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TECHNOLOGY BRIEF SERIES NO. 1

PASTILLAS DE LECHE (Milk Candy) BRIEF DESCRIPTION Pastillas de leche is a favorite sweet delicacy among Filipinos and is traditionally made from buffalo’s milk and sugar. It is soft, with smooth texture and creamy rich taste. Natural flavors such as pandan, lemongrass, jackfruit, squash, carrots, horse radish, peanuts, and cookies and cream may be added. It is made by continuously cooking the mixture of milk and sugar until it thickened. The mass of pastillas are then cooled and formed into bite-sized pieces before they are individually packed in paper and cellophane sheets.

IMPORTANCE OF THE TECHNOLOGY

• A technology handed down through generations

• Initially, home-made by farmers rearing carabaos, the pastillas de leche was then developed into small-scale industry, such as in San Miguel, Bulacan • Can be a source of livelihood in areas with vast supply of carabao’s milk

CONDITIONAL FACTORS IN TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION • Use only good quality milk

• Use only low to medium heat when cooking

LIMITATIONS

• Relatively short shelf life if kept at room temperature. For longer shelf life, keep refrigerated. • Hygiene and sanitation during processing greatly affect shelf life


BASIC PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS • The building design and construction of processing area should follow Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) requirements • Processor/s should have a training on GMPs and personal hygiene

COST AND PROFITABILITY ESTIMATES (BASED ON 2010 PRICES) Particulars

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Net Sales (Php)

60,800.00

474,624.00

488,862.72

503,528.60

518,634.46

Cost of Goods Manufactured/Sold (Php)

354,252.00

340,114.67

358,722.41

378,796.69

99,064.48

Gross Margin (Php)

106,548.00

134,509.33

130,140.31

124,731.91

119,569.98

Net Operating Income (Php)

82,816.80

109,472.91

103,726.89

96,865.75

90,171.19

23

30

29

27

25

ROI (%)

About the Philippine Carabao Center:

www.pcc.gov.ph

PCC, an attached agency of the Department of Agriculture, is a carrier of science-based social programs focused on harnessing the potentials of livestock animals through genetic transformation ultimately leading to increased incomes for farming families and established livestock-based enterprises.

National Headquarters and Gene Pool Science City of Muñoz, 3120 Nueva Ecija Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (044) 456.0731 to 34 Fax No.: 63 (044) 456.0730 Email: pcc-oed@mozcom.com

It is dedicated in providing quality products and services that address customers’ needs consistent with statutory, regulatory and other requirements, and the International Standards; and committed to continuously improve the effectiveness of its integrated management systems, products and services, processes, people, and workplace by ensuring safety among its workers; and protection of the environment.

Manila Liaison Office 5F, DCIEC Building, NIA Complex, EDSA 0830 Quezon City Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (02) 921.3863 Fax No.: 63 (02) 926.7077 Email: pcc-mlo@mozcom.com


TECHNOLOGY BRIEF SERIES NO. 2

LACTO JUICE (Fruit-flavored Milk) BRIEF DESCRIPTION Lacto juice is a beverage made from buffalo’s milk in which natural fruit flavors are added to make it more palatable and enhance its nutritional properties. It is low in fat and comes in various fruit flavors such as pineapple, mango and “four seasons.” The product is made by heating the mixture of milk and other ingredients (water, sugar, milk powder, stabilizer and fruit flavorings) to a temperature of 72oC for 15 sec. Addition of acidulant enhances fruit flavors.

IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY • Increases the consumption of milk

• Some people who cannot drink pure milk can still get the nutrients from it by taking fruitflavored milk

CONDITIONAL FACTORS IN TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION • Heat treatment should not exceed 75oC

• Good hygiene and sanitation during processing is a must


LIMITATIONS • Relatively short shelf life. It will keep for 7-10 days at refrigerated temperature (0-4oC) • Freezer storage will prolong keeping quality

BASIC PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS

• The building design and construction of processing area should follow Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) requirements • Processor/s should have a training on GMPs and personal hygiene • Source of potable water

COST AND PROFITABILITY ESTIMATES (BASED ON 2010 PRICES) Particulars

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Net Sales (Php)

1,684,800.00

1,735,344.00

1,787,404.32

1,841,026.45

1,896,257.24

Cost of Goods Manufactured/Sold (Php)

1,010,487.00

1,065,288.36

1,124,654.64

1,185,692.58

1,250,905.67

Gross Margin (Php)

590,313.00

670,055.64

662,749.68

655,333.87

645,351.57

Net Operating Income (Php)

506,073.00

581,182.44

568,988.45

556,415.78

540,992.99

66

75

74

72

70

ROI %

About the Philippine Carabao Center:

www.pcc.gov.ph

PCC, an attached agency of the Department of Agriculture, is a carrier of science-based social programs focused on harnessing the potentials of livestock animals through genetic transformation ultimately leading to increased incomes for farming families and established livestock-based enterprises.

National Headquarters and Gene Pool Science City of Muñoz, 3120 Nueva Ecija Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (044) 456.0731 to 34 Fax No.: 63 (044) 456.0730 Email: pcc-oed@mozcom.com

It is dedicated in providing quality products and services that address customers’ needs consistent with statutory, regulatory and other requirements, and the International Standards; and committed to continuously improve the effectiveness of its integrated management systems, products and services, processes, people, and workplace by ensuring safety among its workers; and protection of the environment.

Manila Liaison Office 5F, DCIEC Building, NIA Complex, EDSA 0830 Quezon City Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (02) 921.3863 Fax No.: 63 (02) 926.7077 Email: pcc-mlo@mozcom.com


TECHNOLOGY BRIEF SERIES NO. 3

SIMPLIFIED PRODUCTION OF YOGURT BRIEF DESCRIPTION Yogurt is a fermented milk product, containing live and good microorganisms. It has a smooth, velvety texture with a mild tart taste. It can be set or stirred, plain and unsweetened, or with natural fruits or synthetic flavors. The technology is a modification of the traditional process of yogurt production. Pasteurized buffalo’s milk is inoculated with bacterial starter cultures namely: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Room temperature incubation is employed until the desired acidity is attained.

IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY

• Yogurt is a healthy dairy product with big market potential • Milk’s shelf life is lengthened by processing it into yogurt • Can be done by small scale processors using simple equipment

CONDITIONAL FACTORS IN TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION • Separate production area for yogurt processing

• Milk should be of good quality and must be antibiotic-free • Yogurt starter cultures should be of good strength to ensure proper growth of microorganisms


• Production area and processing utensils should be well cleaned and sanitized • Avoid using chlorine and other chemicals as disinfectant for processing equipment and utensils • Strictly observe hygiene and sanitation • Avoid contamination

LIMITATION

• Post handling contamination will reduce keeping quality

BASIC PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS

• The building design and construction of processing area should follow Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) requirements • Processor/s should have a training on GMPs and personal hygiene • Source of potable water

COST AND PROFITABILITY ESTIMATES (BASED ON 2010 PRICES) Particulars Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4

Year 5

Net Sales (Php)

1,948,800.00

2,007,264.00

2,067,481.92

2,129,506.38

2,193,391.57

Cost of Goods Manufactured/Sold (Php)

1,024,932.00

1,079,784.06

1,140,691.38

1,201,826.65

1,267,927.12

Gross Margin (Php)

923,868.00

927,479.94

926,790.54

927,679.72

925,464.45

Net Operating Income (Php)

826,428.00

824,680.74

818,337.38

813,261.64

804,753.38

120

120

119

118

117

ROI (%)

About the Philippine Carabao Center:

www.pcc.gov.ph

PCC, an attached agency of the Department of Agriculture, is a carrier of science-based social programs focused on harnessing the potentials of livestock animals through genetic transformation ultimately leading to increased incomes for farming families and established livestock-based enterprises.

