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ONE OFF TO MASS PRODUCTION

ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF LUNÉVILLE HOOK

KSENIA SEMIROVA Product Design Raffles University 06.2020


A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF EMBROIDERY THE HISTORY OF TAMBOUR EMBROIDERY................ 6 LUNÉVILLE HOOK EMBROIDERY......................................................8

DESCRIPTION OF THE LUNÉVILLE TECHNIQUE........................................................................... 10 ECOLE LESAGE.................................................................... 12 TECHNIQUE IN FASHION HOUSES................................ 15

TOOLS FOR EMBROIDERY EMBROIDERY FRAME......................................................... 18 EMBROIDERY HOOK OR CROCHET.............................. 22 OTHER EMBROIDERY TOOLS.......................................... 26

USER EXPERIENCE ALSO ASPIRING EMBROIDERER........................................................32

WHO ARE THE TARGET GROUPS?..................................................34

PRODUCT DETAILED OBSERVATION............................ 40 DIMENSIONS & ERGONOMIC.......................................... 42 PROBLEM 1. ERGONOMICS OF A HANDLE.................. 44 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FROM OTHER

AREAS...........................................................................................................46 TEXTURED SURFACE AS A WAY TO RELIEVE

FINGERS STRESS.....................................................................................48

PROBLEM 2. DEALING WITH NEEDLES........................ 50 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FROM OTHER

AREAS...........................................................................................................52

PROBLEM 3. TOOL STORAGE & SAFETY..................... 54 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FROM OTHER

AREAS...........................................................................................................56

TOOLS OBSERVATION....................................................... 58

TYPES OF MANUFACTURING WHO MANUFACTURES NEEDLES.................................. 62


NEEDLES MANUFACTURING PROCESS....................... 64

FORM SEARCHING.............................................................. 102

CRAFT PRODUCTION......................................................... 66

CAD MODEL. VER. 01..............................................................................120

EQUIPMENT FOR CRAFT PRODUCTION.......................................68

BATCH MANUFACTURING................................................ 70 INTERVIEW WITH THE EMBROIDERY

HOOKS MANUFACTURER ...................................................................72 EQUIPMENT FOR BATCH PRODUCTION.......................................76

MASS PRODUCTION.......................................................... 78 EQUIPMENT FOR MASS PRODUCTION.........................................80

MASS CUSTOMIZATION.................................................... 82 EQUIPMENT FOR MASS CUSTOMIZATION...................................84

IDEATION PROJECT BRIEF........................................................................................88 PERSONA 1 PROFILE. ASPIRING EMBROIDERER.........................90 PERSONA 2 PROFILE.

PROFESSIONAL EMBROIDERER........................................................94 PERSONA 3 PROFILE. EMBROIDERY AS A HOBBY...................98

CAD MODEL. FINAL................................................................................128 STAND FOR HOOK..................................................................................136

MATERIALS & PRODUCTION PRIMARY MASS PRODUCTION METHODS FOR THE PRODUCT............................................................ 144 THE BEST & INNOVATIVE BATCH PRODUCTION METHOD FOR THE PRODUCT............................................................ 146 THE WAYS TO CUSTOMIZE THE PRODUCT..................................................................... 148 CRAFT ADAPTATION OF THE DESIGN.......................... 152


4

01. Francesco del Cossa Allegory of March: Triumph of Minerva (detail) 1476-84 Fresco Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara


5

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF EMBROIDERY


A brief overview of embroidery

6

THE HISTORY OF TAMBOUR EMBROIDERY

It is hard to identify where the

tambour

technique

was

embroidery invented.

There are ancient examples from different places all over the world, including Greece and Russia. Most of the experts believe that tambour embroidery was originated in India with Ari work. Ari means hook in Hindu, and the technique involves creating a chain stitch using a long thin tool with a  hook at the end and a  wooden

Russian Dress Kasimov Museum of History and Culture Russian embroidery sample Kasimov Museum of History and Culture

Greek embroidery sample The Gallery at The Greek Institute

handle.

Ari

embroidery

traveled from Brabanki in Uttar Pradesh to Kutch in Gujarat, where cobblers first applied the  technique to leather and then to the cloth. The cobblers created ornate patterns with floral and wildlife motifs that


The history of Tambour embroidery

7

were favored by the royalty of the Mughal Empire in the 16th century. Ari embroideries were exported to the Persian Gulf across the Middle East and eventually arrived in Europe in

the

18th

century,

where

fabric tightly across a frame to create the tension needed to

embroider

a

regular

chain stitch. The frame may be circular or rectangular. Tambour embroidery arrived Designed by Manish Arora, 2014-15 Noida, India Victoria and Albert Museum

in the French town of Lunéville in 1810. The ateliers adopted it due to the speed and efficiency of the technique.

the technique would become known as Tambour Embroidery.

Beads

and

sequins

were

added to the repertoire in the late 19th century. The town of Lunéville became so famous

Tambour means drum in French

for its exquisite embroideries

and refers to the technique

that the method is known as

of

stretching

the

ground

Lunéville Hook Embroidery.

Coverlet, early 20th century, Bangladesh Victoria and Albert Museum Aari embroidery sample PASHTUSH INDIA


A brief overview of embroidery

8

Madame de Pompadour at her Tambour Frame François-Hubert Drouais 1763–4 Oil on canvas 217 x 156.8 cm National Gallery, London

LUNÉVILLE HOOK EMBROIDERY


Lunéville Hook

9

“Le Point de Lunéville” designates an embroidery technique created in the town of the same name, Lunéville (Meurthe-et-Moselle, France), at the beginning of the 19th century. This embroidery is carried out on cotton tulle with cotton thread, which is used to make a chain stitch. The work is done employing a  specific hook called “Lunéville hook.” Until the 1940s, this embroidery was used in the making of many clothing and decorative effects.

Château de Lunéville France

Today, this technique is applying for artistic purposes or in addition to other embroidery techniques. Beaded and sequined embroidery is the evolution of the Lunéville stitch. Using the know-how of “Lunévilleuses,” the official period appellation of embroiderers performing the stitch of Lunéville, the pearls have been pre-added on the thread used to make the chain. Every chain loop engaged a pearl. This new embroidery, developed in Lunéville around 1865, took the name of beaded and sequined embroidery. This technique of applying pearls and sequins within an embroidery is now used in fashion and haute couture.


A brief overview of embroidery

10

DESCRIPTION OF THE LUNÉVILLE TECHNIQUE

advantage

smooth corners when needed.

of the Lenuville technique is

It does not matter what material

speed. When the skill reaches

is using for embroidery — only

a certain level, the final result

thread,

could be gained relatively fast

The result will be good with any

comparing to needlework.

of these materials.

Another advantage is getting

The

straight lines and sharp or

disadvantage

The

fundamental

beads,

only

(mainly

for

inexperienced users)

is

working the

from

backside

of the material. Overall, this is the

question

of training.

The difference between regular stitching and Luneville technique Regular — curved stitches Luneville — nicely aligned “chain” stitches

or

sequins.


LunĂŠville Hook

11 Luneville basics instruction


A brief overview of embroidery

12

ECOLE LESAGE

Lesage is the most prominent brand in both a world of couture and the world of studying highclass embroidery. Artisans from all over the world aim to study in this school. And its diploma proves

the

high

quality,

and

standards,

professionalism

of its owner. There is no need to  mention

that

the

price

for tuition is incredibly high and can compete with the best Europian

universities

that

provided complete education.

François Lesage 1929-2011

It is funny that Lesage as a Fashion House has only almost 100 years of history. And school was established only in 1992. Comprising to Luneville with its rich traditions, it is not so much. But the brand value created during these years cannon

be

underestimated.

The family of Lesage had built a highly successful business.

François Lesage 1929-2011


Ecole Lesage

13

And

François

Lesage

had

contributed the most. It is hardly surprising that Maison Lesage joined the Métiers d’Art Chanel in 2002. At the same time, both Lesage school and atelier are following

At the same time, this kind of monopoly does not provide any opportunity for another opinion. With all respect (and admiration), I believe that this institution should be the first that establishing beauty and innovations not only in art and craft but also in working the same working standards (and

conditions)

that

were

established at the beginning of the 20th century. It proves not only numerous students but also a variety of published sources.

Such commitment

to traditions can be respected.

standards for artisans.


A brief overview of embroidery

14

TECH


Technique in Fashion Houses

HNIQUE IN FASHION HOUSES

15


16

02. Jost Amman The embroiderer 1568 Lyon municipal library


17

TOOLS FOR EMBROIDERY


Tools for embroidery

18

EMBROIDERY FRAME

To me, this part of the research was

full

of

surprises.

I discovered a whole new world of frames for embroidery. I  found that the  frame can be both comfortable and beautiful. I admire the approach of oldschool masters to make the real piece of art. Also, it is clearly seen that a lot of engineering ideas were applied to the frame. First, the way how fabric can be attached and the  methods of 

stretching.

