Volume 17 | Issue 1 www.kryton.com
THE CONCRETE WATERPROOFING MAGAZINE
Waterproofing LEED Electrical Sub-Station in Vancouver Spotlight on Construction in
Ways to Make Concrete More Durable krystol速 volume 17 | issue 1
Massive Leak Repair Project in
South Africa 1
FOR THE MARINA BAY SANDS BUILDERS, EVERYTHING WAS
THEY CHOSE KRYTON WATERPROOFING. The Marina Bay Sands, Singapore, sought a single waterproofing solution that could protect the massive foundation that includes multi-levels of retail space, a casino, exhibition centre, parking, tunnels and more. Complicating matters was the fact that the project was built on reclaimed land and surrounded by seawater. The designs called for Kryton. Our crystalline technology protects concreteâ€”permanently. And our comprehensive system shaves weeks off construction schedules and cuts waterproofing costs up to 40%. Kryton takes the risk out of concrete waterproofing.
volume 17 | Issue 1
Risky Repairs 4
Five Ways to Make Concrete More Durable
risky repairs: South African Mine Faces 5 km of Active Hot Water Leaks
cover story Preparing for Vancouver’s Growing Neighborhoods The New Mount Pleasant Hydroelectric Sub-station
krystol® volume 17 | issue 1
ask an expert Why You Should Include Hydrostop Sealer on Your Next Project
Regional Spotlight Kryton in Canada
Cover image: Mount Pleasant Hydroelectric Sub-Station
Editor: Jillian Turner Art Director: Yvonne Lee Contributors: Ali Biparva Jeff Bowman Sarah Rippin Jillian Turner Kari Yuers Kevin Yuers Krystol® Magazine is printed by Kryton International Inc. 1645 East Kent Avenue Vancouver, BC, V5P 2S8, Canada www.kryton.com For information about this publication, email email@example.com or call 1.800.267.8280 or +1.604.324.8280 Copyright ©2014 Kryton International Inc. All rights reserved.
Five Ways to Make
Concrete More Durable Concrete structures are meant to last a â€œlifetimeâ€?. Most concrete structures have a design life of 50 or 100 years. But unfortunately we are finding that many of todays structures are not living up to expectations. The premature deterioration of concrete infrastructure is one of the great hidden costs of our time. So what is the cause of this lack of durability? It is rightly said that everything bad that happens to concrete happens as a result of water. Water carries chemical contaminants into the concrete, it can erode the surface, corrode the steel reinforcement, contribute to expansive and disruptive reactions and more. You will want to do everything you can to keep water out of you concrete and to enhance the durability of your concrete and here are five suggestions: 4
Alireza Biparva, B.Sc. , M.A.Sc Research & Development Manager / Concrete Specialist
Kevin Yuers, BA Vice-President of Product Development
Durability starts with a concrete mix design that is properly matched to the service conditions that the concrete will be exposed to. No single mix design can be durable in every situation. For example, when concrete is exposed to sulphate contaminated soil, the mix design should consider using sulphate resistant cement. However this mix design is not appropriate when a concrete structure is exposed to the cycles of freezing and thawing in a wet environment. In this case, the mix design should include an air-entraining admixture since entrained air will help to protect the concrete under these conditions. The Portland Cement Association publishes Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, which contains an excellent guide to concrete mix design.
Even though mix designs must change to match the conditions, there is one factor that is common to all good concrete and that is low permeability. It is essential that water is kept out of your concrete structure. Lower permeability through good mix proportioning and by reducing the amount of free water in your mix using water reducing admixtures or plasticizers. Concrete that is exposed to water should also employ a waterproofing system. A crystalline waterproofing admixture such as Kryton’s Krystol Internal Membrane (KIM) has proven to be most effective at protecting concrete from water intrusion.
Probably the most often overlooked step in achieving durable concrete is proper curing. Curing means maintaining conditions that will allow the concrete to harden and gain strength optimally. Proper temperature and humidity are most important. The temperature should be above 10°C for strength development to proceed at a reasonable pace. Moisture must be maintained, especially in the first few days in order to promote cement hydration and keep the concrete from drying, shrinking and cracking. Properly curing your concrete will effectively pay for itself many times over by reducing permeability and increasing the concrete’s durability and life expectancy. ACI 308R-01: Guide to Curing Concrete provides appropriate guidance.