National Headquarters and Gene Pool Science City of Muñoz, 3120 Nueva Ecija Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (044) 456.0731 to 34 Fax No.: 63 (044) 456.0730 Email: pcc-oed@mozcom.com

It is dedicated in providing quality products and services that address customers’ needs consistent with statutory, regulatory and other requirements, and the International Standards; and committed to continuously improve the effectiveness of its integrated management systems, products and services, processes, people, and workplace by ensuring safety among its workers; and protection of the environment.

Manila Liaison Office 5F, DCIEC Building, NIA Complex, EDSA 0830 Quezon City Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (02) 921.3863 Fax No.: 63 (02) 926.7077 Email: pcc-mlo@mozcom.com


TECHNOLOGY BRIEF SERIES NO. 4

MOZZARELLA CHEESE

PRODUCTION BY DIRECT ACIDIFICATION BRIEF DESCRIPTION Mozzarella is a soft, white, unripened cheese with melting and stretching qualities needed in pizza making. It is a member of the pasta filata (stretched curd) cheese family which originated in Italy. Traditionally, it is made from buffalo’s milk, giving it a porcelain white color. The cheese can be eaten directly or utilized in many food preparations such as pizza, baked macaroni and lasagna. It is distinguished from other cheeses by a unique cooking and stretching treatment of the fresh curd in hot water, which imparts a fibrous structure with wonderful melting and stretching properties.

IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY • • • • • •

Direct addition of acid to the milk reduces cost and manufacturing time Eliminates the use and maintenance of starter cultures Provides low-cost technology to the dairy plant Increasing demand for mozzarella cheese due to popularity of pizza Can reduce high importation of mozzarella cheese The best mozzarella cheese is made from buffalo’s milk


CONDITIONAL FACTORS IN TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION

• Good quality milk • Strict implementation of process parameters and protocols

LIMITATIONS

• Relatively short shelf life, although the cheese can be frozen, but has to be thawed before use • Less aroma and flavor compared with mozzarella cheese that is made using a starter culture

BASIC PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS

• The building design and construction of processing area should follow Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) requirements • Processor/s should have a training on GMPs and personal hygiene • Source of potable water

COST AND PROFITABILITY ESTIMATES (BASED ON 2010 PRICES) Particulars Net Sales (Php) Cost of Goods Manufactured/Sold (Php)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

1,632,000.00

1,680,960.00

1,731,388.80

1,783,330.46

1,836,830.38

995,703.20

1,049,496.28

1,108,737.77

1,168,115.59

1,232,361.95

Gross Margin (Php)

636,296.80

631,463.72

622,651.03

615,214.87

604,468.43

Net Operating Income (Php)

554,696.80

545,375.72

531,828.19

519,396.78

503,380.34

85

83

81

79

77

ROI (%)

About the Philippine Carabao Center:

www.pcc.gov.ph

PCC, an attached agency of the Department of Agriculture, is a carrier of science-based social programs focused on harnessing the potentials of livestock animals through genetic transformation ultimately leading to increased incomes for farming families and established livestock-based enterprises.

National Headquarters and Gene Pool Science City of Muñoz, 3120 Nueva Ecija Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (044) 456.0731 to 34 Fax No.: 63 (044) 456.0730 Email: pcc-oed@mozcom.com

It is dedicated in providing quality products and services that address customers’ needs consistent with statutory, regulatory and other requirements, and the International Standards; and committed to continuously improve the effectiveness of its integrated management systems, products and services, processes, people, and workplace by ensuring safety among its workers; and protection of the environment.

Manila Liaison Office 5F, DCIEC Building, NIA Complex, EDSA 0830 Quezon City Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (02) 921.3863 Fax No.: 63 (02) 926.7077 Email: pcc-mlo@mozcom.com


TECHNOLOGY BRIEF SERIES NO. 5

RICOTTA CHEESE (Whey Cheese)

BRIEF DESCRIPTION Ricotta is a soft, fresh, unripened cheese made from whey (by-product of cheese manufacture). It is fine-grained and milky with a slightly sweet taste. It can be seasoned with salt and herbs. Ricotta works well with a variety of savory dishes such as lasagna as well as sweets or pastries like cheesecakes.

