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Thesis ‘14

POL HOUSES

and

Reusability Understanding through Extendibility

Submitted by : Guide :

Functional Transformation

Recyclability

Krushnkumar. R. Khasiya Snehal Nagarsheth


Acknowledgemet : I express my sincere gratitude towards Prof. Snehal Nagarsheth for her patient and constant guidance, without which ideas would not have been materialized. My father Rajabhai, mother Gajaraba, Hetal and Harsh for their moral support and unbroken faith. The discussion from Shubhra Raje, Manalee Nanavati, Ankit Mistry, Meghal Arya, Vishwanath Kashikar, Gauri Bharat was very helpful for making a focused study. The generic and continuous support of Janki Shah was very greatful. My friends Bhavin Shukla (paape), Karishma Panchal (kariii), Anjani Parmar (anjiii), Muntaha Rushnaivala (muntiii), Shwash Tikkoo (tiki), Khushboo Shah (fus-fusa), Neel Prajapati (neelu), Akhil Gajjar, Ravi Pipaliya (pipu), Ajay Mistry (ajayaaa), Harsh Desai (charasiii), Bhumika Dullu (dulooo), Rudra Pratap Singh (rudraaa) were there with me in this journey.

And School of Architecture for its opportunity.


“People are happiest in buildings where change occurs at every scale from weeks to centuries.Such buildings are fractals in time.� - Stewart Brand


Reuse

Contents of the study: • Acknowledgement • Abstract • Introduction • Aim - Objectives • Methodology • Need for study • Scope and Limitations • The Study:

1. Elaboration

1.1) Ahmedabad, Pol and Pol House

1.1.1) Ahmedabad 1.1.2) Pol 1.1.3) Pol House 1.1.4) Association with a Pol House 1.2) Reuse idea 1.3) The re-usability factor (with reference to pol house of Ahmedabad) 1.3.1) Extendibility of Pol house 1.3.2) Functional transformation of Pol house 1.3.3) Recyclability of Pol house

2. Exploration

2.1) Pol house with extendibility 2.1.1) House in Pipardi ni Pol 2.1.2) House in Moto suthat-vado 2.2) Pol house with Functional transformation 2.2.1) House in Jethabhai in Pol 2.3) House with Recyclability 2.3.1) House nearby Gulbai tekra

• Conclusions • Bibliography

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Abstract When a city grows, transformations occur at every scale, things may change at a moment’s notice. In the life cycle of a house, it captures changes and as family grow with time, changes the house. These changes gets embedded in the fabric of the city. This record is an extremely important fragment of cities life. Every society, community, city has some inherent form of reuse. Here reuse states that the structure was once used for a specific purpose, which for some reason could not be sustained and hence it absorbed change and expression of reuse is seen. The concept of “reuse” is functional and financial. “Reuse’ being economically viable concept suited the Indian economic structure. One can find many examples of materials, forms and entities being reused in our everyday life. E.g. Indian women stitch their old clothes to reuse them as blanket covers. Urban growth and change, population pressure, changing metropolitan structure, increased mobility and quality of urban life has effected heavily on the built forms. Reuse, if dealt with the right approach can have economic, social, cultural and environmental advantages. Studying reusability factor in three different ways like Extendibility (house is reused by expanding or addition), Functional transformation (whole house is reused for different purpose, but structure remains) and Recyclability (house is dismantled in such a way that the elements of house is reused), to understand the change in the association of a space of a house after its reuse. These speak of embedded cultural dimensions of the values which are held important in the society.

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Reuse

Introduction :

Many a times in history of mankind the function for which the building was designed is no longer valid, the building however, has a longer life and survives then the function for which it was created. With all the progress we have made culturally, socially and technologically, it is difficult and impractical to go back to the life style of the past. What needs to be propagated is heart and soul of our culture and people. As Hasan Fathy puts it – “ over a sustained period of time, architecture is one of the most helplessly candid expression of culture. No work of architecture can remain aloof from cultural scrutiny of its own epoch, nor can it escape the ongoing interpretation of subsequent times.� India, culturally a very diverse country, has a significant number of historic buildings. These built forms from different regions manifest traditions, skills and customs of their respective cultures. These old historic buildings give character and uniqueness to a place. These built forms are important historical documents and cultural properties for the region in which they exist.

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Reuse Contemporary urban growth and change has effected heavily on these built forms. Population pressure, changing metropolitan structure, increased mobility and quality of urban life are the major factors which focuses redundancy of such built forms. As Vincent Scully puts it “ There is continuing dialogue between generations which creates an environment across time� Most of the time identity of a place gets taken care of by its physical presence in a particular urban settlement and the history attached to it; but then we can address the identity of time while reusing the spaces for the new functions. Many traditional houses have been reused by making some level of modifications either to cater to changing spatial needs or to accommodate services or to strengthen the structure.

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Reuse

Aim : Studying the HOUSE through the REUSABILITY in 3 stages. 1) Extendibility of a house The house is restructured by expanding or addition. 2) Functional transformation The whole house is reused for different purpose. (Whole function is changed but house remains) 3) Re-cyclability of house The house is dismantled in such a way that the elements of house is reused.

Objectives : To understand the change in the association of a space of a house after its reuse. To understand the factors which effects the degree and manners of changes in association with space after being reused.

Research Question : How does the value or meaning of the pol house responds to their reuse?

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Reuse

Methodology : The thesis is structured in two parts: elaboration, exploration. Elaboration: This part explain the basic idea about Ahmedabad, Pol, Pol house and the association with Pol house. It further gives the basic idea about Reuse theory with its context, in continuation it explains three re-usability factors (Extendibility, Functional Transformation and Recyclability) that are considered here for the study. Exploration : Second part consists of the data from measure draw or documentation of pol house of case studies and exploring the reusability factors in it, through analysis and inferences from the findings.

Need for study : Trying to understand the process after reuse.