Second,

the stability of the frame on the surface (floor or table). All presented examples look solid and heavy. I do not see any possibility of shifting it unexpectedly during work. Third, rotation mechanism. Lunivelle technique requires to work from the back of the fabric. But often design demands working in mix techniques, so frame must


Embroidery Frame

19

be rotated. And finally, each example has a small (or not so small) storage for materials, and additional surface to place tools or any other things. The only thing that I did not notice is the height adjustment option. Probably, the reason for that is made by the “individual

embroidery

as

leisure,

not

professionally. The only “professional” example (on engraving illustration) shows remarkable

similarities

with

modern models.

order” approach. It should not be forgotten that presented pieces

were

made

for

wealthy customers who made

ANTIQUE

Embroidery machine mid 18th century France


Tools for embroidery

20

EMBROIDERY FRAME

Comparing to antique samples, modern frames for embroidery are

representing

simplicity

(or even austerity) in decor, but trying to reach functionality. The adjustability on each level is clearly seen. Floor examples are more multifunctional and can be hight and width adjusted. Table frames have fewer options. Some schools use them as a cheap option to provide offline tuition.

Professional

ateliers

are usually utilizing only floor frames. Usually, frames a made of beech wood

with

or

without

an

additional coat. I cannot say that this frame can live long. I noticed that humidity negatively affect my table frame. Probably Indian masters are using a frame made of some other wood.


Embroidery Frame

21

Modern frames are usually not really stable. The reason for that is the attempts of manufacturers to reduce the weight for shipping

place for equipment. So all

purposes. I noticed that some

materials

ateliers prefer to use heavy,

usually keeping on a work

adjustable table legs from IKEA

surface, which sometimes is

to avoid shifting. This approach

not comfortable at all.

has one positive side. It is easier to rotate the frame, as long as no materials are placing on the surface.

and

tools

are

Overall, the embroidery frame today can be described as a necessary but ill-conceived tool.

It is seen that modern frames have no additional storage or

MoDErN


Tools for embroidery

22

EMBROIDERY HOOK OR CROCHET

Antique crochets are genuinely

A lot of crochets were made

a piece of art and craft. It is clear

by

that most of the tools of this kind

In the  19th century, there were

were made for wealthy people.

some companies oriented on

Embroidery for them was just

“hobby-tools”

a hobby. But status required

but for now, even these “cheap”

to have

alternatives

the

most

visually

jewelers

pleasing instruments made of

look

like

precious materials.

expensive

kind.

manufacturing,

ANTIQUE

Ebony Tambour/Crochet Hook 18k gold

one

an

u n i q u e accessory.

in


LunĂŠville Hook

Antique French Crochet Hook 12k gold c.1810-30

23


Tools for embroidery

24

EMBROIDERY HOOK OR CROCHET

Modern crochets can be called

Although crochet is utilizing

“simple” in every way. Shapes

to create the most expensive

a usually

and

fashion apparel, it seems that

materials are cheapest most of

nobody cares to apply some

the time. But most of all, the basic

evolution

design of a tool is absolutely

resources.

pretty

dull,

the same as centuries ago.

to

its

Some craftsmen are to

trying revitalize

old-school approaches, but most of the time, these

attempts

replicate

only

the visual side of the tool.

production


LunĂŠville Hook

MoDErN

25


Tools for embroidery

26

OTHER EMBROIDERY TOOLS

Additional tools research was also full of discoveries, but also a lot of sorrow for  a  modern market

that

opportunity

lost to

a

attract

huge new

customers. Again I saw how beautiful but thoughtful some instruments

Sewing bird 1850-1875

might be. One of my favorite discoveries is the so-called “sewing bird,” which actually a

clamp

with

additional

functionality. I noticed a lot of examples when DIY admirers utilized

ugly

construction

clamps for their embroidery process. Another

fantastic

piece

of equipment is “Chatelaine,” which is a belt-clasp with a lot of small attachable tools such


Other embroidery tools

27

as scissors, needle holders, thimble, etc. In short, a fully customizable device for tailors or DIY person. I believe that

The storage boxes must be

this idea can be evaluated in

revised separately. I cannot treat

a separate project.

them as dull storage, actually.

Holder for spool is my additional pain point as an embroiderer.

To me, it is a jewelry box, which is also a precious piece of art.

IÂ could not find any appropriate example

on

the

modern

market but found one during the research of vintage and antiquity.

Chatelaine Silver

ANTIQUE

Antique French Palais Royal 18k Gold Sewing Set


Tools for embroidery

28

OTHER EMBROIDERY TOOLS

Here

presented

the

basic

kit with supporting tools for the embroiderer. SPOOL HOLDER The wood of a plywood base with a bar for a spool. Usually, it places in the hole in the frame for better thread spreading. One of my examples is a laser-cut, another one made with CNC. It is not really convenient that it can be used as “one spool per base.” Sometimes I work with different threads and materials, and it would be better to have multiple options. TWEEZER AND SPATULA These are using to put in or out

beads

(or

other)

from

storage packaging. Not the first necessity, but convenient.


Other embroidery tools

29

SCISSORS It is better to have a variety of

scissors

for

different

operations. For example, one

SPINNER

scissor is using for cutting

I am not sure what kind

threads, another — for fabric.

of tool used to arrange

TRAY My example is DIY. It is a cork plate velvet-covered with cord border. The tray can be highly useful. If you place all materials on a tray, not embroidery surface, it is easier to rotate the rame.

beads or sequins before, but these days the only option is a spinner. It is hand rotated bowl with a unique hook needle. While the container is turning, beads are spreading on the needle  — a highly tedious process.

MoDErN


30

03. The “problems research” sample made as observation for this project Overall work-time — 9 hours


31

USER EXPERIENCE


User Experience

32

Scuola di Ricamo Alta Moda Rome 07.2019

ALSO ASPIRING EMBROIDERER


Also aspiring Embroiderer

33

In this project, I can treat myself not only as a designer but also as a client and a representative of the target audience. During the past two years, I have started to explore embroidery not only as a hobby for amateurs but also as an additional craft approach for my professional design-development. The first step was getting professional

off-line

training

in Russian and Italian ateliers. This experience gave me both skill development in an expert way and knowledge about real

Couture Embroidery Atelier “E.Va” Moscow 08.2018

working conditions for embroiderers. Also, while I am not studying product design, I am taking part in a variety of on-line embroidery courses and master-classes. That is how I learned to work independently on craft projects. And finally, I am trying to develop my designs based on gained knowledge. Overall, I can state that my personal experience can be a relevant base for inventing a new product for the embroidery field.


User Experience

34

@anna.mlkhv

WHO ARE THE TARGET GROUPS?


Who are the target groups?

35

Several groups represent the user of this product. First, employees or individuals who are working as embroiderers for a full-time, or creating commissioned work. Second, aspiring individuals who mostly studying and exploring the technique and aim to do it for a living. Finally, those who perceive embroidery as a hobby and do not want to be involved in it much. The first two groups seem the most relevant. To get a more clear picture of the user, I decided to survey embroiders. The full list of questions and findings is presented bellow. I was interested in not demography, but mostly experience. There are key findings of the survey: 1. Among respondents, the majority were both professionals or those who occasionally

@taniashay_inspiration

preform a commission work. 2. The majority of respondents prefer to study from a professional tutor, not independently.

5. One of the most important findings is that the majority of respondents do not pay proper attention to exercising and arranging proper

3. Most of the respondents have several handles — each handle per one needle. But

breaks during work.

some paid attention to the design of the tool

The results of the survey are significant, but it will

and chose it according to the mood.

be not the only source for idea development. As

4. As far as a majority of respondents have several handles, the problem of proper

far as I am personally involved in this community and

continually

communicating

with

some

storage for needles does not seem significant.

of the  embroiderers (several of them can be

Although,

it was noticed that there is no

claimed as prominent artisans), I believe it would

universal solution for storing both handles

be better to bring this knowledge and experience

and needles.

to the projects.


User Experience

36


Other embroidery tools

37


User Experience

38


Other embroidery tools

39


User Experience

40

PRODUCT DETAILED OBSERVATION

Here

is

presented

the observation and evaluation of

personal

embroidery

crochets. NEEDLES There are three crochets with a variety of needles — 70, 80, 90, 120 sizes. One tool has only 70 and 80 needle options. Another two are capable of  the  whole range. For this type of embroidery, Schmetz

(Germany)

needles

for

hook

embroidery

The edge of a needle when the unnecessary part was removed improperly

The most common way of storing needles

machines

are

utilized.

The needle has an additional more thick part for the machine installation. This part is usually removing. Sometimes the cut edge is not treated correctly. Each

needle

is

placed

in

a separate plastic bag, which marked with the size. Usually, it is visually hard to detect the size of a needle.

