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HISTORY STOP The Tudors Period

TOURISM STOP Cambridge City

LANDMARK STOP Big Ben Leicester Square

CELEBRITY STOP The Beatles Stephen Hawking

CULTURE STOP British TV Weddings in England Royal Etiquette Do’s and Don’ts in England Tea Swinging 60s

FESTIVAL STOP St.Patrick’s Day




Henry VII

Henry VIII

The Tudor reign lasted from 1485 to 1603.The Tudors were a Welsh-English family.They ruled for 118 years.The first Tudor King was Henry VII,he became the king of England and Wales in August 1485.After him reigned his sons, Henry VIII and Edward VI.

Edward VI

Tudor England was a farming society. Most of the population ( over 90%) lived in small villages and worked as farmers.

Edward became king at the age of nine and he was called 'The Boy King’. They are famous for many things: Henry VIII six wives, and during their reign explorers started to explore America and Shakespeare wrote his plays During the sixteenth century, England emerged from the medieval world. It was a time of great change, like the end of the Catholic church in England. It Began the great English sealing tradition with naval exploits.


Naval Exploits

During the Tudor’ time there were lots of problems like: the towns were becoming overcrowded, streets were muddy and travelling was difficult. The overcrowding caused danger from fire to disease.

Henry VIII changed England’s religion because he wanted to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon and he wanted to marry Anne Boleyn, but the Pope didn’t allow it, so Henry changed the religion in England and it became a Protestant country in 1534.

Catherine of Aragon

Water Well

Village Pump

During the Tudor reign England became more peaceful and richer. Towns grew larger and mining was very popular. Water was collected from village pumps, but it was often polluted People built beautiful houses, schools and colleges. Arts and crafts flourished. England hosted great painters, writers and musicians.

Anne Boleyn

At the time the Pope was Clement VII.

Henry VIII closed the monasteries because he wanted to take their treasures and their land. Today we can find ruins of monasteries near Helmsley in North Yorkshire.

Selby Abbey

By Milena and Mandip, IT 4

Henry VIII Henry VIII was born in England in 1491.

Henry didn’t go to school.

His parents were Henry VII and Elizabeth of York). Henry VIII had an older brother Arthur and two sisters Elizabeth I and Marie I.

Teachers called tutors taught him. Henry was very clever. He learned French, Latin and Greek. He was good at maths, poetry and music.

When he was young Henry was handsome, tall and sporty,

Henry liked horse riding, jousting and archery. He also loved tournaments.


Riding a horse


The Lute

The Harp

Henry liked music, and played the lute and the harp.

Henry VIII had six wives. Henry wore clothes with jewels sewn onto the cloth. Rich people wore clothes made of expensive

- Catherine of Aragon- the first wife. She was a Spanish princess. In 1533 Henry divorced Catherine because she was too old to give him a son. - Anne Boleyn- the second wife. She was an English princess. Anne was accused of having lovers so she was executed. - Jane Seymour-the third wife. She was an English princess. Jane became ill and died. - Anne of Cleves- the fourth wife. She was a German princess. Henry divorced her because she was ugly. -Catherine Howard- the fifth wife. She was an English princess. She had lover so she was executed - Catherine Parr- the sixth wife. She was an English princess. But the king died before Catherine.

They ate rich foods, such as swan and peacock. Henry died in January 1547. His son Edward (aged 9) became King Edward VI. Edward died in 1553.

By Alessia and Bhavana, IT


Anne Boleyn Anne Boleyn was three children and she had one sister (Mary) and one brother (George). Her family was quite rich.When she was a teenager she was a lady in waiting for Queen Claude of France.She came back in England at the age of 20.She wasn’t beautiful, but born in about 1501.In her family she was slim and elegant and her eyes and hair were very dark and King Henry VIII fell in love with her.

For Henry VIII there was a problem: he was married to Catherine of Aragon and it was not possible to divorce at that time. . So he decided to separate from the Catholic Church and England became a protestant country. Anne became queen of England in 1533 but her story doesn’t have a happy ending: she had a lot of enemies in England because the people didn’t like her. Anne Boleyn was queen for only 3 years and she had one child with Henry VIII but it was a girl and her name was Elizabeth. For this reason she died in May 1536 because she was beheaded by King Henry VIII who wanted to have a son.

By Vaccaretti, Pegoraro, Panarotto, IT 6

SHAKESPEARE’S GLOBE THEATRE The Tudor Period the theatre was very important because it was very popular both with poor and rich people. There were lots of theatres in London. The best theaters in London The Theatre, The Curtain Theatre, The Globe Theatre, The Rose, The Swan. William Shakespeare was a really famous and important actor and writer in London. Queen Elizabeth was his great fan. He was born in Stratford-upon-Avord in England in 1564 and he died in 1616. Shakespeare was a member of a company of actors, called the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Shakespeare had a theatre:the GLOBE THEATRE It was in London and it opened in 1598, It was round and it was open to the sky. A flag was raised to show a play was about to begin. Plays began at 2 in the afternoon. Some people stood in front of the stage. Others had seats. Rich men paid 12 pennies (one shilling) to sit on the stage. The audience shouted and clapped, laughed and booed. Over the stage was a roof, to keep off the rain. Actors could be lowered from the roof on wires. There was a trap door in the stage too. So actors could pop up to surprise the audience. The Globe Theater burned down in 1613 because during Shakespeare’s play Henry VIII, a cannon set fire to the straw in the roof. The new Globe Theatre opened in 1997 but it was a replica. The first play was Henry V.

SPECIAL EFFECTS The special effects at the time were Ghosts, Witches, Loud Bangs, Flames, Smokes, Drums and Even Cannons. Actors could be lowered from the roof on wires. There was a trap door in the stage too. So actors could pop up to surprise the audience!!!