Scope and Limitations : The study is an attempt to develop an understanding of reusability factor in architecture. Studying architecture in a particular way might be having its own limitations but due to its possibilities of the subject, all affecting factors may not be considered.

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Reuse The aim is to look at the factor of reusability. In that order, the study is carried out in three dimensions like extendibility, functional transformations and recyclability. • Here the theory of reusability is looked at with these three aspects only. • The pol houses which come in the three reusability states would be taken into account and analysed. • The houses which are constantly conserved are not considered, because in this the true nature of the house would not be understandable. • The pol houses of Ahmedabad has been selected as research area. • For selecting house for case studies, the house which comes in the type a and b are considered. To understand, the reuse in typical house form and not commercial houses which are on the main street.

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Reuse Type A Intimate street used only by residents (PRIVATE STREET)

Type B SEMI PUBLIC STREET, partial though traffic, lesser interaction within residents

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This chapter gives a basic idea about pol house, association with a pol house, pol and ahmedabad. The theory of reuse and its contexts are explained further, Three different factors of reusability: 1.functional transformation 2.extendibility 3.recycleability are explained in reference of pol houses of Ahmedabad in present condition.

1

This chapter explains the theories which can help to understand the exploration of various factors in succecding chapter.

Elaboration


Elaboration

Elaboration |

Chapter-1

Reuse

1.1) Ahmedabad, Pol and Pol House 1.1.1) 1.1.2) 1.1.3) 1.1.4) 1.2) Reuse idea

Ahmedabad Pol Pol House Association with a Pol House

1.3) The re-usability factor (with reference to pol house of Ahmedabad)

1.3.1) Extendibility of Pol house 1.3.2) Functional transforma tion of Pol house 1.3.3) Recyclability of Pol house

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Elaboration |

Reuse

1.1 Pol house

1.1.1) Ahmedabad : The largest city of the Gujarat State is situated in western India. Located at latitude 23˚ 04” North, longitude 72˚ 38” East, it is at an altitude of 52M above the sea level. The city is characterized by its hot dry climate. Fig.1.1: Map of India showing location of Ahmedabad Source:

F.P-17

Fig.1.2: Map showing Old-city of Ahmedabad

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Elaboration |

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Ahmedabad was founded in 1411on the ancient site of Ashaval and Karnawati by Sultan Ahmed Shah on the eastern banks of river Sabarmati to serve as the capital of the Gujarat Sultanate was named after him. The city grew larger and wealthier until dynastic decay and anarchy caused a decline and its capture by Akbar in 1572. Its renewed eminence under the Mughals ceased after Aurangzeb’s death in 1707. The British annexed Gujarat in 1818 and the city’s first cotton mills were opened in 1859-61. The city grew again and became the largest inland industrial center in India paving the way for the New City primarily on the Western banks of River Sabarmati. Ahmedabad’s architectural history fuses Hindu, Muslim, and Jain traditions. It has some Finest Indo-Islamic monuments and Jain temples. Ahmad Shah and his successors converted Hindu temples to mosques. This gave many mosques and tombs a Hindu flavor in their form and decoration. The old city symbolizing life, movement and craftsmanship in all its colors, is a labyrinth of crowded bazaars, temples, mosques, pols that cover approximately 3km area.

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Fig.1.3: Image showing the city of Ahmedabad in historic times Source: http://www.dutchingujarat.in/


Elaboration |

Reuse

An interesting feature of the old city is its division into pols, or self-contained blocks of houses (self-contained neighborhoods) that shelter thousands of people each and are bounded by gateways.

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Elaboration |

Reuse 1.1.2) POL : Pol – urban tissue of the city. Pols are housing clusters which are the socially identifiable unit of a homogeneous groups of inhabitants. These small neighborhoods are both the backbone and heartbeat of the old city of Ahmedabad. The word ‘pol’ derived from the Sanskrit word ‘pratoli’ itself suggest that it is an entrance for the particular enclosed area. A pol is a residential neighbourhood with well-defined boundaries. There is an entrance through a main gateway, a primary street, and secondary streets along which a cluster of houses adjoin. (A typical pol would have only one or two entrances and also some secret entrances known only to people residing in a pol.)

m Plan showing the Fabric of Old city of Ahmedabad Pol Houses and Reusability

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Elaboration |

Reuse

The pols consists of clusters of houses laid along narrow streets. Each has a name and a distinct identity, often related to the community and caste of the residents. It has a central community open space situated in front of a religious place or at junction with community wells, which also has ‘parabadi’ or dovecote for feeding birds. These things varied in terms of the street to house relationship in different clusters depending upon the social habits and way of life of people. The pol has a defined area of jurisdiction spread over continuous houses, binding the families under certain rules and regulations, and creating a sense of belongingness among its inhabitants. “The pol offered social homogeneity, economic stability and security to its occupants. This organization was an introverted one with respect to the city at large, yet is highly extroverted within. Inhabitants of the same pol shared a very close existence even on a very mundane scale. A perpetual social interaction exist between people of different household-leaving doors unlocked, the accessibility of all households to all pol inhabitants and no differential residential areas by wealth, are attitudes which can be observed to the present day” 1,which is generally not prevelent in today’s context.

1. Nanda Vivek, Urbanism, Tradition & Continuity in Ahmedabad, Mimar – 38, pg-28 Pol Houses and Reusability

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Elaboration |

Reuse 1.1.3) POL-HOUSE : “A house in a pol conforms to the idea of being a part of group dwelling units packed in a row” 2 Densely packed clusters of adjacent rows of houses, flanked around meandering streets are the main characteristics of the built form of the pol houses. When one looks at the pol houses of Ahmedabad, one finds different layers of meaning, structure and function are overlaid into making of a pol house. But what characterizes the pol houses is the diffused quality of light, Due to high temperatures in summer, they develop a kind of layering of elements whereby it helps to keep away the direct sunlight and create volumes which are cool and well ventilated breezy.