Ricotta cheese is made by using heat to precipitate (separate) out the remaining albumin protein from the whey-left over in making rennet-coagulated cheeses. An acid, such as citric acid or vinegar can be used in precipitating the curds. Ricotta is not a high-yield cheese, thus, addition of whole milk to whey can increase the yield.

IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY

• Every time a cheese is made, ricotta cheese can also be made • Whey accounts for 50%-60% of waste in cheese making, if not utilized • Whey contains the water-soluble proteins, vitamins and minerals in the milk, and is therefore a good material for a valuable dairy product


CONDITIONAL FACTORS IN TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION • • • • •

Whey should be of good quality Acidity of whey is adjusted to pH 6.4-6.8 before heat treatment Whole milk may be added up to 40% of whey volume to increase yield Slow stirring of curds to minimize breaking of curds Hygiene and sanitation during processing is a must

LIMITATIONS

• Whey from acid-coagulated cheese such as kesong puti (which uses vinegar) and paneer cannot be used for ricotta cheese. • Relatively short shelf life. Ricotta will keep for a week or two at refrigerated temperature.

BASIC PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS

• The building design and construction of processing area should follow Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) requirements • Processor/s should have a training on GMPs and personal hygiene • Source of potable water

COST AND PROFITABILITY ESTIMATES (BASED ON 2010 PRICES) Particulars

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Net Sales (Php)

594,000.00

611,820.00

630,174.60

649,079.84

668,552.23

Cost of Goods Manufactured/Sold (Php)

436,119.20

459,135.16

485,906.79

511,028.91

539,135.50

Gross Margin (Php)

157,880.80

152,684.84

144,267.81

138,050.93

129,416.74

Net Operating Income (Php)

128,180.80

121,351.34

111,210.97

103,175.96

92,623.64

35

33

31

28

25

ROI (%)

About the Philippine Carabao Center:

www.pcc.gov.ph

PCC, an attached agency of the Department of Agriculture, is a carrier of science-based social programs focused on harnessing the potentials of livestock animals through genetic transformation ultimately leading to increased incomes for farming families and established livestock-based enterprises.

National Headquarters and Gene Pool Science City of Muñoz, 3120 Nueva Ecija Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (044) 456.0731 to 34 Fax No.: 63 (044) 456.0730 Email: pcc-oed@mozcom.com

It is dedicated in providing quality products and services that address customers’ needs consistent with statutory, regulatory and other requirements, and the International Standards; and committed to continuously improve the effectiveness of its integrated management systems, products and services, processes, people, and workplace by ensuring safety among its workers; and protection of the environment.

Manila Liaison Office 5F, DCIEC Building, NIA Complex, EDSA 0830 Quezon City Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (02) 921.3863 Fax No.: 63 (02) 926.7077 Email: pcc-mlo@mozcom.com


TECHNOLOGY BRIEF SERIES NO. 6

FLUSHING WITH CONCENTRATES BRIEF DESCRIPTION

Flushing with concentrate is a technology that provides added nutrients to the dam above its requirement specifically during the pre- and post-calving period (90 days). This is to cope with the nutrients lost during parturition or calving. The technology also provides additional nutrients for milk production and for subsequent reproductive processes in the cow such as uterine involution (return of uterus to normal size), post-partum estrus (the period when animal becomes sexually receptive following parturition), and conception.

IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY • • • • •

Allows occurrence of post-partum estrus as early as 48 days Reduces service or rebreeding period from 150 days to 127 days Shortens calving interval from 18.4 months to 14.4 months Increases milk yield from 1,330 kg to 1,655 kg per lactation Allows the production of one additional calf every 3 years


CONDITIONAL FACTORS IN TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION • Determine the body condition score (BCS) of the animal, that is 2.5 BCS or thin to moderately thin, which is the basis of the amount of feed supplement to be given daily.

