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First published in Great Britain 2010 A&C Black Publishers 36 Soho Square LondonWlD 3QY w' ISBN: 978-1408-12991-3 Copyright @ Dessainet Tolra/Larousse2009 A CIP cataloguerecord for this book is availablefrom the British Library. Gilles Ronin has assertedhis rights under the Copyright, Design and PatentsAct, 1988,to be ldentlfiod $ thc author of this work. All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproducedin any form or by any mctru - gfsphls, electronic or mechanical,including photocopying, recording,taping or information storsgcInd râ‚Źtrlcvd ryltcmi without the prior permissionin writing from the publishers. Publisher:Collette Hanicotre Editor: Corinne de Montalembert Pagedesign:Florence Le Maux Cover design:James'W'atson Proofreader:Madeleine Biaujeaud, Photography:Olivier Ploton English text layout: Penny Mills Translator:Alexa Stace Editorial assistant: Ellen Parnavelas This book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in managcd,sustainableforests,It is natural, renewableand recyclable.Thelogging and manufacturing processesconfornx to the environnental regulationsof the country of origin. Printed and bound in China

contents Introduction Representing An Interior Developing your project


The progression Variations and transformations

Materials The Line Graphics, tonal values and colours Figures Proportions Constructing a drawing


the Plan

Scales Conventions and Syrnbols Doors Windows Convenrions regardinglines A base line, or contour A thin Line A thin dotted line The logic behind the symbois Furniture and equipment Changing Around the Furniture Elevation and Section I\earranging an area of wall I)esign in modules Making aLayottt Organisation of the layout A team effort A sketch of the ground plan Thc dimensions

4 5 5 5 5 6 8 10 10 1I 1.2 13 1.4 16 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 20 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 24

Walls and partitions Format and scale Floor plan Layout ofa Flat

24 25 25 26


2ft 30 3l

Isornetric Ptojection An effect of reduction Objects DrawingThree-ditnensional arrd Furniture Designing an o{lice space A foldaway oflice on a shelf Grouping office furmture Playing about with space Drawing a kitchen Swapping around kitchen and bathroorn Visualising a kitchen corner Creating an open partition Transforrning a flat Creating a dressing room and a bathroom Seeing things in perspective The vanishing point The horizon Moving the vanishing point on the horizort The height of the horizon The height of the horizon in the drawing The height of the horizon, people ancl scalc The view frorn the front The principles of a frongal view The problem of depth To draw the depth Mastering the depth To rnove a partition

wall Creating an extension to block off a corner

32 34 34 35 3(r 37 .]tt 4() 42 44 46 4fl 4tt 50 5l 52 52 53 54 55 55 5(r 57 5ri 60

Planning the space Converting a space undet the eaves | ) c s i g n i r r gr r p l r t f i r r r u f o r r r l r c d | ) c s i g r r i n lr;r s r r l l l f l i g l r t o f s t c p s | ) e s i g n i r r;gr s k y l i g l r t A Fcw Sirrrplc (lonstrrtction Tricks I l o w t o c s t r r t r l i sc lt rl t r r rt l c p t l t s 'lir t l i v i t l cr r w r r l l I l o w t o r l c r r lw i t l r i t t t i t ' t ' c 1 . 1 t t l l t r - s l r sl ppcl cdc I l o w t l o y t t t t r l t ' ; t wl r ' i r tl c ? l \ ' r ' s l t cl it v c o t ' p t r r i l '11i 1 1v1i1, ' * 2 'Ihking l)owu n l)trtition ril/all ( l r r ' : ti lrr g , r trt t ' z z ; trittt c o t ' o v t ' t ' l r : t t t 1 . 1 'I'lrc ()blirlut, Viow l)r.sigrrirrg n r()(rn by Eye S t ' l t i n gI l r c l r o t t n r l r t t ' i t ' s l t l r ritr r gt l r t 'l t o t ' i z o t t l ) l : t itt r gl l t c l t o ti z o t ti r r t l r c t l r l w i r r g l ) l ; rirr r gt l r t ': r r r g l crsr r r ttll t c l i r r co l ' t l r ct c i l i r r g oirrt l ) l r ritn g ,t l t r ' v ; r t t i s l t i tpr g f l ' t l r r 'v ; r r r i s l r i upgo i t t t i s t t o l o t t t l r c p l p c r I)illcrcrrt ()blit;rro Vic,ws 'f t rrll i r k i r r go r r t ; r p r r t l i l i o rw A Vitrw firxrr Abovc . . .

62 64 64 65 65 66 66 66 66 67 67 68 6L)

70 72 /z

72 73 73 74

...And o High-AnglcVicw l)rnwirrg orr thc Ctxrrputer S k t ' t tl r l J p lixlrlolltiorr |ilst Stcps M r r k i r r gu r r r o t l c lf i r r y o r r r p r o j c c t s

75 76 77 78 79 80 u0 8i) 80 8i

Grids for Isometric Projections Grids for FrontalViews Grids for Oblique Views

82 84 86

Infroductior-r Sittingquietl.y at home,sketchbook in hand,is theideatwayto tackte d r a w i n gI.n f a c t ,y o u rh o m ei s a n absotute mineof subjects to draw,perhaps youalready havea ptanin yourheadfora makeover or ionversion? House spacenot only containsobjectsto be drawn, but offers a setting,enablingyou to understandperspectiveand to explore the different waysof depicting space.Once you have graspedthe principles,drawing will become a game,even a pleasure. If you want to study a litde carpentry prqect, take down a partition wall, or simply dream about what you could do later,you will find here how to draw a layout, enablingyou to make several plansfor your space.Itt alsoa good exercisein drawing. You will alsofind here the practicalprinciples which will help you put your plans down on paperand better expressyour ideas,for no serious project getsmade without a progressiveplan. It is alsoan opportunity to learn some tricks of the trade and conventionswhich are part of an architecttknow-how and which willhelp with ideas. The relationshipbetween a drawing and a project is at the heart of this book, and is reciprocal.If the capaclryto representa spaceis the prerequisitefor convertingit, and is a techniqueto be acquired, the different variationsalsooffer many absorbing exercisesfor those learning to draw.

n -6r I jI nI IttoUr Ij I U I. \ T a n 2 n C R CD c rUr r- l1 yr ,rrt li n l vr r o r \ uCI Jnrf u DIJO_Urt Y o ud o n ' tn e e dt o m a k ea d r a w t ntgo t a k eo u ta p a r t i t i own a L tB. u ti f t h es i t u a t i oins m o r ec o m p t i c a t eydo,uc a n n otth i n k i t t h r o u gw h i t h o ust o m es u p p o r tB. y p u t t i n yg o u ri d e a sd o w no n p a p e tr h e yc a nt h e nd e v e t oapn de n t a r g en,o tj u s ta s disconnecte t hdo u g h t a s n di d e a sb, u tc o h e r e n t lA. yf .r e e h a n d r a w i n gi n p e n c i t g i v eyso ut h e L i b e r ttyo b e c r e a t i v e . your project Developing

V a r i a t i o nasn dt r a n s f o r m a t i o n s

It is by means of several kinds of representation, drawings and plans, that we learn how to develop a project. In this book, some of these representations rurebased on real spaces- houses and flats - and we will give you finished examples of real conversions, like the numerous books on home decoration or irrterior design which you will find in the public library. But becauseyou live in your own space,the cxamples you find are never just right. This book therefore aims to show above all a real method of clrawing, with a progressive acquisition of the skills which wiii enable you to carry out operations logrcllly, and to put your own ideas down on paper.

