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Structure of the Solar System Arrangement of the planets: Mercury, venus, Earth, Mars, jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune. Size of system: by the orbit of pluto (5,917,520,000km),or 39.5 AU Origin of the solar system: being around 4.6 billion years ago when part of a molecular cloud of interstellar gas, which was filled with particles of ice, dust,rocks, other particles, collapsed. It eventually heat up and turn into stars. How planets were formed:the planets are made of star birth. The molecular cloud surrounding it began to condense around areas where there is more matter.


Sun: Structure and Composition What goes on in the sun: the sun is not a new star. It is in a different stage, which makes it sort of exploding at a very slow pace, but not enough so that it will be gone in the next 100 years. The sun’s size and mass: The Sun's diameter is 864,938 miles (1,391,980 km). This is almost 10 times larger than the planet Jupiter and about 109 times as big as the Earth. The volume of the Sun is 1,299,400 times bigger than the volume of the Earth; about 1,300,000 Earths could fit inside the Sun. The Sun's mass is roughly 1.99 x 1030 kg. This is about 333,000 times the mass of the Earth What holds it together: Gravity Define core, radiation zone, convection zone, protosphere, and chromosphere. Be sure to label these in your diagram: The core is the very middle of the sun. the main ball of the start; the radiation zone is a layer of a star's interior where energy is primarily transported toward the exterior, the convection zone is what forms the outer shell, the protosphere is the lowest visible layer of a star, lying beneath the chromosphere and the corona, and the chromosphere is a gaseous layer of the sun's atmosphere extending from the photosphere to the corona and visible during a total eclipse of the sun

Sun: Flares, spots, and radiation: Define and discuss corona, solar flares, prominences, and sunspots: What causes the storms on the sun’s surface? magnetic storms on the surface of the star can end up causing flares, an explosion on the Sun's surface that can release as much, in one go, as a sixth of the entire Sun's output per second. If the storms are particularly strong, they will erupt into coronal mass ejections (CMEs), huge clouds of plasma that travel at millions of miles per hour, consisting of energetic electrons and protons with smaller amounts of helium, oxygen and iron. Define radiation and discuss what type of radiation the sun gives off: the Radiation is the part of the sun that gives off energy into the atmosphere and gives light and heat. The sun gives off gaseous layer of the sun's atmosphere extending from the photosphere to the corona and visible during a total eclipse of the sun.


Mercury Mercury has a diameter of 4879km at the equator. Mercury has a mass of: 3.3022x1023 kg Revolution around the sun in Earth years: once every 66 days Rotation time in hours: 24 hours Composition of planet and atmosphere: Who discovered it: the Romans.

Venus Diameter at equator: The equatorial diameter is about 12,104 miles, or about 95% of Earth's. (More precisely 12103.6 km.) Mass:4.867E24 kg Revolution around the sun in Earth years: takes 243 days to turn once on its axis, and it takes almost 225 days to travel once around the Sun in orbit. Composition of planet and atmosphere: Its surface is covered with lava flows, quake faults and impact craters. Venus has abundant small volcanoes and long lava flows. Venus has cool clouds and an extremely hot surface. Venus has a composition similar to that of basaltic volcanic rocks found on Earth. It has a thick, poisonous atmosphere of carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid.


Earth Diameter at equator: the diameter of the earth at the equator is 7,926.41 miles Mass: 5.972E24 kg Revolution around the sun in Earth years: 365 days in a year Rotation time in hours: 24 hours Composition of planet and atmosphere: 78.08% Nitrogen (N2) 20.95% Oxygen (O2) 0.93% Argon 0.038% Carbon dioxide About 1% water vapor (varies with climate) Any special features of planet: is the third planet from the sun. It is the only planet known to have an atmosphere containing free oxygen, oceans of liquid water on its surface, and, of course, life. ( therefore I do not believe in Aliens ) :) Any moons: there is one moon