In Shakespeare's time, there were no women actors. Women's parts were played by boys. For a time, child actors were more popular than grown-actors. Actors wore the clothes of the day, with wigs and make up. Shakespeare is said to have played the Ghost in his play Hamlet. By Christian and Alessandro, IT 7

The Tudor period - exploration The British navy became important during the reign of Elizabeth I. It defended England in a war with Spain and Queen Elizabeth paid her navy captains to discover new territories, new products and treasure.

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE Francis Drake was born in 1542 in the UK. During his life, Drake became famous because he was the first English person to sail around the world, and because he sailed to America and he brought money back to England, which was poor at the time Moreover he defeated the Spanish Navy in the war against England. He died in the West Indies in 1596, he died.

SIR WALTER RALEIGH Walter Raleigh was one explorer. Sir Walter Raleigh was born in 1554 in the UK. He was paid by Queen Elizabeth to discover new territories. He sailed to America in 1578 and he claimed land there and he became famous for this. For the first time he brought potatoes and tobacco to England. One day queen Elizabeth I went for a walk in the street. Suddenly she saw a dirty puddle where she was walking. Walter Raleigh put his cloak on the dirty puddle and the queen walked over it, so that she didn’t wet her feet. Then Raleigh became the queen’s favourite man.

When the queen Elizabeth I died in 1603, the new king James I put Raleigh in prison. He came out of prison in 1612, and he went to South


killed some people.Also, Walter, didn’t bring back money for king. James I the king executed him.

By Nicolas and Elsa, IT




Big Ben

*Big Ben Real Name is the name of the Great Bell inside the Elizabeth Tower.

The Clock Tower Tour

*Big Ben is located at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London. *The Big Ben is 315 feet (96 meters) high. *Big Ben is a very important landmark of London. It attracts a lot of tourists all around the year. *Big Ben (The Great Bell) is grey-ish with some green marks on its surface.

How does Big Ben keep accurate time?


BIG BEN FACTS The Great Bell was cast in 1858, so it is 159 years old.

•The Big Ben bell has the following measurements:

It weighs more than 13 tons (13,760 kg).

9'-0" diameter, 7'-6" high, and weighs 13 tons 10 cwts 3 qtrs 15lbs (13,760 Kg)

It took 34 years to build Big Ben. There were two English architects who were responsible for building Big Ben 1)Augustus Pugin 2) Charles Barry

Charles Barry

• The name Big Ben originally referred to just the bell but now it encompasses the clock, the tower and the bell.

Augustus Pugin

*What is the official name of the clock? The Great Westminster Clock. *How accurate is the clock? It is accurate to within one second. When you hear the first chime of Big Ben, that marks the hour on the dot.

•The clock became operational on 7th September 1859. By Helen,GR

By Evelyn and Vasiliki, GR 10


Big Ben Puzzle

By Paris and Nick, GR


Cambridge is a country town which is a part of England. TOURISM STOP

This city has a population of 125,000 and is 80 km northeast of London.

Cambridge , England

Cambridge, a historic city

Cambridge is home of the University Of Cambridge one of the better universities in the world.

The city is famous for its bridges and colleges.

Clare College The oldest College on the River Backs, dating from 1326. Originally named University Hall. After hitting financial hardship, it was refounded by Elizabeth de Clare, and renamed . King’s College The college found in 1441 by King Henry VI and its full name is “The King’s College of our Lady and Saint Nicholas in Cambridge.

The Bridge of Sighs

The Bridge Of Sighs is built in 1831 and is one of the Cambridge’s tourist attractions in the River Cam.

The Mathematical Bridge The bridge was built in 1749 by James Essex the Younger (1722 -1784) to the design of William Etheridge (1709-1776).

By Christine and Evita, GR 12


Leicester Square is a pedestrianised square in the West End of London in the City of Westminster.

The Glockenspiel is one of the few structures in the UK to contain Swiss time movement. The design is a free-standing totem design. It features 11 moving Swiss figures against a traditional Swiss alpine backdrop, images of the 26 Swiss cantons, 27 bells, 4 Swiss Jacomas representing bell ringers and 2 clocks at the top of the structure. The bells will chime and a fiveminute performance takes place five times a day, Monday to Friday, and eight times a day at the weekend.

By Fay, GR

LEICESTER SQUARE • Leicester Square attracts thousands of visitors each year, most of whom are visiting the area to watch a theatre performance or a movie premiere in London's world-known “Theatreland.” •Lots of theatre performances take place in Leicester Square like: mama mia, lion king, snowman and difficult lives.

A statue of William Shakespeare was designed by Giovanni Fontana has formed the centerpiece of Leicester Square Gardens, London, since 1874.

By Danae and Sylvia, GR

The Phantom of the Opera is a 2004 British American musical drama film based on Andrew Lloyd Webber's 1986.A young soprano becomes the obsession of a disfigured musical genius who lives beneath the Paris Opéra House. He kidnaps the soprano and forces the owners of the play to keep her as the lead role of the play.

The Lion King is a 1994 American animated epic musical film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures.

Featuring a host of hit ABBA songs including “Money Money Money”, “Take a Chance on Me”, “Does Your Mother Know” and “The Winner Takes it All” this irresistibly funny musical comedy follows an original story of love and friendship. 13

What is Beatlemania?


Well, in all of a sudden, everybody loved the Beatles, so much that on concerts, the police had to hold the cheering, screaming fans up.