Fig.1.4: Image of the painting showing typical Pol house of Ahmedabad Source: City Heritage Centre, Ahmedabad 2. Vasavda R.J., Jain K.B., traditional urban settlement in Ahmedabad. Pg – 33 Pol Houses and Reusability

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Elaboration |

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Layers of different experiences defines the pol house as a long narrow block with an otla (entrance porch), an entrance area/ room, a courtyard (chowk) along which the kitchen is located, an inner room and at the rear, the storage room. Layer upon layer of information gives the house a character of its own. A typical house in the pol, has a small otla, an entrance area in the house, a chowk and a room at the rear. The toilets have been a later addition and, are located on the otla. The houses have an underground tank, which is no longer used and, in a lot of cases converted into small basement rooms. Contiguous built mass of two to three storeyed long deep courtyard type houses along the meandering streets provide an active interface between the built and unbuilt, between the house and the street. They have entrances from the street and, they are also connected at the terrace level. The columns between the houses delineate the physical boundary on the otla, while at the terrace, the boundary wall provides for the territorial definition. There is a pattern of life that occurs at the two different levels; one is at that street level, and second at the terrace level. The usage of the terrace, is dependent on the season of the year and, the time of the day; in summer the lower floors and otla along the street are used during the day and, the terrace is used for sleeping at night; in winter, the terrace is used during the day, while the lower rooms are used at night.

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Elaboration |

Reuse The fundamental principle of pol houses arranged with a common walls along their major axis. Shorter side of its width facing the street, resulting into the deep structure which gave more privacy along with the major axis. Narrow, deep plots covered almost entirely with the exception of their central court functioning well climatically also. The open areas are the courts of houses and streets on which the houses are put together. Pol houses normally has the court as their living source. Court within these houses, not only solves the climatic needs of the region but also secures privacy and individuality of each dwelling and helps them to achieve higher density. Courts of light and streets of shade are the basic intangible elements of pol houses. Pol house construction is generally based on a structure of wooden posts and beams with infill walls of brick. The brick walls are not exposed to weather, but rather are plastered on the interior and exterior. The street facade is heavily treated with wooden structural and decorative elements, including carved columns, brackets, window shutters and balconies.

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Elaboration |

Reuse

The pol house is well sited for shading. Sharing long party walls while exposing narrow end walls is a successful strategy. The wall surfaces exposed are furthermore on narrow streets which tend to shade the house facades during much of the day, with variations obviously due to orientation. Most successful, however, is the unique pol house strategy of cloaking the exposed mass walls with wooden details. The low thermal capacity of the carved wood facings provides a shield between incident solar radiation and the thermal mass of the house.

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Elaboration |

Reuse 1.1.4) Association with a Pol house : Into the making of a pol house, different layers of meaning, structure and function are overlaid. Layers of different experiences defines the pol house as a long narrow block with an otla, verandah, passage, court yard and private room. Layer upon layer of information gives the house a character of its own.

Otla (entrance porch) The transitional element leading from the street into the house, the frontal plinth, actual entrance of the house opening onto the street in the form of a raised platform is known as “otla�

Fig.1.5: Sketch showing activity of Otla Source : Theory and city form: The Case of Ahmedabad by Shraddha Sejpal

It is in the immediate contact with the street and designed such a way that the dweller can observe the happenings of the street. Any people of the dwelling cluster or the house can sit over keeping eyes on passers-by or chit-chat or keep account of all the activities happening around the pol and thereby initiating a constant interaction of the member to the community. Pol Houses and Reusability

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Elaboration |

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It is from the otla that the shopping of fruits – vegetables and other wares from vendors is done. It is from the otla that the elders and women exchange notes with their neighbours. The parents can keep an eye on the children playing in the streets from here too. It is like a place where socializing and neighbourly interaction takes place on day to day basis across the street. Khadki : Entrance room having the main door for safety and privacy. Here levels, light and other qualities are changed from the street. It is a dark and cool place immediately inside the entrance door while becoming the most public space within the dwelling. The change of quality in khadki is intended to bring the user to a relaxed spirit of house. Parsal: The roofed place next to the court is known as ‘parsal’. It is the veranda space around the court, one of the most utilized spaces in the house. This space serves as a transition space, between interior and exterior as well as public and private spaces. Because of an important location in sequence of spaces and closer to the chowk, it is the most active circulation space and the most utilized multifunctional area of the daily life. The parsal is often the space in which the traditional gujarati swing is hung and much family life takes place.

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Elaboration |

Reuse Chowk (courtyard): The chowk is the major focus within the dwelling which acts as a main source of light and ventilation duct which is developed to answer the climatic forces of the region. It serves as a response to the hot-dry climate of Ahmedabad. Because of major source of light, all other spaces and functions are organized around it and always associated with it.

Fig.1.6: Photograph showing Courtyard in typical Pol house of Ahmedabad Source: City Heritage Centre, Ahmedabad

This traditional element in a residence serves to provide the family unit a private setting. The chowk serves for overspill of the kitchen activities where vegetables and grains are cut and dried. It also serves as a semi-living area- an area for the visitors and for drying of laundry. Pol Houses and Reusability

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Elaboration |

Reuse

Ordo: The ordo is the most private space and the innermost room in the dwelling. It is a very dark than the rest of the house. It is essentially storage of grains for whole year, domestic appliances, utensils and other valuables. The Terrace: The roofs of the pol houses tend to be sloping, a form which sheds the monsoon rains and provides a loft space below for storage. Most houses, however, have a flat roof or terrace at some point. The terrace provides for a pattern of activities above the street level, depending on the season, the time of the day and occasion. In summer, when the rooms heat up during the day, the terrace is used for sleeping at night; in winter it is used more often during the day. The terrace is also used for drying clothes, making pickles, etc. the kite flying festival sees virtually the entire population of the city assemble on terraces, where, besides kite flying, people have a feast and socialize with their neighbours. Terraces between two houses are separated by a parapet wall; at the same time it is possible to cross over onto a neighbouring terrace. The terrace even today is very actively used and is incorporated in new houses too.