From the first you will be confronted witlt tlrc practice of conversion. Getting into thc hrrbit of' varying elements from the start, on the grrplrics side as well as from a model, is way of bcttcr' understanding the rules of design, at the sanrc tirrre as inventing modifications, of finding and projct ting ideas. Let's take an example.You can draw a particrrlur' space or room like a camera, strictly copying wlrlt is in front ofyou, but you would not be makirrs usc of the rules which permit you to show the splcc in question a little differently: a partition less,sorrrc panels here and a transparent space there, tl-rc cciling taken down to increasethe loft space,anci why not a flight ofstairs to facilitate access,etc.

The progression First of all there are the principal drawings, like the ground plan and the section, the technique ofscale drawing, which allows you to measure the spaces to be converted, and then finally the different kinds of perspective which enable you to understand space,whiie studying its modifications.

Some of the elementary principles of persl.rct'tive and some professional tricks will teach you t<r think intelligently about your drawing, as thorrqlr it were a little mechanism where you can nrovc tlrc parts about. From the first pages on line, its valucs urrtl colours, we get into the habit of grafting on v:rri:rtions and new creations. Themes such asa small conversion (ofa bcdrrlr>rrr, sitting-room or kitchen) will be introcluccd progressively,but also more general,architccturll iclcls, such asdepth, thickness,geometry and tlansp:rrcrrty.

PR-FP AP-AT]oN FOR- DP-AWIN( e a s i cf r e e h a n d r a w i n gt e c h n i q u eTs h . e s ea r e L e a r na n dp r a c t i s b yo an i ndg , uw i [ [n e e ds o m e i n d i s p e n s a bf ot er a L rI e p r e s e n t a t i o n a I d r a w s r t h ef o t L o w i ncgh a p t e r s . understandin og f t h e s es k i l . Lf o









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Graphics, tonaIvaluesand cotours

A line is not just a thirrg irr itsclt, lr r.cprcscnrs something - it is a synrbol ()f il (.()nt()r.rf, rrrr ;rxis, a horizon, the motifs orr thc floor or. thc scttirrg of the door-frame. A lirrc hrrsu firrrrr, nrost oficrr

You have to show surfaces, shadows, differences of tone in your drawing. But the pencil is not made for showing a suface.'W'ork out a range of values, in small 2-3cm squares, from the lightest to the darkest, in five or six stages,then do gradations. Note how you can avoid it looking too mechanical by combining repetition and variations.

straight,a point of departurc rrrrdirrrivul,it posirion in spaceand on the pagc, rrrrorictrt;rtiorr.lrr prrrctical terms a line is the routc bctwecrr two poirrts, and it is the points that rrrc criricrrl rrrrtl nrtrst lrc well placed.

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Figures The construction of certain shapes, notably the square,and then the circle, is a pernanent exercise in drawing.The shapesenable us to see the value of the vertical and horizontal, basis of all proportion and orientation of line, in brief the nreasure of the whole drawing.The constructions arc lirnbering-up exercises,to practise regularly,likc goitrg to the gym!

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P r o p o r t i o nasr e r e [ a t i v m e e a s u r e m e n tW s .ea r e n o td i s c u s s i nage s t h e t i c s h e r e ,i t i s s i m p t ya q u e s t i o o n f t h e L e n g tohf c o n n e c t i obne t w e e tnh ev a r i o u s e t e m e n tas n dt h e d i s t a n c b e e t w e e tnh ev a r i o u sp o i n t si n t h e d r a w i n g . N o t et h a t ,i f y o ug e tt h e s ec o n n e c t i o nasb s o L u t erLi gyh ta t a [ [p o i n t sy, o u r d r a w i n gw i L b l "e p e r f e c t tayc c u r a t eT.h i si s a v i t a t s k i L L m t oa s t e r .

When drawing, get into the habit of observing proportions, and watch out for the errors which will inevitably arise.To look at the proportions of arcctangle,the simplest way is to compare it mentally with one or several squares.

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C o n s t r u c t i nagd r a w i n g liol your first try, choose a wall panel, with a door, rvirrdow, picture frames, pieces of furniture etc. | )r';rw it all on the flat, as though there were no l)crspcctive (there probably is) respecting not just t lrc proportions of each element, but showing how tlrcy a1ign, the diagonal, horizontal and vertical lirrcswhich connect all these objects This operatiorr is what we call constructing the drawing.

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Tlrc scale is the connection in size between the cl-awing and reality. Scale allows us to measure clistanceson a plan or a map. Note that there is no sca-leon a sketch or in a perspective drawing, since the objects, varying rn size according to the distance,are not measurable.

M a k i n ga g r a p h i cs c a t e

Eachobjectis drawnto sca[e by a fraction,suchasI/l0,called Scrrlcis expressed n tenth.For the interior of a houseor flat the scaie of 1/50 is currentlyused.Thiscan alsobe expressed its 2cm to the metre, or 2cnt p.m. (There are 50 tinres2cm in a metre.)

At this scale a room measuring 4 x 6nr bccourcs, on paper, a rectangle of 8 x 12cm.You crur show

If you don't likc doing mental calculations, draw a littlc scllc on thc plan.In this way you can measure, rooms, staircases,kitchen equipnrent ctc. in tlrc arrclcvcrr just tlkc irr at a glance, the dimensions of 'l:rrgcr' space,but to give details you need a scrrlc, tlrc sprtccsrrrrclolrjccts represented. such as 1,/20 or 1,/1,0.



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eorrverrtlorrs arrdsvrnbols Convention a sr ea n i n t e r e s t i nags p e cot f p t a nd r a w i n g sA.s i t i s n o tp o s s i b tteo g i v et h e d e t a i t so f s o m ee t e m e n tw s h i c ha r ee i t h e rt o os m a I t o, r o t h e r w i steo o r e p e t i t i v seu, c ha s d o o r sw , i n d o w se t c ,w e u s es y m b o l s .

Doors Doors are shown open, rheir width to sca-le,indicating if they open inwards or outwards.You don't draw a line for the threshold. Avoid showing the door with a diagonal line - on the contrary take

A thin line This shows details which are not structural - strips of parquet, motifi on a wall, elements in low relief ctc. Thin dotted line This shows the outline of large elements which are lbove the plan, such as a large beam, or the bounclaries of a nezzanine or overhang.

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the chance to practise drawing a quarter-circlel The symbol is simple, showing just the frame and the top of the door (thickness may or may not be shown to scale). Only the passagethrough is really shown to scale.

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C o n v e n t i o nr se g a r d i n g[ i n e s Unlike a sketch, in a scale drawing the thickness of the lines must be consistent and regular, because they signi$z something. When drawing in ink, or with instruments, the thickness is strictly controlled, but when using pencil you are in control. It's a good exercise!

A b a s e[ i n e ,o r c o n t o u r It shows an edge in the space, an outline, for example the top of a piece of furniture or the banister of a staircase.In fact you don't make many lines of this kind on a plan drawing.


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The section line and the walls Whcn you make a floor plan, in principle you show cvcrything under a certain height. By convention, this is fixed at 1 metre from the ground. Everything lubove this height is left out of the plan. But there ilrc certain elements which come up from the ground and go higher than this fixed height, e.g. thc outside walls and partition walls. On a floor plan these are shown cut off, as if a horizontal bhde had separated them from the upper part.