EARLY LIVERPOOL DAYS Everyone from the band was from Liverpool, and born during World War 2. The band had 4 members including: George Harrison, John Lennon, Paul McCartney and Ringo Starr (after Pete Best, but I’ll tell more bout’ this) Life wasn’t easy in Liverpool, especially after the war, because of inflation, and that everyone was poor. THE BAND’S FORMATION The band was formed in the middle ’50-s. Lennon was the one who formed the group and it was called The Quarrymen( Quarry Bank High School). One day in the summer of ’57, a friend of McCartney showed him the Quarrymen’s preformance. In that performance, Lennon was singing, he forgot some words, but he replaced those words. McCartney loved it, so he joined the

BACK TO LIVERPOOL They got more and more popular in Liverpool. Liverpoolians thought that they were from Hamburg, and they told John Lennon that his English is great. They often played in a club/pub called the Cavern.

GEORGE MARTIN A few weeks later, Martin called Epstein, for a record of a new album. Martin didn’t want Pete Best to be the drummer. Luckily Ringo Starr was available. Martin was called the Fifth Beatles.


group. They toured through Scotland under the name: The Silver Beetles. In 1960 they travelled to Hamburg, Germany. The Beatles by the way didn’t have a drummer or a guitarist, but luckily Ringo Starr was found.

Everything changed when they met Brian Epstein, who managed a music shop, and soon he managed the Beatles too. He changed some rules, ex.: no food, drink and cigarettes on the stage. They even had to wear a suit when on stage. In 62, EMI, a large studio wanted to listen to the boys. Then, George Martin showed up. He didn’t like the boys’ music, but he liked them.

The Beatles recorded their first single ,,Love me do” in 1962 at Abbey Road (George Martin). In December 1962, they released this single, and oh boy people loved it! They were 17th on the charts. They were on their way, to the top 14



It was time to record a new song. Martin didn’t like John and Paul’s songs, he decided to record and compose a new one. The boys refused, so they recorded John’s „Please, please me”. At first this was a slow song but Martin wanted the boys to play it faster. The song hit the first place in 1963 March.

Rubber Soul came out in December 1965.

YESTERDAY McCartney wrote a beautiful song about lost love called Yesterday. George Martin loved the song immediately. But Paul was sometimes angry when fans called the best Beatles song.

George (as you might remember( was enthusiastic about Indian music. He loved the sitar. This is how „Norwegian Wood” was born. 1966 Lennon and a reporter were talking about modern church. John said ‚We are more popular than Jesus now!’ This made millions of people angry.They didn’t get the joke. SERGEANT PEPPER’S LONELY HEARTS CLUB This was the most important album of the Beatles.But then, sad news came in. Epstein died. The Beatles were not good in business, so they were in trouble. At this point, the Beatles began to collapse.

By Vince, HUN

JOHN LENNON was born in 1940. He didn’t live quite long but he lived quite an amazing life. He learned in two schools, he had two wives, he had two children and he played on three instruments.He sang and played on guitar and piano in the Beatles. He won multiple awards with and without the band. Wait... He was an actor and director too. His father Alfred left them, then his mother thought she couldn’t take care of him so she passed John to her sister. John founded a band in 1950. It was called The Quarry Men. He was active in music from 1957 to 1980. He played on the guitar, the piano and the harmonica. Soo... That’s all.He was the leader of the Beatles. He was a writer and singer. He had a quote what just shocked me. He said they are more popular than Jesus and Christiandom will collapse. He said Christians are dumb.He and the Beatles played different types of rock, pop and they played experimental music too.He acted in 8 films. He mostly played himself in the movies. He acted in two episodes of a series. In that he was a lavatory attendant and a guest. Cynthia Powell (1939-2015)(married 1962-1968)They had a rocky relationship. They met in 1957. They were fellow students in Liverpool College of Art. She knew John was obsessed with a French actress so she dyed her hair blonde so Lennon asked her out.He was violent with her. She got pregnant so they got married and their son Julian was born in 1963. Cynthia knew that Lennon used LSD and it ruined their marriage. Next year they divorced. Yoko Ono (1933-)(married 1963) Ono was collecting musical scores for a book. She went to John and he gave Ono the hand written version of The Word. Ono was telephoning and visiting John. Cynthia asked John about it then Lennon explained that Ono was only trying to obtain money for her stuff she did. While his wife was on holiday in Greece in May 1968, Lennon invited Ono to visit. They spent the night recording what would become the Two Virgins album. Then Cynthia returned. Then they divorced. Ono became pregnant in 1968. They moved to Manhattan in 1971. On December 8 1980 John Lennon was murdered. The couple was hosting a photographer. She took photos of them for the Rolling Stones magazine. When they went out to record a guy called Mark Chapman asked Lennon to give him an autograph. He did give him one. They got great news from their manager. When they stopped recording and went home. Ono went in with the tape and when Lennon came Chapman shot him.

By Boti, HUN 15

THE BEATLES CARRIER AROUND THE WORLD At the beginning of their carrier, they toured in Scotland under the name the “Silver Beetles”

The band was formed in Liverpool. 1.John Lennon 2.Paul McCartney (Stu Sutcliffe) 3.George Harrison 4.Pete Best drummer (Ringo Starr)

“I grew up in Hamburg, not in Liverpool” – said John Lennon The band first travelled to Germany in the summer

The leader of the band was John Lennon The Government gave all the Beatles the MBE in 1965 ( The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire) but some fans were upset about it. George remembered that they rested and had a cigarette in the toilets of the Buckingham Palace.

of 1960.They returned two times more to Hamburg. The Beatles was famous in Europe, but the band was a bit nervous about the USA.

In 1966 the Beatles flew to Tokyo as part of their tour, but this time it ended up wrong. Some people thought that the group is a bad example for young people.

The band flew across the Atlantic Ocean for the first time in 1964 – the trip was a big success. They played their hits in Washington and Miami. Later in August 1965 they returned and gave a concert in New York – this time they also met Elvis Presley.

They often played at the club called The Cavern where hundreds of fans crowded into the small dark club when they played there.

Things went worse in the Phillipines. The band refused an invitation from the wife of the country’s leader and it caused a mess around the Beatles so they had to escape from the island. The peolple of Philippines were very angry at the band.

