Socioeconomic Status of University of Santo Tomas College of Fine Arts and Design Students
A Thesis presented to The Faculty of College of Fine Arts and Design University of Santo Tomas, Espa単a, Manila
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For Math600A (Statistics)
Submitted to: Prof. Crisencio M. Paner, MSc.
Submitted by: Kit Katrice Ang Sherri Anne Costo Kriselle Merabuena 2AD4 AY 2012-2013
INTRODUCTION Socioeconomic status (SES) is an individual's or group's position within a hierarchical social structure. (www.dictionary.com) Socioeconomic status indicates the relationship between a person's social status and his financial standing. Assessing one's socioeconomic status has three interrelated factors such as income, education and occupation. When income tends to go up as the level of education increases, in part because higher education provides an individual with skill that is necessary to be able to enter jobs that can provide higher pay. When income goes down, educational level drops. As a result, in general, those who have less education have less income. Less
a high paying
(www.wisegeek.com) What social class do you belong to? Can one tell which class you belong by the way you talk, dress and act? Most people classify Fine Arts students to belong to upper socioeconomic classes. With the help of our survey, we are able to know which social class majority of the students belong to. Socioeconomic status, sometimes abbreviated to as SES, is a sociological classification indicating the close relationship between someone’s relative wealth and that person’s social status. It is commonly conceptualized as the social standing or class of an individual or group. Socioeconomic status is one of the key indicators when looking at a number of different community issues, including school performance, crime and housing. It is most often determined by analyzing family income and assets. It also means the aggregate value of their education, job status and living environment. Together, all these things can play a crucial role in one’s life. The researchers chose the said topic for according to ___, socioeconomic status affects psychological and physical health and education of a person. (_____) The researchers are concerned with their fellow UST-CFAD students' health and wellbeing.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Can the present socioeconomic status of the students of University of Santo TomasCollege of Fine Arts and Design affect their future behavior? OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1.
Determine which socio-economic status in the UST-CFAD is dominant.
Determine how their socioeconomic status will affect their willingness to work after graduating.
Determine how their present socioeconomic status will affect their behavior towards being the next provider for their own family. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study aims to show how influential socioeconomic status can be to a
behavior of a person. The study will also benefit the researchersâ€™ academe, The University of Santo Tomas, College of Fine Arts and Design, Advertising Arts Department who taught the researchers how to statistically interpret a data. The researchers also benefitted because the study made them learn more about Statistics and how to interpret a given data. The study will also aid the researchers to grow and develop their skills, to be independent and more socially active.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION The study will focus on the students of the University of Santo Tomas that belongs to the College of Fine Arts and Design for the academic year 2012-2013. The objectives will be attained as the instrument for research (survey) conveys the result. The study will revolve with family's monthly household income, parent's occupation, parent's highest education attained and student's behavior towards saving money and buying habits and student's willingness to work after graduating and their
DEFINITION OF TERMS Assets
Property owned by a person or company, regarded as
having value and available to meet debts, commitments, or legacies. Crucial
Decisive or critical, of great importance.
The wealth and resources of a country or region, esp. in
terms of the production and consumption of goods and services. Hierarchical
Of the nature of a hierarchy; arranged in order of rank.
An individual's or group's position within a hierarchical
social structure. (www.dictionary.com) Lifestyle
A way of life or style of living that reflects the attitudes
and values of a person or group. Salary
A fixed regular payment made by an employer, often
monthly, for professional or office work as opposed to manual work. Tuition fee
A fee paid for instruction; especially for higher
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The review of the literature for this study focuses on how influential socioeconomic status can be to a behavior of a person. Socioeconomic status (SES) is often measured as a combination of education, income, and occupation. It is commonly conceptualized as the social standing or class of an individual or group. When viewed through a social class lens, privilege, power, and control are emphasized. Furthermore, an examination of SES as a gradient or continuous variable reveals inequities in access to and distribution of resources. SES is relevant to all realms of behavioral and social science including research, practice, education, and advocacy. (academia.edu)
Education plays a major role in skill sets for acquiring jobs, as well as specific qualities that stratify people with higher SES from lower SES. An article on studymode.com speaks on the idea of concerted cultivation, where middle class parents take an active role in their childrenâ€™s education and development by using controlled organized activities and fostering a sense of entitlement through encouraged discussion. It argues that families with lower income do not participate in this movement, causing their children to have a sense of constraint. An interesting observation that studies have noted is that parents from lower SES households are more likely to give orders to their children in their interactions while parents with a higher SES are more likely to interact and play with their children. A division in education attainment is thus born out of these two differences in child rearing. Research has shown how children who are born in lower SES households have weaker language skills compared to children raised in higher SES households. These language skills affect their abilities to learn and thus exacerbate the problem of education disparity between low and high SES neighborhoods. Lower income families can have children who do not succeed to the levels of the middle income children, who can have a greater sense of entitlement, be more argumentative, or be
better prepared for adult life.
