem.fioo e p r e s e n S e d opeiy&;on

can b e

by

eq.

wai~ieh

(11 is

kno

-

The s ~ a n d s a d symbol oC 6 h e ih +he f 9 ~ 3 - e . t(exe, t h e side of t h e N4ND g a t e i n v e a s i o n OT c0rn~1ernenS.s-l

-

Y= A.8 *

y

NOT

I AAND B)

and

i s sew4

a9


Symbol

6


ga6e -

NOR

The

It has

NOT-OR

operat-ioh

N (N;7/2)

ir,pu+

i s known

tert-oihsls

output

06

y'

OR

NOR

opea-a+;

.

~ n d ohe 0 u 6 p u C

+ebrninq 1. The

Che

a3

Cqn

b e wb;L+en a9

Y'= A+8 NOW,

This

"J

is

the

Y Y ~ I S NOT

The

O F +he

the outpu*

bubble

lojicq]

NOT g a t e

ey? Foa N O R

y cqn be

ga+e 6:

is

d

I A O R 6 ) ." oh

ot.6puk

NOT

side

o p e b q f ion.

O F +he

NOR j d e

ss


31 E X O R

usino -r

43 E X - NOR

bask y s t e s

ga-be

.

Truth T a b l ~ A

! ;

i (

0

0

. .

LED ST,L~-Y< .

.

!

.

. ..~

R

'i'

0

I

I

I

.

I

I!

I

0

I

0

!

I

I

!

!

0

I

~

.

----- !

3N I

i

0FF

!

I

!

I

~

j

OFF

j

0'-.I

I


The in

4)

ExoR

by

3qte

using

bssic jaCes

is

ew &e

shown

the f ; g ~ a e .

EXNOR gste-

I+ h s s o on

out.pub

The

sjdes

boolean :

The in

the

inputs

x.g +

Ex-NOR f iqua-P.

and

one

skpbesents equa-hion

OF

o ~ ( t p h t . The

NOT.

bubble

0peaa.f-ion.

Ex N O R

34+e

i9

4.8.

gate

bJ

usiy

basic gaOeS

is shown


NAND a]

QS

bnivea~s/Q O C

I.mplet-nen+o.tian

of

AS5

"Sin?

5


Aim

implement

To

]

NAND

sing

AND The

EXOR

snd E X N O R usi

. 3st'e-

uaivek-%I

QS

,

bssic j s C e s

gstes.

uysiversql

I]

+he

NAND

e q ~ s + i o r ,O F A N D j s t e

IOJJC~I

is

Y= A . B ou-kpyt

he

input O F

OF

expwssior,

Yz

Cob

p x

C]

OR

-

is C h e

RHS

on

j i v e s +he q u i a e d

4ND.

A.,Q

gste

h a s 6nly o n e i n p u t s n d

~ h e a e q o b e bhe

inpuC

ohe

is

NAND hss

shoakal +o , j i v e

NAND

using

togicql

eyusfioh

OF

OR

gs+e is

. - .

Y= Af8.

T'kihj

ss

shoa-&e$

NAND

NOT

The

is

NAND 9~754.

inversion

-

b l ~ o f u9inj

two.

NAND

& h e second

The d o u b l e

The

Fibs4

-

inversion

A.8

( B ~

double

\I=

.

At8

r

00

RHS

De Margsnfs ~ h e o b e m).


a]

b]

,

.

l r n p i e r n e r ~ t q ~OF ~ ~ r AND ~

Irnpleiw~r,+q5!ot\ o f

NOT

U S ; P ~

using

NOF

KOF-


is the

Th;s

=

c]

NOT

( : ~ o u ble

A+B

the

is

This

l o j ~ c s I qu-csfion

Uihg

$07

AND

inve~sion)

l a ~ i c s l epuq+;an

f a y

OR

abe -

470

B u t

m

A+/?

J Q ~ Q .

NOR

give

y=

346e.

5

A

two

ihphts


I] E x - O R

NAND

usin3

Expb-e3sioo

Boolesn

Tqking Y=

This

NAND

Let

.: y = Tsking

double

-.

:

OF

EXOR :

3 . AOB = X . B + Qg

inveasioh

.

A 8 t A&

i~

t h e a-eywia-ed

e x p w e ~ ~ +%& i ~ n EX-OR

gqte.

X=

E.8

2= AB

k+ Z

double

invea-sion,

usin3


31

NAND: e r p b e s ~ i o n f o ~ EXNOR ga3e

E%-Nof? using The

.

Boolean

y=

ROB

=

A.Bi-PB

-~ -.

Let

y:

using

8= A

double

Tqki ng

This

is

4.8 = Z

and

ioveas i o n

x+z

x . 2

th-

is

the

aepuiaed

exp%ession

$03

ONOR

NA~D9ste.

@oatear, e x p r e s s i o n f o - a

This Is

h e quised

E X N O R-

~ x p b e s s i o n Tor Enr\~oR using


P>oceduwe-

4 -

Pawt I.

i n s e r t IC

2. IC

3 . Pin n u m b e r

snd

is

790 8

connec+ed

j a k e inpu+s sse

TF nutput i s

-ko

+Vcc

i.e. 5 v

this

7. A F i e x

one

ob'cqiq

O L ( ~ ~ M +

a-ep~;aed.

QS

insebt

L C 7992

,

c

~ n d31C

74oq

7 + 86 o n <

the 'csukh tqbles.

vqaiFy

qnd

g i v e n qnd

, L E D glows.

hicgh

6. R epea+. s k t p p s

by

IefC.

is

7

4. Respective

5.

OF TC

14

is t o u s a d s

no+ch

on b w q d b o q b d ,

i<ser+ed

is

7408

so + h s +

bosad

it-,

Pawt. 3â&#x201A;Ź I.

cohnec+ ihpw% tido-

mske 2.

g ~ % e .C o n n e c k

NAND

input

c o n n e e 4

OF

Obsewve

E x - O R snd

1. O b s e b e

+sble s,

tqke

and

~ o n n e c b NAND

qnd

LEO

Z C

7404

Foam

and

Ex-NOR

ja-ound

und

&oc

to C'aaro

1 4 0 8 , IC7 ~ 1 0 4 , zc

outpu+

fbom

sbsbus

NOR

Ex-N~A gates

khe

d:

&o

143 2

g~&t:e. pin b u m b e r

14

ih the c i a c u i t .

ZC's

h e LED

+o

7432

rc

EXOR

7

bbeacl boabd

On

IC

using

rm

pin n u m b e r

3. S upp\y i n p d

1.

gsbe3

NOR

C ' I ~ C Ut ~ o ~ f o

40 +Vet 4.

qnd I C 7404

7408

XC

gs+es using

s b s + u s and

t o

LED.

s h e snd

vqti

Fobm AND,

OR,

+j

t h e c'ikcui6 diagmm. vsaify + h e kbut-h


~ o n c l u ~ i -o n A]

We OR,

hsve

studied ~ n dv ~ a i F i e d +a-u*h C ~ b l e s OF A N D ,

NOT

qhd

EXOR

gqtes.

w e hsve impI@men.f-ed NAND using bssic 2 s 6e.s .

c] W e

using

have LI

, NOR c

, â&#x201A;Ź%OR 4 EXNOR

3qte.s. EXOR

and E X N


DSD journal