Some newspapers in the United States were against the band so it was time to end touring. On 29th August 1966 the band played at Candlestick Park in San Francisco finishing with the song „I’m down” and that was the last Beatles concert.

By Marci, HUN 16

Ringo Starr

George Harrison -Born on: February 25, 1943, Liverpool, -poor family -he was interested in: -electric guitar - rock and roll - played guitar, sang lead vocals

*His mother was a cleaning woman. She doted on him, but his father lost interest in family life. His parents split up when he was four. *He had an appendectomy and peritonitis and had to spend 12 months in hospital when he was 6. After that he spent 2 years in sanatorium with tuberculosis. The staff made the patients form a band to occupy them and Ringo discovered percussion. His music career started then. *He got his first real drum kit for Christmas in 1957. *He joined his first real band in 1960. *He

was the drummer for the Beatles. He officially

joined the Beatles in 1962 replacing Pete Best. *First he wasn’t welcome among the fans, he had to prove his talent, but he became popular soon. *He also sang and occasionally wrote songs for the group. *"Ringo" he got this name after the rings he wore on his fingers. *"Starr," is a shortened version of his last name. *After the Beatles broke up he started his solo career. *His first album is Sentimental Journey (1970). *As an actor, Starr appeared in films like 200 Motels . *His first directorial effort was a 1972 documentary about a band. *He founded his own record label, and continued recording. *He got married twice. *He has three children (Zak, Lee and Jason) *One of his child followed Ringo Starr’s footsteps. *In 1981 he married his second wife (Barbara Bach)

*He has never had pizza, curry, or onions

-*14 years old bought a guitar and taught himself a few chords -*He first met Paul McCartney in grammar school *Teamed up with Paul and John *1960: His music career started-“Beatles” *Performances in bars and clubs *New drummer: Ringo Starr *Manager: Brian Epstein *1962: Recorded a top 20 U. K. hit “Love Me Do” *1963: “Please Please Me” another hit *American tour *Beatlemania across England *Conflict with Paul *Interested in song composing *1963 summer: His first own song “Don’t Bother Me”*Deep interest in Indian music and culture *Taught himself the sitar *1968: Beatles went on a journey to India *Left the band for a few weeks *More own songs *1974: He married Patty Boyd *Started his own movie production company *1978: Newly married Olivia Arias *Son: Dhani *1982: His first solo tour *After John’s death they finished “Free as a Bird”

*He's a left handed drummer but plays a right handed kit *He hates drum solos *Recorded narration for the Ladybird audio books *Voice actor for the Thomas the Tank Engine By Greta, HUN

*1998: He had throat cancer-survived *His fan tried to kill him *2001: Cancer again *He died on November 29, 2001, LA *2002: Harrison’s final studio album was finished by his son

By Lilla, HUN


By Enci, HUN 18

By Melinda, HUN 19

People around the Beatles Alexis mardas/magic alex

Mark david chapman

He became a close friend of The Beatles in the mid 1960s. In 1967 he helped them in buying a Greek island to blow off some steam and take drugs without anyone knowing. However, they dind’t buy it. He also appeared in the Beatles’ film „The Magical Mystery Tour”.

He is the murderer of John Lennon. He shot him at The Dakota-Lennon’s residence- with five bullets. When the police arrived, a policeman shouted at him: „Do you know what have you done?” And he calmly answered: „Yes, I just shot John Lennon.”

Yoko ono

Victor spinetti

She married John Lennon in 1969. John Lennon wrote „Dont let me down”, Happiness is a warm gun” and „I want you” about her and she also was in some of the Beatles’ songs. Later, She started her solo career. In 1975, their son, Sean was born.

He was born on September 2 1929. He was a comedic actor who appeared in the films A Hard Day's Night, Help! and Magical Mystery Tour. Paul Mccartney described him as „the man who makes clouds disappear”. He died in 2012, on Paul Mccartney’s Birthday.

Dick james

Brian epstein

In 1963, he became the publisher of the Beatles’ second series „Please Please Me”. Later, he started to publish John Lennon and Paul Mccartney’s original songs. Soon, he got the Beatles’ trust.

He was born in 1934. He became The Beatles’ manager in 1962, and lead them to success. John Lennon called him „The Fifth Beatle”. He died in 1967 of a drug overdose.

Linda mccartney She was born in 1941. She was a photographer, musician and animal rights activist. She met Paul in 1967, married in ’69, and they didn’t divorce until she died in ’98.

Tony sheridan He was born in 1940. He met the Beatles during their first Hamburg trip and soon they became friends. He worked on eight songs with the beatles and the songs got positive results. He died 5 years ago, at the age of 72.

By Attila, HUN 20


Stephen Hawking

Occupation: Scientist and astrophysicist

Diagnosed with ALS

Born: January 8, 1942

While Hawking was working on his PhD at Cambridge University, he began to have health issues. His speech became slurred and he became very clumsy, often dropping items or falling for no reason. After going through a series of tests, doctors discovered that Hawking had a disease called ALS (also called Lou Gehrig's disease). At the time, the doctors said he only had a few years to live.

Died : March 14, 2018 Best known for: Hawking radiation and the book A Brief History of Time

Biography: Early Life Stephen Hawking was born in Oxford, England on January 8, 1942. He grew up in a highly educated family. Both of his parents had attended Oxford University and his father, Frank, was a medical researcher. Stephen enjoyed math and science in school where he earned the nickname "Einstein." He wanted to study math at university but Oxford didn't have a math degree at the time so he chose physics and chemistry instead. Stephen found college coursework to be very easy. He enjoyed being a member of the school's boat club as well as classical music. After graduation, he went to Cambridge to study for his PhD.