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Elaboration |

Reuse Community life: The pol consists of an entrance gateway, a quadrangle, temple/ mosque, well, community hall, streets and houses. Entrance gateway: It is an element that formerly provided for security to the residents and the gate used to be closed after dark. It no longer serves that function, but it still exists as a symbolic element. It also defines the territory of the pol, giving a sense of belongingness to the residents of the pol. 3

Fig.1.7: Sketch showing typical Entrance gateway of Pol house of Ahmedabad Source: Theory and city form: The Case of Ahmedabad by Shraddha Sejpal

3. Shraddha, Sejpal. THEORY AND CITY FORM : The Case of Ahmedabad. CEPT University, School of Architecture.

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Elaboration |

Reuse

Fig.1.8: Sketch showing the activity at entrance gateway Source: Theory and city form: The Case of Ahmedabad by Shraddha Sejpal

Quadrangle: It serves as an area for children to play, and for community gatherings during festivals and weddings. The quadrangle serves as a communal, social space for the people even today. 3

Fig.1.8: Sketch showing the activity at Quadrangle Source: Theory and city form: The Case of Ahmedabad by Shraddha Sejpal

3. Shraddha, Sejpal. THEORY AND CITY FORM : The Case of Ahmedabad. CEPT University, School of Architecture.

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Elaboration |

Reuse

Fig.1.8: Sketch showing the activity at Quadrangle Source: Theory and city form: The Case of Ahmedabad by Shraddha Sejpal

Temple/mosque: Almost every pol has a sacred abode. It varies in size according to the pol, but occupies a prominent location either near the entrance, or off the quadrangle in the pol. 3

Fig.1.9: Image showing temple Source: City Heritage Centre, Ahmedabad 3. Shraddha, Sejpal. THEORY AND CITY FORM : The Case of Ahmedabad. CEPT University, School of Architecture.

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Elaboration |

Reuse

Community hall: This is a multipurpose space; it is used for educational purposes; there is a small library and tutorial classes are held in the evenings for students; the sports mandal (voluntary association) organizes sports activities for children; the bhakta mandal (religious association) arranges for religious discourses, and gatherings during festivals. It is also used for weddings by the residents and rented out to outsiders, and generates some income which is used for maintenance of the hall. 3 Streets: The streets to be formerly owned jointly by the residents of the pol, and are now owned by the government. In use, the streets do not reflect the ownership-with most of the houses extending their activities onto the streets: the washing place of each house is located on the street, where the residents wash their clothes and utensils. Children play on the street adjoining the houses, so that the parents can watch them. The street also serves for parking of bicycles and scooters. 3

Columns distinguishing territories between houses

Extention of wash place onto street

Plan showing relationship of houses to the streets 3. Shraddha, Sejpal. THEORY AND CITY FORM : The Case of Ahmedabad. CEPT University, School of Architecture.

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Elaboration |

Reuse The unit of a pol, when evaluated by this criterion, portrays very positive characteristics. From the unit of an individual house, to the configuration of the pol as a functioning neighbourhood, there seems to be a degree of congruence between the daily behaviour of the inhabitants and the spatial setting, both of the elements in the house as well as the layout of the houses and other common facilities in the pol.

Fig.1.10: Sketch showing intermediate street and activities Source: Nishith Urval, https://www.behance.net/

In the past, the pols were self-sufficient for the daily needs of the people, providing the social, communal, religious and working environments for the people. The facilities in the city centre provided for facilities of the population at large with the market areas, Friday mosque, Ravivari, etc.

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Elaboration |

1.2

Reuse

RE-USE

Reuse : An action or operation by which components or whole products are being used again. Reuse: an old business taking on many new forms. Reuse can meant that you redistribute materials from one who no longer needs it to those who can still find use in the item(s). Reuse can be the major solution. While producing new products drains our limited natural resources and disposing unwanted materials pollutes our environment. Our communities or societies are constrained for lack of affordable goods. Reuse conserves valuable natural resources, reduces the amount of water and air pollution and greenhouse gases. In reuse, with little or no processing, keep materials out the waste stream by passing the goods they collect on to others.

Diagram showing reuse theory in its context

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Elaboration |

Reuse Reuse is a means to prevent solid waste from entering the landfill, improve our communities, and increase the material, educational and occupational wellbeing of our citizens by taking useful products discarded by those who no longer want them and providing them to those who do. Reusing an item means that it continues to be a valuable, useful, productive item, and replaces new items that would utilize more water, energy, timber, petroleum, and other limited natural resources in their manufacture. Repair : It is a method of taking an item, which may appear to have lived its useful life, and fixing it so that it can still be productive. Remanufacturing and refurbishing : These are ways of taking some used components and some new components to “rebuild” an item. For instance, toner cartridges are often used, then sent to a manufacturer to be broken down and rebuilt using some of the original parts that are reusable, and some new parts. Other items commonly repaired or rebuilt include engines, “single-use” cameras, appliances and electronic equipment. Benefits of reuse : • Reuse requires fewer resources, less energy, compared to recycling, disposal, or the manufacture of new products from virgin materials.

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Elaboration |

Reuse

• Reuse provides an excellent, environmentally-preferred alternative to other waste management methods, because it reduces air, water and land pollution, limits the need for new natural resources, such as timber, petroleum, fibers and other materials. When reusing materials, instead of creating new products from virgin materials, there is less burden on the economy. Reuse is an economical way for people of all socio-economic circles to acquire the items they need.

Reuse adds value!

