Page 1

INTEGRATED URBAN DESIGN HUDDERSFIELD MASTERPLAN

Abena Ansere | Aris Theodoridis | Imad Amjad | Kristopher Clapson | Matt Harding | Michael Dack | Nina Hamid | Shahinaz | Sanni Rasheed


CHAPTER 1

URBAN STUDY RESEARCH 04

INTRODUCTION

Urban Study Research

HISTORICAL & PLANNING FACTORS

NATURAL & SYNTHETIC FORCES

URBAN ENCOUNTERS

08 13

HISTORY

56 57

SITE FORCES

78 79

TOWNSCAPE

14 17

FIGURE GROUND MAPS

58 59

HYDROLOGY

80 87

LYNCH STUDY

18 19

DEFINING BOUNDARY

60 61

NOISE STUDY

88 91

ASPECT/PROSPECT

20 31

PLANNING INFORMATION

62 63

SHADOW STUDY

92 93

ACCESS & CIRCULATION

32 37

LISTED BUILDINGS

64 65

ANTI-FORM

94 121

38 39

CONSERVATION

66 67

TOPOGRAPHY

122 - BUILDING USE Building Segregations 123

40 41

DISTRICTS

68 73

SITE SECTIONS

124 - BUILDING EDGE Buildings Relating to Roads & Paving 125

42 53

MICROCLIMATE

74 75

SKYLINE

600BC - 1999AD

1718 - Present

UDP & Area Action Plan Analysis

Analysis of Planning Information

Grade I | Grade II | Grade II*

Conservation & Heritage Area

Districts & Sectors

Areas

Physical Characteristics

Flood Zones

Noise Intensive Areas of Huddersfield

Areas of Intensive Shadow Exposure

Spacing between Buildings

3D Model of Landscape & Context

Sections through Huddersfield

Dominating features of Huddersfield

Areas of Architectural Interest

Nodes | Paths | Edges | Landmarks

Aspect/Prospect Analysis

Pedestrian & Vehicular

PERMEABILITY

Connectivity Between Spaces


CHAPTER 2

UNIVERSITY CAMPUS RESEARCH 128

INTRODUCTION

University Campus Research

UNIVERSITY CAMPUS STUDY

130 - HISTORY 131 History of Higher Education 1825AD - 2014AD 132 - LISTED BUILDINGS 133 Listed Buildings on University Campus

136 - VEGETATION 137 Vegetation around Campus 138 - ACCESS & CIRCULATION 1391 University Building Entrances & Exits 140 - ACCESS & CIRCULATION 141 Pedestrian Circulation around Campus 142 - INFOGRAPHICS 143 Data Collected & Presented 144 - STAFF NUMBER 145 Number of Staff in each Building across Campus

TABLE OF CONTENTS

134 - MATERIALITY 135 Materials around Campus


INTRODUCTION URBAN STUDY RESEARCH

The following is an urban contextual analysis of Huddersfield Town Centre and The University of Huddersfield Campus area in preparation for a master-planning scheme. The study provides a good understanding of the context of the campus and its surrounding area.

|4

Current analyses helped to define the boundaries in which this study was undertaken. The study has been presented as a series of diagrams created by nine Master of Architecture students, accompanied with textual analysis and conclusions.


HUDDERSFIELD

|5


HISTORICAL & PLANNING FACTORS |6


|7


HISTORY

600BC-1599AD

Early history of the surrounding area of what is now known as Huddersfield town, starts in the early beginnings of the Bronze age in Europe between 3200BC-600BC. It starts with the most obvious and most unique focal point of Huddersfield: Castle Hill. During an excavation of the area in 1941 by Dr W.J. Varley, archaeologist found Bronze age remains including hunting and gathering instruments, according to Rumsby (1992). Castle Hill is an obvious defensive position in the area providing views from high ground preventing natural predators into the settlement which is probably one of the reasons that early settlers stayed in the area. After the end of the bronze age, the settlement became abandoned shortly before the Roman invasion of Britain in 43AD-84AD, Rumsby (1992) further evaluates, when the archaeology dig found the remains of a Roman fort perimeter wall, pottery and mosaic tiles, Castle Hill was apart of the Cambodunum defensive line to the North before the Roman occupation of the territory leading up to Hadrian’s Wall on Scotlands border. The fort was later abandoned after the Romans withdrew back to defend Italy. After the withdrawal of the Roman troops, it wasn’t long until the Pagan religion took over and ran the north of England, according to Addy (1992). This was then turned around in 634AD when the Christian King: King Oswald, fought the Pagan King Cadwallon of Wales in the Battle of Heavenfield. In the defeat of the Pagan army, Christianity became the dominate religion under King Oswald prior to the Danish Colonisation of Northumbria (North of England) in 866AD who occupied the North of England captial: York, Addy (1992) concurs.

|8

1066AD one of the most influential events that changed Britain during the medieval period of history is when the Norman Conquest of England began. When William ‘The Conqueror’ was coronated the same year as King, the territories of England were divided to Nobles’ that helped William overthrow previous occupiers. One of the Nobles that helped during the conflict and received the title of Honor of Pontefract was given to Ilbert de Laci in 1089AD during the time when the first draft of the Domesday book was being created, Huddersfield within the Domesday book was re-

corded as ‘Odersfield/Odresfeld’ according to The Colne Valley Museum (2013). The Honor of Pontefract was held by the De-Laci family until it was given to the crown in 1322AD when Edward II had succeed to the throne. The first recorded market in the area was set up in 1294AD in Almondbury when the De-Laci still had the Honour of Pontefract title. The market soon fell into disuse round about 1584AD according to Law (1992), which could be related to the national pandemic of the ‘Black Death’ which hit the British Isles in 1348AD which lead the death of a large part of the British population. Events which lead to the acquisition of the Huddersfield manor to the Ramsden family whom are well known and praised in modern day Huddersfield, started with William Ramsden (1513-1580AD) stated by Hilary Haigh (1992), which the Ramsden family first started to acquire little pockets of land within Huddersfield. The Ramsdens’ found wealth was contributed to well connected marriages and the increased profit of the wool trade, which helped the family become one of the richest families Hilary Haigh(1992) states. William Ramsden also bought lands and cottages formerly belonged to St. Oswald’s monastery which was made possible due to the Dissolution of the Church in England, Hilary Haigh (1992) announces, which was a direct influence of the English Reformation of the Church in 1539AD. William Ramsden died in 1580AD and had no children to pass down his inheritance he had acquired, his wealth was then passed to his younger brother John Ramsden who later passed down the Ramsden land rights to his son: William Ramsden (1558-1628AD) after he passed in 1591AD Hilary Haigh (1992) stated. With the wealth that he had inherited through his father and uncle managed to purchase Huddersfield manor in 1599AD from Queen Elizabeth I for “£965os.9d.” which became a status symbol for the Ramsden family as Hilary Haigh (1992) mentions.


REFERENCES Hilary Haigh, E.A., Rumsby, J.H., Law, E.J., Addy, J., Hargreaves, J.A., Schofield, R.B., O’Connell, J. (1992). Huddersfield a most handsome town (1st ed.). Huddersfield: Kirklees Cultural Services.

Huddersfield Population Census 1801-2011

The Colne Valley Museum (2013). Huddersfield One. Retrieved from http:// www.huddersfield1.co.uk/. Centre for Cities (2014). Cities Outlook 1901. Retrieved from http://www.centreforcities.org/assets/files/2012/12-07-10_Cities_Outlook_1901.pdf. Kirklees Council (2001). 2001 Census Profile. Retrieved from http://www.kirklees.gov.uk/community/statistics/census2001by-town/HudderCB.pdf. Law, E.J. (1989) Joseph Kaye, Builder of Huddersfield, Huddersfield: Swiftprint.

7,268 Law(1989) 95,050 Centre for Cities(2014) 121,620 Kirklees Council(2001) 134,987 West Yorkshire Observatory(2012)

1801 1901 2001 2011

West Yorkshire Observatory (2012). Statistics. Retrieved from http://www. westyorkshireobservatory.org/dataviews/.

|9


HISTORY

1600AD-1799AD

With the status of owning the manor of Huddersfield, William raised in the ranks of the local elite and passing his contacts to his son John Ramsden (1594-1646AD) whom in 1619AD was knighted by Charles I in a ceremony taking place in Nottingham. This new knighthood would be an arrangement for the Ramsdens to support the Crown in future confrontations which is noted by Hilary Haigh (1992). Sir John later in 1631AD became the Justice of the Peace and was rewarded with his role, and was given the appointment as High Sheriff of the County of York in 1636AD. The services of the knighted Sir John Ramsden where required once the Civil War started in 1642AD when Sir John supported the Royalist faction which supported King Charles I. Sir John’s alliance was soon shortened in 1644AD after the battle of Marston Moor when Sir John Ramsden was captured and imprisoned in the tower of London, Hilary Haigh (1992) describes. Sir John was released later the same year as part of a trade of prisoners with the Parliamentary opposing faction, and returned to Yorkshire, which was now under control of the Parliamentary forces. Sir John later volunteered to join forces of Royalist in the Castle of Pontefract which was besieged by Parliamentary forces, whom were negotiated with Sir John an honourable withdrawal was agreed to leave to Newark where Sir John died in 1646AD Hilary Haigh (1992) further describes.

| 10

“The post-civil war period was difficult for landed families, especially when they were known to be Royalist.” Hilary Haigh (1992). After the death of Sir John in 1646AD his estate was handed down to his son William Ramsden (1625-1679AD) who found that a family whom had supported a faction that lost a war was a hostile environment, when Parliamentary forces had occupied the family estates until the reinstatement of the Crown in 1661AD when Charles II returned from exile. William died in 1679AD and left the estate to his son Sir John (1648-1690AD) whom had managed to provide Huddersfield the licence to hold market from the crown in 1671AD as Law (1992) states. Sir John also managed to reach the heights of gentry by receiving the rank of Baronet 1st in 1689AD, Hilary Haigh (1992) mentions. As noted before, the Ramsden family have managed to hold the title of Baronet and the estate of Huddersfield until early

twentieth century, but during that time managed to help and invest in Huddersfield, and are now celebrated for the aid to improve the town. Huddersfield industrial history prior to the late 18th century was an eclectic mix, ranging from Agriculture, engineering, chemicals, and most import for the area at the time: Textiles, according to Giles (1992). Most of the Huddersfield textile industry thrived by looms, which are devices to weave cloth usually within a dwelling and then the cloths would be sold in the Huddersfield marketplace. With the invention of the water powered cotton mill in 1742AD by Lewis Paul and John Wyatt, dated by Wadsworth (1931), what was usually a domestic work platform had now been moved into a factory setting close to River Colne. “By 1780AD there were at least thirty-five [...] mills in operation in the Huddersfield region” Giles (1992). With the Huddersfield Market ever expanding textile sales, the market was becoming overburdened by textile sellers, Sir John Ramsden 3rd Baronet commissioned the construction of Cloth Hall and was designed by York Architect John Carr in 1765AD, according to Gibson & Booth (2005). Cloth Hall was constructed in red brick with stone quoins which was different to what the traditional Yorkshire stone buildings that had and still dominate the town. Unfortunately Cloth Hall was demolished in 1930 to make room for another development, the site is now home to Sainsbury’s supermarket. With the ever expanding industries across the United Kingdom trade and transportation was increasing to other areas in the world, The canal systems were a reliable way to transport goods from Huddersfield to the west coast of Britain like Manchester, Liverpool, and Chester where they were then transported to British colonies overseas. In 1775AD Parliament authorised fifty-one new canal systems in Britain, which helped prosper local networks which helped Huddersfield thrive in the 19th century, according to Schofield (1992). Huddersfield’s prosperity was mainly attributed to the construction of the Narrow Canal which a committee called ‘The Huddersfield Canal Company’ was established in 1794AD and began a connection between Huddersfield and Manchester, Schofield (1992) describes.