According to an article from apa.org, parents with high socioeconomic status have more time, energy, resources, knowledge, and patience to teach their children than the parents with low socioeconomic status. Most parents who have lower socioeconomic status are stressed from trying too hard to provide basic needs that they may not have time and energy to provide stimulating activities, or money for many opportunities that can enhance their childrenâ€™s learning. Students with low socioeconomic status may be under diagnosed for behavioral and learning problems, in part due to parents' stress and poor health services. Low socioeconomic status not only affects dropout rates but it affects parental involvement in a student's education. Parental involvement can be defined as parental participation in the educational processes and experiences of their children (Jeynes, 2007). If there is little parental involvement in a child's education, there is more of a likelihood that the student will not succeed. When a parent is not involved or interested in his or her child's education, there is a greater chance that the child will not be interested in his or her own education. This directly affects whether or not the student will finish school. It is not uncommon to see little parental involvement in the education of children from low-income households. This, in turn, leads to an increase in behavioral problems. Parental involvement does not independently improve children's learning, but some involvement activities do prevent behavioral problems. Interaction analysis suggests that the involvement of parents with low socioeconomic status may be more effective than that of parents with high socioeconomic status (Domina, 2005). Parental involvement means not only helping with homework but also becoming involved and active in other aspects of a child's education. Academic achievement requires both student and parent involvement. Research indicates that children from low-SES households and communities develop academic skills more slowly compared to children from higher SES groups (Morgan, Farkas, Hillemeier, & Maczuga, 2009). Initial academic skills are correlated with the home environment, where low literacy environments and chronic stress negatively affect a childâ€™s pre-academic skills.
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research will begin with the present status of the country’s economy, the University of Santo Tomas’ profile and the college’s. This will serve as background for the study. A survey of 100 respondents with ages ranging from 18-21 years old that studies in the University of Santo Tomas under the College of Fine Arts and Design whose majors were: Advertising Arts, Painting, Industrial and Interior Design was also conducted to access the current status of some of the students. The survey served as a foundation of the study. The wide-range of Internet search helped a lot in giving the researcher updated information regarding the present situation of the economy of the Philippines in year 2012 and defining a lot of unfamiliar words. The gathered data is used as a reference and basis in declaring which is the most dominant socio economic class among the students.
Socioeconomic status of UST-CFAD students Good day! We are students from 2AD4 taking Math600A. We are conducting a study regarding the socioeconomic status of UST-CFAD students for AY 2013-2014. We will highly appreciate your help by answering the questions honestly and correctly. Please select the best answer. Thank you! * Required Name ______________ Age * • • •
18-20 21-25 26-30
Gender * • Male • Female Marital status * • Single • Married • Widowed School/College * ___________________ Example: UST-CFAD Department * • Advertising Arts • Interior Design • Industrial Design • Painting 1. I am currently a * • Full-time student • Working student 2. Highest educational attainment of FATHER * • Master degree • College graduate • High school graduate • Grade school graduate 3. Highest educational attainment of MOTHER * • Master degree 8
• • •
College graduate High school graduate Grade school graduate
4. Which category best describes your monthly household income? * • P50,001 and above • P30,001-P50,000 • P15,001-P30,000 • P8,001-P15,000 • P8,000 and below 5. Occupation of FATHER * 6. Occupation of MOTHER * 7. Enrollment status * • Regular • Irregular 8. Payment of tuition fee category * • Full • Installment 9. Mode of payment of tuition fee * • Cash • Credit card • Cheque 10. How much is your daily allowance? * • P551 and above • P451-P550 • P351-P450 • P201-P350 • P200 and below 11. Are you able to save enough money from your daily allowance? * If no, please proceed to question #13. • Yes • No 12. How much can you save out of your daily allowance? • P401 and above • P301-P400 • P201-P300 • P151-P200 • P150 and below 13. Do you plan to work right after you graduate? * • Yes • No
15. Why or why not? * ___________________________________ 16. How much is your expected salary? * • P30,001 and above • P20,001-P30,000 • P15,001-P20,000 • P15,000 and below 17. Will you willingly help with the household expenses? * • Yes • No 18. Why or why not? * ____________________________________
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT The researchers conducted a survey with 100 respondents. All respondents were students of UST-CFAD. The survey was equally divided for the 4 departments present in the said college namely: Advertising Arts, Industrial Design, Interior Design and Painting department. The survey yielded on student's lifestyle, daily allowance and savings, terms of payment of tuition fees, buying patterns, how do they balance their wants and needs and their dependency on their family members. The survey questionnaire 10
helped the researchers in achieving the objectives of the study. A wide-range of Internet search provided updated information and defined terms used in the study.
CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF INSTRUMENT The survey questionnaire was validated by the pre-test conducted with 10 respondents who are efficient enough to answer and give comments and suggestions for a better understanding for both the respondents and the researchers so the study can be done better.
STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA P = F/N x 100 Where: P = Percentage F = Frequency N = Number of respondents Where: = Mean Where:
= Median Where: = Mode Where: =
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
Most of the respondents who answered the survey are 18-20 years old.
Most of the respondents who took the survey are Female.
The results from the survey show that all respondents are single.
The pie chart shows that all the respondents are from the University of Santo Tomas College of Fine Arts and Design.
Most of the respondents who answered the survey are from Advertising Arts, followed by Interior Design, then Industrial Design and the least, Painting.
The results show that 90 percent of the respondents are Full-time Students.
Most of the respondentsâ€™ Father has the highest educational attainment of a College Graduate.
Most of the respondentsâ€™ Mother has the highest educational attainment of a College Graduate.
Results show that most of the respondents have a monthly household income of P50, 001 and above.
Results show that most of the respondentsâ€™ father have different field of work with a 36%; while 19% of the respondentsâ€™ father is either a businessman or an engineer. Self-employed and manager ties up.
Most of the respondentsâ€™ mother have different field of work, while 26% are businesswomen, 22% of them are housewives, 14% are self-employed.
Most of the respondents are Regular students.
Most of the respondents say that they pay their tuition with full payment than installment.
Most of the respondentsâ€™ mode of payment is cast, followed by check while the least is the credit.
Most of the respondents say that their daily allowance ranges from P201-P350. Only few of them have an allowance of P451-P550.
Most of the respondents say that they are able to save from their daily allowances.
Most of the respondents say that they can save P150 and below from their daily allowances. While 25% of them can only save P151 - P200, followed by P401 and above and only a little can save P201-P300.
Most of the respondents plan to work after they graduate right away because they 21
want to have their own money. They want to be able to sustain their needs and not having to rely on their parents’ money anymore. Some of our respondents want to work after they graduate to help their parents with their household expenses. A few respondents wanted to work simply for the experience. Some of the respondents answered that they don’t plan to work after they graduate because they plan to take another course and have a higher degree. A few of our respondents don’t plan to work right away because they want to rest and take a break after studying in college for four years.
Most of the respondent expect that their salary will range from P30, 001 and above, followed by P15, 001-P20, 000 and P20, 001-P30, 000 then P15, 000 and below got the least.
Most of the respondents are willing to help with the household expenses. They say that they want to repay and help their parents financially. ANALYSIS After conducting research, the researchers found out that majority of the CFAD students, no matter how big or small their household incomes are, are willing to work after they graduate. Working for them is a necessity. It doesn't matter if they belong to a higher or a lower class. Wanting to earn their own money is what inspires them to work. They want to be able to spend their own money to sustain their personal needs and not having to rely on their parents' money anymore. They also want to work after they graduate to help their parents with their household expenses.
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION The researchers therefore conclude that families that belong to high socioeconomic class often have more success in preparing their young children for school because they have access to a wide range of resources to promote and support their childrenâ€™s education and development. They are able to provide their children with high quality childcare, toys, and books to encourage their children in different learning activities at home. Moreover, they have easy access to information regarding their childrenâ€™s health, as well as social, emotional, and cognitive development. In addition, families with high socioeconomic status often seek out information to help them prepare their young children for school. RECOMMENDATIONS The researchers recommend using other forms of methodology; since our research has an objective of fulfilling requirements for Math600A (Statistics), we opted to use only survey as a form of methodology. We recommend that future researchers use other forms of methodology such as interviews. This will help expand your knowledge about your topic and will give other detailed insights, especially if there are certain people involved, like our research paper.
BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www.academia.edu http://www.dictionary.com http://www.docs.google.com http://www.filecrop.com/spss-portable-17.html
Research about the Socioeconomic Status of USTCFAD Students