Opening for screw that holding a needle


Product detailed observation

41

The needle is installing into a metal holder that securely attached to a wooden handle. The screw is fixing the needle. SCREW Apart from fixing the needle, a screw has another critical function —

it

is

indicating

not only look nicer, but also it is more comfortable to hold.

Example of storage for crochet

The slimmest grip is also the  most uncomfortable. It is hard to work for a long time. The decoration is not affecting The difference between holding different sizes of needles

the proper way of rotation

the working process at all. BOX Each crochet is storing in a separate plastic box with

handle during the embroidery

a range of needles. There

process. As seen, the design

is a silicone piece to hold

of screws is almost the same.

the handle, but it fits only

HANDLE

Overall, this box is extremely

All handles are made of wood.

a

specific

handle

uncomfortable,

but

radius. there

Only one handle is coated with

is no proper alternative on

wood polish. This handle does

the market.

Needle holding mechanism


User Experience

42

DIMENSIONS & ERGONOMIC

As a basis for the design, I took my own the most simple hook.

It is made of ash-tree

with almost

no

decoration.

The task was to observe more detailed how I hold the hook during embroidery, and analyze how where fingers and palm are placed on the handle. The ideal position of the hook to the surface is vertical — almost 90°. In real life, the hook

Hook is insignificantly inclined.

is insignificantly angled. When The width of the needle

inclination becomes too high, it is hard to make stitches, and the tread’s tension is changing. Point and thumb hold the hook. The middle finger works as a support and also gets the most tension. Other fingers are usually still. I noticed that sometimes I use a little finger for support. I cannot explain

The diameter of metal needle holder


Dimensions & Ergonomic

43

the reason adequately. I believe it caused the thread thickness. The

second

part

of

the observation is checking the  precise measurement of the  tool. This example has the  most thickness for the part where the hook is holding

The length of needle holder

The diameter of holding place

by fingers. My other hooks are

this thickness is not enough

even

for the most comfortable work.

thicker.

Probably,

this

is the reason why I think this hook is the most comfortable. Also, I noticed that sometimes fingers

are

sliding

on

the

surface, although the handle has no polishing finish. I believe

At the same time, the weight of this hook is only 8.6 g, which is almost nothing comparing to any other pen or marker.


User Experience

44

Calluses

PROBLEM 1. ERGONOMICS OF A HANDLE


Problem 1.

45

The lack of tool ergonomics is directly affecting the health conditions of an embroiderer. Such

monotonous

work

as

embroidery is causing calluses on the middle finger. It is both not esthetically pleasing and also can cause more severe health consequences such as Bouchard’s Nodes. To prevent (or at least reduce) the negative impact of the tool, several steps to find the best solutions:

The most stress on a middle finger

1. To figure out the better shape of the handle that will reduce the stress of the middle finger. 2. To find better material for production. 3. To offer clear instructions about the necessity of breaks and gymnastics for hands.


User Experience

46

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FROM OTHER AREAS

From both personal experience and

the

survey,

it

was

discovered that for embroiderer (especially those who work alone), it is tough to take breaks. From reading about arthritis and other musculoskeletal diseases, it is known that not only regular breaks

are

vital,

but

also

ergonomic instruments must be used. The embroidery crochet tool is just a beautiful piece of Pilot Kaküno Launched in 2013

Pilot Dr. Grip Launched in 1993

decoration. For the 18th century, it is fine to think only about the visual outlook. But in the 21st century, we can do better. We do not need to reinvent the wheel to improve crochet, and we need to look closely at the experience and evolution of  other tools for monotonous

Pelikano® Fountain Pen Launched in 2010


Possible Solutions from other areas

47

actions. A pen is the best example. It was interesting to discover that ideas about the comfort and health of pen users came to the designer’s mind not so long ago — around 70s/80s. Improving

manufacturing

technology and materials were more interesting to investigate.

by other manufacturers such as Pilot (Japan) and Pelicano (Germany).

The LAMY safari Launched in 1980

Another critical point is that Fabian’s design is innovative and timeless. We can apply Wolfang Fabian Lamy Safary designer

Thanks

to

Wolfang

new Fabian,

Safari design mostly in user (school

kids),

for now, we have the most famous

ergonomic

improve

manufacturing technology but

who based his famous Lamy experience

materials,

shape

of a  fountain pen. The  idea was adopted and improved

the idea still the same. I believe that if Lamy, one day, decides to enter a new market, tools for craft embroiderers would be a perfect option for them.

First promo campaign


User Experience

48

TEXTURED SURFACE AS A WAY TO RELIEVE FINGERS STRESS

The

distinctive

feature

of the  tambour embroidery technique is a constant rotation of the tool about its axis. So the round shape seems the most appropriate for the hook. It is known that one of the measures to prevent calluses is massage. In this case, the  surface must have a texture to prevent not only sliding but also has a kind of effect of a massage procedure. Gillette Venus Platinu Premium silicone grip

Wörther Anodized aluminum

Firstly, I looked at various pens and other stationery to find any solution for the surface. This research just proved that Lamy has the most elegant and straightforward solution. Then, I noticed that those who design razors pay a lot of attention to both product ergonomics generally and to  the surface of  a  handle.

The process

Concept Cork grip


Textured surface as a way to relieve fingers stress

49

of using a razor does not require rotation, but it does need to  handle it in different ways. So it was interesting to evaluate this product. I noticed that most of the  time handle

of

any

razor

is

The most crucial feature (that definitely should be included in the final design) is an

The Winston The ergonomic body is made of die-cast zinc, polished chrome and a rubberised grip

additional soft surface made for the handle’s inner side. It helps to hold the product Flamingo Original Razor Textured rubber grip

a combination of at least two materials  — hard (like plastic or metal) and soft (like rubber). The  soft material is usually textured somehow. Only one example I found has a texture applied to the plastic.

more securely. And also ease the stress of the palm.

Kai Disposable razor


User Experience

50

Idar-Oberstein Agate Handles with removable needles 1800s Germany

PROBLEM 2. DEALING WITH NEEDLES


Problem 2.

51

For a simple task, it is acceptable to

use

one

needle.

But

for complicated projects, often working with several needles is required. For now, the solutions are either having a variety of handles with different needles or changing needles during the work. For an experienced master, it is not a  big deal. But still, it requires time that can be saved. At the same time, as far as the handle has no storage for different needles, it is needed to keep them around, that not always convenient. Thus, for  the sake of speed (or lazy),

Double slider steel wire needle, brass handle Great Britain either 1887 or 1888

the experienced master would operate with one needle, which might affect the quality. In the same situation, the amateur can easily ruin all work. Overall, the whole framework of changing needles seems old-fashioned and, definitely, can be improved.


User Experience

52

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FROM OTHER AREAS

First of all, there is no need to go so far as to find some solutions to this problem. The tools for different ways of embroidery and knitting from ancient times must be evaluated. This field provides a lot of directions to investigate. Some of the ideas are patented, so it is not clear about the validity of applying. Still, the general guidance can be used.

Steel needle in brass pin John Shrimpton and Son, Redditch, England Design Patent: 1865 GB Rd No 4686

The material that caught my Keyless drill chuck

attention the most is a cork that was utilized for the handle. It is truly a genius in terms of the handle weight (and price). Also, the mechanism for fixing needle easily can be adapted from regular or dental drills. Screwing any head to a handle this way can save time (and

Dental drill chuck


Possible Solutions from other areas

53

Kaurkuk Manufacturer: Morris and Yeomans, Astwood Bank, Redditch, England Patent: 1908 GB 190803813

affect the weight of the hook. And also, only one needle can be installed to the handle. In some ways, this “one handle

temper). It must be kept in mind that for the best result, it is better to make a kind of stopper for the needle to prevent 360° rotation while installing it. Another option for needles is adapting mechanisms from OTF Knife. The benefit of this option is that you don’t need to deal with screwing or something. On the other hand, this may

- one needle” formula might not be a problem for a user, as far as a lot of them like to keep needles that way. However, there are multi-colored pens with a variety of rods that not

thicker

than

needles.

So, a multi-needle handle is potentially also an option.

Brass collet on agate handle Germany from 1800 – 1940

OTF Knife Benchmade Infidel


User Experience

54

G. Chambers & Co. 1847 and 1848 steel wire needle, brass collet, bone handle

PROBLEM 3. TOOL STORAGE & SAFETY


Problem 3.

55

It ofÂ

is

noticed

that

a

embroiderers

lot keep

their instruments in simple boxes or bags. Often, the needle stays in the handle, which can cause not only damage to a tool but also traumas for a master. This problem resonates with the previous one, as far as  it is necessary to decide the possibility of storage needles inside the handle or invent another mechanism.

Antique Crochet or Tambour hooks and silk winder set 1850-1899

Also, it must be kept in mind that each needle should be numbered appropriately (marked). The size of the needle is not always visually precise. Another point is the durability of the storage, especially for those cases when tools must be transported elsewhere.