“A wider people I never saw in England” - John Wesley (1757). Huddersfield prosperity did not come without it’s problems socially towards the later 18th century and early 19th century when unrest in the Yorkshire area threatened the peace. In 1799AD riots broke out when protesters of mainly women gathered against the rise in price of corn from local Huddersfield dealers lead by Martha Bray whom was later jailed after kicking a horse which belonged to a local magistrates, according to Hargreaves (1992). With the early food riots in the area, it all lead to the most notorious social unrest in British history. REFERENCES Gibson, K. and Booth. A. (2005) The Buildings of Huddersfield, an illustrated architectural history, Stroud: Tempus Publishing Limited Hilary Haigh, E.A., Rumsby, J.H., Law, E.J., Addy, J., Hargreaves, J.A., Schofield, R.B., O’Connell, J. (1992). Huddersfield a most handsome town (1st ed.). Huddersfield: Kirklees Cultural Services. Wadsworth, A.P. and Mann, J.L. (1931) The cotton trade and industrial Lancashire, 1600-1780, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

| 11


HISTORY

1800AD-1999AD

The Luddite disturbances in 1812AD started with changes in labour saving machinery in the manufacture of textiles within the Midlands and Yorkshire. The Luddite name is supposedly originate from a young textile labourer called Ned Ludd in Leicester according to Palmer (1998) who supposedly in 1779AD broke stocking frames. The suddenim of Ned Ludd or General Ludd would be used by disgruntled workers who lost work because of the new machinery, hence the term Luddites were used. During the Luddite disturbances, attacks on machinery would become so severe that the Army would be sent to worst hit areas in the country to protect the factories. Although Huddersfield was within the hold of the titled ‘A Metropolis of Discontent’ according to Report Proceedings for the County of York (1813). It still had a era of architectural development within the town centre, thanks to the money influx by the industrial trade and investment by the family of the manner: The Ramsdens’, which included the Ramsden Canal, the founding of the Scientific and Mechanic Institute, and Cloth Hall commission. Early 19th century saw the introduction of the “Builder of Huddersfield” Law (1989): Joseph Kaye 1779AD-1858AD. Joseph who was orphaned at an early age, was put into a workhouse a the age of seven working as an apprentice for a local builder learning the trade into his late teens. Joseph’s first commission was a small social club in 1803 according to Law (1989) called the ‘Woolpack Club’, which had a few minor complications involving money. One of Joseph’s first major commissions that is still one of the most beautiful buildings in Huddersfield is the Queen Street Chapel which was completed by Kaye in 1819AD, and was the largest Wesleyan Chapel in the world at the time, holding 1,500 people, according to Gibson and Booth (2005).

| 12

Another project of Joseph Kaye is St Paul’s Church which is still apart of Huddersfield skyline, was designed by John Oates and completed in 1829AD as Gibson and Booth (2005) state. St Paul’s is now apart of the University of Huddersfield campus as a concert and ceremony hall. Joseph Kaye up to his death in 1858AD had constructed a great amount of the local stone buildings in Huddersfield, and is now one of the most celebrated person of Huddersfield and local monuments are held in honor.

“The handsomest by far of all the factory towns of Yorkshire and Lancashire” Engels (1845) describes Huddersfield during his time in the area when writing his book about the working class of England. This is around the same time the start of the construction of St Georges Square developments in 1850AD which now proudly shows some of the iconic local stone buildings in the county. The square is surrounded by four main buildings that all have the architectural details of the neo-classical era that can rival London’s: Huddersfield Train Station, The George Hotel, Lion Arcade, and the Britannia Building. Starting with the centerpiece of St Georges Square is Huddersfield Train Station, which was described as “Huddersfield’s stately home for trains’’” in Gibson and Booth (2005). Constructed in 1850AD it was designed by James Piggot Pritchett and it opened the gate way in rail travel to Manchester and also linked to Leeds as well, providing Huddersfield the advantage to trade further into the heart of England. The George Hotel was designed by William Wallen and Charles Child as the Colne Valley Museum (2013) notes, and was opened to the public in 1850AD alongside the train station. One of the most unique features of the hotel is that it proudly founded the Rugby League in 1895AD which is now honoured by a plaque on the main external facade, and also a small museum that dedicates the Rugby Leagues beginnings. Within the rolling hills that surround Huddersfield, with the Peak District to the South; Castle Hill has always been a strategic landmark with its flat top. It has always been an opportunity for beacons and forts to take advantage of the heights that the hills provide, starting from the Bronze age forts on Castle Hill in the Almondbury district of Huddersfield. Then to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1897AD, proposals were made to create the Victoria Tower (aka Jubilee Tower) constructed in 1899AD. It was designed by Issac Jones, and opened by the Earl of Scarborough and measured 106ft (32.2m) high and is still a monument to the beauty of Huddersfield to this day, according to Gibson and Booth (2005). Huddersfield’s Military history starts by the creation of ‘The Duke of Wel-


lington Regiment (West Riding)’ which was formed on the death of the Duke of Wellington in 1852AD when Queen Victoria renamed the regiment because of the close ties with the regiment and Duke during the Napoleonic wars in the early 19th century, according to Rumsby (1992). The regiment of 5th and 7th moved into new headquarters in St Paul’s Drill Hall which was constructed in 1901AD and is still in operation today as part of the Territorial Army. The Dukes of 5th and 7th served both world wars, fighting along the ‘Western Front’ in the First World War (1914-1918AD), and later in the Second World War (1939-1945AD). The 7th Dukes was split into two: 1/7th and 2/7th. 1/7th Dukes served in Iceland when Britain took foothold in 1940AD and then served in Northern-West Europe territories until the end of the war. 2/7th Dukes took part in the Dunkirk Evacuation in 1940AD, and later became a Armoured regiment that served in North Africa, according to Rumsby (1992). Post-war era for Huddersfield was a slow process in terms of industry, with disused factories which were used for Wool and Cloth manufacture were now in competition with cheaper overseas industry. Huddersfield industry of engineering and chemistry increased during the second world war providing the government with supplies for the war effort, Jenkins (1992) mentions. Employers such as Cummins Turbo Technologies, Thornton & Ross Ltd, and Syngenta AG provided Huddersfield with employment, this however did not spoil how the architecture of Huddersfield was developed in the post-war time. This paragraph will only go into small detail of post-war architecture of Huddersfield, but more is still underway in Huddersfield’s ever growing economy due to the expansion of the largest employer: the University of Huddersfield. One of Huddersfield’s most celebrated modern architecture pieces, is the Farnley Hey house building designed by architect: Peter Womersley and built in 1955AD within close proximity of Castle Hill. “Influenced by the designs of the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright” Gibson and Booth (2005). Huddersfield town centre with the completion of the major ring road which was completed in the 1970’s according to Gibson and

Booth (2005), the introduction of the new Queensgate Market in 1975AD is another striking design that provides a great focal point within the town. Designed by J. Seymour Harris Partnership, “the market is an engineer masterpiece” Gibson and Booth (2005) with its interesting cocnrete hyperbolic paraboloid roof shape, it most definitely stands out of one of the great structures of Huddersfield. Another building of Huddersfield’s architecture, is the award winning McAlpine Stadium (aka John Smith Stadium) which was constructed in 1994AD and was awarded the 1995AD British Architects’ Building of the Year, designed by Lobb Partnership, according to Gibson and Booth (1992) is now home to Huddersfield Giants (Rugby League) and Huddersfield Town AFC. REFERENCES Engels, F. (1845). The Condition of the Working Class in England. Leipzig: Otto Wigand . Gibson, K. and Booth. A. (2005) The Buildings of Huddersfield, an illustrated architectural history, Stroud: Tempus Publishing Limited Hilary Haigh, E.A., Rumsby, J.H., Law, E.J., Addy, J., Hargreaves, J.A., Schofield, R.B., O’Connell, J. (1992). Huddersfield a most handsome town (1st ed.). Huddersfield: Kirklees Cultural Services. Law, E.J. (1989) Joseph Kaye, Builder of Huddersfield, Huddersfield: Swiftprint. Palmer, R. (1998) The Sound of History: Songs and Social Comment, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Report of the Proceedings under commissions of Oyer and Terminer and Gaol delivery for the County of York, 1813(1813), pp.x, vii.

| 13


FIGURE GROUND MAPS 1718 - 1778

1718

| 14

1778


1850

1894

The 1850 figure ground map shows that Huddersfield was mostly developed at the town centre and at the modern eastern quarter. There was less development on the South-west and North-east side, while it appears that there was almost no development South-east and North-west at the time. This figure ground map indicates the Cloth Hall as a Landmark building of the time.

| 15


FIGURE GROUND MAPS 1932 - Present

1932

The 1932 figure ground map shows a large development in Huddersfield. It appears that the influx of new buildings was equally distributed around the town centre with huge developments to the south between the town centre and the river where the university campus is located now. There was also a lot of development to the North close to train station. Another important change is that the Cloth Hall building does not exist anymore.

| 16

1978

In comparison to the map from 1932, the 1978 figure ground map shows minimal changes. Buildings on the North-west and Western side of the town centre have been removed; but the density has not changed in the rest of the area.


Present

The residential buildings to the East of the town centre have been replaced by the ring road and new mixed use developments that have taken large sites by ignoring the form of the area and the rest of the town. Also the industrial buildings to the North and North east of the town centre of Huddersfield have been replaced by retail developments and car parking. This area is considered to be a busy area due to the main roads giving priority to vehicular access over pedestrian access. Parts of the site remain the same but large retail developments have been added to the site such as Kingsgate centre Sainsbury’s and Tesco.

| 17


KEY Boundary of Huddersfield Research Land Owned by The University of Huddersfield

| 18


DEFINING BOUNDARY UDP & AREA ACTION PLAN ANALYSIS

In order to begin researching Huddersfield it was essential to establish a boundary to determine where the focus of research should take place. Looking into the history and development of Huddersfield would help us understand how the masterplan of Huddersfield and its University came to be. This should ultimately enable us to forecast future predicitions for the development of the Masterplan for the University as well as allow for informed proposals. Defining the boundary for our research and investigation involved looking into the boundaries defined by that of the Unitary Development Plan drawn up by Kirklees Council; and Area Action Plan’s for Huddersfield, as well as conducting our own Lynch study. Our proposed boundary for research and investigation can be seen on the left. A further breakdown into the conditions and site forces that informed this decision will be explored over the following pages.

| 19


PLANNING INFORMATION Introduction & Background

Kirklees Metropolitan Borough is a metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, England. It contains thirteen settlements and Huddersfield is the largest settlement of the district, and its centre of administration. The planning of Huddersfield is handled by Kirklees Council. The current development plan for Kirklees is the Unitary Development Plan (UDP). The plan was adopted on 1st March 1999. The plan consists of a written statement which sets out land use policies for development and plans which show the different types of land use allocations across the Kirklees district, excluding the part within the Peak District National Park (where the national park plans are in force). The Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004 states that each council must prepare a Local Development Framework (LDF) to replace its existing statutory development plan (UDP). The LDF must also integrate with the local community strategy through the SCI (statement of community involvement) in order to achieve a lasting vision and ambitions for Kirklees. The LDF is a different type of plan in that it is made up of a number of documents (Development Plan Documents (DPDs), Supplementary Planning Documents (SPDs), Statement of Community Involvement (SCI) covering particular topics or areas to better suit local circumstances and local distinctiveness. Once implemented, the documents will be reviewed and updated individually as necessary.