S h o w i n gf u r n i t u r ea n de q u i p m e n t In general, pieces of furniture ilrc nol shttwtt ott a ground plan, since they are not pL\nllrlllct)t.llut if their presence is useful on your luyout, yott r'rttt choose to show them exactly,or to tlsc syttt|.rtlls,lts shown below. Fixed sanitary ware is always slrowrr (tltcsc rtt't' not furniture). Kitchen furniturc is vurillrlt', rtrrtl you can decide for yourself.

The passageof this blade defines the section. To differentiate the section it is drawn with a very hearry line. The stairs You also show what is under the stairs, as for cxample a small storage space. The banister, or guard rail, is shown by two lines. To indicate the direction of the stairs draw an arrow, always indicating upstairs.



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T h eL o g i cb e h i n dt h e s y m b o l s Note that there is always a logic in these conventions: a single line indicates an outline, two iines two outlines, which here makes the top of the banister,or handrail.'When the section line arrives at the windows, it is replaced by two thin little lines, closed-up, which indicate the thickness of

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Changir-rgt arounrd the furrriture \J

G e tu s e dt o w o r k i n go n a f l o o rp [ a n , L a y i nogu tt h e d i f f e r e natr r a n g e m e n t s o f f r r r n i t r rvr e o r cr o u [ dh a v ei n t h e s a m er o o m . D r a wa p t a no f t h e r o o m y o ua r ei n n o w t, h e nc h a n g e the furniture a r o u n dT. h i se x e r c i sw eiIl g e ty o ua c c u s t o m et od u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h ed i m e n s i o nosf v a r i o u es [ e m e n t s , b e i n ga w a r eo f t h e i rp r o p o r t i o nasn d thinkina g b o u t h ee m p t ys p a c e s w h i c he n a b l ep e o p l e t o m o v ea b o u ta room.

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A n e t e v a t i oi n s a s t r a i g h t - ovni e wo f a w a [ [ .l f y o us t a n db a c k ,L o o k i nagt t h e w a Lh I o r i z o n t a [ y[ yo,uh a v ea f u I t - f a cvei e wo f t h ew a I t ,k n o w na s a n e l e v a t r o n . T h ep r i n c i p Li set h es a m ea s f o r t h ef l o o rp l , a nT.h es i d ew a L t as r et h u s s e c t i o n evde r t i c a [ [ay s, t h e y w e r eh o r i z o n t a toLnyt h ef L o o pr L a nT. h i se L e v a t i o n c a nb e c a t [ e da s e c t i o n aeL[ e v a t i o n . The drawing is of what is facing you, the items against the wall: doors and windows, but also shelves and tables, making an ensemble, like a small fagade in your room. Side passages, doors and win_ dows are always cut ofl, but avoid cutting a single isolated item, such as a column. All this is imoor_ tant: the line of section must indicate the volume in general and the openings, even if they are not exact\ opposite.

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R e a r r a n g i nagn a r e ao f w a t l l\cthinking the layout of a flat doesn't alwaysmean rrroving interior walls. Rearranging a wall panel, changing the decoration and objects displayed is in itself an important modification.You can plan this on paper, especially if you are thinking of buying new elements such asshelves,storageboxes, scts of drawers etc.

D e s i g ni n m o d u l e s Thke measurements of the various elements to be included, and imagine the various different ways they could be put together. They will be much nrore interesting if you have worked them out in a clrawing: they then become reai little compositions, combining practicality with aesthetics.





lVaku-rg alayout T h el a y o uct o n s i s tos f p r o d u c i nagg r o u n dp t a na n de t e v a t i o nosf a b u i t d i n go,r , ftertaking o n eo f i t s p a r t s a m e a s u r e m e not sn t h es p o t ,T h e r ea r et h u st w o p h a s e st a : k i n gm e a s u r e m e nat ns dc o p y i ntgh e mo u to n t h ed o c u m e n t s . 0rganisationof the layout


start with preliminary drawings on which we mark the measurements taken.These drawings are an intermediate stage berween the sketch and the ground plan: they are done by hand, on the spot, but with most of the codes in place. Now that you are (more or less) fully informed on all the ways of showing what you can see, you must get ready to take the measurements.

W a l t sa n d p a r t i t i o n s


marking down tlrc lrcirsurr.rrrcnts of crc:lr room, there is a tcndency trl frllgct the thickncss of the wallsor panels.Trkcnlcil$rlrcllcnttwicc,to guardagainstmistakcs.Mcasurcirgninsttlrc rcll flnt suface,not the thick rrrouldinl{s oll tltc cloorsor wall oanels.

The amount of detail required depends on your final intention. For a flat, dont include panel n.rouldings. But if you are planning to reorganise a library or similar, you probably should include them.



A team effort 3b

Ideally there should be three people involved: one to draw and take notes, and two to hold the tape when large areas are involved. At home, you can get your family involved in this operation. Bur if you are on your own you'll just have to manage.


J1,,. $o

A sketchof the groundptan This is the moment to apply the principles of drawing laid out on page 10. Start by making a freehand plan in a hardback notebook, preferably room by room. Leave space around the drawing for

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l. 16

writing down the measurements. At this stage the exact scale of the drawing doesnt matter because you are going to mark it in.Try to keep the drawing in proportion, so that it is easierto read.

T h ed i m e n s i o n s These are indicated on a parallel line in the same direction, with small lines to indicate where the measurement runs, and little bias marks to indicate that it's a measurement. not oart of the drawinE. Be methodical!


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-il; the Tldyinguptheftoorplan/drawing thing whol,e Yrlu can now go on to a drawing of the whoie tlring. Think of the floor plan as a good sketch which you want to improve or tidy up. Of course you can work in two stages:a first sketch as a foundation, and then superimpose a final drawing.

. .=-





F i

i I

F o r m a ta n ds c a l e Now itt time to choose a scale. Let's think of an example. If you are doing a layout of a flat of 100m', more or lesssquare,it will be around 10m x I 0m. At a scaleof 1/50 (or Zcm per m.) it will be a square20cm x 20cm,which could go in anA4 format. But it will be too cramped, asyou must always Ieave some space around the drawing. Thus an A.3 format (29.7crn x 42cm) or even larger (50cm x 65cm) would be more appropriate. Of course,you can cram in a little more in a sketchbook.

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C o n s t r u c t i ntgh e f l o o r p l a n You must first of all make an outline, that's to say trace out the lines which will not be visible at the final stage of the work, but which will help to ensure that the visible lines are well positioned. , e $

Studythe layout Before drawing the floor plan, make little sketches of it, diagrams in which you can analyse the general dimensions.Without really making a final plan, it's a way of understanding its logic.


Lalroutof a flat I n t h i se x a m p [w e e g o o n t o t h e l a y o uot f a w h o l ef l a t ,T h ed r a w i n g s o n th e s et w o p ag e ssh o wth e d i ffe re nstages, t andthe pr ogr essive f i n e - t u n i nogf t h e d r a w i n ga s w e s k e t c ha n dv e r i f yt h e d e t a i t s .