Earth’s moon Diameter at equator: The diameter of the Moon is 3,474 km. (Diameter of the Moon in miles: 2,159) Mass:The mass of the Moon is 7.347 x 1022 kg Composition of moon and atmosphere: Map of surface showing main features, “seas,” and moon landings: Effects on Earth’s tides: When the moon is full or new, the gravitational pull of the moon and sun are combined. At these times, the high tides are very high and the low tides are very low. these are called spring tides. Phases of the moon: As the moon circles the Earth, the shape of the moon appears to change; this is because different amounts of the illuminated part of the moon are facing us. The shape varies from a full moon (when the Earth is between the sun and the moon) to a new moon (when the moon is between the sun and the Earth). Temperature on each side: When sunlight hits the moon's surface, the temperature can reach 253 degrees F (123 C). The "dark side of the moon" can have temperatures dipping to minus 243 F (minus 153 C). Discuss the dark side of the moon: The far side of the Moon, sometimes poetically (though inaccurately) called the dark side of the Moon, is the lunar hemisphere that is permanently turned away, and not visible from the surface of the Earth.


Mars Diameter at equator: 6,792km or 4,220 miles. Mass: 639E21 kg (0.107 Earth mass) Revolution around the sun in Earth years: it takes Mars about 687 Earth days to have a full year Rotation time in hours: Mars rotation is 24 hours, 39 minutes, and 35 seconds Composition of planet and atmosphere: Mars is much colder than Earth, in large part due to its greater distance from the sun. Mars has a thin atmosphere — too thin to easily support life as we know it Any special features of planet: Mars could have once harbored life. Some conjecture that life might still exist there today. A number of researchers have even speculated that life on Earth might have seeded Mars, or that life on Mars seeded Earth. Any moons: two moons Who discovered it: In 1659, Christian Huygens discovered a strange feature on the surface of the Red Planet.

Asteroid Belt What are they and where did they come from?: The asteroid belt is the region of the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. It is occupied by numerous irregularly shaped bodies called asteroids or minor planets. The asteroid belt is also termed the main asteroid belt or main belt to distinguish its members from other asteroids in the Solar System such as near-Earth asteroids and trojan asteroids. Size:the asteroid belt's only dwarf planet, is about 950 km in diameter Orbit:The asteroid belt formed from the primordial solar nebula as a group of planetesimals, the smaller precursors of the planets, which in turn formed protoplanets. Between Mars and Jupiter, however, gravitational perturbations from Jupiter imbued the protoplanets with too much orbital energy for them to accrete into a planet. Collisions became too violent, and instead of fusing together, the planetesimals and most of the protoplanets shattered.


Jupiter and its moons Diameter at equator: The diameter of Jupiter at its equator is 142,984 km Mass:1.898E27 kg (317.8 Earth mass) Revolution around the sun in Earth years: Jupiter orbits the Sun every 11.86 Earth years (or 4,332 days) Rotation time in hours: it rotates very quickly, completing a full rotation in just 10 hours Composition of planet and atmosphere:Jupiter's upper atmosphere is composed of about 88–92% hydrogen and 8–12% helium by percent volume or fraction of gas molecules. Since a helium atom has about four times as much mass as ahydrogen atom, the composition changes when described as the proportion of mass contributed by different atoms. Jupiter is perpetually covered with clouds composed of ammonia crystals and possibly ammonium hydrosulfide. The clouds are located in the tropopause and are arranged into bands of different latitudes, known as tropical regions. These are sub-divided into lighter-hued zones and darker belts. Who discovered it: The planet was known by astronomers of ancient times, and was associated with the mythology and religious beliefs of many cultures. The Romans named the planet after the Roman godJupiter. Drawing or picture: Define gas giant: It is a gas giant with mass one-thousandth that of the Sun but is two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter is classified as a gas giant along with Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Identify great red spot: A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere What is surface gravity?: an astronomical or other object is the gravitational acceleration experienced at its surface. The surface gravity may be thought of as the acceleration due to gravity experienced by a hypothetical test particle which is very close to the object's surface and which, in order not to disturb the system, has negligible mass