UDP (UNITARY DEVELOPMENT PLAN) The Goal of Huddersfield town centre unitary development plan (UDP) is to improve its various sectors (housing, shopping, business and industrial, environmental, educational, leisure/recreational, and transport) by promoting the improvements of existing facilities and enabling new development within the area. AREA ACTION PLAN (Yet to be approved by LDF) This plan is aimed at improving: - Shopping and Services: Improving cultural and leisure opportunities, evening economy, educational facilities, provision for local facilities and health care in the area. - Working : Encourage the development of high quality, low carbon gradeA office accommodation, places of learning opportunities, encouraging innovation and local enterprise and skills. - Living : Promoting housing opportunities and improving the design and sustainability of new homes. - Movement: Improve movement to the town centre, reduce the impact of the ring road as a barrier, improve movement within the town centre and ensure parking complements town centre shops and businesses.

“The UDP is due to be replaced by a new land use plan and work on this has been on-going for some time. The first stage of replacing the plan is - Environment: Making the town centre attractive, bringing unused and to set the overall level and general distribution of land required for devel- derelict buildings/sites back into re-use opment for the next 15 years.  This was going to take the form of a Local Development Framework (LDF) Core Strategy.  The council agreed the content of the Kirklees Core Strategy at a public meeting on 6th March 2012 and the final document was submitted to the Secretary of State in April 2013.  The Planning Inspector appointed to examine the core strategy expressed concerns with part of the process used to prepare the plan and with the level of housing proposed potentially being too low.  The council followed the Inspector’s recommendations and withdrew the Core Strategy in October 2013. Work is now underway to revise the land use plan and re-submit for examination as soon as possible”.

| 20


PLANNING INFORMATION

UDP Plan - Employment | Housing | Education

Site for class B1 uses Area where conservation of residential properties to class B1 will be permitted Area where industry and warehousing development will normally be permitted Site for educational facilities

Site for housing development

| 21


PLANNING INFORMATION UDP Plan - Shopping

KEY SYMBOL

DESCRIPTION Main shopping area Site for shopping development Retention and improvement of pedestrian arcades and yards Primary shopping frontage Secondary shopping frontage

| 22


PLANNING INFORMATION UDP Plan - Leisure & Recreation

SS1

KEY (Environment) SYMBOL

SS1

DESCRIPTION Conserved area Urban greenspace Green corridor Site of scientific interest Environmental improvement Principal pedestrian link to the town centre Heritage Area

SS1

SS1

SS1

SS1

KEY (Leisure and Recreation) SYMBOL

DESCRIPTION Area where leisure and recreation uses will normally be permitted Site for leisure and recreation dev. Proposed walk way Proposed footbridge Site for new theatre Existing waterway to be safeguarded Field in section of the Huddersfield narrow canal to be re-opened

| 23


PLANNING INFORMATION UDP Plan - Transportation

CP

KEY (Transportation) SYMBOL

DESCRIPTION Traffic conditioning zone Green Route Ring road improvement

CP

Pedestrianisation Footway widening and other improvement New car park Car park improvements

| 24


PLANNING INFORMATION

LDF Action Plan - Huddersfield Character Areas

KEY SYMBOL

DESCRIPTION Western quarters Civic area Retail heart University area Northern quarters Stadium area

| 25


PLANNING INFORMATION LDF Action Plan - Huddersfield Environment

Edgerton Cemetery

View to stadium

Playing fields & allotments

Kilner Bank

Green Head park

Longley Park & Longley Wood

KEY SYMBOL

DESCRIPTION Open space Civic space

View to Holme Moss

Direction of viewpoint Huddersfield town centre conservation area Stile Common School Playing Fields

| 26

View to Castle Hill


PLANNING INFORMATION

LDF Action Plan - Huddersfield Getting Around

Promote links to the stadium

Promote links to Greenhead park Improve movement across and within the town centre Reduce the impact of the Ring Road as a barrier and improve links to adjacent area

KEY SYMBOL

DESCRIPTION

Tackle congestion and make it easier to travel to the town centre

Congested road Public transport hubs Major car parks

Ensure parking complements the town centre economy and integrated transport Improve movement across and within the town centre

Promote links to the Waterfront Quarter and University

| 27


PLANNING INFORMATION LDF Action Plan - Huddersfield Living

Link up residential areas of Greenhead Highfields and Birkby to the town centre

Opportunities for residential development on the Kirklees College site

Opportunities for residential development from St Georges Warehouse across the histroric heart of the town centre to Viaduct street

Links up residential area of Springwood to the town centre

| 28


PLANNING INFORMATION

LDF Action Plan - Huddersfield Shopping Possibility

Main atttraction of market

Opportunities to develop stadium area for leisure and to improve all access to the stadium from town centre Create an area of supporting shopping activity together with other town centre uses Strengthen the shopping offer by allowing town centre expansion for large warehouse style shops

Strengthen major shopping attrations to compliment existing shopping activities

Develop and link up town centre areas which are used on an evening such as John William street, King Street and Town Hall

Proposed new sports centre

KEY SYMBOL

DESCRIPTION Potential dev. site

| 29


PLANNING INFORMATION LDF Action Plan - Huddersfield Working

Opportunity for high quality office accommodation

Keep this area for existing industry and manufacturing businesses Develop technology businesses around the media centre

Maintain civic quarter as the administrative centre Develop partnerships between the University and businesses to encourage enterprise and start-ups in this area

Area for learning and high quality office accommodation

| 30

Encourage innovation, industry and local enterprise


PLANNING INFORMATION Building Regulations

Building work within the Kirklees borough is regulated by the Department of Building Control in the region so that operations such as alterations or extensions, erection of new building, demolition of building etc. meet the required standard. Major planning issues include: - The history of the site - The visual impact of the development - Operations or buildings effect on public amenity - Access, traffic and highway considerations - The impact on listed buildings, conservation areas, or protected trees. It is recommended that: - All refurbishment and alterations to buildings of character (listed buildings) are done in a way that allows for the retention of those architectural features which form an essential part of the building’s design - chimney stacks, balconies, cornices, pediments and parapets can all contribute to the character and appearance of a building. - Certain architectural features may become functionally redundant following refurbishment but that should not justify their removal their removal. New development should enhance the distinctive character of the town centre.

REFERENCES - HELM historical environment local government (2012). CONSERVATION AREAS ADVICE. Retrieved from http://www.helm.org.uk/ - wikipedia (2014).  conservation area. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia. org/. - kirkless council (2011).  listed buildings. Retrieved from https://www.kirklees.gov.uk. - English heritage (2012). The National Heritage List for England. Retrieved from http://list.english-heritage.org.uk/. - kirkless council (2013). Building regulations. Retrieved from https://www. kirklees.gov.uk. - Postcode map (2014).  Huddersfield Postcode Map. Retrieved from http:// www.free-postcode-maps.co.uk/. - kirklees council (2009).  Huddersfield Town Centre Area Action Plan. Retrieved from http://www.kirklees.gov.uk/.

- New development should respect the scale and massing of surrounding buildings, and safeguard attractive views across the town. - This may be a restriction on the height of new building within the main shopping streets, arcades and walkways where pedestrian or human scale is an important feature, and within areas of attractive townscape value (for example, the heritage area). New buildings of greater height could still be erected if it could improve the appearance and character of the area by obstructing unpleasant view or views of no additional essence to the place or by providing additional focal point which will compliments the vicinity. - If a development is quite large, or is located in a traffic sensitive area then a Transport Assessment examination should be conducted.

| 31


LISTED BUILDINGS

Grade I, Grade II & Grade II* Listed Buildings of Huddersfield

Listed buildings: A building is said to be listed in the United Kingdom, if it has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. Listing a building marks and acknowledges its special architectural, historical and construction fit. It also brings the building under the radar of the planning authority so that it can be prevented from unauthorized demolition, inappropriate extensions and alteration, and to make plans over the future of the building in order to preserve its antiquity. Not only are buildings listed; ancient monuments, historic parks, gardens, battlefields, wrecks and heritage sites are also listed.

There exist three grades of listed buildings based upon their relative importance:

All buildings built before 1700 and have retained their original structure and character are listed, as are most of those built between 1700 and 1840. The conditions a building must satisfy become more stringent with time, so the post-1945 buildings have to be exceptionally important to be listed and a building should be at least 30 years of age before it can be eligible for listing. The criteria for listing a building includes; its architectural interest, historical interest, close historical associations, and its group value.

Grade II – buildings of special interest which warrant preservation (94.5% of all listed buildings)

Grade I – buildings of exceptional special interest (nationwide only 1.4% of all listed buildings are Grade I); Grade II* - buildings which are of particular special interest, these are often good quality buildings in their original condition (4.1% of all listed buildings)

In England there are about 374,081 listed buildings, Huddersfield has the third highest number of listed buildings in the whole of the United Kingdom with over 1700 listed buildings and about 221 Grade II listed building within the town centre. A careful study of these listed buildings in terms of their style, materiality etc gives us an understanding of the cultural taste and identity of the area. For a successful urban design these ( cultural identity of the people) should be taken into consideration. REFERENCES - http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results.aspx

| 32


Grade I Listed Building Grade II Listed Building Grade II* Listed Building

| 33


1,3 St. George Street

28 Queen Street

Brunswick Estate

Huddersfield Town Hall

| 34


Huddersfield library & Art Gallery

Co-operative Building

Queensgate Market

Parish Church of St. Peter

| 35


King George Statue

Railway Station

Queensgate Market

Railway Street

| 36


Ramsden Building

St. Paul’s Hall

The George Hotel

The Lionsgate Building

| 37


CONSERVATION

Conservation and Heritage Area

Conservation area: this is a belt of land of a particular location that has been granted protected status so as to protect its inherent properties, biodiversity and its cultural heritage. The Planning Act 1990 (Section 69 and 70) of England and Wales, defines the quality of a Conservation Area as being: “the character or appearance of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance”. A conservation area may be a park, nature reserve, a land reclamation project, or an area which maintains a desired character. Designation of a tract of land of historical and architectural value (conservation area) is the instrument used by the local planning authority to protect the features of the area. Designated areas cannot therefore be altered without getting special permission from the planning authority. Within the belt of a conservation area the local authority has extra controls over the demolition of buildings or monuments, minor developments, the protection of landscape and trees. Conservation areas are designated under Section 69 of the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act of 1990.

| 38

There are over 9600 designated conservation areas in England. The first of these designations was in 1967. Conservation areas are designated under Section 69 of the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act of 1990. There are 59 conservation areas within the Kirklees Council boundary and within Huddersfield’s town centre, about 75% of the area is considered conserved but yet has no appraisal. REFERENCES - Kirkless Council (2011). Development in Conservation Areas. Retrieved from https://www.kirklees.gov.uk.