Although Hawking was initially depressed over his diagnosis, he decided that there were things he wanted to accomplish with his life. He began to study and work harder than ever before. He wanted to earn his PhD before he died. Around the same time, he met and fell in love with a girl named Jane Wilde. Between his work and Jane, Hawking had a reason to live. Despite the initial grim diagnosis from his doctors, Hawking has lived a full and productive life with the help of science and modern medicine. Although he is confined to a wheelchair and cannot talk, he can communicate using a touch pad computer and a voice synthesizer.

Black Holes and Hawking Radiation Stephen spent much of his academic work researching black holes and space-time theories. He wrote many important papers on the subject and became a noted expert on relativity and black holes. Perhaps his most famous discovery was when he demonstrated that black holes emit some radiation. Prior to this it was thought that black holes could not get smaller because nothing could escape their enormous gravity. In 1988 he published A Brief History in Time. This book covered modern subjects on cosmology such as the big bang and black holes in terms that could be understood by the average reader.

By Greek team, GR 21


***Television in the United Kingdom started in 1936 as a public service which was free of advertising.*** ***Currently, the United Kingdom has over 480 channels for consumers.***

*Since 24 October 2012, all television broadcasts in the United Kingdom are in a digital format, following the end of analogue transmissions in Northern Ireland.

*There are six main channel owners who are responsible for most viewing.

* Digital content is delivered via terrestrial, satellite and cable as well as over IP.

*There are 27,000 hours of domestic content produced a year at a cost of ÂŁ2.6 billion.

The history of British Tv channels British shows where you can learn English



The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London and it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total, 16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting.

UKTV is a British multichannel broadcaster. It was formed on 26th March 1992 . It is one of the United Kingdom's largest television companies.

ITV is a commercial television channel in the United Kingdom. ITV currently operates in England, Wales, Scotland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.

UKTV is a commercial broadcaster reaching over 40m viewers every month.The awardwinning independent has eleven imaginative brands - UKTV Play, Dave, W, Gold, Alibi, Yesterday, Drama, Really, Home, Eden and Good Food. These include the two most popular nonPSB channels in the UK.

ITV is the biggest and most popular commercial television channel in the United Kingdom. ITV with BBC One are the UK's most watched television channels since the 1950s. However, in line with other terrestrial channels, ITV's audience share has fallen in the era of multi-channel television.

It is currently the most watched television channel in the United Kingdom, ahead of its traditional rival for ratings leadership, ITV. It was launched on 2 November 1936 as the BBC Television Service, and was the world's first regular television service.It broadcasts from drama series to reliaty shows, documentaries, news, comedies and various tv programmes. Sister Channels:BBC Two, BBC Three, BBC Four, CBBS, CBeebies, BBC News, BBC Parliament

Now celebrating over 20 years at the forefront of digital television, UKTV The channels are;Alibi, Dave, Drama, Eden, Gold, Good Food, Home, Really, W, Yesterday

By Kerem, TR

Channels operated by ITV plc: ITV, UTV, ITV1-23-4, ITVBe, ITV Encore, CITV


British TV Habits it's no surprise that people in the UK love TV.

1. We still watch a lot of TV

4. But

On average, we watch three hours and 32


minutes of television a day.

impact is declining

2. TV remains a mass media, especially

with younger audiences

around "event" programming

For many younger audiences, TV viewing is often

Broadcast TV still reaches 91% of TV viewers

more akin to radio - used as background noise - as

on a weekly basis.TV remains a medium with

mobile devices increasingly being the primary focus

the ability to bring people together, especially

of our attention.Less than a third (30%) of people sit

around major events.Sports like the Olympics or

down with their family to watch the same program

the football World Cup, breaking news,

together. Young demographics are also much more

Christmas specials can still reach large

likely to view TV-like content on YouTube, use a

audiences.More than half (58%) of people in the

subscription service (like Netflix or Amazon Prime All

UK watch major national events live.

of which means they're watching less traditional TV.

3. Traditional channels still account for more

5. Streaming is slowly killing the DVD player

than half of broadcast TV viewing

10 million Britons, 32%, have lost sleep or are tired

Another area which has stayed surprisingly

the next day due to staying up too late binge-

consistent is the audience share of the main

watching TV, but increasingly this is content being

public service broadcast channels (BBC One,

streamed over the internet.

BBC Two, ITV/STV/UTV, Channel 4 and

As a result, just 63% of UK households now have a

Channel 5).The old TV channels still enjoy 51%

DVD player,.

of audience share.

By Turkish team, TR 23

By Furkan, TR


5. Cartoons


6. Travel

3. Documentaries

7. Drama

4. Soap Operas

8. News


By Talha Gürbüz, TR

Sherlock Holmes, a well-known detective, after his readers have ben enchanted with books for many years; it also affects viewers with the series version. Detective Sherlock witnesses disparate events that seem impossible to resolve, and with sharp intelligence he reached the right end each time. Inside these mysterious and dangerous adventures, Watson accompaines him. A group of young people who committed crime and punished for community service; they work together. In the meantime they get caught up in a storm, and as a result of this disaster, they gain some special skills. Ever since he was a some special abilities make it magicians to do can. But the king of witchcraft in the

A series of Black Mirror that successfully hit the surface of mankind as to how technology could become progressive. There are different topics in each section and different players are involved but there is a theme that does not change; the technology can get out of control and the results may got be good at all.

A doctor who graduated with full marks from the medical faculty has come up with a keeper whom he has been appointed for 2 years of compulsory service. But nothing is as expected.

child, Merlin has power. These innate possible for many magic as well as they the time forbade whole country.

By Öykü, TR

DOCTOR WHO Doctor Who is a British science fiction television series produced by the BBC since 1963. Sequence; He describes the adventures of a Time Lord, known as a doctor, a humanoid extraterrestrial creature that travels time and time.

I always rip out the last page of a book, then it doesn’t have to end. I hate endings.