Here Re-use can stated that the act of assigning new function to any material, form or entity, which is neglected by its original function; bearing its potential to the new use is called reuse. The concept of reuse is not new in India. in fact ‘ reuse’ can be perceived as a way of life in india. one can find many examples of materials, forms and entities being reused in our everyday life. A few such examples are listed below. • Indian women stitch their old saris to reuse them as blanket covers. • Another example can be of a tar drum, which is light in weight while empty and can be used as a container. These empty tar drums are painted and reused as traffic guides. • The building components of old buildings are carefully taken off while demolishing them. The components like doors, Pol Houses and Reusability

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Elaboration |

Reuse • windows, wooden beams and columns are sold in the market at cheaper rates. These components are bought and reused wherever needed by many people. For a developing country like india, it sometime becomes imperative to “reuse” because of our economical structure. Reuses as a way of life is a method which allows cheaper alternative then reproduction. This fact was recognized in the gandhian philosophy also thus the reuse of materials was highlited in it. The concept of “reuse” is functional and financial. In fact “reuse’ being economically viable concept suited the Indian economical structure and became a “way of life” in India. This notion got reflected when it came to reuse of historical buildings also. Basically the concept of adaptive reuse can be seen in three phases in india. Reuse, if dealt with the right approach can have economical, social, cultural and environmental advantages. The benefits of reuse extend far beyond the conservation of our cultural legacy. Economical: The concept of reuse is economically very viable. In fact, economical viability is the prime reason which makes the concept of reusing the old buildings for new functions much more strong in india. Existing infrastructure is utilized. Demolition costs are avoided.

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Elaboration |

Reuse

Existing capital of money is used for small jobs that such built form requires rather than constructing a new one. It generates employment in local people.

Social: In a country like india which was ruled by different foreign rulers at different times, it becomes really difficult to understand the social structure, customs and traditions only through the written accounts of history. So the built forms from different eras help in understanding customs, family structure, social status of a particular time period. Saving these built forms help in, 1) making people aware about their root values. 2) Retaining the identity of the people and that particular region.

Cultural: Preserving the old built forms can help in understanding cultural diversity in India. • It brings awareness about our cultural heritage. • It inspires people for preserving our cultural heritage.

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Elaboration |

Reuse • The urge of learning about different cultures of our own country, indirectly, contributes to the concept of tourism. Environmental: Climate was a prime concern for the old built forms, right from the conception of it to the selection of materials. 1) We can learn techniques of using natural elements like light, wind and water efficiently. Like for example technique of rain water harvesting in the traditional house forms is quite relevant in today’s time also. 2) As the process of demolition and new erection is avoided, energy is conserved.

1.2 Re-Usability factor (with reference to Pol houses of Ahmedabad) As said earlier, the value of the product and its potential for the new use was recognized hence the concept of reuse is widely accepted in our everyday life. When it comes to the reuse of old built forms. It would be necessary to understand its values. It would be equally important to establish the need for reusing the old built forms to make the concept of adaptive reuse acceptable. With the reference of Pol house of Ahmedabad, re-usability factor is being studied in three different dimensions like, 1) Extendibility, 2) Functional transformations and 3) Recyclability. Pol Houses and Reusability

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Elaboration |

Reuse

Extendibility of Pol house: Due to life style and growth of the individuals, requirement of spaces increases over a times which result in to house extensions. How a house EXTENDED ITS BOUNDARIES in order to accomodate change or transformation through time. Here Pol house’s extension is being observed.

First stage

Second stage

Third stage

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Elaboration |

Reuse Functional Transformations of Pol house: Houses which DEMONSTRATED COMPLETE CHANGE OF USE which affects the whole house and not addressing flexibility which addresses either partitioning or amalgamation of spaces (e.g. Sliding doors). How does a Pol house transform just by it’s functions and not by the architectural / primary structure. Here the original structural frame remain constant but the function has changed over time.

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Elaboration |

Reuse

Recyclability of Pol house: During reuse of the Pol house, some people completely dismantle Pol house and built a new, but traditional elements are being reused in new house. It may or may not be used in same manner. Sometime whole house is dismantled and rebuilt on same place by using most of the same old reusable elements. Whole idea to study the recyclability is to understand the system which allows alterations.

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This chapter contains the data of measure draw or documentation of pol hous of Ahmedabad contating case studies. The data is being explored with the association of a house through reusability factors. This chapter explores the data through analysis, that gives direction for the conclusions.

Exploration


Exploration

Exploration |

Chapter-2

Reuse

2.1) Pol house with extendibility

2.1.1) House in Pipardi ni Pol

2.1.2) House in Moto suthar -vado

2.2) Pol house with Functional transformation

2.2.1) House in Jethabhai in Pol

2.3) House with Recyclability

2.3.1) House nearby Gulbai tekra

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Exploration |

Reuse

2.2 Extendibilituy of a Pol house To understand the reusability factor Pol house from Moto Suthar Vado has been taken into study.

2.2.1 House in Moto suthar vado

012 4

8

16

32M ( 1:500 A4)

Pol Houses and Reusability

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Exploration |

Reuse Stage - 1

Bird eye view

Section

F.F.

G.F.

0 1 Pol Houses and Reusability

| 54

2

4

8M


Exploration |

Reuse

Stage - 2 1984, Addition of rooms on the second floor and installation of bathroom on first floor

Bird eye view

Section

F.F.

G.F.

0 1

2

4

8M

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 55


Exploration |

Reuse Stage - 2

Section of stage - 2

Stage - 3

Section of stage - 3

0 1 Pol Houses and Reusability

| 56

2

4

8M


Exploration |

Reuse

Stage - 3 2010, Room and bathroom added to second floor

Bird eye view

S.F.

F.F.

G.F.

0 1

2

4

Pol Houses and Reusability

8M | 57


Exploration |

Reuse

Inferences :

0 1 2 Pol Houses and Reusability

| 58

4

8

16M


Exploration |

Parameter Site, Cluster

Constants Form

Reuse

Change Nature of Form

0 1 2

4

8 Pol Houses and Reusability

16M | 59


Exploration |

Reuse

The essence of a space got affected, because of the extension, the intensity of the users get increased.