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PELfPECT(VE y o uh a v ea g o o dv i e wo f t h e l o c a t i o an n dc a nt a k e I n a s c a t ed r a w i n g m e a s u r e m e nat s a c c u r a t eat ys y o uc o u t di n t h ea c t u a t s p a cM e .o r e o v et hr ,i s i s t h ed r a w i n m g o s tu s e di n b u i L d i nwgo r k . I n o r d e rt o d o t h i s ,y o un e e dt o t r a i ny o u r s e [t fo [ o o ka t s p a c ed i f f e r e n t L y f r o mt h ew a y y o un o r m a L lpye r c e i viet .T h u sw e a r e n o wg o i n gt o c o n s i d e r m o r e ' v i s u a [ ' m e t h oodf rse p r e s e n t a t i-otnh e d i f f e r e nkti n d so f p e r s p e c t i


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lsornetricprolectlor-r Th i sf o r m o f p e rsp e cti ve i s ve rye a sy t o a p p l . yM. o r e o veirt e n a b L eyo s u e v e n t u a [ttoy t a k em e a s u r e m e n t s , a s w i t ha f l o o rp | ' a nI.n e f f e c tt,h e p a r a L l el i Ln e sd o n o tc o n v e r g e t o w a r d st h ev a n i s h i npgo i n t t; h e y t . e v e r avIa r i a t i o n s s t a yp a r a l l e S e x i s ta, c c o r d i ntgo t h ea n g l eo f s i g h t c n o s e nn: e a r e tro t h e l a y o u to, r n e a r e tro t h e e l e v a t i o n .

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An effectof reduction The prqection view does not distort length. It produces a paradoxical optical illusion: thinking we lre seeing in perspective, we find that the vertical lines, that's to say the walls, are higher than in reality because,if the perspective was true, they would cflectively be dwarGd by the effect of distance.

To mitigate this impression we can corrcct it ,r Little by reducing the height, but then yor-rlosc tlrc chance of taking measurements.Note thlt rrrcustrrements are only taken while the vertical lincs strry parallel, and parallel to the sides of the flt>or plrrrr.

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Drawlrrgthroe-dlmrensiorral obtects

arrdfurruture T ou n d e r s t a ntdh i st e c h n i q uoef t h e p r o j e c t i ovni e w ,s t a r tw i t hs i m p L o e b j e c t ss,u c ha s c u b e sb, e f o r ed r a w i n gs p a c e s . Practisb e yd r a w i n gp i e c e so f f u r n i t u r e o r d o m e s t i ac p p L i a n c -e st h i si s a g o o de x e r c i swe h i c hw i L fLa m i l . i a r i ys oe uw i t h t h e i rs h a p e sa n dd i m e n s i o n T s .h e s ep r o g r e s s i vs e k e t c h ew s i Ua. t s or e m i n dy o uo f t h e i n i t i apLr i n c i p t eosf d r a w i n gI:i n e s o f c o n s t r u c t i oann dp r o p o r t i o n s . Ywwl) wt"u,lotb'ry atrhz d*a*,atwkol,yvtnrrhu vr,ew u ^vf^l twd,rawwg a l^allntjut rhts tsd*tattthzfqotrhat, u1*, L,rn* o"rseLvu tt a rzdnucLya,r tf d,a vt'smLfidd' ah4'ahvawry frrn rlz varul'"g /loirt, du vizwisyraotw"U ,l" Jarne45yznyotwz ,r,rl, varu,tlutgyraw (su drawtrg,yefl.

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Destonan offlcesoace \J

T a k i n ga d v a n t a goef t h e b e n e f i tos f t h e p r o j e c t i ovni e w ,i , e .k e e p i n tgh e d i m e n s i o nm s ,a k es o m ed e t a i l esdt u d i e os f a n o b j e cot r a s m a [ [p i e c eo f f u r n i t u r eM . o r ev i s u atLh a ng r o u n dp l a n st,h e s es t u d i e s " a t t o yo wut o s h o w t h i c k n e so s ,b j e c tssu p e r i m p o s o en d eu p o na n o t h ear n ds p a c e sT.h a n k tso t h e f l e x i b i l . iot fyd r a w i n gi n p e n c i [w, e c a ni n t r o d u csee e - t h r o u gvhi e w sa, v o i d i n g m u L t i p |v. iee w so f t h e s a m et h i n q .

A fotdawayofficeon a shetf If you only have a small space, and not much money, you can make yourself a foldaway office, even a mobile one if you fit castors on it.



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#;5_ li"*-

Groupino g f f i c ef u r n i t u r e


lrrojcction view enablesyou to move furniture ,rtorrrrrlls you pleaseTry out some arrangements Itr lintl the one that suits you best, before buying tlrc vlu'ious elements of your office corner.

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Fiaytngaboutwtth space F i n a L lw , ye, c a nc o n s i d ear s p a c ea s a n a s s o c i a t i oonf w a t [ sa n do b j e c t sU. s i n g a g r i dt r a c e do u t b e f o r ea n dp t a c e d u n d e rt h e p a g eI i ft h e p a p e ri s t h i ne n o u g h ) a t l o w sy o ut o pta ya b o u tw i th sp a ce sa s youplease.Onceyouhavemaster eo t h e p r i n c i p | . oe fsp r o j e c t i oyno uh a v ea t y o u rd i s p o s i t i oanh i g h t yu s e f u I i n s t r u m e net ,q u i v a t e tnot a s m a [ [ - s c a m [ eo d e Lb,u te a s i e tro m o d i f y . \.

Drawinga kitchen Here is an exercisein using prqection.The prelinrinary drawing of the corner of the room and a framework of 60cm squaresautomatically enables you to place units to the correct size.This visual-riation of the units, even if simplified, enablesyou to group them better.

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kitche Swapplngrour-rd bathrroomr t o t h eh o m e I. n s o m eo t d t a k e sa s i g n i f i c a cn ht a n g e T h i sp r o j e cm i s o f t e nf a rf r o mt h ed i n i n ga r e aa n dt h e f l a t so r h o u s e tsh e k i t c h e n Wh a tw e w a n tto do is swapthemr ound, i s v e r ysma L t. bathroom a r e aa, n da i t ha d r n i n g c o r n e irn a L i v i n g - r o owm c r e a t i nag k i t c h e n w i t hn a t u r al Li g h tT. h eL i v i nrgo o m sh a v cb e e n m o r es p a c i o ubsa t h r o o m n a t LT. h i s r i do f a d o o ra n dt a k i n gd o w na p a r t i t i ow e n [ a r g ebdyg e t t i n g been n xa g mp tew,h e rea layouthasatr eady is s h o w ni n t h efo L L o w i e don e{ s e ep . 2 6 lr. Hs^toa.nwXSwayrwwL rhzv t*v rwwl

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Vlsrlahsil-rga krtchrerrcorr-rer T h i se x a m p Ltea,k e nf r o mt h e t r a n s f o r m a t i oonn p a g e3 8 ,p u t si n t op r a c t i c e t h es t u d i e m s a d eo n k i t c h e fnu r n i t u r ea,n dt h ed i f f e r e ncto m b i n a t i o on nst h e 6 0 c mm o d u L eT.h ep r o j e c t i ovni e w l, i k eo t h e rr e p r e s e n t a t i o sn hs o , w sh e r e i t sI i m i t a t i o nb s ,e c a u s iet i s i m p o s s i b t e o s h o wa s p a c ea, n dt h ew a I L w s hich d e l i m iitt ,a t t h es a m et i m e .0 n t yt h eg r o u n dp l a n sa n ds e c t i o nisn t h e i rw a y g i v ep r e c i s e s o l u t i o ntso t h i sp r o b L e m .

However, projections have the advantage of raising questions, like that of the partition wall now separating the kitchen from the entry hall, which was before the wall with the bathroom door. (This partition is studied on p.42.) rr'

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T h er e o r g a n i s i nogf t h e s p a c ei n t h i sf L a t[ s e ep . 4 0 ) m e a n st h a tt h e e n do f t h e e n t r yh a l La c t sa t t h e s a m e + ; - ^ ^ - d r l L J P s l l ^P Cr r t i t i o ni n t ot h e k i t c h e n . LllllE dJ This partition has two distinct parts: top and bottom. The bottom must remain closed because it conceals kitchen elements, equipment or storage. On the other hand the top part can stay open or half-open, in any case becoming the object of an obvious change.The partition becomes the frontage of the kitchen, while still being the end of the entry hall.We can treat it with elements which have some of the properties of a faqade, such as


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louvres, venetian blinds and houseplants.