User Experience

56

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FROM OTHER AREAS

It must be said that Wacom stylus is an excellent source of inspiration for this project, as well as Lamy pens. Not only construction ideas of the device can be adopted, but also the  ways of keeping tips and pen itself. By the way, for some models of styluses (which is a professional tool at the core), the price is almost the same as for crochet. So,

it

seems

fair

to ask

Francesco del Cossa 1476-84 Fresco

manufacturers to think a bit Wacom pen case

more about packaging and storage. Here, storage

there tips

are

different

options

from

Wacom, and similar brands are presented. It must be kept in mind that there are always be some additional needles that should be organized well, even

Wacom case for tips


Possible Solutions from other areas

57

essential. It was noticed that for now, each master invents

Wacom pen stand

the own solution to keep the tool safe, such as using a piece of rubber, silicon, or even Styrofoam, to pin the Belkin Case + Stand for Apple Pencil

needle inside. From a personal perspective, it looks both archaic and not aesthetically

if a handle will be stored for several. Also, the crochet (especially expensive

versions)

must

be placed in proper, say safe and durable packaging. The material for the inside part is

pleasing.

Belkin Case Apple Pencil


User Experience

58

TOOLS OBSERVATION

For the design development, it was essential to take some measurements of two primary inspirational tools: Lamy pen and Wacom Stylus. The first interesting point was to figure out the dimensions of the “sitting place” for fingers, which is the widest part of a pen. I believe that Lamy has the most comfortable size. Wacom, on the one hand, is a bit wide, but the soft material (some kind of  rubber) compensates that. And the diameter can be

squished

a

bit,

which

makes the holding process more comfortable. If Lamy is a piece of well designed and well-balanced plastic, Wacom though about ergonomic from the touching perspective. Soft materials are better than hard if you need to hold an instrument for an extended period.


Tools Observation

59

The second dimension that I was curious about is the average of diameters from the widest to smallest. In other words, how the thickness of the pen in changing. Visually, this change is not so dramatic. It is clear that the pen is narrowing. But

reference for an indication part for hooks. It is seen that 4 mm is more than enough to observe this point on the tool. The question is how to place it on a surface of a hook to make it visually clear and not be a barrier for rotation. observing the hooks, it became

Overall, I believe that most

clear that even tiny change can

of Lamy’s dimensions perfectly

make a tool unbalanced.

fit such a tool as a hook while Wacom pen (at least my old

On Wacom pen, there is a button

version) is a bit thick, and as

that helps to navigate a tool.

a result, it is less comfortable

It is incredibly uncomfortable

to work with.

to use, but it can be a useful


60

04. Brittany Needles Knitting needles and crochet hooks made in California from sustainably harvested birch and black walnut

T M


61

TYPES OF MANUFACTURING


Types of manufacturing

62

WHO MANUFACTURES NEEDLES


Problem 3.

63

The

needles

for

this

type

of embroidery are manufactured only by one company from Germany  — Scmetz, that is specializing

in

developing

a range of tools, supplies, and machinery for both professional and amateur sewing. This

specific

needle

for tambouring and automatic embroidery a

machines

has

feature,

such

distinctive

as a hook. The needle is incredibly tip

is

sharp,

fragile.

and

The

the

needle

itself is pretty hard to broke.

A particular type of metal wire is utilizing for manufacturing. The full length is about 15,9 cm, which is pretty long for the current construction of the embroidery hook. The distribution process cannot be claimed as effective for clients. The fabric has no online store or official partner for end buyers, only for wholesale retailers, which significantly affect the price. In Russia, only a few large shops can afford to distribute the needles at a reasonable price.


Types of manufacturing

64

NEEDLES MANUFACTURING PROCESS

Needle Triangular Tip Grinding Machine $15000

Wire Straightening Machine $5000

A sewing needle has such a simple shape, and

shaking shoots and fall into bins and neat piles.

its manufacturing method

seems also simple,

Each one will be used to make two needles.

just “Cutting, Grinding and Polishing.” However,

The grinding wheel turns, and at the same

it is still manufactured through more than

time, the overhead wheel revolves in a different

30 processes at present.

direction to bear down the ends of the wires and

The manufacturing process for a simple sewing needle looks pretty easy. Wire Straightening Machine makes the thin steel wire straight and removes any kinks. Then cutter slices the wire to the length of two needles. The wires exit into

grind them to a point. It takes up to six grindings to make the tips sharp enough. Even for this process, it takes at least four types of machinery. To make a needle for sewing or embroidery machine, the process requires additional tools


Needles manufacturing process

65

Needle End Drilling Machine $13000

Standard Automatic Needle End Annealing Machine $3000

and devices to produce proper end or to make

The understanding of fundamental manufacturing

the second diameter.

issues is also a point not to focus on needle

The price for any machinery for needles is relatively high. So a lot of investment is required to start needle manufacturing. Most of the  machinery developers, for now, are centered in Asia. However, as described before, only Schemtz company is producing the best quality needles for embroidery.

redesign, for a handle.

but

concentrate

on

solutions


Types of manufacturing

66

Tambour embroidery hook Kasimov Museum of History and Culture

CRAFT PRODUCTION


Craft

67

The craft production definition is the manufacturing process of

making

products,

one

by one, with or without the aid of tools, usually in a job shop manufacturing setting. Regardless of the product, craft production’s finished goods are unique, tell a story, and (should be)

made

of

exceptionally

high quality, which is the most significant appeal of purchasing something

from

a

craft

manufacturer. The qualification of craft workers and the level of their skills might directly affect the number of sales.

Tambour embroidery hooks Ivory and silver

It must be noted that these days there is a shortage of truly experienced and skilled craft professionals. Training for anyone working in craft production can be intensive and delivered through apprenticeships, workshops, lectures, or just a simple handson approach. Before the XX century, a significant amount of embroidery tools were craft manufactured. These days, this approach is also practiced. Craft-produced crochets are most expensive, beautiful, and usually made by pre-order.


Types of manufacturing

68

EQUIPMENT FOR CRAFT PRODUCTION

Equipment for craft production is most of all skillful hands of a master. Having a bit of craft woodwork experience, I can say that even with simple tools, it is possible to create amazing things. And with a bit of just electricity,

the

possibilities

of craft-makers are rising. Regarding

the

manufacturing,

hooks it

must

craft be

noted that the essential tool is a simple mini wood lathe.

Set of Chisels Perfect for DIY sculpture carpenter

Wood Lathe Just for the constant rotation

It must be able to make not so much — to hold the wood tight and rotate it with speed needed. All measurements are on the craftsman, who also use it for polishing. The price for this type of machinery is not so high and equivalent to three or four finished hooks.

Craftsmen is carving mother-ofpearl with Dremel


Equipment for craft production

69

A set of nice chisels is also a good investment. Different knives help to make a variety of decorating effects that clients always willing to pay for. Dremel

or

equivalent

is

definitely required for those

In the 19th century, there was no (almost no) electricity or tools that can perform incredibly

high

speed.

At the  time, the old craftsmen created a masterpiece. Making a part for Windsor chair Shaving horse was also a craft piece

craftsmen who already earn a bit and want to raise prices for products. It  also helps to work not only with wood but also with a variety of materials such as mother-of-pearl.

Basic woodworking tools


Types of manufacturing

70

Embroidery crochet without needles $46

BATCH MANUFACTURING


Batch

71

Batch manufacturing is a style of production which compiles the different components of a product through step by step processes. Advantages of batch production: • Reduces the effect of set up time. • Permits use of heavy-duty equipment. • Don’t have to make constant adjustments. • Get in the flow. • Reduce

the

burden

of

transportation time. • Has

space

for

unique

configurations.

Embroidery crochet suitable for variety of needles $42

• Improve production planning and scheduling. • Easier to spot mistakes. The majority of Russian manufacturers are batch producing crochets. It is the easiest way to get the needed amount of products faster and without high costs. Recently, some new manufacturers are trying to enter the manufacturing market, which immediately affected the price became lower), better quality, and (in some insignificant ways) design and usability of the product.


Types of manufacturing

72

INTERVIEW WITH THE EMBROIDERY HOOKS MANUFACTURER

Questions were answered by Valentina Rozhkova, the owner of the brand “Vintage Rose.” In Russia, the brand is known as not only as embroidery school (that provides an official diploma) or one of the largest Online stores for embroiderers but also as one of the first local manufacturers of Luneville crochets. Also, Valentina is an alumnus of Lesage school and an embroiderer with many years of experience.