0 1 2 Pol Houses and Reusability

| 60

4

8

16M


Exploration |

0 1 2

4

Reuse

8 Pol Houses and Reusability

16M | 61


Exploration |

Reuse

Parameter Day-light system

Constant Natural way of system

Change Intensity or Output

Stage - 1

Section

F.F.

G.F. 0 1

2

4

8M ( 1:200 A4)

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 62

Light plans


Exploration |

Reuse

Stage - 2

Section

S.F.

F.F.

G.F. 0 1

2

4

8M ( 1:200 A4)

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 63

Light plans


Exploration |

Reuse

Stage - 3

Section

S.F.

F.F.

G.F. 0 1

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 64

2

4

8M ( 1:200 A4) Light plans


Exploration |

Reuse

2.2.2 House in Pipardi ni Pol

012 4

8

16

32M ( 1:500 A4)

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 65


Exploration |

Reuse

Section

F.F.

G.F.

0 1

2

4

8M

Bird-eye view Stage - 1

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 66

Stage - 2


Exploration |

Reuse

Section

S.F.

F.F.

G.F.

0 1

2

4

Pol Houses and Reusability

8M | 67


Exploration |

Reuse

Inferences : Parameter Site, Cluster

Constants Form

Change Nature of Form

0 1 2 Pol Houses and Reusability

| 68

4

8

16M


Exploration |

0 1 2

4

Reuse

8 Pol Houses and Reusability

16M | 69


Exploration |

Reuse

The essence of a space got affected, because of the extension, the intensity of the users get increased.

0 1 2 Pol Houses and Reusability

| 70

4

8

16M


Exploration |

0 1 2

4

Reuse

8 Pol Houses and Reusability

16M | 71


Exploration |

Reuse

Parameter Day-light system

Constant Natural way of system

Change Intensity or Output

Section

F.F.

G.F.

0 1

2

4

8M ( 1:200 A4)

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 72

Light plans


Exploration |

Reuse

Section

S.F.

F.F.

G.F.

0 1

2

4

8M ( 1:200 A4)

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 73

Light plans


Exploration |

Reuse

2.2 Functional transformation of a Pol house To understand the reusability factor two Pol houses has been taken into study. One house is from Jethabhai ni pol which is now reused as a school and second house is in Dhal ni Pol which is now reused as NGO for women.

2.2.1 House in Jethabhai ni Pol

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 74


Exploration |

012 4

8

Reuse

16

32M ( 1:500 A4)

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 75


Exploration |

Reuse

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 76


Exploration |

Reuse

Unnati School (Vinubhai’s house in Jethabhai ni Pol) Differents between legends for same space :

Backyard

Otla Khadki Parsal Chowk Osri Ordo

Drop Reception Waiting room Playing area Classroom Classroom

Ordo

Store room

Classroom 2

Storage

To first floor

Osri

Pooja Room

To first floor

Kitchen

Classroom 1

Chowk

Paniaru

Chowk

Play area

Parsal

Bathroom

Drinking Water Facility

Waiting area

Toilet

Khadki

Reception

Otta

Drop off area

Drop off area

Toilet

To first floor

Entry

Waiting area

Toilet

To first floor

G.F. Plan (present condition)

Re-interpreted G.F. Plan

0 1

2

4

Pol Houses and Reusability

8M | 77


Exploration |

Reuse

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 78


Exploration |

Reuse

Unnati School (Vinubhai’s house in Jethabhai ni Pol)

Open to sky (backyard)

Storage

Room

Classroom 2

Room

To Second floor

Classroom 1

Open to sky (Chowk )

Toilet

Open to sky (chowk )

Passaage

Bathroom

Room

Classroom 3

To Second floor

Typical Upper Floor Plan (pres- Re-interpreted Upper Floor Plan ent condition)

0 1

2

4

Pol Houses and Reusability

8M | 79


Reuse

0 1

2

4

8M

Exploration |

Longitudinal Section : Pol Houses and Reusability

| 80


Exploration |

Reuse

Inferences : Parameter Constants Site, Cluster Form The essence of a space changes.

Change Nature of Form

Typical cluster plan : A pol has a central community open space situated in front of a religious place or at junction, which also has ‘parabadi’ or dovecote and a well. Streets become outdoor living rooms as domestic and social activities spill over on to them. House fronts with ottas, platforms, verandah, balcony and zarokha along with pockets of open spaces at street widening become setting for socializing, neighbourly interaction and group activities.

Present condition Cluster plan : Because of the functional transformation, it take away the privacy and domestic character of the living quarter while increasing the volume of through traffic. As it is the streets are narrow, they start creating problems pertaining their parking and movement, resulting into crowding and traffic jams. These also invade upon the streets – only open space available in the neighbourhood for social, recreational and group activities, adversely contributing to the living environment and socio-cultured fabric. The resultant nuisance is noise and congestion.

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 81


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT Reuse

0 1

2

4

Typical cluster plan :

8M

Exploration |

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 82


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT Reuse

0 1

2

4

Present condition Cluster plan :

8M

Exploration |

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 83


Exploration |

Reuse Otla : It facilitates a spill over of domestic activities, thereby initiating a constant interaction of the member of the community, allows residents to participate in “street life”. Area where sit and chat, watch ‘ passers-by’ and keep account of all the activities happening around. After Reuse As a drop off area. Where parents leave their children for school activity. And after school some children stand there while waiting for their parents.

Typical Otla plan :

1

0 Pol Houses and Reusability

| 84

2

4

6M


Exploration |

Reuse

Present Condition Section

Present condition Otla plan :

0

1

2

4

6M

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 85


Exploration |

Reuse

Typical Condition Plan of Parsal and Chowk

0 Pol Houses and Reusability

| 86

1

2

4

6M


Exploration |

Reuse

Chowk : The chowk is centrally located and the most important as a source of light and ventilation. Because of major source of light, all other spaces and functions are organized around it and always associated with it. The entrance transition- khadki, puja mandir, paniyaru- the major elements are all located around the chowk, which becomes a major functional space of the house. After Reuse It is being reused as a small play area for children.