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l)ilot studyof the lower part with open shelves.The uppclrpart rcfcrcnccsthe kitchen,and is presented rs its luq:ldc.()u tlrc lcft is a staudwith a pot of lrcrlrs, unclorr tlrc right is rrsystcnlof louvres.


Thc top pilrt hidcsl light,cvokingthc shtrtters of rr bistt'tl.

sthl,yart ruwW frvvv"tlvfal,n utlwg hv,twtt tlu Lmpw (

oymyarr tt tt rAaruvd,

the entrance, with storage drawers. In thc Lrppcr part, the objective is not to indicate thc kitclrcn beyond.


Transfornrrlrrg a flat I n t h i so t h e re x a m p L iet ,i s a s p a c ew i t ha d o u b t eo r i e n t a t i ownh i c hw i L b l ,e c r e a t e di n s w i t c h i n rqo u n dt h e k i t c h e na n db a t h r o o m . rlv,hob ftnr. r 1,,,e 4,aci,ht u yku/" vrvilz ynrrs fl+at }nt'trtt, r,u,a,hl,7fu waLl,t 4rc fr4hqtrch.t', *l"oh qllnwa/" werall /ttur(, wluohngrcrurl, \ /nwwwh, rct.

Hcrc.,a.vlvna.rtr, vuw rf tlu or^otaL yam, rhz walkarL yarrtrtvru rhz r*ms rc tt o rrzd, arr slqwwa: hartlad,zvis

l lu yau wutLhralu*g rl,z yau e55lnaww wkhn"t yarrtrwnt w.,vi,cwrf rl'z ol,aq7e:,fvr wl'unl"thz grtl, wdl yrue ,u a tare


rTvrvl'r rcrfu"t'wuw brol''tn.

a yknrurg sl,*o|". t wt)Jtt MD(JJ4Utr hab, sevzraltcfnrc dzod,wgrn a stlraw".


Creatir-rg a dresslng-roorrt ar-rda bathroor-rl D i f f e r e nkti n d so f s p a c e sc a nb e d r a w nu p v e r yq u i c k Luys i n gr e a d y - m a dger i d s .U s et r a c i n g p a p e ro, r a n yo t h e rp a p e trh a ti s t r a n s p a r e en nt o u g ht ,o L e t h e m a r k i n gssh o wt h r o u g h . B e l o we, x p l o r i ndgi f f e r e nut s e ss f 6 5 n : r - ot t q i n nn r i d) t p . 8 3 ls, h o w ni n g r e yi n t h ef i r s t d r a w i n tgo s h o wi t i n p o s i t i o n .

EEFOR-E Howoaturh.tssynu tt uwrry vr arzd, tt t r.laryt,

plaozrhzovrnzrrf t'l^ernvtt\.4r rhzyvw,rrf tl^zgnd, *lne,rc t-h.e thretylnrzsr,r,tzrv,or, rhznyku rhzefutusnas

tlz tedrwnJ

t'v ttraun,fl+eovrzaf d,uvvruwns "{i






l 1




n* '* ' t 4


c I

q- -




szewgrlur'gh un thz rq^a.rcl uat['e,y^tt yku ryzrttg:, anl' ewwunlfo,frvru.turz



rlu :yau hastu* rzdasgrcd,fv orz4t'(4 dresl4r-rwtw.r/u :ynaer,wfrrnr rf rl,z wwan* lw teewnse/,tt d.etgr"a Litdz rffiq orrrzr.


\ , 1 ' {

tJ'trc,tl^'zhtt'ha,t \tat leetut:lrrvtt'(al.t,rttotl^,clatlu'oott ( Th.eorrrtl,or wkeltkol to tl^',eLttt,h.cnhar leer"ulcd,ft arearc tfn4.shswt


Seerng thingsir-rperspective T h e e f f e r -ot f n e r s n e c t i vceo m e sf r o m w h a t o u r v i s i o nm a k e so f w h a t t h e e v e s e e s .B e t w e e nt h e e y ea n d t h e o u t [ i n e so f a n o b j e c tw e c a n d r a w t h e s i d e s o f a n a n g l e ,t h e a n g t ea t w h i c hw e s e e t h e o b j e c t W . e c a n o b s e r v et h a t i f t h e o b j e c tm o v e sf u r t h e ra w a y ,t h i s a n g L eb e c o m e sn a r r o w e r a, n d t o t h e e y e ,t h e n h i e r -st e e m qt n h e s m a t L e rT.h i s i s t h e e f f e c tk n o w na s n e r s n e c t i v p

,. r/nzdrqwuVtzln",I'q: futn :u"/lifid, tt rlnelws rt' ytrsytttwr *|#leiis.d

rlw f"rrhzr aw(y 4.h,ntlzotw, rl,z:w'qll,er u'Jeâ&#x201A;Źff.t.

point T h ev a n i s h i n g

^frW 48

r/nuu rhavan*:ltryyn5nt



It t1


Ir ( tu rlv Lw rf +,rf wtrytna !w, w{,aarv

z. Tlz yartttwwwrh.e,rght ts rznwed,.

4 r y .

, --' ,ug;'I'

rl"e *holzorl,lzoru* rf ynrahl r'wtreussar(yhnzurraL- &Mr4(u


T h eh o r i z o n The multiplication of parallel lines*generates a whole series of vanishing points, aligned to each other. This alignment is called the horizon. Thrs line does not appear of course, but it is recommended to place it in a realistic drawing as well as in an imaginary one, because it is the principal reference point for fixing perspective.







rlu yrunt w thz hrqvn hr"d'm vzrcbaLlcnzml't"oarc

rlq #urvtr l"u erbn a tfll ft du lfr{T,

rlu yonrwnrf rl.'zvtvrver.

p o i n to n M o v i n gt h e v a n i s h i n g the horizon

rlq rturw l,at eahn4 r&wvl ttN, rv rlu hfr,


we move, the vanishing point of the lines in one direction seems to move too.-We can experience this in a room by looking at the vanishing point of the tiling. This shows that the vanishing point is notjust an effect oflines, but also an e{fect of our vision and our position in a space.


T h eh e i g h to f t h e h o r i z o n Our position in a space affects both the vanishing point and the horizon. In the drawings on thrs page, look at the view from above and below.They show clearly that the horizon, at the height of the vanishing point, the convergence of the edges of the shelves, is at eye level.And if we stand higher, or sit lower, we can see that the horizon follows our movement.