Interview with the embroidery hooks manufacturer

73

MANUFACTURING Why

did

you

of embroidery hooks? We came up with this idea in January 2017. At  that time, we imported French hooks, but with each batch, the  quality became worse and worse, and prices in steadily

batch. The first batch of

decide

to engage the production

euros

for today was a defective carved holders was thin, and

By the way, the most popular carved shape for today was a defective batch.

increased.

that it is better to respond to any quality claims for our product, not imported.

for thicker one, so it remained in the range. Do you make all components for the  production of hooks from scratch (a pen, a metal fastener

for

a

needle,

something from suppliers?

hooks, taking into account hook that was available at that time. We agreed

thicker. But customers voted

screws), or do you buy

And we decided to make our all the knowledge about the

the second, by mistake, was

Yes, we make all the components of the handle ourselves — wooden handles from different types of wood, with various processing options (baking wood, polishing). We also produce

What was the prototype for your hooks — own

metal fasteners and screws on a lathe. We buy

design based on experience, a finished sample

only needles in Germany, because no one else

from the store?

does them, and creating it yourself is impossible. The production process requires an impressive

Initially, we did the design that the wood masters could create, but after some time, my brother, an engineer, joined us and (thanks to his technical

manufacturing line and a special needle wire. What do you pay more attention to the production

drawings), we were able to make two types

process? For example, quality control of finished

of holders (a drop and a short one with a ball on

products, availability of materials, something

the top) — like in France. And after that, we started

else?

to experiment and fantasize. I mean, a professional approach is always better. We still keep the very

The first and primary so far is the quality

first holder that shows where we started. But it

of the product. We check each handle twice. First,

looks terrible :). To make one of the most popular

all the handles are checked by my brother, who

designs, we were inspired by a form of chess.

is now fully engaged in the production part and

By the way, the most popular carved shape

work with suppliers. Second, Alexander (technical


Types of manufacturing

74

director) reviews the final commodity packaging.

In your experience, what wishes/suggestions/

Such control allows us to find all the smallest

complaints do customers make about the product

defects. We do not sell hooks even with the tiniest

more often? Were there any funny requests?

cracks. Such products claim as defected, and we use it in our studio. We provide customers with

Most buyers are satisfied with the product

almost 100% quality hooks.

because it performs its functions one hundred

In your opinion, is wood the best material for making hooks? We tried to make pens from polymer materials, but all the pens turned out to be heavy and quite expensive. Therefore, wood remains the most convenient and suitable material in all respects (inexpensive, pleasant to use, durable and amenable to processing).

percent. In case the person knows how to use the tool. There are complaints about breakdowns of the instrument, but here we look at the moment of failure. If it broke while delivery (rarely, but it happens), then we change it without problems. If the buyer broke it personally, then we can give recommendations on how to fix it. Of the  most frequent  — for some reason, customers try to unscrew metal needle holders. Of the most curious cases, a couple of years ago,

CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS In your opinion, what is the most important for your customer: design (visual beauty  — a carved handle, color) or the presence of additional elements (a set of needles in the kit, a storage box)? It seems to me that they are looking at the design and additional options, and at a price. The buyer needs to have a choice, but at the same time, the price for the product should be appropriate. We offer both handles separately, and a set with needles and a case. Usually, a kit is taken

when Luneville embroidery became popular, and videos of Indian masters began to appear on YouTube with embroidery at tremendous speed, a woman wrote me a claim that she bought a hook, put it down and does not understand how to turn it on to start embroidery. The complaint was that we sold the goods without checking its performance. She was sure that the hook should perform embroidery on its own. And her hand is only necessary to direct it in the right direction, like a sewing machine. But she could not find a button or a place for batteries and was very unhappy about that.

by those who just want to start embroidering, and

In your opinion, does Instagram promotion affect

handles are bought independently by those who

sales of a specific tool? For example, one master

wish to have their pen for each needle. But kits

on Instagram showed the hook to the public and

are purchased better than single handle.

mentioned your store. Is it affect your sales?


Interview with the embroidery hooks manufacturer

75

Yes, it happens, but we feel it more in

Yes, sometimes. Damage sometimes

the foreign market. If an international

occurs in carved thick pens, dark in

master showed his hook and said

color. The dark color is obtained

where it was bought, then we see

by a special baking wood technique.

a demand for this particular form hook from abroad customers. Our customers usually take the simplest hook from the most inexpensive price category. Often, they explain this by the fact that they suddenly

Kits are purchased better than single handle.

In colored handles, wood is drier and more fragile. Therefore, when falling on a stone or tile can crack. It also happens occasionally with needles; they can break when dropped on

don’t like it, but have already spent

a stone or tiled floor when inserted

a lot of money.

into a handle. Therefore, if you have finished embroidering, put on

EXPERIENCE

a needle with a hook into a foam

In your experience, does an embroiderer need

ball, a rubber cap, or just a piece of an eraser.

more than one handle with a full set of needles,

Then, when dropped, the needle will not break.

or is it better to have several handles for each needle?

Why since the 19th century (and maybe even earlier) has the hook as a tool changed

I have handles for each needle. Since I have

only in a decorative sense, but not in terms

a vast number of handles rejected in appearance

of convenience and ergonomics?

(but absolutely working), then I actively use them. It is convenient because I do not need to change

Probably because it initially does an excellent

the needles and spend time on the neat storage

job. It’s like a shovel or a hoe. It has not changed

of needles without a handle. In the handles, they

almost over the centuries, because its mission

are less lost. But in principle, the craftsmen work

is to dig the earth. About the decorative side

with a 70 or 80 needle. Often, one handle is more than enough.

of the hook, I can say that now the handles are more modest than their ancestors in the 19th or

Have you ever happen a breakdown in the handle

early 20th century. That time, the hooks were

and/or needle? For example, it fell to the floor,

made of ivory, decorated with silver and other

and something broke off.

excesses. Now the hooks are much simpler ●


Types of manufacturing

76

EQUIPMENT FOR BATCH PRODUCTION

Batch

production

of

hooks

requires a variety of machineries such as lathe and CNC for wood and metal. More powerful and intellectual

solutions

offer

a good speed of manufacturing, more precise control of quality, and getting several samples at the same time. However, such machinery requires a certain level of employee’s technical competence to operate devices properly. It must be mentioned that

learning

the

CNC Wood Turning Lathe Machine $3000

basic

principles of machinery work is much easier than study craft techniques. So batch production help manufacturers to be less dependent on masters and artisans. To

start

batch

production

of hooks (with old-school design) does not require significant investment in machinery. As  it was

researched,

CNC

and


Equipment for batch production

77

Lathe are more than enough to start the process. Also, a simple laser engraver, that does not cost much can be excellent

support

customization

or

for

basic

branding

of products. Unfortunately, most of the Russian manufacturers do not use it. It must be mentioned that those who do use it having benefits on the market, as far as

not only with plastic but also rubber-like materials such as thermoplastic

polyurethane,

thermoplastic

elastomer,

BestEquip Metal Lathe $1400

silicone. There Rubber 3d printing machine $6000

a lot of artisans show their tools on Instagram.

are

two

significant

problems with 3d printing technology

for

hook

manufacturing. First, the price for

printer

and

materials.

Second, the ability to print

I see a lot of potential in

tiny pieces. Overall,

3d printing for hooks batch

believed that these problems

production.

will

Especially

be

solved

it is shortly,

for those who want to improve

considering the improvement

the construction of the hook.

of technology during the last

3d printing technology works

years.

Laser Engraver $300


Types of manufacturing

78

Embroidery stitching tool Clover

MASS PRODUCTION


Mass production

79

Mass the

production manufacturing

quantities

of

is

of

large

standardized

products, often using assembly lines or automation technology. Mass

production

facilitates

the efficient creation of a large number of similar products. Mass

production

has

advantages.

If

stringently

monitored,

many

production

is

mass

production can result in a high level of precision because production line

machines

have

preset

parameters. Mass production also results in lower costs because the

automated

assembly

line

Embroidery Pen Stitching Punch Tool

production process requires fewer workers. However, establishing an automatic assembly line is capital-intensive and requires a significant upfront investment of time and resources. If there is an error in the production design, an extensive investment of time and money may be necessary to redesign and rebuild mass production processes. There are no found cases that proved the mass production of described crochets. But it is known that some Asian companies are mass producing the hobby device called “Embroidery stitching tool.” These examples can argue that the mass production of professional crochets is potentially possible.


Types of manufacturing

80

EQUIPMENT FOR MASS PRODUCTION

As mentioned, today, there is no mass production of embroidery hooks

for

the

Luneville

technique. Observing similar tools, it is seen that traditional manufacturing methods, such as injection molding or casting, are utilized. As far as plastic is the only used material for these hobby tools (excluding metal for needle), given methods have a lot of benefits. Above all, these technologies have a history.

They are well

Mold for plastic bottle 250000-300000 shots $800

PLASTIC INJECTION MACHINE An automatic injection molding machine with a small footprint (4 ft X 1 ft) $12500

developed. There are a range

itself has pretty high production

of machinery, different prices,

quotas.

and

characteristics.

Material

for production is cheap and easy to buy. Technology and the process of making molds are also well developed and relatively affordable. The mold

On the other hand, with the fast-developed

3d

printing

solutions, these technologies look archaic rather and not worthy of investing, if some want to  enter the market.