Construction joints in a concrete structure are unavoidable. They are also a common weak point in the structure where water will often find its way in and through. Water penetrating through joints can deteriorate your structure in a variety of ways, but most notably by causing corrosion of the reinforcing steel. Be sure to design your structure with adequate, pre-determined control joint locations in order to avoid random cracking. Cracks in concrete are just unplanned joints that the concrete makes for itself. Next, be sure that each joint employs a reliable waterproofing system of its own. A joint waterproofing system that includes crystalline technology can provide the best long-term protection at joint locations. Note that crystalline technology can also self-seal random cracking and thus provide added reliability and protection.
Concrete must be placed properly. The workability and consistency of the concrete mix must be sufficient to place and consolidate the concrete into a solid mass that is free from any voids or rock pockets. Voids most commonly occur below or behind reinforcing steel bars – especially in areas where there are many bars together. A dedication to proper vibration practices is the key to success here. Be sure to properly vibrate all concrete with special attention around congested reinforcement. Rock pockets are areas where there is not enough cement paste and fine aggregate to close the space between large aggregate. Make sure there is no standing water prior to concrete placement and do not move concrete large distance from where it is intitialy poured. The use of selfconsolodating concrete can alleviate many of these concerns.
One can see that creating durable concrete is a process. With proper mix design, permeability reduction, and attention to good jointing, placing and curing practices, one can create durable concrete structures that will resist the development of corrosive
conditions and other deteriorating mechanisms. Missing even one of these steps can seriously compromise your efforts. To learn more about how to build concrete structures that will outlive their intended design life talk to the experts at Kryton.
krystol® volume 17 | issue 1
Risky Repairs South African Mine Faces 5 km of Active Hot Water Leaks Impala Platinum Holdings Limited is in the business of mining, refining, and marketing of platinum group metals, as well as nickel, copper and cobalt. Impala is also the second largest producer of platinum in the world. The Impala Platinum slag granulation cooling tower in Rustenburg, South Africa, had several flaws in the original sheet membrane system. These flaws allowed the extremely hot (80 Â°C [176 Â°F]) water to infiltrate the porous concrete, causing cracks over an area of approximately 4000 m2 (43, 000 ft2), leading to severe water leakage.
Because of the nature of the slag granulation process, the reservoir could not be emptied for this repair process as not only would it stagnate their smelting process â€“ but it would incur enormous labor and operational costs. For these reasons, repairs would have to be performed to the negative side of the concrete tower.
The 6 m (20 ft.) deep slag granulation cooling tower reservoir had to remain full of near boiling water during the entire waterproofing process.
See how Sanika did it in action
1 Impala had numerous contractors come and perform trial test panels to the structure to find a solution which would work for this extremely large 6.5 m (21.3 ft) reservoir structure. The only successful test panel performed was the panel using Kryton’s Krystol Crack Repair System, along with Krystol T1 & T2 Surface-Applied System. Kryton’s South African distributor, Sanika Waterproofing Specialists, was thereby awarded the project, due to the observed excellent results of the Kryton products.
th of the the dep f o d ir th plug. Fill oneKrystol h it w e s cha
The only successful test panel performed was the panel using Kryton’s Krystol Crack Repair System, along with Krystol T1 & T2 Surface-Applied System.
How they did it Sanika had to remove the unsuccessful surface-applied membranes and other products from the structure to prepare it for the repair and waterproofing process.
Fill the re st o surface w f the chase flush to the ith Krysto l Bari- Co te.
Fill the n with K ext one-third rystol T of the 1. chase
uratedEnsure SSD (sat ition. surface-dry) cond
After preparing the bare concrete surface, the repair team had to act quickly with Krystol Plug as the almost boiling water poured through the cracks. After the Krystol Plug successfully stopped the flow of water, the team employed a layer of dry-packed Krystol T1, followed by a layer of Krystol Bari-Cote. A coat of Krystol T1 & T2 slurry was then applied, to completely waterproof the reservoir.
krystol® volume 17 | issue 1
Krystol ir area with a p re e th t Coa g motion. ular srubbin c ir c n a in T1
Coat the repair ar ea again with Krys tol T2 in an circular sr ubbing motion.