T h eh e i g h to f t h e h o r i z o ni n t h e d r a w i n g Once the height of the horizon has been established in a space,it must be shown in the drawing. That then depends on the framing you want. If you want to show what is above the horizon, you will place it towards the bottom of the window (seep.73).


lul w wryvtu,tlzEvrt,t'thz wall tzcrws

tQfrthry t&nmet^ vdzr an/. rhr rnanu r,r'yka,


wcl'ln rfu,a*ry

Tl"i wrnaw r,src( tt soal,€,,"'

t&a^szha,hzghr w nr r*u bt/av *wlrrlw d^an a.t,i HIN wc oqtuuri*r,aft (h4 lzbk nf t-lw ,wn, seeugrhat t1z h$tzsru,al. !y{ h,vcL, "nw,ts uilug ts ato^r z r w4tHr tw-rl*d,t ay thz wall; r 4,2 lvgkfi"w"rlw

Hcrcrhzhrrzor",'tr U kv([,tunq alu,( a ltt*fftt rl a wU ry th wal,lr, Ne tlwnsetrlrat cl1.( nol^hat urttu,tvutrtlltvfst'ftfrr';r, wuhq lunlrt r/ 4n,wl t wvrret.rh.rnan ot,rlv.r1,7lxu ralfu tlstt rA+ilrcrv(r,hqrut h,t luatl,h ntwc rf th l,,arusn, tlz Lw,z

T h eh e i g h to f t h e h o r i z o np, e o p t ea n d the sca[e t^ f ht,tA'^wug,wt lul tlqt tl,cstarver mrrr lt vanl, lc,a^.tttlv l.nru,rn tr ar gVthvelf, tlu pturnftatNlsrvrl'.c rglrt wl'+ktclow tlv I'uglx rf rl,.tpryh

The horizon being at eye level of the observer (about 1.5 metres if he,/she is standing) it follows that if other people, positioned in the same way, are shown in the drawing, their eyes will be at the sane level, aligned with the horizon. At the same time, this perception can tell us instinctively about the heieht of the room.


rs,*'l KEP7, reAcrvC

IT OUT /f P-€A.L6Lr't.


Thevlew fronnthe front T h i si s t h ev i e wf a c i n gy o u ,t h e m a i np a r t ,u s u a t [tyh ew a t If r o mt h e b o t t o m , s h o w ni n e t e v a t i oann dt h e s i d e si n p e r s p e c t i vTeh. ew a L i[s n o td i s t o r t e bd y p e r s p e c t i v- et h e s i d e ss t a yp a r a t l e t[ h, e p r o p o r t i o nasr e k e p ta n dw e c a n choose w h i c hs c a l et o u s e .


errnral lLMs



wqll at flrc, zh/,)

This view presents all the advantages of perspective, and in an architectural drawing of the interior it allows us to show the floor, the side walls and all the elements seen here - furniture and the arrangement of detaiis - in a much more realistic way than a projection. Moreover, if we take a photo, keeping che axis of the object horizontal and perpendicular to the wall, we get a frontal view. 'We have the impression of being in the space shown, while with the projection view we were outside. In principle there is no longer the problem of walls in front hiding things, walls which have to be deleted or made transDarenr.


1i "i

s f a f r o n t a Iv i e w T h ep r i n c i p l e o

, rl*oh rf dw yar'zlfrvnrht,tvtrcm

The probtemof depth

z v,tedzfinz tll l,tgk nf rhz hortzy*,whrrh orrrtsfrnl,trc rl,e gt lzvdaf rl,z tturvcr,

g. wt,olnutz n yuskbrufwtl'z vanuhwg lvtnt rwrl,zhrt<vruaentre, rc tl,,e,yrs:utlz, ffi w rghr, whbl,orrreslrnls Wrurwlrrf thz ntyrvt, 4J w{ t4w earh,cr(ftt I r). wa aa.tufh.avd.rawLvrlv va^ukog linz: *ht"ol, dznaroqrz d^z :tte wal"h,t{ {ra



At this stagcthcrc rcrnainsone problem:how to dcflrrcthc dcpth. Irr cftc.ct,trothingallowsus to drrrwthc lirrcsin firlnt of or bclrindthc backwall if'thcy ru'cpirlltllclto it.Tlrcy ilrc;lt 0 ccrtairrdistlncc,l.lovclncdlry pctspcctivc, urrdwc rrccdr way of'fixirrgthis rlistlrrt'c.lrr tlrc tillklwing pagcsyou w i l l f i n d r l nc x i t ( ' n t t c t h o do t ' d o i r r gt h i s . T h cp r i n ciplc is sirrrplc, lrut,if georrretryis llot your thing, tlrr.cxplilrratirlrr nriglrtsceilrrilther0lrstraet. lf you wiulf to rltawcxtrctpclspcctivcs you lrirvcto apply it, lrtrtfirr ske.tchlrook sturlies, wlriclrwc urcrnairrly itttr.rcstcd irt ltclc,it is crrouglrkr uudcrstirrrcl the priut'iple,iurdtlrcrrapplyir by guesswork, in order to rvoid obviorrrerlon of pcrccpti()n.



-)&/ trtr


To draw the depth Here is how to go about drawing the depth of a frontal view. If you prefer you can just do this first exercise, which explains the method. It's very simple - let's start with a small example.

ywt D (a,h.fflarvarutkry /vw) w 3. Pla,ae rl,e lwtzw"tv tlu rgk, sa"tared,a( da,Jraha eq"alto thar w\t tt* 4rc,fkc{d, u. relarwn, tt rlrz wall r/nu dutaloa u waJwzd, rn tlu hort<uru t'vtl,z saha saala

r Dr4wa taoL-wallfta,olwsansoah. Drawu+(h.ehravt, rl,z lwti- o, nnd,yvun A ahtr,E ft fl,a frnf rf rl,z *all,.

6 J,/


, exrenit4T ft ^hrLl"Lf,

rNcfJ oA, ft rr\4k4(h.aI z. Draw (h.a


oA an^d,

exrenl't;r fvward,J rh4-frcrw. YOU CA^,/ AAA/VF AT TA/€f F vtEv{f tN A.,rrot.€ tN_autJ-tvE r'/AY, AND lo lKtp THtr


s. Drawrh.elqrkwal li*.t A, E,, rhanB E,, yw l,avt,nqrlarl onrvwtlvgrorwl tt Jlvqft, fttuoh4d,tr rhe taal" wall,


wHy rf rf A feV,AR.E3 vrttfhntgwtrg a dar^nMfrafwtu, rcrefl",atwhzw -frvyn oo w eqrwLtv rlw durahta rf th+ vtservzr rh'ehonzuuo teorws tlw var*:hug /w,t vf al) rhz Las wh,bharc q( +r" tr rlug,o"nl, ykru. A'E t^4}4Jnruargh vf +r" ah"d, tr ooruitt resrh+ fu<l*L rf a sV,wre. tl", FWry enntLes ^s to d.efd." wtkL. find,rhz frvwilz

M a s t e r i n tgh e d e p t h You see then that points O and D show your position in the space: point O gives your height and your position laterally; point D gives your distance. Mastery of the distance is a little tricky. If you are placed too near (ifD is placed near O) the sides are very distorted. If you are too far away (if D is further from O) you risk being simply outside the room. Moreover, in that case,point D is often outside the drawing - annoying because you need a wider piece of paper that the area being drawn.