• The technology is carried out only one month before and two months after calving. The other stages of pregnancy and lactation should also be considered in providing balanced ration for the cow’s normal or optimum production performance.

LIMITATIONS

• The price and availability of concentrate affects the sustainability of the technology.

COST-BENEFIT ESTIMATES (BASED ON 2010 PRICES) Investment cost Operational cost Workforce requirement Time requirement Cost Benefit

Php7,000 Php38,659/270 days lactation period 1 caretaker 2 hr/farmer/day (90 days flushing and 270 lactation days) Php33,532/cow/lactation

About the Philippine Carabao Center:

www.pcc.gov.ph

PCC, an attached agency of the Department of Agriculture, is a carrier of science-based social programs focused on harnessing the potentials of livestock animals through genetic transformation ultimately leading to increased incomes for farming families and established livestock-based enterprises.

National Headquarters and Gene Pool Science City of Muñoz, 3120 Nueva Ecija Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (044) 456.0731 to 34 Fax No.: 63 (044) 456.0730 Email: pcc-oed@mozcom.com

It is dedicated in providing quality products and services that address customers’ needs consistent with statutory, regulatory and other requirements, and the International Standards; and committed to continuously improve the effectiveness of its integrated management systems, products and services, processes, people, and workplace by ensuring safety among its workers; and protection of the environment.

Manila Liaison Office 5F, DCIEC Building, NIA Complex, EDSA 0830 Quezon City Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (02) 921.3863 Fax No.: 63 (02) 926.7077 Email: pcc-mlo@mozcom.com


TECHNOLOGY BRIEF SERIES NO. 7

MILK REPLACER BRIEF DESCRIPTION Milk replacer is a commercially-available water-soluble milk powder offered as a substitute to whole (raw) milk for feeding buffalo calves from one week of age to weaning at 90 days. It contains high quality nutrients almost similar to a mother’s milk. Milk replacer promotes normal growth and health status of calves. Common ingredients and nutrient composition of commercial milk replacer are as follows:

INGREDIENTS

• Dairy by-products • Vegetable oils • By-products from cereals

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION • • • • • • • • •

Crude Protein Crude Fat Crude Ash Vitamin A Vitamin D3 Vitamin E Vitamin B1 Vitamin K3 Vitamin C

• Organic acids • Yeast extracts • Minerals and vitamins mix

22.5% 23.5% 9% 25,000 IU/kg 10,000 IU/kg 35 mg/kg 2.60 mg/kg 1.60 mg/kg 1.50 mg/kg


IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY • • • • •

Increases income of the dairy farmer More economical than whole milk feeding with feed cost savings of about Php38/calf/day Provides similar growth and development to calves when compared to whole milk Lessens the occurrence of health problems such as scouring Promotes rumen development and early weaning of calves

CONDITIONAL FACTORS IN TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION

• Calves need to suckle colostrum (first milk of dam following parturition) for 5-7 days before providing milk replacer • Milk replacer solution must be freshly prepared and lukewarm when offered to calf • Free choice drinking water should be made available to calf every after milk replacer feeding

LIMITATIONS

• Avoid feeding refrigerated milk replacer solution to calf

COST ESTIMATES (BASED ON 2010 PRICES) Investment cost Operational cost Workforce requirement Time requirement Cost of milk replacer per kg

Php10,000 Php9,000/calf for 90 days 1 person 30 minutes/calf/meal or 1 hour/day for 85-90 days Php140

About the Philippine Carabao Center: PCC, an attached agency of the Department of Agriculture, is a carrier of science-based social programs focused on harnessing the potentials of livestock animals through genetic transformation ultimately leading to increased incomes for farming families and established livestock-based enterprises. It is dedicated in providing quality products and services that address customers’ needs consistent with statutory, regulatory and other requirements, and the International Standards; and committed to continuously improve the effectiveness of its integrated management systems, products and services, processes, people, and workplace by ensuring safety among its workers; and protection of the environment.