Conservation Area Heritage Area

| 39


DISTRICTS

Districts and Sectors

There are currently 326 districts in England (32 London boroughs, 36 metropolitan districts, 201 non-metropolitan districts, 55 unitary authorities, City of London, Isles of Scilly). Kirklees is one of the 36 metropolitan districts in the England in the west Yorkshire Metropolitan Borough. Kirklees Metropolitan Borough has a population of about 401,000 and includes the settlements of Batley, Birstall, Cleckheaton, Denby Dale, Dewsbury, Heckmondwike, Holmfirth, Huddersfield, Kirkburton, Marsden, Meltham, Mirfield and Slaithwaite; Huddersfield being the largest of the settlement.

| 40

Huddersfield has the postcode HD1, which is further divided into nine regions from HD1-1 to HD1-9 and the town centre being HD1. The university campus sits on the HD1-2 and HD1-3 postcode districts of Huddersfield.


HD1-6 HD1-9

HD1-5 HD1-1 HD1-6

HD1-4 HD1-2

HD1-3

| 41


MICRO-CLIMATE Areas

The area chosen for this Urban Analysis lies between different terrains. There are some areas that slope and some areas that have fairly flat terrain. The orientation of the terrain features affects the microclimate of most of the areas on the chosen site. Positions of buildings, building massing, trees, water bodies and ground conditions in and around the chosen site can also affect the microclimate in the area. Huddersfield as a whole has different variations in microclimate. The density of a particular area, building heights and the topography has a different effect on the microclimate. The prevailing wind comes in from South to West. However, depending on the day, time and area conditions, strong wind comes in from different directions and can be felt the most when the area is exposed. It is stated on the Bradford Met Office website that, Huddersfield experiences a temperate oceanic climate. Meaning Huddersfield generally is affected by warm, but not hot summers and cool, but not cold winters, and

| 42

a relatively narrow annual temperature range. The coldest months in Huddersfield are mostly January and February where the temperature can average between 0째C minimum and 6째C maximum. The warmest months in Huddersfield are July and August with temperature ranging between 19 째C and 12째C. The wettest months of the year are normally between November and January and the sunniest and driest months of the year are May and June. In order to access all microclimate areas within the Urban Study boundary, the site has been divided into five areas to make investigation of the changes in micro-climate managable. REFERENCES - Bradford Met Office (2014). Huddersfield wind forecast. Retrieved from http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/weather/uk/yh/huddersfield_forecast_wind. html. - Weather Wherever (2012). Geographical situation and climatic info for Huddersfield. Retrieved from http://www.weather-wherever.co.uk/united-kingdom/huddersfield_v13451/.


Area 2 Area 1

Area 3 Area 5

Area 4

| 43


MICRO-CLIMATE Area 1

Railway Street, St. George Street and Station Street are narrow streets that lead to the train station. The buildings in this area are mostly three to five storeys high. The tall buildings in this area cast shadows onto the narrow streets (Highlighted in light orange on map fig1). Station Street (Highlighted in Blue on Map fig 1) is affected by the shadows cast from the surrounding building. The surrounding buildings prevent natural light from hitting the street. The buildings in this area have mold around the edges indicating a lack of natural light. The buildings surrounding the narrow streets funnel strong winds from all angles in this area. Cold breezes enter from the south where there is a busy road. Despite the open central space in front of the train station (shown in Fig. 1), there is no heavy wind movement due to the buildings surrounding the space.

Fig. 1

| 44

John William Street goes under the train track creating a sheltered walkway (Highlighted in Green). There are leakages on the walls from the track and due to the lack of natural light, the space is very damp and is cold most of the time. The microclimate differs most times from the surrounding areas. Rock Street and Bath Street are both long narrow streets with terrace buildings on each side. The street is affected by low wind movements between the buildings. Although the car park at Bath Street is exposed, there is less wind movement. REFERENCES - Macmillan Dictionary (2009). Types of wind . Retrieved from http://www. macmillandictionary.com/thesaurus-category/british/Types-of-wind.


| 45


MICRO-CLIMATE Area 2

Wood Street, Northumberland Street and Church Street grids are compact streets with narrow walkways with buildings of three to five storeys high on each side of the street. The narrow streets provide sheltered walkways with less windy conditions affecting the areas. The areas are normally dark and damp compare to other areas. (Dark Streets are highlighted in Blue) Moving towards Viaduct Street, the buildings are less compact allowing wind movements in between them. The street goes up hill exposing the area to all weather conditions. On a typical day at this point, due to the exposed nature of the car park, it is still windy. To the East of this area is a green open public space opposite the Huddersfield St Peters Parish Church (Fig. 2). This public space gives a refreshing feel from the compact streets. The space is shaded by trees

Fig. 2

| 46

instead of buildings which allows natural wind and air movement in this area. At night time, there can be strong winds from the south as you walk towards the church.


| 47


MICRO-CLIMATE Area 3

The buildings in this area are mostly three storeys high. These buildings cast shadows over the surroundings (Highlighted in orange). King Street can cause a potential flood hazard in front of the Kingsgate shopping centre. The slope from Victory Lane leading on to King Street allows rain water to run down at speed and with the lack of bigger drainage systems; this can cause flooding when it rains heavily (Highlighted in Red). The car park on Aspley Place is far out from the surrounding buildings making it exposed to wind from all directions. Also, the Broad Canal is on the east side of the car park which is in the Dark blue zone of the flood plain map as stated by the Kirklees council. The car park area is at risk of flooding due to the Broad Canal. The humidity in this area is strong which give the streets a damp atmosphere.

| 48

Narrow streets like Queen Street, King Street and Victoria Lane are exposed to all weather conditions whilst Market Walk is shadowed by the buildings on opposite sides (Highlighted in Green). Due to the shelter provided, pedestrians turn to use this walkway as well as the indoor walkway through Packhorse shopping centre to get to the centre of town. There is a walkway provided in between the Boots and the WHSmith buildings. The walkway is covered by a roof shelter and has openings on both sides. This protects pedestrians from rain and snow, however, there is still a light wind due to wind-tunnelling effect. REFERENCES - Kirklees Metropolitan Borough Council (2008). Flood Zone. Retrieved from http://www.kirklees.gov.uk/business/regeneration/pdf/floodRisk/a21.pdf.


| 49


MICRO-CLIMATE Area 4

The natural terrain, the position of the Broad Canal, and the distance between the River Colne to the surrounding buildings make an impact on the microclimate conditions of this area. Along the canal and river, the areas are primarily damp and cold. Part of the University is on a higher ground level compared to other parts. The Broad Canal is on the lower level which is over shadowed by the Central Services Building (Highlighted in orange on figure map) and surrounded trees. These factors affect the canal side area which makes the area feel more shaded and damp most times of the year. The Canal puts this area of the University at risk of flooding. A walk from the Queen Street Studio showed how high the Canal can raise (Picture 1) but the level falls back down as it gets to the Canal gates. This area feels moist with less wind movement compare to open space areas like the Queen Street which is more exposed to crosswind.

Picture 1

| 50

Picture 2 shows the Canal at the lowest level from the bridge that connects the Central Services Building and the Business School building. During summer, the sun heats the water which then evaporates and helps cool the area through evaporative cooling in both the Canal and River Colne area. The River Colne at this area of Huddersfield puts the area at risk of flood.

Picture 2


| 51


MICRO-CLIMATE Area 5

There are some substantial buildings in this area like the bus station which although are only three storeys high, cast significant shadows over the area due to their massing (highlighted in Orange). The buildings on Market Street, Fox Street, George Street and Half Moon Street are compact and condensed with narrow streets in between them. They affect the microclimate as they cast shadows on the surrounding area as well as directing the wind movement around them.

| 52

Castlegate Road is very exposed with buildings further out into the town centre with a few trees along the roadside. This area is therefore exposed to headwind as there is little or no diversion.

Part of the Manchester Road leading on to St. Thomas Road is within the Dark blue zone on the Flood Map of the Kirklees Council planning map. This means the area has a one percent or greater chance of flooding each year should the River Colne rise in level.

The Microclimate studies have indicated the effect building height and size have on their surrounding environment. Therefore when developing a masterplan, one must avoid casting too many shadows on the canal area. Appropriate landscaping of this area can draw attention to the canal and by making the area more open; helping neutralize the microclimate. By increasing the width of narrow streets and decreasing building height, it will help direct sunlight/natural light into these spaces and avoid them feeling damp.

Bankfield Road leading to the Kirklees College and the industrial buildings on St. Thomas Road have a 0.1 percent chance of flooding anually.

REFERENCES

In this area there is a light wind at the river side as the buildings are mostly only on one side of the river bank.

- Kirklees Metropolitan Borough Council (2008). Flood Zone. Retrieved from http://www.kirklees.gov.uk/business/regeneration/pdf/floodRisk/a21.pdf.

Picture 1

Picture 2


| 53


NATURAL & SYNTHETIC FORCES


SITE FORCES

Physical Characteristics

Located in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees in West Yorkshire, Huddersfield is surrounded by gentle rolling hills and valleys. Due to the topography in Huddersfield, there are many challenges when it comes to development and construction. There is approximately a forty metre west to east fall in the lay of the land. Differences in levels mean it is of high concern when it comes to overlooking, overshadowing and views being blocked. Inclines also make it difficult for the less able and the elderly to circulate around the town. Within the study area, there are two main bodies of water – the narrow canal and the River Colne. They run around the south and east of the study area. This means that as a result, the surrounding areas are prone to flooding and appropriate measures need to be taken to avoid potential flood damage. The River and the canal have shaped the ring road. These boundaries define the districts as the town has been built around them.

| 56

The canal that runs through the university makes it difficult for expansion as permeability is restricted to certain points. However, they offer opportunities to create better open and recreational spaces. Huddersfield Corporation built a ring road in the 1970s that now defines the Central Business District. The ring road relieves traffic congestion in the town centre where many of the roads are pedestrianised. Main routes into Huddersfield are through Leeds Road, Halifax Road, Bradford Road, Trinity Street, Manchester Road, Chapel Hill and Wakefield Road. Huddersfield Railway Station has good comprehensive local and regional rail services. It runs inter-city train services on three main routes across the North of England. The station is located on St. George’s Square which has been made a pedestrian zone disallowing vehicle parking in front of the station.


Ring Road Railway River Colne Direction of downward slope

| 57


HYDROLOGY Flood Zones

Due to topographical considerations, there are some areas that are more prone to flooding than others. Towards the north of the study area, there are no existing bodies of water, however, the revamp of St. George’s Square has introduced fountains as a water feature which can be switched on and off when desired. This area is not low-lying and thus not at risk to water permeability issues or flooding. The River Colne travels through Marsden and Slaithwaite before joining the River Holme at Huddersfield. The River Holme passes through Holmfirth and Brockholes. Flooding comes from the rivers mentioned and also from sewers, surface water and Huddersfield Broad Canal. There are 5,278 properties at risk of flooding during the 1% undefended flood and this will rise in the future. There are currently 3.86km of raised man-made defences within the sub-area. Both the Huddersfield Narrow Canal and River Colne run through the Waterfront Quarter, resulting in ground conditions to be saturated. Due to its low-lying positioning, there is a lot of standing water on the ground. In conclusion, in addition to the River Colne and Huddersfield canal, there is evidence of old water reservoirs and coolers associated with the previous industrial use of buildings. However, overall, there are very little additional hydrological aspects within the study area.

| 58

REFERENCES - Environment Agency. (2010). Calder Catchment Flood Management Plan: Summary Report December 2010. Retrieved: http://a0768b4a8a31e106d8b050dc802554eb38a24458b98ff72d550b.r19.cf3.rackcdn.com/gene0110brlh-ee.pdf - Himelfield, D. (2013, December 30) Marsden village centre at ‘high risk’ of flooding, Environment Agency warns. The Examiner. Retrieved from http:// www.examiner.co.uk/news/west-yorkshire-news/marsden-village-centrehigh-risk-6452746 - Kirklees Council. (2010). Strategic Flood Risk Assessment (SFRA). Retrieved from: https://www.kirklees.gov.uk/business/regeneration/floodrisk.aspx


River Colne Flood Zone 2 Flood Zone 3a

| 59


NOISE STUDY

Noise Intensive Areas of Huddersfield

Throughout the area we have studied, the dominant source of sound is produced by the constant stream of traffic around the ring road; and is at its loudest during morning and evening rush hours. This noise seeps into all of town centre and the university campus area, and produces a constant background hum. The other primary source of noise comes from the trains at the railway station. This sound is less constant however is integral to the character of the area. Vibration from the trains along the lines also adds to the noise.

| 60

The rotunda entrance of Kingsgate Shopping Centre has a very particular noise; classical music is played at acceptable volume so as to be a deterrent to anti-social behaviour. There is a large amount of pedestrian traffic at this point so the noise level and intensity is similar to New Street, however due to the many bars and takeaways that stay open, even during night-time hours, this street stays noisy throughout most of the day.