You gave me hope, and then you took it away. That’s enough to make anyone dangerous.

Better a broken heart then no heart at all.

By Eda,TR



British Culture, British Customs and British Traditions

story of the missing ring BEFORE THE WEDDING Marriage usually starts by a proposal of marriage, simply called "a proposal". The man traditionally proposes to the woman and the actual proposal often has a ritual quality, involving the presentation of a ring (an engagement ring) asking of a question such as "Will you marry me?" The man may even go down on one knee before proposing. If the proposal is accepted, the couple become engaged. In the United Kingdom, the engagement ring is worn, by the woman, on the third finger of the left hand (the ring finger). In the UK the 29th of February (in a leap year) is said to be the one day (coming round only once every four years) when a woman can propose to her partner. It is usual for a couple to be engaged for a while before they get married. An engagement is actually an agreement or promise to marry. Once a wedding date has been set the banns of marriage, are announced. This is a notice, usually placed in the local parish church or registery office, which tells everyone that a marriage is going to take place between two people. The purpose of banns is to enable anyone to raise any legal problems as to why the two people shouldn't get married, basically it is to prevent marriages that are legally invalid.

THE PEOPLE In addition to the bride and groom, traditional weddings involve a lot more people. Typically, these positions are filled by close friends of the bride and groom; being asked to serve in these capacities is seen as a great honour. For the couple:Ringbearer - an attendant, often a young boy, who carries the wedding rings. Ushers - helpers, usually men, who assist with the organization. For the groom:Best man - a close male friend or relative of the groom, given a place of honour. Groomsmen - one or more male attendants who support the groom. For the bride:-

In England, a marriage is only legally valid if the reading of the banns has taken place or a marriage licence has been obtained.

Maid of honour - a close female friend or relative of the bride, given a place of honour. If she is married, she is called the "matron of honour" instead. Bridesmaids - one or more female attendants who support the bride. Father of the Bride - One who symbolically "gives away" the bride. If her father is deceased or otherwise unavailable, another male relative, often an uncle or brother, will give the bride away. Flower girl - a young girl who scatters flowers in front of the bridal party. Junior Bridesmaids - young girl typically between the ages of 8 and 16 who is too old to be a flowergirl, but the bride wants to 26 be a part of the wedding.


THE WEDDING CEREMONY A bride's wedding day is "the happiest day of her life". When the guests arrive for a wedding the ushers' duty is ensure the guests are seated in the correct places. The front rows are generally reserved for close family or friends. However, in many ceremonies the bridal party will remain standing at the altar during the ceremony along with the bride and groom. The groom and his best man wait inside the church for the arrival of the bride and her "entourage". This entourage generally arrives in elegant cars or in horsedrawn coaches, specially hired for the occasion. The bride's entourage normally consists of the bride, the bride's father and all the various bridesmaids, maids of honour, sometimes flower girls and page boys attend her. The page boy's task is often to carry the wedding rings on a cushion. During the ceremony the bride and groom make their marriage vows. After the vows have been spoken the couple exchange rings. The wedding ring is placed on the third finger of the left hand, also called the "ring" finger.

In the past Wednesday was considered the most auspicious day to get married, as shown in this old rhyme, which seems to favour the first half of the week. Monday for wealth, Tuesday for health, Wednesday the best day of all. Thursday for losses, Friday for crosses, Saturday for no luck at all. Nowadays, most weddings take place on a Saturday, which might account for the rise in divorce rates.

THE RECEPTION After the ceremony there is usally a reception at which the married couple, the couple's parents, the best man and the wedding entourage greet each of the guests. At such events it is traditional to eat and drink - a lot. Any dancing is commonly started by the bride and groom, usually termed the "Bridal Waltz", but dancing an actual waltz is comparatively rare - often the couple chooses their favourite piece of music or a song. An arranged dance between the bride and her father is also traditional. The final tradition is the newly married couple to set off for their honeymoon.

After the wedding ceremony, the bride, groom, officiant, and two witnesses generally go off to a side room to sign the wedding register. Without this the marriage is not legal and a wedding certificate cannot be issued. Afterward, guests file out to throw flower petals, confetti, birdseed, or rice (uncooked for obvious reasons) over the newly-married couple for good luck. The bride stands with her back to all the guests and throws her bouquet over her head to them. Whoever catches the bouquet is the next person to get married.

On arriving back home it is traditional for the husband to carry his wife into their new home. This is called carrying the bride over the threshold.

By Turkish team 27

By Elif,TR 28

It was a day full of joy for Princess Diana and Prince Charles when they tied the knot in a lavish ceremony at St. Paul's Cathedral on July 29, 1981. In addition to a guest list that boasted 3,500 people, the wedding was also watched by an estimated TV audience of 750 million.—the most popular programme ever broadcast. After the ceremony, thousands of people cheered the couple as they waved from the balcony of Buckingham Palace.

Meet Prince Charles and Princess Diana Their marriage was widely billed as a "fairytale wedding" and the "wedding of the century" The United Kingdom had a national holiday on that day to mark the wedding. Unfortunately the couple separated in 1992 and divorced in 1996.

Honeymoon The couple left from Waterloo station in the British Royal Train . They travelled to Broadlands, where Prince Charles's parents had spent their wedding night in 1947. They stayed there for three days, then flew to Gibraltar, where they boarded the Royal Yacht Britannia for an eleven-day cruise of the Mediterranean, visiting Tunisia, Sardinia, Greece and Egypt. Then they flew to Scotland, where the rest of the royal family had gathered at Balmoral Castle, and spent time in a hunting lodge on the estate. During that time, the press was given an arranged opportunity to take pictures.