Impala was pleased with the work and had this to say, “Sanika performed the work in an exemplary fashion, with due respect to all safety, environmental and quality aspects. The work was executed within budget and on time with a very high standard of quality.” Subsequent inspections were conducted by an independent consulting engineer appointed by Impala. The engineers determined that the Kryton solution is long term and of superior quality.
Chasing and exposing cracks ± four days into the repair.
±14 days into repair. No leaks.
Sanika performed the work in an exemplary fashion, with due respect to all safety, environmental and quality aspects. The work was executed within budget and on time with a very high standard of quality.
Brazil trip recap Descending through the clouds as we approach Brazil’s Sao Paulo, I’m struck by the vastness of the city stretching below me. Many platitudes cross my mind about Brazil’s economic hub: the largest city in South America, 10th largest in the world by population and 13th largest by GDP*. Likewise, there’s a feeling of things being on the move with Brazil hosting the biggest sporting events on the globe, the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympic Games. All these facts combined to create a heady mix of anticipation and expectation for me. I was not disappointed. On the ground, I was immediately made aware that Brazil was definitely not just a resource extraction economy. Our distributor in Brazil, Lwart Quimica, had informed us that Alstom, the multinational conglomerate which specializes in power generation and transportation, was establishing a Global Hydro Technology Centre in Brazil. The Global Technology Centre will be located in Taubaté (Sao Paulo) where the krystol® volume 17 | issue 1
company has its largest hydro factory in the world. Alstom turbines, generators and equipment account for approximately 25% of worldwide hydropower generation, but, they currently manufacture the turbines and send them back to France for testing and then they are shipped back to Brazil. The creation of this new testing center will streamline manufacturing and is a huge vote of confidence for the knowledge based expertise found in the Sao Paulo region. Lwart Quimica, is a part of that knowledge based evolution. Lwart has been pioneering sustainable and vertically integrated business practices for many years now. Holding interests in everything from Eucalyptus harvesting, recycling to manufacturing they have a strategic vision which encompasses sustainability, accountability and quality. Their role in the Alstom Global technology centre was to provide the concrete waterproofing solutions. The turbines are to be tested in massive high tech concrete tanks and the
tanks need to be watertight, structurally resilient and resistant to high hydrostatic pressure – failure is not an option. For Lwart and Alstom, sustainability means doing something once and doing it right. I was fortunate to have the opportunity to visit the Alstom site and tour this new facility along with our representatives. While the project is still under construction, it was both humbling and energizing to be able to play a small part in ensuring the success of this project**. My visit to Brazil was not a long one, but, I will certainly be thinking of many other innovative aspects of this country when I watch the upcoming World Cup on television later this year.
KARI YUERS, FACI President & CEO * www.brookings.edu/blogs/the-avenue/posts/2012/11/27sao-paulo-global-economy-berube ** Kryton’s KIM and Krystol Crack Repair System was used by Lwart Quimica on waterproofing the huge testing tanks.
Preparing for Vancouver’s Growing Neighborhoods The New Mount Pleasant Hydroelectric Sub-Station
The innovative building design includes: • Energy star rated roof material • Energy-efficient lighting • Water-efficient landscaping • Over 15% recycled building content and 20% regional building materials • “Living Wall” exterior
t an estimated cost of $201 million, BC Hydro’s Vancouver City Central Transmission (VCCT) project is the most significant investment that BC Hydro has made to Vancouver’s electrical system in almost 30 years. Part of the project includes the construction of a new sub-station in the Mount Pleasant area of Vancouver. The project is expected to increase the reliability of the electrical supply throughout Vancouver and meet the growing power demand of the developing Mount Pleasant and South False Creek areas. As environmental sustainability is a strong focus to new infrastructure in Vancouver, the sub-station is planned to be the first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) standard substation for BC Hydro.
Not only was sustainability taken into account, but durability as well. Vancouver sits near a fault line, and sits in a ‘risk-zone’ for a potential coastal earthquake. In an attempt to mitigate damage should such an event occur, the sub-station was designed to meet 100 year seismic standards, with heavily reinforced 60 cm (24 in.) thick concrete walls.