The northern part of the area inside the ring road consists of busy roads with bus and car traffic running constantly throughout the daytime; this creates a busy, noisy atmosphere though the level of the noise is not as high as the ring road. The noise here dies down during night time hours.

The university area has its main noise income from the ring road on the north side of the campus. This is also the busiest area for pedestrian traffic, thus pedestrian noise, during official university open hours. The other major vehicular noise factor is Firth Street; as it is the busy secondary link between Chapel Hill and Wakefield Road.

In terms of pedestrian noise, the primary source is across New Street, as here is where the primary high street retail stores are located, as well as small takeaways and restaurants; however once the stores close, this area is virtually silent except for the busses passing at timed intervals. The other pedestrian areas on the south side of town centre are also similar in noise propensity.

During night time hours the noise on the university campus is reduced to only the hum of the vehicular traffic on the ring road as any vehicular movement within the campus ground car parks is minimal. Thus from the perspective of the university campus, the Queensgate ring road is the only part that disrupts the quieter pedestrian only zones when approaching the university from town.


Highest Noise Intensity

Lowest Noise Intensity

| 61


| 62


SHADOW STUDY

Areas Of Intensive Shadow Exposure

Huddersfield Town Centre has dense clusters of primarily three storey buildings directly on the street edge. This combined with the many alleys along the pedestrian areas with high buildings means that at most, these areas receive four to five hours of sunlight during summer months and around two to three hours sunlight during winter months. Therefore many of these smaller streets and alleyways remain relatively dark and thus during winter months people gravitate towards the few areas which are lit by the sun, for the extra warmth.

Canalside East and West cast the other main shadows on campus. In complete contrast to the Central Services Building these buildings cast long shadows over the canal and along most of the south side of the campus, however due to the light stonework used, these buildings bounce enough diffuse light around to keep these areas in direct shadow well lit.

Areas outside the ring road, like St. Thomas Road and the warehouses along it, receive more sunlight due to the predominantly two storey buildings in this area and wider roads.

Consideration would need to be given to the conservation area to the west side of the campus as these buildings do keep the alleys between them in shadow for most of the year. Currently there is minimal pedestrian traffic through this part of the campus relative to the north side. Any changes made to the campus would need to consider changes to the pedestrian traffic and traffic intensity in this area.

The largest area which gets most sunlight throughout the year is the Sainsbury car park and the ring road roundabout. This would be useful if primarily used by pedestrians but due to the necessity of the ring road and customer cars; the primary traffic here is vehicular, and is constant.

Ultimately due to the UK’s and Huddersfield’s generally cold climate, people generally prefer to be in the brighter, lit up, warmer areas; thus the shadows play a significant part in how people use the roads. In terms of vehicular traffic, shadows are for more insignificant.

St. George’s Square in the North-Western part of town is another open area, however much of the square is overshadowed by the large Britannia Buildings on the south side, thus pedestrians subconsciously gravitate towards the railway station and The George Hotel.

Currently there are too many tall buildings on the south side of campus, and due to the sloping topography downwards towards the south, these buildings cast long shadows over the land. Thus just from shadows point of view it would be better if the higher buildings were pushed to the north of the campus.

Within the University boundary, the Central Services Building does not contribute significantly in terms of shadows, but does reduce general lighting levels around the North side of the campus, though this is partly due to its dark exterior as well.

| 63


ANTI-FORM

Spacing Between Buildings

Antiform is deconstruction. It is a form which can be cognitively dissolved into parts in order to be imaginatively perceived in new ways and mentally reconstructed according to new syntactic relationships while remaining physically intact. By highlighting the areas surrounding the buildings, we concentrate on these open/empty spaces in between. The diagram clearly shows which areas are denser in open, empty and public spaces. The overall site provides minimal public spaces both within and outside the ring road. The lack of legibility and access to public spaces outside the ring road has proved their lack of success. This is demonstrated through the success acquired by those public spaces within the ring road with clear connections. Towards the north of the ring road, there are plenty of large spaces that are highlighted through this diagram. However, these spaces mainly represent car parks for retail, commercial, office developments and main

| 64

vehicular routes. As the spaces between buildings are wider, they show that that these spaces are mainly catered for vehicular access rather than pedestrian circulation. Within the boundaries of the ring road, it is clear that this area caters towards pedestrian circulation not only for the numerous public spaces but the tighter alignment of buildings for limited vehicular access. A grid system is also in place for easy pedestrian movement. The south of the ring road is dictated by site forces such as the canal and river. There are large areas of open spaces within this area, however are not limited to just car parks. There are green areas that show the connection between these public spaces and the university campus.


| 65


TOPOGRAPHY

3D Model of Landscape & Context

From the northwest of the study area, there is a significant drop of approximately fifty metres to the southeast. As a result of such dramatic topographical changes, there are many instances within the town centre that have great level changes with poor permeability between buildings and open spaces. The south and southeast of the site around River Colne is a flat bottomed river basin which means that the area surrounding the river is relatively levelled. The east of the river has a gradual incline from sixty metres above sea level to one hundred-and-fifty-five metres above sea level. The western bank gradually rises to ninety- five metres above sea level over an approximate distance of four kilometres.

| 66


| 67


SITE SECTIONS Section A-A Fig.1

Section A-A Fig 1 0m

125m

Section A-A Fig 1 0m

| 68

125m


Once the CAD model was produced, the group was able to take sections through it to show the changes in land height through Huddersfield Town Centre and the University campus. The sections were taken along the North-South and the East –West axes; cutting through the University Campus. Going from west to east, the section show the land primarily sloping downwards towards the Canal and the River. The North South section shows the land rising up in the centre of town and again sloping down towards the river. The campus itself also follows the same topology, with the land being considerably higher on the north side and sloping down towards the canal. At this point the on the south end of campus the land is virtually flat.

Section A-A Fig 2

| 69


SITE SECTIONS Section A-A Fig. 2

Section A-A Fig 1

Section A-A Fig 2 0m

| 70

125m


The sections also show the busy nature of classical and mill buildings interspersed throughout town while showing the contrast of punctuated buildings in the campus area. Any intervention or development undertaken on campus would primarily need to consider the steep level change to the north side of the canal and its relation to the Canalside and Lockside buildings. Since the locks along the canal are listed structures and the level change and vegetation cause lower light levels; beneficial changes around this area would need to consider bringing in more light via changes to the topography while respecting the character of the area.

Section A-A Fig 2 0m

125m

| 71


SITE SECTIONS Section B-B

Section B-B 0m

| 72

125m


| 73


SKYLINE

Dominating Features of Huddersfield

| 74


| 75


URBAN ENCOUNTERS


Landmark or Ponit of I

Landmark or Ponit of I Intrusion Landmark or Ponit Inappropriate Scale, Use of MatI Intrusion

Inappropriate Scale, Use Mat

Intrusion Spatial Containment or Inappropriate Scale, Use Mat Indentity Spatial Containment Churchyard, Street market or Indentity SpatialofContainment Trees townscape or

Churchyard, Street market Significance Indentity Churchyard, Street market Trees of townscape Edge Significance Trees Physicalofortownscape visual boundary t Significance area, railway, woods, water Edge Physical or visual boundary t Rhythm Edge area, railway, woods, water Property fenestration,a Physical orlines, visual boundary t Rhythm area, railway, woods, water Property lines, fenestration,a

TOWNSCAPE

Rhythm Stop Property lines, fenestration,a

a vista ‘stopped’ by a significan

Stop Space Leaks by a significan a vista ‘stopped’ Stop falls apart Townscape aSpace vista ‘stopped’ Leaks by a significan Important Corner Townscape falls apart Space acting asLeaks a pivot or hinge betw Townscape apart ImportantfallsCorner Deflected View acting as a pivot or hinge betw Important The eye is leadCorner round a corner-inviting exploration acting as a pivot or hinge betw Deflected View The eye is lead round a Texture/ materials Deflected View

Areas Of Architectural Interest

Within the boundaries of the study area, there are few places where vegetation can be found. They are mostly used as fencing along roads or edges rather than parks or open spaces for the community. Open space landscaping is rare within the study site compared to other areas in Huddersfield. St. Peter’s Street opposite the Parish Church is the only planned landscape for public use within the studied boundary. From the North of the study area, most of the vegetation is lined along Castlegate Road which helps to soften the impact of the busy road with lots of vehicular movement. Although the trees in this area help draw the focus off the busy road, a well prepared landscape will enhance the appearance of the area whiles giving pedestrians and the residents something nice to look out to. Most of the houses in this area are residential buildings which are mostly occupied by students. This area will benefit from a well-planned landscape to break the compact feel of the area. Moving down to the train station area, vegetation become infrequent with the only planned public landscape opposite the Parish church. There are few trees lining the space in front of the train station. The space opposite the train station can benefit from soft landscape to compliment the public space opposite the Parish church. A green soft landscape will transform the space whiles drawing focus to the station. To the East of the site beyond the ring road, there are more landscaping planned around buildings. Although there are no open spaces for social gathering, the area doesn’t have the same dense presence the West side. The Broad Canal is lined with trees.

| 78

Heading down South, the Market Place square can be improved and transform the area significantly by introducing both soft and hard landscape. The area has the opportunity to become the heart of the town centre with carefully planned landscaping. At the moment, the only types of vegetation in this area are few plants, grass and trees between buildings on New Street although they do not have a real impact on the appearance of the area as they seem to be grown at random. The vegetation at the Piazza square helps create a small open space for pedestrians but would benefit from hard landscaping between the grass to create an inviting appearance as at the moment it feels uninviting. The vegetation lining the ring road helps soften the busy road. Moving towards the university, there is little vegetation at the entrance area although this should be enhanced to give a welcoming presence to the entrance. Whilst on the campus, vegetation landscape is not common. Trees are mostly use to corridor the Canal which in this case hides what is a pleasant view. In conclusion, the study area can greatly benefit from both soft and hard landscaping. There is an opportunity to improve the urban area by planting more trees significantly to draw focus on substantial spaces and areas. The lack of vegetation, open public spaces and parks are very noticeable within the studied boundary.

corner-inviting exploration on paving Thewalls eye isorlead round a Texture/ materials corner-inviting exploration on wallspoint or paving Pinch Texture/ materials closing in to frame a view or p on walls or paving gatewaypoint to a larger space Pinch closing in to frame a view or p Pinch point Building gateway to line a larger space closing in tostreet framefrontage a view ordep continuous gateway to line a larger space Building Viewpoint street frontage de tocontinuous distant object