By Turkish team

Royal wedding of Diana



*The queen gives hand first *Light handshake *Make a light bow

20 Rules All Royal Family Members Nedd To Follow

*When the queen enters the room, you must stand up *You cani’t denim anything *Selfie with queen, prince and duchess Kate is OK, but you won’t get a signature

Sumarová Klára Verešová Ivana Bartlíková Kristýna Svobodavá Kateřina Czech Team 30

English Gentleman Definition of a gentleman •original definition - the man of the lowest layer of English inferior nobility (higher than yeoman, but lower than esquire) •widespread inaccurate meaning - a man of a noble family or a higher social status •current meaning - a man of chosen behavior, behaving politely and honestly. Often, however, only a socially dressed man is referred to as a gentleman.

Other meaning •The term gentleman is also used in a general sense by a man or a lord, for example in the polite addressing of a group ladies and gentlemen. •Or in the men's toilet name gentlemen or shorter gents.

Get on the bus to listen to How To Be An Alien story

Get the quiz of How To Be An Alien

By Matěj Bartusek, Tomáš Friedrich, Dominik Welszar , CZE



British Cultural and Social Etiquette

Do’s and Dont’s in the UK

By Pol and Ganišin , CZE

Stand in line Wait patiently for your turn e.g. boarding a bus. It is usual to queue when required, and expected that you will take your correct turn and not push in front. ‘Queue jumping’ is no good

Say “Please” and “Thank you” It is very good manners to say “please” and “thank you“. It is considered rude if you don’t. You will notice in England that we say ‘thank you’ a lot.

Say sorry

English Gentleman

If you accidentally bump into someone, say ‘sorry’. They probably will too, even if it was your fault! This is a habit and can be seen as very amusing by an ‘outsider’.

It is a measure of silence, willingness, dignity, sport, newspapers and honor.(from K. Čapek, English leaves )

Matyáš Ondris, Marek Kňazovčík, Daniel Kučera, CZE 32

Pol and Ganišin, CZE

What isn‘t good to do in UK? What don’t people in Britain like? How not to behave? If you want to know that you can continue in reading.

Don’t talk loudly in public. Don’t throw any rubbish or cigarette puffs on the floor in the street or anywhere. Don’t stare. Do not greet people with a kiss. Do not spit. Do not burp in public. Don’t steal from shops. Do not pass wind in public.

Klára, Patricie , CZE



Tea is the most traditional drink in

High tea was a


substantial meal after

It's more popular than coffee! The Dutch


brought the first tea to Europe in 1610. At


that time tea


was very

classes did not have an afternoon tea: they

expensive and

had sweet foods such scones, cakes buns or tea

the lady of the

breads with cheese on toast, crumpets cold

house kept in

meats and pickles or poached eggs on toast.

special containers, often with a lock. By 1750 tea had become the principal

Every day British people drink 165 million cups of tea and each year around 144 thousand tons of tea are imported

drink of all the classes in Britain. Later, tea became a social ritual. Tea parties were popular at home nowadays he custom of tea-


time continues.

It’s not my cup of tea. In English, if there’s

The afternoon tea is a small meal, not a

something they don’t like very much for

drink. Traditionally it consists of tea (or

example a sport or a type of music, they

coffee) served with either of the following

can say ‘it's not my cup of tea’. Please turn

freshly baked scones served with jam and

that down. Jazz really isn’t my cup of tea.

cream, andwiches and assorted pastries

I wouldn’t do it for all the tea in China. In English, if there is something you would never do, you can say ‘I wouldn’t do it for all the tea in China’. It’s as good as a chocolate teapot. In English, if something is completely useless, they can say ‘it’s as good as a chocolate teapot’.

By Emma and Tommaso, IT 34

This is how you make tea: -boil some cold water -put one teaspoon of tea-leaves per person and one extra teaspoon in the pot -put the hot water into a teapot -leave for a minute -serve


Scones are a type of biscuits. People eat them for breakfast but they are also served with tea and in coffeehouses. Scones became popular and an essential part of the fashionable ritual of taking tea in England when Anna, the Duchess of Bedford (1788 – 1861), one late afternoon, ordered the servants to bring tea and some sweet breads, which included scones. She was so delighted by this, that she ordered it every afternoon and what now has become an English tradition is the “Afternoon Tea Time”

(precisely at 4:00 p.m.). They are still served daily with the traditional clotted cream topping in Britain. Originally they are from Scotland. The original ingredients were oats and griddle-baked, The origin of the word “Skone” comes from the Dutch word ‘schoonbrot’, which means beautiful bread. Some people say it comes from Stone of Destiny, where the Kings of Scotland were crowned. Scones became popular and an essential part of the fashionable ritual of taking tea in England when Anna, the Duchess of Bedford 1788 – 1861 ordered the servants to bring tea and some sweet breads, which included scones.

HOW TO MAKE SCONES Ingredients: Flour 225g 3 tablespoons of Sugar 25g of butter 100 ml of milk ½ teaspoon of salt 2 teaspoons of baking powder 1 egg


Today scones are

Mix together the flour, the baking powder and the salt in a bowl.

served daily with the

Add the sugar and the egg.

cream topping in

Pour the milk and mix everything.


traditional clotted

Make small balls. Preheat oven to 370 F (Fahrenheit). Put the balls on the baking tray and put into the oven Cook for 10 minutes. Enjoy!

By Giulia and Nicole , IT 36



1950s /1960s FASHION

In the 1950s girls wore long and wide skirts. In 1960s the British fashion designer Mary Quant designed a very short skirt, the miniskirt. Mary Quant had two shops in Carnaby street and The King’s Road in London. Mary Quant named the new skirt after her favourite car‌ the Mini! The girls liked the miniskirt because It gave them more freedom to move and dance Some people thought the miniskirt was shocking because it was too short.

Mary Quant Vidal Sassoon was the most fashionable hairstylist: he is famous for his short geometric style.

Carnaby Street n 1960s the woman wore: dresses, shoes, tops and accessories.