The innovative building design will include a living wall.
The site itself offered particularly unique challenges to the construction. The building sits at the bottom of a slope, with the water flow rate entering the area from as much as 1900 to 5700 litres (500 to 1500 gallons) of water per day. To keep the structure from floating, the engineers designed it to sit on a 1 m (3.28 ft.) thick raft slab. www.kryton.com
The new building was built to LE E D standard s.
ing were f scaffold cement. o s e ri to pla Four s shotcrete e th r fo used
forming), and the fourth wall with structural shotcrete by Torrent Shotcrete Structures. As the walls were to incorporate the drain mat system around their perimeter, tanking the four walls would be critical. The system needed to be completely sealed, which was especially difficult where the shotcrete wall met the cast-in-place walls.
To assist with handling the ground water flowing below the slab, an extensive system of perforated drainage pipes was installed beneath the slab and around the perimeter of the building, called a drain mat system. The system was connected to a sump which The wall installed with shotcrete involved had a three unit pump station connecting to a number of challenges. To begin with, the the city’s storm sewer system. wall was much larger than normal at 36 m x 9 m (120 ft. X 30 ft.), needing four stories The project’s most critical construction of scaffolding for the shotcrete placement. factor was the absolute requirement for the Additionally, as the structure was high-voltage machinery within the below reinforced to seismic standards (leaving grade areas to be kept completely dry. The it essentially ‘bomb-proof’), the heavily station cannot be shut down to repair leaks, congested rebar made for more difficult so the waterproofing solution had to be placement to ensure no water retaining permanent as there would be zero tolerance voids were created by the extra obstacles. for leaks and moisture. Commonly used sheet membranes are There were many factors to consider when known to be difficult to apply where selecting a concrete waterproofing solution cast-in-place meets shotcrete. As a sheet that the project team could be confident in. membrane had originally been specified for One concern was the fact that one of the the project, the team began to search for walls could not be placed using two-sided a more compatible waterproofing solution forming, therefore three walls would be that would provide assurance that the built using cast-in-place (with two-sided building would remain watertight. krystol® volume 17 | issue 1
After much research and consultation, the construction team selected Kryton’s Krystol Internal Membrane (KIM) Concrete Waterproofing admixture to waterproof the below grade areas, and the Krystol Waterstop System to fully tank the joints and seams against water penetration. These areas would include the 1.5 m (5 ft.) thick raft slab and all below grade walls. The Kryton Waterproofing System was used to support an externally applied sheet membrane, as the sheet membrane could not be trusted as the only waterproofing solution for this high risk project. Jeff Bowman, Kryton’s Technical Manager, provided comprehensive training on the application of waterstop system, and made multiple site support visits. Construction is expected to be completed early 2014, and is part of an ambitious portfolio of hydroelectric and transmission projects completed by BC Hydro, to meet the projected growing energy needs of the province.
kryton news Events
New Texas Territory Manager Welcome to our new Territory Manager for the state of Texas, Stephen Powell. Stephen will be supporting the area with technical expertise, driving concrete waterproofing specifications and supporting new construction projects. Stephen brings critical expertise and knowledge to Kryton. To schedule a 2014 lunch and learn with Stephen, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org or call: 512.818.7778
The annual Kryton China distributor meeting was held November 22-23, 2013 and attended by 41 of our distributors located in China, our China team office and Kevin Yuers, Vice-President of Product Development.
Lene Jie, Trade Commissioner and Josiane Simon, Senior Trade Commissioner from the Embassy of Canada, both made speeches during the meeting.
Kryton Supports Habitat for Humanity Earlier this year members of the Kryton staff participated in a Build Day with Habitat for Humanity to help construct six townhomes for six families who would not be eligible for home ownership without Habitat for Humanity. Kryton continues their support by making Habitat for Humanity their company Christmas charity. This year Kryton pitted the male staff against the female staff to see who could raise the most money for Habitat with the company matching every dollar. The ladies won this year by raising $1,764.05, bringing the total donation to Habitat to $6,079.10. Habitat for Humanity operates in 100 countries and builds approximately 250 houses in Canada each year; 90% of which meet provincial green building codes. Through volunteer labor and donations of money and materials, Habitat for Humanity works with partner families to build safe, decent, affordable housing. Learn more at www.habitatgv.ca
The annual Middle East distributor meeting was held in Ras Al Khaimah, November 29-30, 2013.