Building line Viewpoint continuous street frontage de to distant object Glimpse Viewpoint

fleeting glance or through a ga to distant object

Glimpse Vista glance or through a ga fleeting Glimpse General view fleeting Vista glance or through a ga General view Transparency Vista

activity Generalvisible view from the street repairs Transparency activity visible from the street Transparency repairs activity visible from the street repairs

Skyline interest Skyline interest Skyline interest


Interest

LANDMARK OR POINT OF INTEREST

Interest INTRUSION Inappropriate Scale, Use Materials

Interest terials

terials

r area

SPATIAL CONTAINMENT/AREA INDENTITY Churchyard, Street market

terials

r area

r area

TREES OF TOWNSCAPE EDGE Physical or visual boundary to an area railway, woods, water

to an

to an

arcading to an

R

arcading

R

arcading nt building

R S

nt building

S

nt building

S

ween spaces

RHYTHM Property lines, fenestration, arcading

STOP A vista ‘stopped’ by a significant building

G

G V

SPACE LEAKS Townscape falls apart IMPORTANT CORNER Acting as a pivot or hinge between spaces

ween spaces

DEFLECTED VIEW The eye is lead round a corner-inviting exploration

ween spaces

TEXTURE/ MATERIALS On walls or paving

providing a PINCH POINT Closing in to frame a view or providing a gateway to a larger space

providing a

providing a efining a space

efining a space

V

efining a space

V G V

ateway

ateway

ateway eg bakery,

G G

BUILDING LINE Continuous street frontage defining a space VIEWPOINT To distant object GLIMPSE Fleeting glance or through a gateway VISTA General view

eg bakery, eg bakery,

TRANSPARENCY Activity visible from the street eg bakery, repairs

SKYLINE INTEREST

| 79


LYNCH STUDY Nodes

As described in The Image of The City by Kevin Lynch, nodes are a conceptual anchor points within our cities that acts as a point in a network of diagram at which lines or pathways intersect. They are outdoor spaces such as public parks or meeting areas. Within our set boundary of Huddersfield, there are thirteen areas that can be considered nodes by Lynch’s definition. This diagram identifies vehicular nodes and major and minor pedestrian nodes. Major vehicular nodes are mainly those along the ring road, connecting the ring road to alternate routes. Within the ring road, there are several major and minor nodes. Major nodes are the public spaces that have been designated as meeting points. Particularly, St. George’s Square outside the railway station has a coherent connection to the rest of the town.

Market Place is another major node with its visible intersection for both vehicular and pedestrian circulation. St. Peter’s Square is another static outdoor space sitting next to St. Peter’s Church. Within the university campus, there are 3 nodes that offer clear directions. The main entrance of the campus with multiple directions segmenting off and the university piazza that has a large open space which can be seen as a gathering space are major nodes within the campus. A minor node is along the bend of Commercial Street that is central to the campus, networking the rest of the campus. Towards the south, there is a major node along Queen Street and Firth Road for pedestrians as it marks the end of campus. REFERENCES: - Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

| 80


| 81


LYNCH STUDY Paths

Paths, according to Lynch, require a continuous and unified element. It is the network of habitual or potential lines of movement through the urban complex. They are the skelAeton of the city, and need a clear direction.

vehicles and pedestrians. The continuity of many paths is disrupted by the ring road. The paths within the town centre demonstrate free flow of movement regardless of traffic barriers.

Paths are dominant elements in urban space. Typical spatial characters and distinct faรงade decorations are both helpful to strengthen the image of particular path. First and foremost, a path must be identifiable, and then followed by its continuity. Moreover, paths with clear and well-defined origins and destinations have stronger identities that assist in tying the city together. After the directional qualities are determined, the next step is to consider the scale characters of paths.

Within the university, there are two major paths that run through the campus, one of which that runs through the Central Services building down by the Canal and the other goes down the Harold Wilson building towards Canalside East. These two paths are considered more desirable than those outside the campus as they are completely pedestrianized.

Trinity Street forms a major route through the area as it connects Kirklees College to the town centre. Railway Street and John William Street are the main connection points from the railway station to the town centre. John William Street runs all the way down the town to the Westgate and Kirkgate junction. Westgate and Kirkgate divide the ring road making it suitable for both

A series of nodes and landmarks are the most common way to achieve a successful path. In general, it is impossible to create a clear city image while its paths remain confused and disordered. The majority of the paths within the study area follow this suggestion by Lynch but for pedestrians, it is clear that continuity is disrupted by the ring road that causes illegibility within the study area. REFERENCES: - Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

| 82


| 83


LYNCH STUDY Edges

Edges call for a certain continuity of form throughout their length. The edge also gains strength if it is; laterally visible for some distance, marks a sharp gradient of area character and clearly joins the two bounded regions. Edges are boundaries that separate two defining areas with visually predominant and continuous form. While continuity and visibility are crucial, strong edges are not necessarily impenetrable. Many edges should be defined as unity seams rather than isolating barriers, some of them are often paths like major vehicular roads and rivers, which become effective orientation elements as well. In Huddersfield, the most significant edge is the ring road that bounds the town centre. It affects pedestrian permeability and is mainly catered to vehicular circulation especially in the northern quarter of the boundary. This creates a psychological barrier for pedestrians. However, towards the southern quarter, it allows for greater pedestrian movement.

The canal and river also play a significant role in defining the boundaries allowing crossing at certain points, forcing movement of traffic and pedestrian to flow alongside of them. There are minor edges within the town centre as defined by Lynch such as the boundary surrounding St. Peter’s Square. The railway viaduct defines and separates the areas contained within them. By observing these edges according to Lynch’s definition, we are able to understand how certain spaces are permeable or impermeable to one another. The division created between certain spaces define their boundaries that are either a physical or psychological barrier. REFERENCES: - Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

| 84


| 85


LYNCH STUDY Landmarks

According to Lynch, landmarks represent singularity, contrast with context of background but are not subject to large objects.

history and the Lawrence Batley Theatre is unique in space and form to Huddersfield.

A major landmark is the railway station as it provides legibility and a dominant destination. The Kirklees College is another landmark that articulates the route from the town centre west along Trinity Street.

Considering the fact that Huddersfield is a small town, made even smaller by our defined study area, the legibility of the city is well defined, as the numerous landmarks that are present are clearly visible from distances. This makes it easy for the explorer in terms of Lynch’s study as these landmarks represent strong imagery through physical or symbolic devices.

There is an outdoor market building which is a noteworthy landmark as it marks the edge of the historic part of the town. High visual landmarks exist such as St. Peter’s Church and St. Paul’s Church within the town centre. However within the university campus; St. Paul’s Church, the new Creative Arts Building and the Central Services building dominate the site area with their presence. The town library is a landmark based on its significance to the town’s

| 86

REFERENCES: - Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.


| 87


ASPECT/PROSPECT Aspect

Aspect refers to a position facing or commanding a given direction. There are a variety of aspect views within the study area, all of which direct focus on a distinct feature of element in a situation. Towards the north of the study area, the nature of the views into and out caries in character to either side of the ring road. Glimpses of a tighter and regulated streetscape is visible towards some landmarks such as St. Peter’s Church. Unlike prospect, the views are generally along streets rather than over the skyline. Towards the south of the study area, the town begins to disperse and aspect views focus on how the canal and river have defined the boundaries.

A

E

| 88

B

C

F

G

D

H


D A

B

C E F G

H

| 89


ASPECT/PROSPECT Prospect

Prospect is a view or a scene that offers an extended outlook. Huddersfield is surrounded by gentle rolling hills and valleys, while bound by a man-made ring road.

Within the commercial area, prospect views are mainly down the busy pedestrianised streets which lead towards the south. The south end offer views out over the industrial area of the town towards Castle Hill.

Prospect views rely on openings in the streetscape. These images show the views from within the town centre outward and how the town connects with its surrounding landscape. Due to the topography, towards the north of the study area, we are able to open up towards the hills beyond the town centre.

A

D

| 90

C

B

E

F


A

B

C

F

D

E

| 91


ACCESS & CIRCULATION Pedestrian Circulation

BEAU

MON

T STRE

ET

IAM

WILL

OX

ST

ET

STR EET

RD

STRE

FO

RE

IAM

LEED S ROA

LOW ER

D

VIAD

UCT

ET

ET

STRE

WILL

ER FITZ

NORTHGATE

TE LEGA

GREEN STREET

CAST

LOW

CAS

TLE

UN

NA

CA

GAT

E

WA Y

STL

EGA TE

ET

STRE

IAM

ROOK STREET

WILL

VIA DU CT

STR EET

BATH

ET STRE

AY ADW BRO

ET

N STRE

BACK

UNIO

UNN

ET

A WAY

N STRE

UNIO

ET

STRE

D LEE

OL

IAM

WILL

FITZ

DS AD RO

ET

N WIL JOH

IP

E

SL

LE ST CA

GAT

TLE

CAS

OK STRE

BRO

LORD

PINE ET STRE

HT ST

STRE

ATE

LOOP

EET STR LIAM

TE GA

KNIG

LOOP

ET

E LITTL K ST SWIC BRUN

CASTLEG

ET

OK STRE

BRO

FRIEN

M ST BYRA

PINE STREET

AD S RO

ED

DLY ST

LE

ANCH

NO

AND

RT

H

BERL

RO AD

NOR

ET

T

W

OR STREE

NE

STRE

THUM

PRIM ITIVE ET

STRE

AND

T

JOHN

ET

OL D

R'S STRE

ST PETE

TOMLINSON'S YARD

STRE

T

STREE

M STREE BYRA

WILLIAM

ST GEORGE'S SQUARE

LE

STREE

ED S RO AD

WOOD

PORTLAND STREET

BRUNSW

ICK

BERL HUM NORT STREET

LORD

The streets are lined with pavements for pedestrian walkways. Both pedestrians and vehicles use some narrow streets in between buildings.