Vidal Sassoon has written a book

dresses: Shift dresses were casual wear for home, running errands or going to the beach. They were not office friendly. They were too short.

to tell about his life..


And then on the internet he also started his own website where he puts pictures of his new hairstyles.

boots: Everyone wore them. They looked great with short dresses and skirts. The more modest folks wore boots and half boots in brown. sandals: made their beach side debut in the 1960s. Women wore them with everything casual. sneakers: They had to be plain white and perfectly clean. accessories: Colorful 1960s clothing needed equally colorful jewelry. In the early years, traditional jewelry continued to favor textured gold, and colored pearls. The same went for flowers, now made from plastic.

By Nicol and Elena, IT

makeup: in the 60s eyes were exaggerated with extra long lashes, shimmer eyeshadow, arched brows, light spot blush, and lips turned to a baby pink pout. 38

THE BEATLES The best-selling British band in history were the Beatles: they influenced modern music and they became international superstars. Their names were Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, George Harrison and John Lennon. Paul McCartney, John Lennon and George Harrison played the guitar, Ringo Starr played the drums.

CONCORDE Concorde was a passenger airplane that flew faster than the speed of sound. It was made by a French company. There were already plans for this supersonic passenger plane in 1959, but the first commercial flight was many years later, in 1976. Engineers from the UK and France designed Concorde together and it was an incredible technological achievement. The plane was amazing because of its speed. It flew from London to New York in only 3 hours. Traditional planes took 8 hours!It was very expensive. Only 20 Concorde planes were built. Today you can see a Concorde is in museums.. One concorde exploded in the sky. This is a video of Concorde explosion The plane needs 25.600 litres of fuel per hour. Concorde can fly for 7.000 Km and a carry 100 people. Concorde flew at a speed of 2.150 Km/h, the double speed of sound, at a height di 18.000 metres.

They were from Liverpool. John Lennon chose their name and it was a combination of the words “beat” and “beetle”. Ringo Starr joined the Beatles in 1962. The first hit by the Beatles was “Love me do”. The Beatlemania started after their performance at the London Palladium in 1963.The Beatles moved to London in 1963.Their recording studios were in Abbey Road. On June 25 1967 the Beatles became the first band globally transmitted on TV. The Beatles created over 240 songs.

By Mattia Meggiolaro and Filippo Fraccaro ,

It traveled so fast that the plane became 24 centimetres longer during the flight.

By Mattie and Piotr, IT

The Mini Car Alec Issigonis was the inventor of the Mini car. Alec Issigonis was born in Greece.He invented the Mini car in 1959.The Mini was 3 metres long .It had space for four people.The Mini was successful because a lot of famous people used it.The Mini production stopped in year 2000.

By Thomas and Giacomo, IT 39


In the past, St. Patrick’s Day wasn’t a huge cause for celebration in Ireland. Families usually marked the holiday with a meal and little else. But all that changed thanks to American festivities. Many American cities with large Irish populations celebrate St. Patrick’s Day in a big way.

For instance, New York City holds the world’s oldest and largest parade each year for St. Paddy’s Day. The first parade took place more than 250 years ago. Today, about 250,000 marchers wind through New York City in a parade that lasts six hours long.

According to legend, the patron saint of Ireland chased the snakes into the sea after they began attacking him during a 40-day fast he undertook on top of a hill.

By Georgina and Stefanie, GR

History of St.Patrick’s Day

WHEN IS ST.PATRICK’S DAY? •Saint Patrick’s Day is a cultural and religious celebration that happens annually on 17 March to mark the death date of the most commonlyrecognised patron saint of Ireland, Saint Patrick. The color green, pots of gold, shamrock, and leprechaun are often associated with the celebration.

HOW PEOPLE CELEBRATE SAINT PATRICKS DAY? For 30 years of his life, St. Patrick brought hope to Ireland by establishing churches and monasteries across the country. The day of his death, March 17, has since been a day for the Irish to celebrate the saint for converting the pagans to Christianity: essentially driving the snakes (symbolic of evil) from Ireland. Over the centuries the celebration has spread to become a worldwide event.

By Giannos, GR

WHAT COLOR DO YOU WEAR ON ST.PATRICK’S DAY ? •On St.Patrick’s Day , everyone is seeing green- whether it’s the green Chicago River, green beer, green milkshakes or green clothing and bead necklaces. Many might believe that the Emerald Isle and the color green are linked because of the country’s verdant landscape.

WHO WAS SAINT PATRICK? Saint Patrick is known as the Apostle of Ireland, who brought Christianity to Ireland.

WHAT IS A LEPRECHAUN? •The The leprechaun is a small Irish fairy. He is dressed like a shoemaker, with pointed shoes and hat. He also wears a leather apron. Leprechauns are supposed to be unfriendly little men who lives alone in the forest, spending all of their time making shoes and guarding their treasures. If someone catches a leprechaun, he will be forced to tell where he hides all his pots of gold. 40

By Despina & Christie GR





Get on the bus for St. Patrick’s Jokes


Individual Game

Class Group Game

First do memorize, then play

Make 3-4 groups. Spin the Wheel

the Jewels of Wisdom and

and answer the questions. Get 10

add your score.

points for each correct answer.

Class Group Game Set 3-4 teams and start playing

If you answer all the questions here, you will get a certificate of success.


IN THE NEXT ISSUE We are getting on the bus to ; 

Witness the historical big events in the UK,

Meet the Royal Family members,

Have fun at Notting Hill Carnival,

Solve mysteries with Agatha Christie,

Go to the place where the time is Zero,

Visit the wax museum of Madame Tussaud’s,

Learn about some successful Britons,

Have information about the English language,

Travel to Tintagel on the Atlantic coast.


London bus magazine issue 3  
London bus magazine issue 3