Equipment for mass production

81

In some ways, the gap between mass and batch production is vanishing if 3d technology will

be

implemented

the manufacturing

in

process.

The difference is in the quantity of 3d printers in a workshop. Taking producing

into only

consideration plastic

(or

rubber and other soft options) parts for embroidery hooks,

There are some solutions for

printing

metal.

Unfortunately, this technology includes highly

at

least

expensive

four pieces

of machinery, and a 3d printer Metal X – Complete 3d Metal Printing Solution $100000 (only printer)

is just one in this line. This option is successfully using in car parts manufacturing.

such technology as SLA printing

So, for such a narrow market

gives many opportunities. SLA

as embroidery tools, it is

printers use laser technology to

better to use good old CNC.

cure the printing material, which

As another option, it is possible

is applicable not only in medical

to use a 3d printer to produce

or jewelry fields but also in any

highly detailed patterns and

areas where tiny pieces need

use a casting technology.

to be print out.

Formlabs form 3 SLA 3D printer $6000 CNC Router 1476-84 Fresco


Types of manufacturing

82

Custom-made Crochets by @skress777 apx. $130

MASS CUSTOMIZATION


Mass Customization

83

Mass

customization

is

the process of delivering widemarket goods which are modified to satisfy a  specific customer’s need. It is a  marketing and manufacturing technique that combines the  flexibility and personalization

of

custom-

made products with the low unit

costs

associated

with

mass production. Other names for mass customization include made-to-order or built-to-order. Mass

customization

allows

a customer to design certain features of a product while still

keeping costs closer to that of mass-produced products. In some cases, the components of the product are modular. This flexibility allows the client to mix-and-match options to create a semi-custom final product. As far as for now, crochets are not mass-produced, it can be talked only about possibilities for this strategy. Also, it must be noted that for the tool (described previously), some elements of mass customization, such as a variety of separate needles, are applied.


Types of manufacturing

84

EQUIPMENT FOR MASS CUSTOMIZATION

There are two main strategies of

mass

customization

modularity and personalization. Modularity requires a variety of parts production and gives a user to choose only from limited usually

options. is

not

The price changing

dramatically for users in such an approach. Personalization offers a customer to take part in the design, or better to say, the decoration process. The product

can

be

produced

in a specific color, with any Product Configurator Software $30/month

Fiber Laser Marking Machine 1476-84 Fresco

additional

decoration,

but

Thus,

not

only

specific

without any changes in the

machinery required for such

basic

service

constructions.

customization

usually

Such costs

more than a simple version, but the price is still reasonable. Also, manufacturing (and delivery) time can be extended.

but

also

additional

product configuration software to offer a customer the easiest way to choose the needed option.


Equipment for mass customization

85

Speaking

about

machinery

and technology, it is seen that 3d printing also one of the most

promising

technology.

To expand this idea a bit more, it is appropriate to refer not only to advanced laser and engraving machines

and

3d

printers

The

main

disadvantage

of this technology is the price. But,

for sure,

it

will

be

dropped recently with further development. Matter and Form Scanner V2 Desktop scanner $800

but also about 3d scanning. As far as one of the main problems for embroidery hook is ergonomics, this technology can be potentially used to scan a hand of a person, and a basic handle can be adopted some

features

of

anatomy.

Artec 3D Shapify Booth $18000 CREAFORM GO!SCAN SPARK Handheld 3D scanner $40000


86

05.


87

IDEATION


Ideation

88

PROJECT BRIEF


Project Brief

89

INTRODUCTION Today, embroidery is considering not only a hobby but as a massive part of the fashion industry. Both prominent Fashion Houses and aspiring designers are applying a variety of embroidery techniques to offer new distinctive garments to their customers. Luneville embroidery is one of the best techniques to produce astonishing embellishments. It is not surprising that a lot of people study this technique either in France or at local studious and ateliers. The first lesson that each student must have learned is a way of using Luneville crochet. A  student will spend hours of practice to  gain a certain level of work quality. But the skill will be improving with a tool that is absolutely the same as in the 19th century or earlier.

FIND The research is required to study several fields, including the history of the crochet manufacturing itself and other alike tools. It is needed to discover the distinctive features of ancient embroidery/knitting tools. Additionally, the best practice of tools from not directly related areas must be researched to find suitable solutions. Also, studying user experience and especially pain points, would be highly beneficial for the final design. PLAY Based on the knowledge gained during the research, several possible solutions for the problem can be offered. The best one must be chosen and evaluate most clearly in verbal and visual ways. MAKE This stage requires producing rough design prototypes. Based on sketches and experiments, the CAD model with several renders of the final design must be presented. TALK During the presentation, it must be shown how the offered design corresponds to the task in brief. Also, it must be explained how the model can be produced in different types of manufacturing.

TASK These days, when not visual appearance, but ergonomics and comfort of utilizing any tool or devise is highly required, it is strange to see that evolution did not touch Luneville crochet. Thus, the task of this brief is to improve the design of both the embroidery tool and its packaging and make it more responsive to the 21st century. DETAILS It is known that Luneville crochets are mostly developing by small manufacturers or even by artisans, who are usually focusing on producing unique tools for the only customer. In this case, it would be relevant to offer a design option not only for batch production but also for massmarket manufacturers.

DELIVERABLES Project Log with detailed description of research and ideation. A product concept, including packaging, depict as a CAD model. Presentation of the concept.


Ideation

90

I LIKE TO SORT NEW KNOWLEDGE ON THE SHELVES AND TO TRAIN MY HANDS

PERSONA 1 PROFILE ASPIRING EMBROIDERER


Persona 1 profile

91

ABOUT

DESIRES, GOALS, DREAMS

Lena is an aspiring embroiderer. She is young

• Not to worry about money for business

(near 30), has a family. She did not like her

• To be a part of international fashion brand

previous job (and was not happy with a salary)

• Be on Ran-a-way

and wanted to do something else for a living. She studied embroidery online at first two years, but around a year ago finished the offline professional program of a famous master. Now she started to earn on her craft, but she wants

• Personal studio • Clients who like anything that they were offered! • Lesage!!!!!!

more (first of all — finally quit her job). She likes to create her designs. Also, she started studying business and fashion online. Lena believes that the small local studio with three or four employees is a real and reasonable dream.

NEEDS • No limited perfect quality supplies • The best tools (for embroidery and any additional) • Reliable team

MOTIVATION • To be recognized as a creative person • To earn on embroidery (as a tutor or a creator) • To enjoy the process • To focus on creation, not on boring things such selling or promotion

• To make work faster • Good masseur with reasonable price • Another hour in a day, or three as a best option • 8 hours of sleep • IP protection

LIKES / DISLIKES

FEARS & FRUSTRATION

• Beautiful tools and expensive supplies

• Nobody will like (and buy)

• The work — process, not selling or promoting

• I’m not talented

• Constant neck aching is disturbing!

• Family and friends will not support

• It is annoying than someone stole the

• Unfair competition

design... again

• It is too late to start


Ideation

ooboard

92


Persona 1 profile

93


Ideation

94

MY BASIC TOOLS ARE PHONE, LAPTOP, NOTEBOOK AND A LOT OF APPS FOR PLANNING.

PERSONA 2 PROFILE PROFESSIONAL EMBROIDERER


Persona 2 Profile

95

ABOUT

DESIRES, GOALS, DREAMS

For Irina (who is about 40), embroidery is

• Not to worry about money for business

a business. She spends most of the time

• To forget about taxes and lease issues

sorting out problems and concerns around her

• To establish a dream-team

embroidery studio, such as hiring new people, promoting social media, searching for new clients (who are ready to pay). Relationship with

• To build suitable for her working schedule • Vacation with no headache about studio!

the government is her nightmare, but she is the only person who can do that. She cannot afford to spend hours on embroidery orders (her time is money), but sometimes she makes it online (on Instagram) or to create new design samples. Studying new for her is mostly business

NEEDS

education. But she is eager to join any private

• Reliable partners and suppliers

creative classes abroad.

• The best tools (for embroidery and any additional) • Reliable and experienced team • To make work faster

MOTIVATION • To be recognized as serious business locally and internationally • To

join

professional

fashion

business

community • To be independent

• Another hour in a day, or three as a best option • 8 hours of sleep • IP protection • Stable clientele

• To discover new niches

LIKES / DISLIKES

FEARS & FRUSTRATION

• To see stable income / profit

• Taxes will be rose... again

• To talk (embroidery) online with followers

• Landlord will rise rent, and new room must

who admires her • To be a mentor (also a paid service) • Hates lazy people who just talking

be found • Any force majeure


Ideation

ooboard

96


Persona 2 Profile

97


Ideation

98

I TOOK PART IN FOUR EMBROIDERY MARATHONS FORÂ THE LAST THREE MONTHS. MY FAMILY IS NOT SO HAPPY, BUT I AM!