Ask an Expert
Why You Should Include
on Your Next Project
Kryton’s crystalline waterproofing technology is typically used to waterproof concrete exposed to hydrostatic pressure, such as basements. There is generally no direct water pressure above ground level, which
allows a greater variety of products to be considered. Crystalline waterproofing can be used above ground as well, but Kryton offers another solution for above ground applications: Hydrostop Sealer.
What is Hydrostop Sealer?
What does it look like?
Hydrostop Sealer is a low VOC, water-based formulation of silanes and siloxanes used to protect concrete, brick and block. Hydrostop penetrates and reacts to form a water repellent barrier. The surface becomes strongly hydrophobic, causing water to form beads on the surface instead of being absorbed.
Hydrostop does not form a surface film, so the texture and gloss remain unchanged, while other materials may darken slightly. Unlike film forming sealers, there is no cracking, peeling or yellowing due to weathering.
Are there limitations? Hydrostop does not physically block pores, so water under pressure can penetrate over time. Use Kryton’s crystalline waterproofing systems for applications involving water under pressure (basements, pools etc).
What are the benefits? Hydrostop has many benefits: • Reduced efflorescence (salt deposits) – reduced water absorption prevents soluble salts from leaching out and leaving unsightly stains • Cleanliness – by preventing water saturation, dirt and algae are less likely to adhere to the surface, which keeps buildings cleaner. • Breathability – Hydrostop does not form a surface film, so water vapor can still escape. • Reduced corrosion – Deicing salts carried by melting snow and ice are a major cause of corrosion for reinforced concrete. Hydrostop protects against the ingress of salts and extends the structure’s service life.
krystol® volume 17 | issue 1
Hydrostop Sealer provides a simple and effective treatment to protect above ground concrete, brick and block without altering the appearance. When specifying Krystol Internal Membrane (KIM) or the Krystol T1 & T2 Waterproofing System to waterproof your basement, don’t overlook the benefits of using Hydrostop once you get above ground.
Jeff Bowman, B.Sc. Technical Manager, R&D
Construction in Canada is the second largest country in the world after Russia. Such a large landmass brings with it incredible variations in geography, climate and fluctuating temperatures. From the high arctic, where half the year is shrouded in winter darkness, to the damp temperate rainforests of the west coast, to the arid deserts of the interior, Canada benefits from many climates. Although, nearly 90% of Canadians live within 200 km of the border with the United States, the vast hinterland to the north contain many resources from hydroelectricity, to minerals, to oil which necessitate specialist construction skills and knowledge to bring them to market.
Due to Canada’s conservative fiscal policy it was able to weather the recent global economic turmoil and the ‘great recession’ relatively well. The recession was further softened with federal funding in the shape of Canada’s Economic Action Plan, which helped to smooth the path of recovery for Canada’s flourishing resource markets including energy and mining, as well as the more traditional sectors of infrastructure and residential construction. The Canadian Construction Industry is Canada’s largest sector, employing over one million people with building, repair or renovation work worth over $150 billion annually. The Canadian construction
industry is an important driver in the overall economy and as the global economy emerges from the recession Canada will need to focus on new pubic infrastructure investment as well as addressing skills shortages in some of the more specialist construction categories. Kryton, was founded in Vancouver, Canada in 1973 and has waterproofed many of Canada’s most challenging projects, from dams to multi-level below grade basements to water tanks that sit atop luxury condominiums. Our distribution network spans the country providing high quality and efficient service to our customers from coast to coast.
Kryton has distributors across Canada. Contact any of these distributors to find out more about how Kryton takes the risk out of concrete waterproofing.