www.pcc.gov.ph National Headquarters and Gene Pool Science City of Muñoz, 3120 Nueva Ecija Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (044) 456.0731 to 34 Fax No.: 63 (044) 456.0730 Email: pcc-oed@mozcom.com Manila Liaison Office 5F, DCIEC Building, NIA Complex, EDSA 0830 Quezon City Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (02) 921.3863 Fax No.: 63 (02) 926.7077 Email: pcc-mlo@mozcom.com


TECHNOLOGY BRIEF SERIES NO. 8

PORTABLE MILKING MACHINE AND COMMUNAL FREEZER

BRIEF DESCRIPTION

The use of portable milking machine in place of hand milking is a practical solution for the dairy farmers who are raising 5 to 10 or more lactating cows. The use of milking machine avoids hand-milk contact and encourages the farmers to raise more dairy animals and to milk their buffaloes twice a day. If the collected milk is chilled immediately using a communal cooling tank, high quality or class A-milk is ensured.

IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY

• More efficient and practical to use than hand milking for farmers with 5 to 10 or more lactating animals • More hygienic (no hand-milk direct contact) than hand milking • Class A milk commands higher price thus giving more income to the farmers

CONDITIONAL FACTORS IN TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION

• Allow 1-2 weeks transition period (or adjustment) from hand to machine milking for the lactating cows • Train the farmers on the proper use and cleaning/disinfection of the milking machine • Chill the milk in the cooling tank immediately after milking the dam


LIMITATION • The use of a milking machine and a cooling tank is dependent on or limited by the availability and supply of electricity in the area.

COST ESTIMATES FOR 10 MONTHS OPERATION (BASED ON 2010 PRICES) Investment cost Operational cost Workforce requirement Time requirement Cost/kg of milk Net benefit

Php184,578 Php31,600 2 persons/2 hours/day for milking 10 dairy animals 2 hrs working/day for 10 months lactation period Php21/kg Php34,818

About the Philippine Carabao Center: PCC, an attached agency of the Department of Agriculture, is a carrier of science-based social programs focused on harnessing the potentials of livestock animals through genetic transformation ultimately leading to increased incomes for farming families and established livestock-based enterprises. It is dedicated in providing quality products and services that address customers’ needs consistent with statutory, regulatory and other requirements, and the International Standards; and committed to continuously improve the effectiveness of its integrated management systems, products and services, processes, people, and workplace by ensuring safety among its workers; and protection of the environment.

www.pcc.gov.ph National Headquarters and Gene Pool Science City of Muñoz, 3120 Nueva Ecija Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (044) 456.0731 to 34 Fax No.: 63 (044) 456.0730 Email: pcc-oed@mozcom.com Manila Liaison Office 5F, DCIEC Building, NIA Complex, EDSA 0830 Quezon City Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (02) 921.3863 Fax No.: 63 (02) 926.7077 Email: pcc-mlo@mozcom.com


TECHNOLOGY BRIEF SERIES NO. 9

SILAGE MAKING BRIEF DESCRIPTION

Silage is a feed material produced from the conservation or fermentation of forages or farm by-products such as grasses, forage corn or corn stover with 65%-70% moisture content, chopped and sealed in an airtight container. Ensiling is the name of the process and the container is called a silo.

IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY

• Allows utilization of excess forage for use during the dry season when most green forages are scarce • Allows a way of salvaging damaged crops to produce palatable and nutritious forage • Permits forage preservation regardless of weather conditions and location

CONDITIONAL FACTORS IN TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION

• Ensure that the forage materials are packed properly to remove air pockets • Allow fermentation phase of 14 to 30 days to complete before feeding out • Prepare silage based on the number of animals maintained and the number of feeding days (i.e., 6 months dry season)


• Make sure that the basic requirements for ensiling are available e.g. forages to be ensiled, grass cutter, forage chopper, hauler-trailer, and plastic sheets • The members of the silage team should have a training or experience in the ensiling process.