PERSONA 3 PROFILE EMBROIDERY AS A HOBBY


Persona 3 profile

99

ABOUT

DESIRES, GOALS, DREAMS

Natalia is a mom. This is her main job. For

• To earn something on her hobby

now, she is on maternity with her second child.

• To prove her family that she is a creative

Before, she was a good accountant, but now she doesn’t like it at all. She is a bit tired to spend all her day on family, and wants some private time. She is active Instagram user. She follows a lot of professional embroiderers, but joining an offline

person • To join offline workshop in Moscow, or at least in St.Petersburg • To provoke a bit of envy from friends

course is pricy. So, free lessons or marathons are best options. Her husband understands these intentions, but thinks this is expensive hobby. It is fine to sped a bit from family budget occasionally, like birthday or New Year presents, but children is the first priority.

NEEDS • The same materials, supplies, tools, but cheaper • To get that nice tool that Inga Marita showed in sher last story • A lot of likes

MOTIVATION • To show that she can combine family and hobby • To spend her personal time for something she likes

• Free time! • Help from husband, grandma, etc. with kids • To motivate elder kid to help her •

LIKES / DISLIKES

FEARS & FRUSTRATION

• When her works are tagged in popular

• Nobody will like (and buy)

Instagram profiles

• Husband will reject to give money

• To make something easy but beautiful

• Someone will make it better

• To be a part of community

• New hype technique will appear but she

• To

gossip

embroiderers

about

masters

or

other

cannot find the way to learn for free


Ideation

ooboard

100


Persona 3 profile

101


Ideation

102

FORM SEARCHING

To identify the main direction

but mostly some construction

of

some

features, that really needed

idea

to be implemented to solve real

design,

rough

I

made

sketches.

The

was to visually search for some

underlying

problems

and identify several solutions for that. I aimed to sketch not only

visual

outlook

(which

in my opinion must be simple)

problems of users. A more detailed study of shape was

made

during modeling.

CAD


Persona 3 profile

103


basic construction 104

• nothing to relieve finger stress

• majority of handle — solid material

• screws design — decorative

• needle can’t be changed easily

Ideation


Form searching

ergonomics

105


ergonomics

right-handed

left-handed

Ideation

106


Form searching

ergonomics

107


diameter should not be huge

rotation between fingers —

Ideation

108


surface to massage fingers

Form searching

109


engraving

indication as

how to avoid screw

this product is for women who want beauty not steampunk

Ideation

110


needle holder

thoughtful

decorative, not

all these are

Form searching

111


how to avoid screw Ideation

112


core

customization options.

For individuals - have mass

Pros don’t accept decoration.

What to do with a top part?

Form searching

113


how to avoid screw Ideation

114


how to avoid screw

Form searching

115


top - functionality Ideation

116


Form searching

top - decoration

117


Magnet base can be placed on metal parts on frame

sizes are not correct, just an idea the wire inside to regulate the length of a needle

Ideation

118


Form searching

119


Ideation

120

Experiments with the surface

CAD MODEL. VER. 01


Cad Model. Ver. 01

121

At this stage, I tried to assemble all ideas I have gained during sketching into one product. It was essential to figure out the  precise dimensions that actually were not so clear previously. For example, it became clear that the indication mark should be removed from the inner part. Also, I noticed that inserting marks at the core is placed not in the middle, so it is not possible to just rotate the base, and the second pair of marks

must be set. Such minor details make a big difference, and convert a simple (at first sight) object to a complicated model. Also, it becomes clear that additional decorations that I planned while sketching is not the best idea, as far as the design looks rather modern and minimalistic. So “less is more” became an unofficial slogan for this tool.


Ideation

122

A

needle

is

the

only

piece

from all construction that I am offering to buy from a supplier. As mentioned before, for such productions, manufacturing

many

complicated

processes

(and

expensive machinery) are required.

At the same time, I am offering not to cut (which sometimes looks like ruining) the thick part, but use it as a benefit in my design. Here I put the first version of the hook model. I decided to apply some materials, which are definitely not the final. To me, it was essential to look at my design as a finished product. As far as I had to skip the “Prototype” stage, observing such a “final look” helped me analyze my product and search for additional problems.


Cad Model. Ver. 01

1.

123

Soft grip

Fully assembled construction

Also, I decided to make several additional renders to represent the whole dissembling process. In this case, I believe it is better than just an exploded view that shows only parts but not steps by step process.


Ideation

124

Top cap


Cad Model. Ver. 01

2.

125

The soft (rubber) holding part is dismounted


Ideation

126

Core holder

Core


Form searching

3.

127

The core that holding two needles is inserting to the holder

with two needles


Ideation

128

Final construction in transparent materials without a soft grip

CAD MODEL. FINAL


Cad Model. Final

129

This model is an improved version of the first one. A range of changes was made based on the previous evaluation, such as moving the core holder’s indication to the soft grip or adding an extra pair of holding marks to a core. Also, I improved the contact point between a core and its holder to make this connection more stable and prevent sliding the core through the holder. Additionally,

I

decided

to experiment with the idea of  converting a grip into a cap

that protecting a needle. This idea came to me during sketching. I thought about it as an extra feature that probably will be helpful, but not essential.


Ideation

130


Cad Model. Final

131


Ideation

132

Grip + Cap

I noticed it would be nice to think about a grip not only as a relieving finger stress part but also as a cap, that preserving a needle. Even if you have a beautiful stand, sometimes it is better to place a tool near. At the same time, I did not want to add extra complexity to the design. So I assumed that installing “plus/minus” magnets in the right spots of the hook will be a good solution.


Cad Model. Final

133


echnical drawings, mm

Ideation

134


Cad Model. Final

135


Ideation

136

STAND FOR HOOK


Stand for hook

137

I had a dilemma what kind of item for storage for embroidery hook will be better: a box or a stand. From a personal perspective, the 

box

seemed

more

appropriate. It is easy to put on a shelve or to a place where I’m storing all my embroidery supplies.

But,

as

research

showed, most of the users do not care about the beauty of boxes, but some equipment to keep a hook around working space would be nice to have. That is the reason for the stand modeling.

As far as this is an additional tool, I will not be a focus on manufacturing processes. I assume they will be absolutely the same as for manufacturing the hook, at least for mass production, and probably for batch as well. Offered design, actually, is quite simple, the primary value in the functionality. So I believe any craftsmen with proper modern equipment can develop such construction. Of course, it will require a lot of time, and probably developing a beautiful box will be more comfortable.


Ideation

138

Cap that holding a hook securely. The inner diameter of the cap matches the grip, which is preventing sliding.

Pin pad for needles. Foam based pad. Can be uses for both embroidery needles and regular pins


Form searching

139

Notches to place a hook.

Non-slippery surface. Rubber, also can be a magnetic.


140

06.


141

MATERIALS & PRODUCTION


Materials & Production

eneral material board

142

aluminum titanium precious metals (gold)

leather

wood

rubber

plastic

silicone


Stand for hook

143

metal

plastic

wood

plastic

aluminum titanium precious metals (gold)


Materials & Production

144

Types of Rubber Molding

COMPRESSION MOLDING

LIQUID

Compression molds vary considerably

INJECTION

Compression Molding is the simplest form

MOLDING:

LIM The custom injection molding of Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR) uses much of  the same process and equipment as injection molding. In both methods, the  mold is heated and closed before the uncured rubber is injected. Unlike high consistency rubber (HCR), also known as gum stock, liquid Silicone is just that, a “high viscosity liquid” that comes in two parts, Part A and Part B. For applications where contamination is a problem or where high volumes are required, LIM is ideal. The Medical Industry prefers LIM because it is a  closed system of molding, meaning, the pail or drum kits of uncured Liquid Silicone are loaded into the pumping system, injected and cured without human

Liquid

thermal

set

molding.

in size, shape, and complexity and also contain from one to a very high number of cavities. The Compression Molding process is as follows: “An uncured rubber preform, which is often shaped to the approximate size & configuration of the desired finished part, is placed directly in the mold cavity before mold closure.” During the molding process, rubber is compressed (squeezed) between the Top and Bottom plates. The uncured preform

must

weigh

more

than

the finished part for air to be driven out of the mold cavity during mold closure. If the preform weighs the same or less than the finished piece, voids, air traps, or non-fills will appear on the finished product. The excess rubber will flow into the overflow or flash groove. Two,

Injection

three, or more mold plates may be used

Silicone Molding is ideal because

depending upon part configuration

of its ability to manufacture Silicone

and complexity. The rubber is then

Products at a low cost, thus ensuring

Vulcanized (cured), utilizing both heat

competitiveness

and pressure. The result is a Rubber

Industry.

contact.

of

in

the

Medical

Product that will meet specifications.