Saturn and its rings Diameter at equator: Saturn has an equatorial diameter of 120,536 km Mass: E568.3E24 kg (95.16 Earth mass) Revolution around the sun in earth years: It takes Saturn 29.45 years (or 10,759 days) to orbit the Sun Rotation time in hours: Here the rotation speed is 10 hours and 39 minutes. Composition of planet and atmosphere: 96.3 percent molecular hydrogen, 3.25 percent helium, minor amounts of methane, ammonia, hydrogen deuteride, ethane, ammonia ice aerosols, water ice aerosols, ammonia hydrosulfide aerosols. 96.3 percent molecular hydrogen, 3.25 percent helium, minor amounts of methane, ammonia, hydrogen deuteride, ethane, ammonia ice aerosols, water ice aerosols, ammonia hydrosulfide aerosols Discuss moons: The dozens of icy moons orbiting Saturn vary drastically in shape, size, surface age and origin. Some of these worlds have hard, rough surfaces, while others are porous bodies coated in a fine blanket of icy particles. All have greater or smaller numbers of craters, and many have ridges and valleys


Uranus Diameter at equator:The diameter of Uranus is 51,118 km. Mass: 86.81E24 kg (14.54 Earth mass) Revolution around the sun in Earth years: Uranus takes 84.3 years to complete its orbit around the Sun. Rotation time in hours: Uranus rotates once every 17 hours 14 minutes 24 seconds Any special features of planet: Unlike most of the planets, which have slightly tilted orbits, Uranus is completely tilted over on its side. It kind of looks like it’s rolling its way around as it orbits the Sun. Any moons: 5 major moons Who discovered it:Uranus was only discovered in 1781 by Sir William Herschel.

Neptune Diameter at equator: The diameter of Neptune is approximately 49,500 km. Mass:102.4E24 kg (17.15 Earth mass) Revolution around the sun in Earth years: One year on Neptune (one revolution around the Sun) is equal to almost 165 Earth years! Rotation time in hours:Its sidereal rotation time is roughly 16.11 hours. Who discovered it: Galileo's drawings show that he first observed Neptune on 28 December 1612, and again on 27 January 1613.


Pluto Mass: 1.31 x 1022 kg Revolution around the sun in Earth years: Pluto takes 248 years to orbit the Sun Rotation time in hours: Pluto's rotational period is 6.39 days, longer than that of any of the giant planets Any moons: five known moons Who discovered it: Clyde Tombaugh Why is it no longer considered a planet? What is it? it is now called a dwarf planet.

Eclipses An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into a shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and there viewer. the term eclipse is most often used to describe either a solar eclipse, when the moons shadow crosses the earth's surface, or Lunar Eclipse, when the moon moves into the earths shadow.

Seasons Season all depend on where our earth is with facing the sun. when our sun is facing the south then the south is going to be in the middle of summer while the other half is going to be going thru winter.

Comets Define: A comet is an icy small solar system body that, when close enough to the Sun, displays a visible coma (a thin, fuzzy, temporary atmosphere) and sometimes also a tail.


What are they made of?: Comets are usually made primarily from ice, along with dust, rocks, and frozen gases. Halley’s comet and others: the short-period comets and is visible from Earth every 75–76 years. Halley is the only short-period comet that is clearly visible to the naked eye from Earth, and thus the only naked-eye comet that might appear twice in a human lifetime.[11]

Meteors Define: A small body of matter from outer space that enters the earth's atmosphere, appearing as a streak of light. Discuss “shooting stars”: a shooting star is a meteord, as it enters the atmosphere the meteor burns and vaperizes. What happens when they hit Earth’s atmosphere? When a meteor enters the earth's atmosphere, it is known meteorite". Meteorites can explode on impact of just before hitting the earth's surface, resulting in in a "crater". The size of the crater will vary based upon the size of the meteorite and it's velocity. which can land on earth and become a big boom to everyones ears and eyes. What are they typically made of?: stone, ice, dust, rock or metal. Largest? the biggest one was the size of new york city Connection with dinosaurs? this what had killed all of the dinasaurs.


Milky Way and other Galaxies Define galaxy: A system of millions or billions of stars, together with gas and dust, held together by gravitational attraction. Where are we in our galaxy? How many other galaxies are there?100 to 200 billion galaxies in the Universe What kinds of galaxies are there?Spiral galaxy. irregular galaxy, and galactic galaxies How far to the next nearest galaxy and what is its name? The Andromeda Galaxy is the nearest spiral galaxy to our Milky Way galaxy.