Arrow Construction Supply NB, NFLD, NS www.arrowco.ca
Central Concrete Accessories Langley, BC www.centralconcrete.ca
Les Produits Krytex QC www.krytex.com
Cascade Aqua-Tech Ltd. BC, AB www.cascadeaqua.com
Form & Build Supply ON www.formandbuild.com
Northland Construction Supplies AB www.northlandconstruction.com
Nu-West Construction Products Inc. SK, MB www.nu-west.ca
Montreal Museum of Fine Arts Trump International (MMFA), Montreal, Hotel & Tower, Quebec Toronto Ontario At over 275 meters (900 feet) tall the Trump Tower faces major wind sway. To counterbalance the sway, large water tanks at the top of the building were constructed using Kryton’s Krystol Internal Membrane (KIM) concrete. As the building sways, water transfers between the two tanks to counteract the force. It was crucial these two water tanks sitting atop 65 floors of high-end real estate, luxury dining and amenities were completely watertight; leaks into multimillion dollar apartments could not be tolerated. KIM was selected for its self-sealing features, 25-year warranty and time savings to their schedule. They felt that using a traditional waterproofing membrane would have added two weeks to their schedule and they weren’t confident that the traditional method would last the life of the concrete. KIM was added to the concrete mix to waterproof the water tanks and also the indoor infinity salt water pool and whirlpool located on the 32nd floor. The Krystol Waterstop System was also used to waterproof the joints and tie-holes in the swimming pool and roof-top water tanks.
Georgetown Tunnel Grade Separation Upgrade, Toronto, Ontario In order to accommodate the transportation needs of Toronto’s growing population, the GO Transit authority (regional public transit service for the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area) undertook major restructuring including lowering an existing 500 m (1600 ft.) sewage tunnel. For the first phase of the project the team used a surface-applied system to waterproof the sewage tunnel. It was time consuming to install in order to prevent damage when using the slip form system. For the next phase of the project the team added Kryton’s Krystol Internal Membrane (KIM) Concrete Waterproofing Admixture to the concrete mix. Using KIM eliminated the step of applying a surface-applied system which helped speed up the schedule. KIM also eliminated the concern over damaging the surface membrane when using the slip form or during concrete installation. Kryton’s Krystol Waterstop System for joints was also used in both the tunnel and tunnel ventilation shafts at Strachan Avenue. The City of Toronto wanted further assurance and also purchased Kryton’s Krystol Assurance five-year extended warranty. krystol® volume 17 | issue 1
The MMFA was founded in 1860, is one of North America’s first museums and sees more than 760,000 people visiting each year. In 1991 a major expansion for the opening of the third wing which included an underground gallery to store artwork was undertaken. In order to protect the valuable pieces reliable waterproofing was needed but due to the heavily built-up, urban area, blindsided waterproofing would be needed. Kryton’s Krystol Internal Membrane (KIM) Concrete Waterproofing Admixture was selected as the best option to provide reliable waterproofing and accommodate the tight footprint. Francis Roy the Director at the time of Béton St-Paul (a Lafarge Canada company) had this to say of the project: “The Krystol Internal Membrane worked exactly as specified in the Kryton literature at the prescribed percentage added. The results in all applications were simply excellent.”
Avra, White Rock, British Columbia The Avra is a contemporary 17-story residential building built to green building standards, located in desirable White Rock, just outside of Vancouver. Among the buildings many amenities is their four levels of below grade parking. The below grade areas were constructed using structural shotcrete and waterproofed with the Kryton system, no external membranes were used. Kryton’s complete system was chosen for the time and costs savings achieved by eliminating a traditional membrane.
Ora, Richmond, British Columbia The Ora is a three-building, waterfront community located next to Richmond’s Olympic Oval (where the 2010 Winter Olympics hosted the speed skating events). The City of Richmond is located in a river delta, averages just one meter (one yard) above sea level and is prone to flooding, because of this there are very few below grade spaces in Richmond. The Ora required one-level of below grade parking and due to the immense hydrostatic pressure the building required a 1.5 meter (5 ft.) thick raft slab just to keep the building anchored. The entire below grade area was constructed using structural shotcrete and completely tanked with Kryton’s Krystol Waterproofing System. The water level is 60 cm (2 ft.) below grade at all times and there is no membrane, no drain board or drainage for this parking structure, just Kryton’s concrete waterproofing system. 15
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