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"^:'Y)J.'*"-;'"n P - 7

; , G





see a similar problem when taking photographs which necessitatewide angle shots to compensate for the absenceofdistancc. Here too, there are practical limits which we get round by showing transparent walls.We can also choose to show only the part near the back wall, without trying to give too big a view of the sides.


rf.yw wve lil)1r o, rh,c*awug w ahargrc,tL, 4Jil4 yenytorlvtl,ilJ wlituywJcf Mlru,r rr f'wrlvr 4w7yfrvrn&v,o w4,rl4 o,,lw aH lrawhg 4 \tHlcotut vwN ^4aMrfu w4l'l''







tf.yM trwt 0fnn*,erfrvbj,.ywnrt



)uf4.Ate hrLhi' I

fuduraNTy fut^fu walJ,


ltu4f, D


Torilovebacka partitlonwall H e r ei s a s i m p L ae p p t i c a t i oonf w h a th a sj u s t b e e ne x p t a i n e O d .nthe left:a r oom i n w h i c hw e p r o p o s teo m o v eb a c kt h e p a r t i t i ow n a [ [t o a c e r t a i nd e p t hI P ) .A n d o n t h e r i g h t :h o wi t w i t [l o o k .



t. Dr4wrhz :ynu u"ehvarww,tt ag|ucwsonlapkq rl'rzyru^acyal vanhhug phoatlz yrirt vf d,utahteD, oD nrrzsyrntug o /,istqhta toJ1* frtnr WA wa.U,. Draw d^zyruouyaLvan*:lu"*gLws ftwardao, ah/, vM fwturdr D frvntl'Z tntttn a.aal,(, trf rha wall qr A frvnrfu

z. Frtuw A, tnarLrff a tl,wrth47thar, q"al r, p, t7w,eq^ued, d'utaht{rfu nrfl,tnn lvu n wve,

6 3. Draw Pa,

oru:ses AD qt P,

s , Draww rl'a vt al lias frrw du ta:e w,nl thg wfth rh.evqhtJ Li,yw:. tnteruzor

4 DrawvwrhlgrvawL tlv lw A p , whbh w rlu tau tf r/,t Mw l4rfl,rwt'wall, ayylyq.1rlu pru^rtyhtryhrwtl ttuft(tt t(.

6. Ptt^rvotl,q Lavsrc lrrger rcedz/"(LcfrharcqJdnttcd,ILM)


ereatinganextenston to blockoff acorner w e c a nm o d i f yt h e p r o j e cftr o mp 5 8 b yc r e a t i n a g c o r n e rf o r a h o m ec i n e m a , I i b r a r yo, f f i c ee t c .T od o t h i sw e h a v et o m a k ea n e x t e n s i ofnr o mt h e n e w p a r t i t i ow n aL[.

r/u aitcql drawug wtthrhe txfztuwr, shwr" u" dtfcd, LLwt



? i i$



t, v'lehavetog, taol-ft d,,'t,uuttul ,Lxol o771^,,^11 (wkh vrq,yart orntwrwgnf rlw A*l fcoa^sarhu wd) cnatl,aa to ffiLa 4pownft waJu{whtJ. trufaor, w tlrz pn/corwa dtawagr,rnly th":gn,,,M fk" f rhaltrttiwrv wal h'awrutva l:Wwwsoah.

3. onaeJowhavcl,rawn tn tlw taalptal{ tf dta drawtntl',e ve aLh,rws, ft tht cxf(ruwLL, "! rhln draw th daryw,al pra.tVaLvanul",y Lr,nzs. ftwqrrlJo wluphwdlgwcyo'nrhz -frontnf tl'e t^:c ,tzrrwqL ewu:|tty drawug wutlne, Lwwrf th,efinr . lryvur ttward,:rh.ekru vf ftglr

2. Pkcr e (fir uanyh Fr r,ttr\, ltawn rc dU pah al,aunfir

rl'wlnr yaruDaaarnlt4T n du kprh rf rlv uruunn rc tc rrwdz.Pkq p rn du l,orta,till,n wW fnnfu rglr.l,atl, otrn4rrf rl,,clnr ani,t.Ert47P'fxrwan{ ft du rrrilfu rf fl,l pvw rf ,Lurarwt. Yw havcP',

86 cAr5:prrl 4u wOr coryPuf€. rHF L€NC DE,PTH/ /.ND Ll ^rHtcH * THE^'DTH,.]

rfu atr^ylxcl,lgtcor ,uHtcH qtvEt n'tj f' 7H€ A/€r4/g,(.f6ryf tO,v,


! 61

Plannlrrg the space


) i t ht h e i d e ao f W ec a nc r e a t ea n e x t e n s i o[ns e ep . 6 0w p t a n n i nag p a r t i c u l asrp a c eb: o o kc o r n e rc, h i [ d ' sr o o m , etc.


rh.cextcwwwu rcdtcc/"tv 4.t4.rfuftnyvt tyvtre wtd,(, wlrol"vrvu o ynrtn[y isalfteahl, Jc,lq.r4fc, a how cwt^4 arqr frtn rhz ,ctt' rf rlv n*n"

Tlw taol- vf thz n*tn w nsed,frrylaowg a wfn aL,/ shalvct. r/w syau tatthJ4.rc^q"d, tl,a cxrerulm"/Ltlray rlw yarr u"frtnr ornf4uu v{U tlttv, 4.h1, a a wrL s^rfnu ar.l, a yarrttww rlu,ch or(4fu a reaL l"ftth avfr4htl,



rlw erer,.tnww wwrylzrc!abscd, vwrl,z d,ovrstdz a.h.d, I'a"lett"^)- fu*. rlw kolt- nf thz ,*rn w turr,ed,brtr atuvffic{.



Convertrno a soaceunderthe eaves H o wd o y o ud r a wt h e p e r s p e c t i voef s L o p i nwga t t sa n da L i t t l fel i g h to f s t e p s ? I n t h i se x a m p l iet i s n o tt h ee n dp a n e l t h a tw i l . bl .e u s e df o r t h e e L e v a t i obnu, ta n i m a g i n a rpyt a n of reference s i,t u a t e o d n t h ef i r s tg r o u n dp L a na n ds y m b o L i s e d d u i t en e a r b yt h ed o t t e d[ i n eT. h ep o i n tD c a nt h u sb e p [ a c e q tho

O lqoa

n 5Rl ec. thic. nrnio/-t





I h'( ry4ct rcrv( ctrr/(flLcn. I h'( lnrc

vf rcfurrr,ct,u ynirlucl' ty tlw d,vtzLlw.

a eiIhnae S c np- a c e i c c_i ,f r. l_ r ta aA I e oIi nncsi rtl o

m a r k e do u tw i t ht h e d o t t e dL i n ea, n ds o t h e r ei s n o tm u c h d a n g eor f d i s t o r t i o n .

i ".:.

D e s i g n i nag p t a t f o r mf o r a b e d



I gK_

9l*:t rhzlugk rf rh'eykrfvrm (roonD,ktlryo^ hr^t T/u txrtutntL ylnu vrurtr'zlofr, vr,tfu,d.rttzd, P u rhzrzsnt'hardu ykrftrn algu wkl'"rhz {,rsrs l,ghrnwtlzrgl"t.

l-Hrr qE7au6, pAv€Lr

D e s i g n i nag s m a t lf t i g h to f s t e p s

D e s i g n i nag s k y t i g h t The secondconversionis the creationofa second dormer window on the right-hand wall, at the bottom of the room, which we imagine as being one-third the size of the remainingpanel,ar:d in the centre.Flereis the method for dividing a panel into three equal parts;it appliesequally well to a panelseenin perspective.

_*) €NADtFr ,r


Apltie,c ^ ,:;;:,

ro .,"b r, 6xACr w/DtH Of .?'Hg lF nrAD€,

Orawtlnz Wr d.t4,v.nL:rf rhz y^anzl*hbl'" seyararetrhz -frvrw first' d.rrmtr ww,ltt l





fM {ttd N4.U t h$( d,!4r,hau

n^d/.li rf d,,4 gweywrhz yarcL oraw tl'e wel,i"an LLrre.