Primary Mass Production Methods for the Product

145

Injection Molding to produce plastic parts Injection molding is an essential industrial method. It is a little bit similar to die casting, but the difference is in the raw material used. In die casting metals which require extremely high temperature for melting are used, but injection molding is mainly done on glasses, elastomers and most commonly thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. This technique is widely used for the fabrication of thermoplastic materials. This process is done by heating of raw material and injecting them into the mold cavity by applying pressure at a specific temperature without any change in their chemical composition. APPLICATIONS: • Injection molding is used for making complex shape parts of various sizes having less wall thickness. • Typical elements like a cup, containers, toys, plumbing fittings, electrical components, telephones receivers, bottle caps, automotive parts, and components.

ADVANTAGES:

• Parts made by the injection molding process are competing with parts made by investment casting and complex machining parts. • This process has a high production rate as compared to other techniques.

DISADVANTAGE: • The initial cost/ setup cost of this process is very high due to the design, testing, and tooling of the whole equipment.

• The main advantage of this process is that

• Investment molding is generally limited

complex shape components with a small wall

to some particular kind of materials like

thickness (5-15 mm) can be easily molded and

thermoplastic materials or some polymers

removed from the die without damage.

only.

• Parts that are made by injection molding have good dimensional tolerance.

• High tooling cost i.e., the mold used, is made by several processes, and testing the overall

• The significant advantage of this technique is

cost of building a single mold is very high.

that the scrap produced by this is very less

For different parts, different kinds of molds

as compared to some other processes.

are required.


Materials & Production

146

I

believe

that

technologies

3D

are

printing

the

best

and the most innovative way to

start

batch

production

of this type of product. The technology

is

continuously

developing. It will get cheaper, but the quality will be better. Investment in equipment even now is lower than traditional machinery. With the current level, the sophisticated, unique shapes can be produced. Yes, the price, for now, is the only drawback, but it is definitely not for long. Here, I put the description of 3D printing benefits for jewelry. The reason is that the hook, both historically and technically (material

thickness,

general

dimensions), is a piece of jewelry. So such an approach is just showing that for production, not all 3D printing methods can fit.


The best & innovative Batch production method for the Product

147

3D PRINTING Using an SLA or resin 3D printer to produce 3D designs is excellent because it combines investment casting and home 3D printing. The castable resin used to print the models does not stain when it liquefies during the casting process. Casting resin produces high-quality 3D printed jewelry. The traditional way of making jewelry starts by creating a wax prototype, either manually or using a  CAD machine. The equipment used limits the designs that the jewelry can be molded into. The more complex the design is, the higher the cost of the wax would be. After building the wax prototype, a 3D printer can be used in the production process. With a 3D printer, it is more comfortable, cheaper, and faster to make intricate jewelry designs. After the 3D printer has finished its job, the resin mold has to be poured in a plaster mold to create the jewelry you want. The casting can be done on your own or hire a casting company. 3D PRINTING JEWELRY WITH SLA PRINTER Printing 3D jewelry with SLA printers is effortless — to fill the resin cartridge, put the resin tray in place, and clip the wiper blade down. After that, the screen will be showing whether things are doing correctly. The printer will notify if not even. In this case, check the information on the screen to know how to adjust the printer to make it even. The next step is to send a print file to the printer. This can be done through a wireless connection, memory card, or a network cable. The screen will show the queued tasks, which is ideal if multiple jobs have to be printed. The resin inside the tank will be heated to 30 degrees Celsius and mixed with the wiper arm before printing starts. The software can be configured to notify when the models have finished printing.


Materials & Production

148

Laser Engraving Laser marking also called laser etching and laser engraving can be achieved on many metal alloys and plastics. Laser-marking can be used to put company names, logos, design patterns, dates, or part numbers etched onto surfaces of parts. Laser marking is sometimes preferred over alternative mechanical engraving methods where cutter bit heads have to be replaced on a regular basis. Where physical alteration of a material or part surface by mechanical engraving method is undesirable, laser marking can be considered.

Pad Printing Color labeling process in which a silicone pad is used to transfer a color print from a painted template to the workpiece. A smooth template (1) with the embossed pattern acts as an ink pad for a color coater

(2)

which spreads paint along the surface, filling

the engraving with paint. Depending on the shape of the object to be stamped, the pattern may be distorted to appear right after stamping. A pad rubber

is

(3)

pressed

of silicon against

the template, and a majority of the ink is thus transferred to the pad. The  pad is then pressed against the object to be printed. Thanks to the pad’s flexibility, it conforms to the object’s surface. Multiple templates can be used with additional prints with other colors added to the  previous print.


The ways to Customize the Product

149

Heat Transfer Heat transfer decal decorating utilizes high-quality screen printed or digitally printed images on a clear carrier that are permanently bonded to a part by the heat and pressure of the hot stamping process. Since heat transfer decals are preprinted, multicolor images are transferred to the part in one pass. Thermal transfers are pre-printed digital images that are bonded to the plastic product using heat and pressure. The end result is visually pleasing, but, most importantly, quick and affordable.

There are a lot of ways to customize this product. Here, I gave just basic techniques that can be applied. Most of them aim only to decorate the product, which is fine. It will be a significant market opportunity. My intention in terms of customization lies not in decorativeness but in technical (or  better to  say ergonomic) improvement of the product. I believe that such an approach can benefit users both in visual and in utilizing ways. The most potential I  see in improving a soft grip. Thus, not only textures but also smart materials can be applied here.


Materials & Production

150


The ways to Customize the Product

151

Aluminum Anodizing

in a water-based solution containing mild

Anodizing is any type of method which changes the surface chemistry of various materials, in particular metals. The new surface adds several new properties to the metal, further protection against corrosion, an increase in durability, particularly a unique resistance to scratching, and aesthetic enhancement. Because aluminum is so widely used in hundreds of industries, it makes sense to have the aluminum anodized to inherit the new properties.

0.10000005 mm to 1.00000105 mm thickness. other

finishes,

• Pretreatment. for

This

aesthetic

step

is

primarily

purposes.

It

improves

the appearance of the surface before the anodizing step. The most common pretreatment is an etching, this gives the surface a satin finish or a bright dip giving a glossy, shiny finish. • Anodizing step. Anodizing aluminum is an electrochemical process. Simply put, it involves taking the aluminum alloy and

The coating itself can be anything between Unlike

acids or alkalis and various detergents.

aluminum

anodizing

preserves the metal’s natural luster, it’s texture, and the aesthetic of the metal itself.

submerging it in a large tank filled with an electrolytic solution; this is acid and waterbased solution. The exact type of acid used depends on the application. An electrical current is passed through the aluminum part; in this case, the aluminum acts as the anode.

THE ANODIZING PROCESS

A cathode made from either aluminum or lead

Before the above process, the aluminum must

is also placed in the tank. The water is broken

follow the following procedure:

down, liberating the oxygen on the aluminum surface, then combining it to form the coating,

• Cleaning. The part of being anodized

a thin, transparent layer of aluminum oxide.

must first be cleaned to remove all signs

The thickness of this coating is determined

of fabrication oils, buffing compounds, and

by the electrical current, and the amount of time

other impurities. This is done by immersion

the current is applied.


Materials & Production

152

Primarily, the design was made for mass and batch production. As far as with the current level of technology, it is possible to manufacture such products in both methods. Craft production of such design was not the primary goal of  the  project. Especially since these days, the craft production of embroidery hook (and batch with mostly traditional machinery related to craft) is the only manufacturing option. But according to a brief, it was required to provide a craft solution. It is offering a simplified version of the design. It was inspired by the  crochet construction of 1865, where a hook was placed between two sides of the brass base and fixed by a ring. It was offered to modify this ring and make it a joint for top and bottom wooden parts. To produce the tool, it is recommended to  use three operations: lost-wax casting for metal parts, using a lathe tool to create wood segments, and polishing.

Steel needle in brass pin John Shrimpton and Son, Redditch, England Design Patent: 1865 GB Rd No 4686


Craft adaptation of the design

153

It

must

be

mentioned

that

this

version

of the  design requires additional refinement. For  now, it is mostly an idea that definitely can be improved and manufactured in the future.


Materials & Production

154

Lost-wax Casting for metal parts The investment casting technique, also known as the lost-wax casting technique, involves creating a positive mold of the object, usually out of wax or foam, then using investment powder to make a negative mold of the object. The wax, or other material, is melted out by either a kiln or oven, leaving the negative mold behind. The negative mold is then filled with whatever media required, usually metal. At the end, the plaster is dissolved in water, leaving behind the cast object.


Craft adaptation of the design

155

Lathe cutting for wood parts A lathe is a tool that rotates the workpiece on its axis to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformation, facing, turning, with tools that are applied to the  workpiece to create an object with symmetry about an axis of rotation. Woodworking lathes are the oldest variety.

Finishing: Sanding and Polishing


One Off to Mass Production Ksenia Semirova Product Design Raffles University 06.2020

Profile for Ksenia Semirova

Alternative approaches to design and manufacturing of Lunéville hook  

Alternative approaches to design and manufacturing of Lunéville hook  

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