LIMITATIONS

• Labor-intensive and time-consuming during preparation • The odor of the silage may be offensive to some people

COST ESTIMATES (BASED ON 2010 PRICES) Investment cost Operational cost Workforce requirement Time requirement Cost of silage

Php85,500 Php24,800 2 or 3 75-80 days (from planting to ensiling) Php2.75/kg

About the Philippine Carabao Center: PCC, an attached agency of the Department of Agriculture, is a carrier of science-based social programs focused on harnessing the potentials of livestock animals through genetic transformation ultimately leading to increased incomes for farming families and established livestock-based enterprises. It is dedicated in providing quality products and services that address customers’ needs consistent with statutory, regulatory and other requirements, and the International Standards; and committed to continuously improve the effectiveness of its integrated management systems, products and services, processes, people, and workplace by ensuring safety among its workers; and protection of the environment.

www.pcc.gov.ph National Headquarters and Gene Pool Science City of Muñoz, 3120 Nueva Ecija Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (044) 456.0731 to 34 Fax No.: 63 (044) 456.0730 Email: pcc-oed@mozcom.com Manila Liaison Office 5F, DCIEC Building, NIA Complex, EDSA 0830 Quezon City Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (02) 921.3863 Fax No.: 63 (02) 926.7077 Email: pcc-mlo@mozcom.com


TECHNOLOGY BRIEF SERIES NO. 10

UREA-MOLASSES

TREATMENT OF RICE STRAW (UMTRS) TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION The treatment of rice straw is done by spraying a solution of urea-molasses with 4% urea, 25 % molasses and 71% water at a ratio of 50:50 by weight and allowing partial fermentation in an air-tight container (silo).

IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY

• Urea increases crude protein content and digestibility of rice straw • Molasses improves palatability of rice straw, increases voluntary intake and provides extra energy to the animals

CONDITIONAL FACTORS IN TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION

• Allow the urea-molasses treated rice straw (UMTRS) to ferment for 2 weeks to 1 month before feeding to the animals • Expose the harvested UTRS to air for 15-30 minutes before feeding • Always provide the animals with drinking water while feeding them with UMTRS


LIMITATIONS • Do not feed UMTRS to buffaloes that are below 1 year old and to those that are in their last trimester of pregnancy.

COST ESTIMATES FOR 1 TON OF UMTRS (BASED ON 2010 PRICES) INVESTMENT COST Construction of silo Hand tractor with trailer Rice straw Plastic sheet Sprinkler

Php11,870 Php4,200; Depreciation: Php420 Php70,000; Depreciation: Php7,000/10 yrs Php600/ton Php5,000; Php2,500/cycle Php600

Drum Bucket OPERATIONAL COST Urea: 40 kg/ton Molasses (250 x 9) Labor: hauling spraying, ensiling WORKFORCE REQUIREMENT TIME REQUIREMENT COST/KG OF UTRS

Php500 Php250 Php5,550 Php800 Php2,250 Php2,500 2 5 days Php1.80

About the Philippine Carabao Center: PCC, an attached agency of the Department of Agriculture, is a carrier of science-based social programs focused on harnessing the potentials of livestock animals through genetic transformation ultimately leading to increased incomes for farming families and established livestock-based enterprises. It is dedicated in providing quality products and services that address customers’ needs consistent with statutory, regulatory and other requirements, and the International Standards; and committed to continuously improve the effectiveness of its integrated management systems, products and services, processes, people, and workplace by ensuring safety among its workers; and protection of the environment.

www.pcc.gov.ph National Headquarters and Gene Pool Science City of Muñoz, 3120 Nueva Ecija Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (044) 456.0731 to 34 Fax No.: 63 (044) 456.0730 Email: pcc-oed@mozcom.com Manila Liaison Office 5F, DCIEC Building, NIA Complex, EDSA 0830 Quezon City Philippines Tel. No.: 63 (02) 921.3863 Fax No.: 63 (02) 926.7077 Email: pcc-mlo@mozcom.com

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