Parsal : The front of the room. The roofed place next to the court is known as ‘parsal’. Because of an important location in sequence of spaces and closer to the chowk, it is the most active circulation space and the most utilized multifunctional area of the daily life. Utilized multifunctional area of the daily life.

After Reuse It is being reused as a class room.

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 87


Pol Houses and Reusability

Present Condition of Parsal and Chowk

Longitudinal sectionthrough Parsal and Chowk

0

1

2

4

6M

Exploration |

Reuse

| 88


Exploration |

Reuse

Present Condition Plan of Parsal and Chowk

0

1

2

4 Pol Houses and Reusability

6M | 89


Exploration |

Reuse

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 90


Exploration |

Reuse

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 91


Exploration |

Reuse

Typical Condition Plan of Parsal and Chowk

1

0 Pol Houses and Reusability

| 92

2

4

6M


Exploration |

Reuse

Upper rooms: The wooden staircase led to the spaces above, which was more private. Upper floor rooms are the separate rooms, where generally an outsider is not allowed to enter in these areas. Privacy increases as one goes deeper and higher from the street. The room above the khadki is known as ‘ baithak’, used as a guest room, overlooking to street and internal open space After Reuse It is being reused as classrooms.

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 93


Pol Houses and Reusability

Present Condition of Upper floors

Longitudinal sectionthrough Upper Floors

0

1

2

4

6M

Exploration |

Reuse

| 94


Exploration |

Reuse

Present Condition Plan of Parsal and Chowk

0

1

2

4

6M

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 95


Exploration |

Reuse

Present Condition Photographs of Upper floors

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 96


Exploration |

Reuse

Present Condition Photographs of Upper floors

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 97


Exploration |

Reuse

Ordo : It is the most private space in the dwelling. It is comparatively dark than the rest of the house. The source of the light in this room is only two ventilators, which are fixed on the chamfered wall to spread moreThe function of the room is essentially storage of domestic appliances, grain ( for the whole year), utensils and other valuables. After Reuse It is beeing used as a classroom.

Ordo

store room

Typical Condition Plan

1

0 Pol Houses and Reusability

| 98

2

4

6M


Exploration |

Reuse

Classroom

Present Condition Section

Present Condition Plan

0

1

2

4

6M

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 99


Exploration |

Reuse

2.3 Recyclability of a Pol house To understand this reusability factor Snehal Nagarsheth’s house nearby Gulbai Tekra has been taken into study.

2.3.1 Snehal Nagarsheth’s House

Site Plan

N.T.S. Source: Google Earth

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 100


Exploration |

Reuse

Components from old Pol house, reused in facade

Rear Facade

Front Facade

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 101


Exploration |

Reuse

Entire Bathroom Facade is a component from old Pol house

Interior View from the house Pol Houses and Reusability

| 102


Exploration |

Reuse

Traditional Pol house construction system: A building is a very complex entity made up of many parts, components and systems. Some parts of the building come together to form a component. Parts and Components function in unison to form a system. A system has twofold identity: a unique personality of what it does, and a coherent character of how it carries out its functions. The ‘first identity makes a system substantially self-sufficient’, but the ‘second identity makes it a participant of a larger system’. The construction system is formed by unison of different components. Traditional construction of Ahmedabad has typical building elements, detailing and materials used for making of its architecture. However it has different techniques in which this assembly of building elements evolves the structural system. That comprise mainly three different types of traditional methods of wooden construction, i.e. timber bonding, partial framing and full framing. Composite construction technique of wood and brick is typical in Ahmedabad houses. They perform together in a composite manner in which timber acts as reinforcement to the brick¬work. The timber lacing ties up with the attached columns, doors and win¬dow frames resulting in a box-like structure.

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 103


Pol Houses and Reusability

| 104

Facade system

Double frame Wooden opening bands

Composite walls

Cross walls

Floor Diaphragm

Traditional Pol house construction system:

Parallel walls

Roof Diaphragm

Exploration |

Reuse


Exploration |

Reuse

Use of Old Pol House elements: In typical pol house plan components like column, brackets, todala, etc are used. They act as a structural supporting members also providing the aesthetic value to the house. This components are generally of wood that are intricately carved, such elements adds the heritage value to the house. These elements are conserved / preserved by the owners and are reused again on the same site or different. These elements when used on new site acts as a non-structural member only used to add upon the aesthetic value of house or sometimes to conserve own family identity. Most of the old elements like chabutro, jharokhas, and column are kept for purchase.

This reuse of elements is only possible because of the component based structural system.

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 105


Exploration |

Reuse

Front view of Snehal Nagarsheth’s House:

Back view of Snehal Nagarsheth’s House:

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 106


Reuse

Side view of Snehal Nagarsheth’s House:

Exploration |

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 107


Reuse

Bird-Eye view of Snehal Nagarsheth’s House:

Exploration |

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 108


Exploration |

Reuse

Isometric view of Snehal Nagarsheth’s House:

Old Pol Components

Structural Member

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 109


The following chapter concludes various factors after understanding and analyzing various aspects of reusability.

3

Conclusion


The following chapter concludes various factors after understanding and analyzing various aspects of reusability.