Kinds and lives of stars Define and discuss brightness: life cycle: A life cycle is a period involving all different generations of a species succeeding each other through means of reproduction. red giant, white dwarf, black dwarf, pulsar or neutron star, black hole. Which lasts longer, a big star or a small star? Explain. smaller star Because thermonuclear fusion occurs at a faster rate in massive stars, large stars use all of their fuel in a shorter length of time. This means that bigger is not better with respect to how long a star will live. A smaller star has less fuel, but its rate of fusion is not as fast. Therefore, smaller stars live longer than larger stars because their rate of fuel consumption is not as rapid.


Copernicus and Galileo Who were they? In the early 17th century, Galileo made the telescope, which he is very famous for. and proved Copernicus’ theory. He proved the theory by stating that he saw four moons orbiting Jupiter, which proves that the not everything is orbiting around the Earth, which was the first proof. copernicus is the first resendent to the world. When did they live? Galileo was born febuary 15, 1564. Copernicus was born febuary 19, 1473 Why are they important? they did the first discovery of the atmosphere. What did they think? They believed in a heliocentric universe. This meaning that the earth was not the center of the universe. However, many people , including the church, did not agree with this theory. Instead they believed in a geocentric universe.

Light What is light? Light is simply a name for a range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye. How fast does it go?Light travels at a constant, finite speed of 186,000 mi/sec

Gravity Define and discuss: The force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass Why is gravity important in astronomy? Give several examples: well for one gravity is what keeps us down on the ground and our earth how it is. if we didnt have gravity then we would all be floating in space. Connection with mass and distance: Gravity is a fundamental underlying force in the universe. The amount of gravity that something possesses is proportional to its mass and distance between it and another object.


Orbits Define and discuss centrifugal and centripetal force: I know that the net centripetal force (center seeking) is equal to the gravitational force of the Sun on the Earth, and that this is the only net force in the system. In other words, there are no other forces at work – if there were another force (centrifugal) at work in the system, the Earth would move off in a straight line. What shape are orbits? maybe curvy Connection with gravity and velocity: The speed of gravitational waves in the general theory of relativity is equal to the speed of light in vacuum, the speed of gravity is the speed at which changes in a gravitational field propagate. This is the speed at which a change in the distribution of energy and momentum of matter results in subsequent alteration, at a distance, of the gravitational field which it produces. In a more physically correct sense, the "speed of gravity" refers to the speed of a gravitational wave.

black holes A black hole is a region of spacetime from which gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping.[1] The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform spacetime to form a black hole. Around a black hole there is a mathematically defined surface called an event horizonthat marks the point of no return. The hole is called "black" because it absorbs all the light that hits the horizon, reflecting nothing, just like a perfect black body in thermodynamics.

Astronauts An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. While generally reserved for professional space travelers, the terms are sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists. Until 2002, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military, or by civilian space agencies

Space Medicine Space medicine is the practice of medicine on astronauts in astronautical hygiene outer spacewhereas is the


application of science and technology to the prevention or control of exposure to the hazards that may cause astronaut ill health. Both these sciences work together to ensure that astronauts work in a safe environment. The main objective is to discover how well and for how long people can survive the extreme conditions in space, and how fast they can adapt to the Earth's environment after returning from their voyage. Medical consequences such as possible blindness and bone loss have been associated with human spaceflight.[1]

Zodiac and astrology Each of the 12 astrology signs falls under a specific element and the 4 elements help in understanding everybody's place in the world. The zodiac sign elements are Air, Water, Earth and Fire. Zodiac elements are extremely symbolic with the astrology sign that they represent and will help you gain a greater understanding of people's zodiac signs and what they do in life.

The “Big Bang� This theory was born of the observation that other galaxies are moving away from our own at great speed, in all directions, as if they had all been propelled by an ancient explosive force.Scientists can't be sure exactly how the universe evolved after the big bang. Many believe that as time passed and matter cooled, more diverse kinds of atoms began to form, and they eventually condensed into the stars and galaxies of our present universe.

LeeAndra's Astronomy Notebook  

A project for Ms. Krysta's science class.

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