ET

STRE

T

ET

ET

R'S STRE

ST PETE

W

ATE

H

RT

NO

ERG

STREET

WAT

NE STR

CHURC

Court

'S

SOU

ST

ATE

THG

RGE

T

T

GEO

KE

AR TM

AS

BE

STREE

KIRKGATE

CASTLEGATE

TRINITY STREET

QUAY STREET

STREET

WOOD

EET

DE

RA

RAILWAY

STATION STREET

PA

CHURCH

H ST

Byram

TEMPLE CLOSE

WESTGATE

EET

N STR

VEN

KIRKGATE

CL

BROOK'S YARD ERY LANE

STRE

CHANC

White Lion

Yard

NTS

ON

E

AT

STR

Fleece Yard

DG

HE

MARKET PLACE

OL

EET

ET

STREET

NR Y ST

RE

ET

FOX

CROSS CHURCH

MARKET PLACE

CHANCERY

MO

MARKET PLACE

ET

RE

ST

ON

LF

HA

GEA

GEORGE STREET

SER

rd

Ya

T

MARKE

STREE

Inn

Market Walk

H HALL

T STRE ET

Head Yard

KING STREET King Street

Queens

UPPERHEAD ROW

Sun

CLOT

DUN

KING STREET

Marke

t Avenu

p's

Wormald

LANE

Queen's Square

ASP

LEY

PLA CE

YARD

EE

Walk

QU

Princess Alexandra

NS

GA TE

BANK

VICTORIA

UNION

AD RO

et

D

aula y Stre

IEL

Mac

ZETLAND STREET

e

EF

e

ial Arcad

AK W

Imper

The Shambles

EET

Yard

D'S YARD

STR

d's Yard

WOO

ADNE

Goldthor

LOCK

TAP YARD

QUEEN STREET

QUEEN THRE

EDLE

's Yard

Stree

t

EET

Street

Hammon

STR

New

DAS

Threadneedle

ALBE t

RT YARD

STRE

New

ET

RICE STREET

Stree

HIGH

EET

KET STR

WAK

EF

IELD

MAR

DEN

STRE

ET

RO AD

ET ND

ST

RE

Princess

T

EN

FIR

SG

TH

AT

E

ST

RE

ET

STREE

PEEL

QUE

CORP

New

ET

Buxto

STRE

n Way

ALB

E ST

T

ST

RE

ET

E

CO

GAT

LE

ESS STREE

RE

PRINC

LN

ST

ET

ION

STREET

CA

CROSS GROVE

ORAT

Street

ION STREE

T

T

SA

SWALL OW STREE

Ale xan

dra

Walk

RAMS

ET

STRE

BACK QUEEN STREET

MERTON

TH ER

Prince

ss Stree

CR

OW

t

CO

LN

E ST

ON

RE

ET

RO ST BI RE NS ET

ET

DA Y

STRE

ET

ET

RIFLE STREET

TH

ST RE

PAGE

ST

RE

ET

ED STRE

STREET

ALFR

PROSPECT

OR

QUEENS

RE ET

ST PAUL 'S STRE ET

GA

RF

GATE

NK

ST

BA

TH

E

FIR

COT OUT

CHAP

EL STRE

ET

R

HESTE

MANC

ROAD

DAL

E STRE

PEL

HILL

QUEEN

STREE

T SOUT

H

ET

CHA

MILF

ORD

STRE

ET

M

M CO ER AL

CI ET RE ST

ET

ST THO

STRE

MAS

NILE STRE ET

L L HIL

ET

KEYS

CHAPE

LE STRE

T SOUT

H

CAB

BAR

GE STRE

ET

GRA

D

HAM

' ROA

LN

FIR

TH

EET

STR

FOLLY

QUEE

HA

LL

E RO AD

N STREE

CO

Major Pedestrian Route KIN G'S

COLNE ROAD

GE

BRID D

ROA

ROAD

ILL

NS

EE

QU

| 92

M

AD RO

Minor Pedestrian Route Both Pedestrain and Vehicle Route


ACCESS & CIRCULATION Vehicular Circulation

This diagram shows how vehicles circulations are defined in the urban area of Huddersfield. The ring road services as the main road that connects Huddersfield to other towns and cities. The Dark Orange lines represent the busiest roads in Huddersfield, which is mainly the ring road. These routes are busiest during rush hour.

KEY Major Roads Minor Roads Connections To Huddersfield Other Roads

| 93


PERMEABILITY

Connectivity Between Spaces

What is Permeability? It is the spatial and transportation planning of a location, of a site within a town or city, which will be under going a redevelopment or change of a route through a village or city. Permeability or Connectivity is the description of urban forms that guide or restrict traffic and people in different direction around or through a village or city. In this study of Permeability we will be primarily focusing on the second type, which relates to vehicle access along with pedestrian routes through a space, and the relationships between the two, and not on the property crime as the site boundary is within the ring road and less towards low level housing estates and cul-de-sac’s. Although there is student accommodation within this boundary the focus is more on filtration and passage rather than crime, plus the fact that the student facilities are securely monitored and swipe card accessed. In this study of the location which within the ring road and river of the university campus of Huddersfield, the map has been divided in to sectors Throughout the next pages to allow the focus of the different kinds of connectivity within the location of interest.

| 94

As a pedestrian, driver, train traveller and bus rider, in my time as a pedestrian in Huddersfield I think that the Town is pretty easy to navigate round and permeably well layout. Although as a diver some routes both in and outside the boundary are a little difficult and less permeable to navigate as the ring road is easy to get round due to the scale of the town. Major sites like the train station and the University campus are easy to get to in car of by foot and quite permeable in one respect, but in term of the campus unlike the train station it lacks the visitor access in terms of park and diving up and in to, and is less visitor and parking friendly and has very little drop of space for the situation users. So in terms of visitor permeability, if there is such a thing, where as family’s of users for end of year shows that want to come and have access to the campus or for future students coming to visit, I think the University is very unwelcoming in this aspect of the use of its permeable space, which could be done with better planning and also help to bridge the gap between town and gown.


| 95


PERMEABILITY Sector 1

Permeability in this area is dominated by two main routes and a third that is of a more leisure orientated and historical reference to the past permeability of this area. Chapel Hill Road is the main vain that links Lockwood to the ring road and the other is Queen Street, both of which are divided by the vast block foot prints of the Broadbent Mills and both have a change in level and cross the canal. Unlike Chapel Hill Road that crosses the River Colne and level rise significantly towards the ring road, both are traffic and pedestrian routes and are linked via two permeable routes through the block of the mills. The third route is the Huddersfield canal which runs through the campus and can be traversed along up to Queen Street where it goes underground and is only accessible by barge through to the exit on the other side of Chapel Hill Road. Permeability is limited by the canal and the mills with no foot path by the river in this area and can only be accessed by those main two routes.

| 96


| 97


| 98


Sector 1

| 99


PERMEABILITY Sector 2

Permeability in and around this area is far greater than Sector One. Although the two are next to each other and this sector shares the same industrial problems as Sector One, vehicles and pedestrians can travel around the entire area and is some cases trough the campus as well. Pedestrian can travel with ease trough the campus, due to is relatively small block sizes and multitude of crossings along Firth street and the foot path along the canal. This foot path is tended not to be used to much in the evening is winter mouths because of darker nights and the nature of crime, but once at the canal side area pedestrians can navigate there way trough several routes through the campus towards the town centre. To the south of Firth street there are a multitude of student accommodation complexes and the permeability seems a little lost amongst all this blockade but there are routes through both for pedestrians via the Snow Island crossing and Kings bridge for both vehicle and pedestrian.

| 100

Permeability towards the Central Services Building is some what more controlled and is less permeable due to the private ownership and the development of the building itself, which was once a porte-cochere, with clear visual and physical routes through the space. Although the public can still walk through the building and access the route through to the town centre, only at certain times of the day this is because of swipe cards governing the private space and only those how use the university can have or gain access to it all of the time.


| 101


Sector 2

| 102


| 103


Sector 2

| 104


| 105


Sector 2

| 106


| 107


PERMEABILITY Sector 3

This area is less permeable to the pedestrian due to the ring road and the industrial developments although paths are located at the side of the roads crossings are far apart and are only located at major points of access though to the Town centre. The route that joins the ring road to the retail parks and the housing blocks at the side of the ring road is the primary link. Other than that, permeability in this area is primarily governed by your direction of travel if you are in a car, and the two main crossings if your are a pedestrian.

| 108


| 109


| 110


Sector 3

| 111


PERMEABILITY Sector 4

This sector, north of the town, is like any other city of town or village, in the fact that it is permeable to the rest of the country via the railway. In this case, outside the Huddersfield train station there is a vast open pedestrian area that opens up to a network of routes through the town. These routes are easily navigated by foot, car, or bus. The grid system of the town makes the permeable flow from station to campus quite easy to navigate, allowing visitors to get a feel for Huddersfield life along the way. But this grid system does form some points of conflict between traffic and pedestrian routes at every junction. Also the subway to the college is affective in peak time during the day under the ring road, but like the canal, can be dangerous at night for pedestrians.

| 112


| 113


Sector 4

| 114


| 115


Sector 4

| 116


| 117


PERMEABILITY Sector 5

The Town centre of Huddersfield is quite permeable both to vehicles and pedestrians; it has a one-way system for cars passing though the heart and two main routes of access for busses. There are many passages and back routes and ally ways that all interconnect within the Town centre that make is very permeable for pedestrians to navigate there way through. Although the development of Queensgate and Kingsgate shopping centres have both created an edge or boundary to the town centre and cut off views and access to some parts of the town with there block facades, they also have created a pleasant environment from the constant noise of passing traffic from the ring road. This has been a positive development and has helped create a more friendly pedestrian zone within the town centre.

| 118

The gird like system around the church is permeable to public transport, cars, and pedestrian access with only one ‘no pedestrian access zone’ at the rear of the post office, for security reasons.


| 119


Sector 5

| 120


| 121


BUILDING USE Building Segregations

The diagram on the following page, identifies each builds current use at the time of early 2014. Using the defined boundary, each building was surveyed for its Ground Floor use because some of the buildings were multi-use e.g. shop fronts with first floor residential uses. For the purposes of the diagram anything that has a first floor use other than its ground floor counterpart was disregarded. Looking at the outcome of the diagram, the colours clearly show that building uses within the Huddersfield ring road are primarily retail properties, with small amounts of entertainment and leisure complexes. The ring road also holds the major transport buildings, including the Huddersfield Train Station and Bus Station to the West. Largest proportion of Industrial and Warehouse complexes are found South West of the town centre and also small amounts can be found East of the ring road area. Educational spaces within the boundary are mainly The University of Huddersfield campus to the South and the Kirklees College buildings to the West.

| 122

Residential areas within the boundary are becoming less privately used due to the expansion of the University requirements for student accommodation. The accommodation has now moved to the private buildings outside of the boundary over the years. Huddersfield has a large portion of vacant buildings which used to be apart of the Kirklees Council development, until they moved to new premises in the South of the inner-ring road. Looking at the ‘Building Use’ diagram and comparing it to the Kirklees Council UDP planning diagrams, the two are close to the same layout as each other. Showing that Kirklees planning proposals are under force and provides realistic information.


Key: Building Use Education Industrial & Warehouses Civic and Public Building Entertainment and Leisure Residential Retail Office Vacant

| 123


BUILDING EDGE

Buildings Relating to Roads and Paving

The building edge analyses the relationship between buildings, pavements and roads. The building edge examines how far the buildings are set back from the pavements, roads and public spaces.

Moving further down to Queen Street, the School of Art, Design & Architecture is set back from the road providing a car park and walkway which leads to the building.

Also, this looks at the relationships between buildings and the spaces between them. The University of Huddersfield mostly owns buildings on Area four of the study site. The ring road is the main gateway in to Huddersfield. The entrance to the University is on the North side that gives the University a close relationship to the ring road. It can be said that this draws people in as well as gives the campus a visible street presence.

Most of the buildings in the train station area are of larger scales. Apart from the train station, all of the buildings in this area have a relationship with either a main road or a narrow street. The train station is set back to provide a public space which becomes a central focal point during festive seasons. Buildings to the North side of this area are mainly residential buildings with few commercial buildings. The buildings line up on opposite sides of the narrow streets with narrow pavements.

One of the iconic buildings on the campus is the Creative Art Building. The building sits just a few meters away from the ring road. The building takes the curvature of the road with a pedestrian footpath in between.

The buildings that line John William Street and Byram Street in Area Two have a close proximity to the pavement edge. Most of the corners of the buildings in this area are curved and mirror the curves of the pavements.

Throughout the University, the buildings have been planned with spaces between them. Some of these spaces are utilized as car parks whils some service as public spaces and circulation spaces.

The Tesco supermarket is situated on a large plot with almost half of the plot use for car park.