3

Conclusion


Exploration |

Reuse

Reuse is good for economical and environmentally but it also change the way of living. Pols were considered as a heart of the city. Pols were self-sufficient for daily needs of the people, providing religious, communal, social and working environments for the people. With passage of time, the structure of pol demanded for repair. In this condition reuse factor fits as essential tool to overcome changing needs. As time grows, if the functional value of building or it components declines than reusability helps in restoring the functional value either by maintaining the same or different function. In this thesis I have explored reusability factors on following bases, • For extendibility 1) Impact on cluster and site 2) Change in material 3) Daylight system

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 113


Exploration |

Reuse

• For functional transformation 1) Impact on cluster and site 2) Impact on spaces in house

• For recyclability 1) Understanding the component based system in reference to reuse

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 114


Exploration |

Reuse

After analysis of above mentioned factors following points for each factors are concluded below:

Extendibility: Generally pol house have shared walls, therefore it has been observed that the extension happens only vertically. The toilets are generally placed outside the house to resolve the problem of ventilation. But due to extension toilets are designed on first floor, opening ventilation into the courtyard disturbs the essence of courtyard. The courtyard which was previously considered as the nucleus of the house where all the main daily activities happened, has been changed to just a service court which ventilates the services on above floor. Because of the extension, it has affected natural day light system of the pol house design. The height to length ratio of the courtyard reduces, changing to the reduce sun light. So the spaces in the house becomes darker than it was actually designed. People in Pol houses stays together, the extension of house is generally happens to accommodate the increase in number of family people. As the number of users increased in pol, the community spaces becomes more crowdy hence it creates hustle-bustle.

Pol Houses and Reusability

| 115


Exploration |

Reuse The over structured designed pol house fulfills the changing needs of the family as the family increase through generations. But with that quality it affects the essence of a pol house on individual design level and community level in negative way.

Functional Transformations: As function transforms without the change in structure, it can conserve the heritage of history but it changes the intangible essence of experience of space. It changes the perception of a space as it was design to perceive. It changes the community to house relationship.

Recyclability: Because of the component based structural system, the reuse of pol house element are possible. These elements are reused again on the same site or different. These elements when used on new site acts as a non-structural member only used to add upon the aesthetic value of house or sometimes to conserve own family identity. Reusability can be main tool for developing countries like India.

Along with its being economical environmental viable it conserves the heritage value, marking the identity of a particular place or area or city. Pol Houses and Reusability

| 116


Bibliography: Books Hertzberger, Herman. Lessons For Students in Architecture. Rotterdam: Uitqeverji, 1991. Space and the architect : lessons in architecture-2. Rotterdam: 010, 2000. Jain, Kulbhushan B. Architecture conceptual to the manifest. Ahmedabad: AADI Centre, 2012. Thematic space in Indian architecture. Ahmedabad: AADI Centre, 2002. Document. Jain, Meghal. Idea Of An Ideology : The Significance Of An Ideology In Architecture. Ahmedabad: CEPT Publication, 1996. Lane, Barbara Miller. Housing and Dwelling. LONDON AND NEW YORK: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2007. Leupen, Bernard. Frame and generic space. Rotterdam: 010, 2006. Pratima. Memories of my Pol in old Ahmedabad. Ahmedabad: City Heritage Collection Rapoport, Amos. House form and culture. Englewood Cliff, 1969. Vastu Shilpa Foundation for Studies & research in Environmental Design, Ahmedabad. Jethabhai ni Pol, Khadia, Ahmedabad : a documentation of the living environments. Ahmedabad. Vastu-Shilpa Foundation for Studies & Research in Environmental Design, 1997.

Websites: http://loadingdock.org/redo/Reuse/body_reuse.html https://www.behance.net http://www.dutchingujarat.in


Articles: Nanda Vivek. Urbanism, Tradition & Continuity in Ahmedabad, Mimar – 38, pg-28 Vasavda R.J., Jain K.B. Traditional urban settlement in Ahmedabad. Pg – 33

Unpublished Thesis: Mahesh, Desai. EVOLUTION OF HOUSE CONCEPTS AND ITS GROUPINGS IN AHMEDABAD. CEPT University, School of Architecture, 1975. Aarati, Kanekar. SENSE OF PLACE IN TRADITIONAL DWELLING ENVIRONMENT. CEPT University, School of Architecture. Neha, jariwala. Single Family Attached Dwelling Type : A Comparative Study – Ahmedabad. CEPT University, School of Architecture. Krishna, Desai. Metamorphosis of the House Form in the Walled City of Ahmedabad. CEPT University, School of Architecture. Rutul, Joshi. EXPLORATIONS IN THE CONCEPT OF ‘MEANING’: SEARCH FOR MEANING IN THE TRADITIONAL DWELLING. CEPT University, School of Architecture. Sagarika, Suri. POLYVALENCE IN THE TRADITIONAL DWELLING : AN ENQUIRY INTO ADAPTABILITY OF THE POL HOUSE, AHMEDABAD. CEPT University, School of Architecture. Akbarnazim, Modan. STUDY OF SYSTEM OF CONSTRUCTION OF TRADITIONAL AHMEDABAD HOUSES : QUERY IN EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE. CEPT University, School of Architecture. Bhaumik, Bhatt ADAPTIVE REUSE : INDIAN SCENARIO CEPT University, School of Interior Design. Amita, Kapur. ADAPTIVE REUSE OF OLD BUILDINGS – NEW FUNCTIONS AND INTERIOR SPACES. CEPT University, School of Interior Design.


Susan, Ubbelohde; George, Loisos. THE AHMEDABAD POL HOUSE: COURTYARD STRATEGIES IN A HOT-DRY/HOT-HUMID CLIMATE. University of Minnesota, Department of Architecture. Shraddha, Sejpal. THEORY AND CITY FORM : The Case of Ahmedabad. CEPT University, School of Architecture.


If Past is nothing but the teacher. . . If Present is nothing but the learner. . . than Future is nothing but the great fortune. . .

- Krushnkumar Khasiya

Thank You. . .

krushnsinh.rg@gmail.com

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Krushnkumar Khasiya - Undergraduate Thesis  

Pol Houses of Ahmedabad Old City and Reusability (Understanding the Transformation of Heritage structures in the present scenario through th...

Krushnkumar Khasiya - Undergraduate Thesis  

Pol Houses of Ahmedabad Old City and Reusability (Understanding the Transformation of Heritage structures in the present scenario through th...