Moving down South in Area four, there is a Canal and the River Colne. The change in topography becomes very apparent in this part of the site, creating a tight grain of building positioning. Due to this tight grain, there are less open public spaces. Across Firth Street there are residential and commercial buildings. The buildings in this area have a close building-tostreet relationship with their immediate pavements edges, which results in a cohesive street frontage.

| 124

St. Peter’s churchyard takes up a large plot with open public space and a close relationship to the pavement. The buildings that surround the churchyard have a tight grid with close proximity to the pavement edge. To the East, the buildings are planned to have a courtyard in the middle, which are mainly use as car parks. Most of the buildings in the study area are set back from the road providing a close proximity to their pavement edges.


KEY Building Outline Road and Pavement Edge and Path Outline

| 125


UNIVERSITY CAMPUS STUDY


| 128


INTRODUCTION

University of Huddersfield Campus Study

After studying the general area defined by the UDP Analysis for contextual purposes. The following is an urban contextual analysis of The University of Huddersfield Campus area in preparation for a master-planning scheme. The study provides an integral analysis of the hysical and ergonomic factors specific to the campus.

The land currently owned by the Univeristy is highlighted in orange opposite and has helped to define the boundaries in which this campus study has been undertaken. The study has been presented in the same manner as the general area study.

| 129


HISTORY

Huddersfield’s History of Higher Education 1825AD - 2014AD

The genesis of higher education within Huddersfield starts with the establishment of the ‘Huddersfield Scientific and Mechanic Institute’ in 1825AD O’Connel (1992). When a select committee which was headed and invested by Sir John Ramsden fourth Baronet whose family owned the majority of Huddersfield at the time. The aim of the school was to supply the local populace with a cheap rate of education before the introduction of mandatory education in the United Kingdom by 1888AD (for the under 10s’) Mills (2014). The institute moved into it’s new premises in Northumberland Street in 1861AD, not without the buildings design criticism from the public writing to local papers saying: “not only plain but positively ugly”, O’Connel (1992) writes. Although the building is no longer used for education purposes in the present, it is now a listed building and protected. The Institute developed as a successful private school for the local area earning City and Guilds of London Institute Technology subjects before the school moved out of their building in 1883AD and moved into their new facilities in the Queen Street South Building (aka Ramsden Building), according to O’Connel (1992). The new buildings facade shows four lions with shields that bare the arms of the Clothworkers’ Company (who gave annual scholarships to the institute), the Borough of Huddersfield, Sir John William Ramsden 2nd Baronet, Sir Thomas Brooke, Bart (who was President of the Institute 1879-86). The Institute was enveloped by the governing body by the national educational trust in 1880 turning the institute into a Technical College later in 1896AD. The college later was a leading Cloth dying research institute leading up to the start of the First World War in 1914 when most of British dyes were imported from Germany, which then stopped because of the war. The ministry of war required a local alternative for dyes in cloths for the war effort. In 1916AD the Coal Tar Colour Chemistry Department was established in the Huddersfield Technical College where dye alternatives were developed, O’Connel (1992) describes. Research then carried to the development of further Scientific research which lead to the requirement for the Science Building which was constructed in 1937AD which was also used to develop dyes in the Second World War until 1945 when a large percentage of the students volunteered and lost their lives.

| 130

Post-war college thrived with the upturn of more middle-class students in the local area turning to further education and courses that the college were offering. The college changed its official title in 1958AD from ‘Huddersfield Technical College’ to ‘ Huddersfield College of Technology which laid the foundations in the British further education system when the popularity of turning Technical colleges into Polytechnics, Huddersfield Polytechnic was established in 1970AD when the college could now provide students with Bachelor degrees. The Polytechnic upto 1992 was a well established further education institution, and once the British government gave further education establishments such as Polytechnics the opportunity under the Further and Higher Education Act to award their own degrees, which changed ‘Huddersfield Polytechnic’ to the ‘University of Huddersfield’ in 1992AD National Archives (1992). Once the University was established, it had enjoyed a number of successes that has cemented its role as one of the best universities’ in 2012AD according to the ‘Times Higher Education’ rankings and mentioned on the University of Huddersfield website (2014). The University also holds a unique feature by having one of Britain’s most well known actors: Sir Patrick Stewart as the university’s chancellor in 2003AD providing the university national exposure. The University has recently opened the new Student Central Building with new social facilities which will hopefully provide further enrollment opportunities for the university in 2014AD. REFERENCES - Hilary Haigh, E.A., Rumsby, J.H., Law, E.J., Addy, J., Hargreaves, J.A., Schofield, R.B., O’Connell, J. (1992). Huddersfield a most handsome town (1st ed.). Huddersfield: Kirklees Cultural Services. - Mills, L.R. (2014). GENUKI. Retrieved from http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/ eng/LIN/schools.html. - National Archives (1992). Further and Higher Education Act 1992. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1992/13. - University of Huddersfield (2014). Entrepreneurial University of the Year. Retrieved from http://www.hud.ac.uk/about/the-university/our-awards/ the-entrepreneurial-award/.


| 131


LISTED BUILDINGS

Listed Buildings on University Campus

There are eleven listed buildings within the university campus, all of which are Grade II listed except the Canal warehouse at Aspley Basin which is Grade II* listed. Most of these buildings were first listed in the 70s, St Paul’s Hall is the oldest of them and was first listed in 1952 while the Bath House and the mills (Firth and Larchfield) are the most recently listed in 2009 and 1991 respectively. These building are mainly cladded with stone and most of them have hipped roofs. STRENGTH These listed buildings add to the value, character and uniqueness of the vicinity of the university. They also add to the publicity of the university in terms of tourism. WEAKNESS Permission is required from the local authority before any changes can be made to them to suit the requirements (refurbishing) of the university. OPPORTUNITY Refurbishment or transformation of the listed buildings should consider the university’s character and requirements.

| 132

THREATS Listed buildings could however make the university vicinity dated in its architectural essence due to its old building style and new development would tend to complement the old ones. If permission is not granted to make changes on a listed building these would bring about setbacks in making any sort of change to the building. REFERENCES - http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/Gateway/Results.aspx


| 133


Materiality

Materials around Campus

| 134


| 135


Vegetation

Vegetation around Campus

One of the basic goals of the university and cooperation of Kirklees and other organizations concerned with the environment, is to keep the wildlife which reside on the university campus, and that by : -maintaining nest boxes for Birds, bats bumble bees, by asking for specialist advice from RSPB and other arganisation. -Recycling the cut or fallen trees for the good of the animals. -Tree planting programme by replacing existing trees with mature trees. -Planting of only local native species, and attracting the wildlife as butterflies by planting natural wildflowers. After studying the green spaces on campus, been noted that the wildlife, trees and natural grass located and focused around the canal and the river, which created a shadow and cool area, but also there are few green areas on the campus such as the churchyard. Also all for this attention by the University for the Wildlife and vegetation leads to change the way of the new construction on the campus, where it was noted that the new buildings environmentally friendly.

| 136

REFERENCES http://www.hud.ac.uk/estates/propertyservices/carbonenergyandenvironment/biodiversity/


| 137


Access & Circulation

University Building Entrances & Exits

The main roads that lead to the campus are the ring road from the north side, Firth Street from the south and Queen Street from the west. Firth Street is use by other vehicles to connect to Wakefield Road, which leads to the ring road. Within the University, there are few vehicle routes. These lead into car parks or leads out from the campus and on to the ring road. Vehicle movements within the University are very low as there are lower speed limits and speed bumps around the university. There is only one access restriction In most areas, there are clear separations of vehicle and pedestrian routes whiles some routes are used by both vehicle and pedestrian. There is less vehicle flow on campus. Most vehicles come through the university from the ring road on the north side. This area had the busiest vehicle flow on the campus.

| 138

The University charges for the parking spaces on the campus, the parking spaces on the campus are mostly booked out in advance. However, states that, the university has a limited number of car parking spaces in the town centre. This study highlights the inefficient parking facilities on the campus. In order to provide parking to the proportion of students, visitors and lectures, the university will have to build a multistory car park. The master planning of the campus will look at introducing more environmental friendly ways of travelling into the University by providing more secured bicycle shelters, improve pedestrian routes and connect the University to the town centre.


Accessibility Entrance Entrance Exit / Fire Exit

| 139


Access & Circulation

Pedestrian Circulation around Campus

In and around the University, there are desired pedestrian routes depending on one’s destination. The pedestrian movements on campus consist of busy routes during peak times, which are mostly groups of students making their way to lectures or homeward. The primary intended entrance to the University campus is on the North side, this makes the area busiest with pedestrian movements. A lot of students use this area as connections from the traffic lights on Queensgate, the footpath near St Paul’s Hall and from the East side where there is a bus stop to various destinations on campus. There is high pedestrian movement in this area all day till very late in the evening.

The pedestrian movement pattern changes from condensed to spread out; as one move down to the South of the campus. Lacking is a node point where people can sit and enjoy views or socialize. The only such place available is the walkway opposite the Business School. This space has the potential to be a social node but at present, it seems to be hidden away from the campus and overshadowed by buildings and trees. For future development of the campus, attention can be drawn on to this space to make it desirable for pedestrians to enjoy the Canal.

The area adjacent to the Creative Art Building and the Central Services Building has become one of the node points on campus. Pedestrian movement is very high in this area; the majority of on-campus students at some point mostly use the space because of the facilities within the buildings.

The desired pedestrian footpath to the South of the campus leads one further to the outside the University campus. Pedestrian traffic along here is minimal and limited primarily to people who are part of the School of Art, Design and Architecture. Future development should look at addressing this issue by linking the South side of the University to the North side.

The figure map highlights the pedestrian movement on campus. The darker orange indicates the busiest route whilst the lighter the colour the less pedestrian traffic.

The School of Art, Design and Architecture is relatively small, therefore, there is hardly a peak traffic period on Queen Street, which is the most desired route to the South side of the campus.

There are some routes in the campus that are used by both pedestrians and vehicles, for example, the University Road.

Thus the North part of the University seems to have high pedestrian movements because of the focus around that area. The pedestrian study has also highlighted the lack of equal route planning around the campus and the lack of outside social nodes.

The bridge connecting the Business School and the Central Services Building becomes relatively busy, as it is the quickest and most desirable

| 140

route which connects the front and top side of the campus, to the bottom and to the student housing.


High Pedestrian Intensity

Low Pedestrian Intensity

| 141


INFOGRAPHICS

Data Collected & Presented

Current Undergraduate/Postgraduate Numbers

| 142


Gender split and total number of students since 2011

| 143


Human & Health Sciences Art Design & Architecture Education & Professional Development Central Services Building Business Computing & Engineering Music, Humanities & Media

| 144


Staff Number

Number of Staff in each Building across Campus

The following diagram gives a graphical representation of the allocation of departments and their staff across the campus. The height of the ground plan of the buildings is determined by the number of staff working inside them.

The graph shows that the only department that is self-contained within a single building is the Business Department. Also as can be seen by the graph, the other departments are far too spread out across multiple buildings.

The diagram is split into separate colours to differentiate the different departments. Note the different departments working within the same buildings. While collecting data on student numbers and allocation would be beyond the scope of this study and would be difficult to acquire, the staff numbers give a good indication of student allocation.

While this may make sense from a ‘Building Use’ and ‘land allocation’ perspective, the masterplan should consider spatially re-organising the departments to be in clusters or to be at least in the vicinity of one another.

The Central Services Building becomes an amalgamation of many and all departments thus a single colour; it primarily houses the administration staff of the various schools.

| 145


Huddersfield Urban Analysis  
Huddersfield Urban Analysis  
Advertisement