Thz fia (soowv) alhw5fsy3 ref: ul vtt,d.r.vtAz rhz I'211ka"d.rec,rlrcwdrawtrcd^zvan*:lr"r.g [ , ah.d,ty wva^,:vf ilc llgrnnL wd,z bfr, d,wtnzrl,z l,ortz-nffqktw rhra tn or(4rt t-lz rLsers tl" t@ rf d',evnn*:lwg yruntsar-d,fl'a yaral,hL 'LJtr d.r4wtlu:tqs Lws aLlnws

Draw thz d't"yrna[: rf tl,a z daa-yxpr^tPt tl"ns orc'atzl'




At rfu. yrwtt f a,tercectwn d.rawfia z vertaal,s wl"uL *il dlvtd,erh4 yanzLin tl,rce


A few strnpleconstructior-t tricks H o wd o y o ue s t a b l i s he q u a Id e p t h s ?

To dividea wa[[

How do you divide the vanishing line AB into a given number of equal parts (here 5)?

Itt enough to draw the vertical lines linking T to H.

Howto dealwith an irregu[ar-shaped space In this space, the right-hand wall has been rotated so that it is no longer perpendicular to the wall below, but turns at an angle. In this case the edges of the panel do not meet at the vanishing point O, but at a new vanishing point P. It's there no matter which horizontal generates a vanishing point on the horizon. This prepares us for the the oblique view in which our gaze, turned to the side, brings about the displacement of the vanishing points.

:* 4











Dr4,w4,Lu.,z to tl''z lro1zuruJf4rfuV 4( yarail,eL A, ar"d,rnqrL *r r zqrwLVttwhf,J. f

2. )rwv fhz lasr yrwrt r ft ltLhi' E, arj, ext'enj, tt ft tl^z /.ffqstu lav, orenllg varu,slu"rg yrut c



Draw l,|,ttzs frrtn p tt tlv yri,tt: t, z, s 4,h/, + rlrese vnntslttt'g Ltr'z:d,i,vtdzAE zqunlfo

r/u *qll aatulz d.wtdad, da,retfowvlug flrm n verrbaLlu.z.

Howdo you draw a circte?

Perspective or projectionview?

The drawing of a circle is always bounded by a square and appears as an ellipse. Note that the large axe and the small axe of the ellipse do not merge

Note that a detailfar awayfronr thc vurrishirrg point looks like a projection- thc vlrrislrirrglirrcsurc almostparallel.In fact, snrallolrjcctsoficrr irppr,rrr' asif pro.1ections. Itt why asscrrrbly instrtrt'tiorrs lrrc often illustratedon this principlc.

with the axes of the souare.



"tff*-"-**'"'** +!



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Creatinga mezzanine or overhang Grid 1 (seep.82) allows the study of a more complicated conversion, to take advantage of extra space that has just been created at the end of a


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The view here has already been shown on page 66, in'how to deal with an irregular shaped space'. Flere, our gaze is slightly turned towards the left. In this view, the left-hand parts of the room seem further away from the centre. They thus seem smaller and this perception is most marked on the vertrcal, the left-hand angle. The two lines of the panel at the end, at ground level and at the junction with the ceiling, now seem to converge towards a vanishing point PF1. In a frontal view these lines were parallel; now they are convergent. And they are still parallel in realiryl This is an application of the fundamental principle of perspective: objects further away seem smaller to us.



rigorous construction of this kind of perspective necessitatesa ground plan, an elevation or a section and a geometric device which is a little complicated and whrch is not shown here. Nowadays, in professionalpractice this classicperspective is done by computer (seep,80). Using the oblique view here starts with a sketch of the ground plan of your interior space or an imaginary space,in which the first elements are placed by guesswork. It's what we call in the following pages'building by eye'.We also use some. tricks of the trade which are enough to obtain a good result. Here too, the grids enable you to make some sketches (seep 86)





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a p p r o a cshu g g e s t ehde r e s: e t t i n g t h e b o u n d a r i e s , P t a c i n gt h e h o r i z o n p o s i t i o n i nt hge h o r i z o an n dd r a w i n g i n t h e p r i n c i p a[ r[ n e s . The horizon, as you know, is at eye level.To posrtion it weil, aim for a point that you are certain is at eye level, then measure it, remembering that the eye level of someone standing h 1.5-1.6 metres high, and 1 metre for someone sitting down. Aim for this point and mentally trace the horizontal line that passesthrough it. Imagine drawing a red line on the wall at this height.That's the horizon exactry (so long as you don'r change height!).When you are drawing, think of putting the horizon, according to the composition you want.

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S e t t i n gt h e b o u n d a r i e s Mark out the boundaries of the spaceyou want to show and study:left, right, above and in front of you.ty to avoid too wide an angle - 90" is about the widest angle that our eyes can take in. For the record, an angle of 75" corresponds in photography to an objective with a focus of 24mrn, i.e. a very wide angle.


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When you are standing in a room, the most obvious lines are the vertical lines of the corners and the horizontals which mark our the ceiling, like the cornices. Draw these three (or five) lines, being careful with the horizontals of the ceiling, for you still don't know their vanishing point.


point P t a c i n gt h e v a n i s h i n g Now is the moment to put in vanishing points, to left and right. One often feels it would be easy to place them by eye, directly. Experience teaches that this impression is wrong, and leads to mistakes. What I am giving here is an absolutely reliable way of placing the vanishing point:

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Take a pencil and hold it horizontal, parallel to the lines where you are looking for the vanishing point.Think of the lines behind you - on the floor or carpet under your feet, or under the furniture which are often parallel to the first vanishing lines. Now think of the line from your eye which is going in the same direction. It's one of the family of lines for which you are searching the vanishing point. Ifyou are looking in this direction you are aiming at the vanishing point. Bring up the pencil to your eye, without changing direction, as if it were a blowpipe with which you are sending a dart towards the point.The point you are aiming at is the vanishing point. You will probably be surprised to see that the point is not at all where you would have placed it by guesswork, but still further. You will also see that using guesswork you don't put it at the right height on the horizon, but a little above. 'sees' Generally speaking, one the horizon a little too high.

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p o i n ti s n o t o n t h e p a p e r l f t h ev a n i s h i n g Very often the vanishing point is outside the com* position, and so outside the drawing, or even the sheet of paper. But that doesn't mean outside your vision, even ifyou have to turn your head slighdy to the side. Nevertheless, in so doing you are changing the line of sight and the drawing. In this case you have to be able to draw the lines without the vanishing point. In general we get by using guesswork, but I am going to show you a trick for making another vanishing line, or at least for checking that your drawing is not too inaccurate.


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Next, go up the tool palette and click on square 2. Click on the screen,slide across,then click again to let go.You have drawn a rectangle.

T h e r ea r e n u m e r o uds r a w i n ga i d sa v a i L a b lees, p e c i a l f. ol .rys t u d y i n ign t e r i o r s n dt h e nt r a c ea n o u t L i noef t h e d e s i g n0. n ew a yi s t o t a k es o m ep h o t o a p l a n n em d o d i f i c a t i o nHse. r ei s a n o t h e r w at yh a ta t l o w ys o ut o v i s u a I i syeo u r i n t e r i oirn 3 D ,b ym a k i n ga m o d e oL n t h ec o m p u t e r .



This is a modelling software program for Macs or PCs, perhaps the most impressive and user-frien-

Start by exploring thc diflt'rcrrt menus. Later, you clrrr corrsrrlt the help and dowrrloltl tlrc instruction videos.Yru will scc the ground, bounded by rrxcs,tlrc

dly, used by thousands ofstudents and professionais alike.And what's more, itt free.Tap Sketchup into your search engine and fo11ow the instructions. Download the free version and start.

Exp[oration You are presentedwith talking icons, and many aids are available.We show here a smail, simple example to show you what it can do, but remember that rn spite of its apparent simplicity it is in facr extremely sophisticated.You can make a model, modify it, view it from every angle, add colours and materials, study shadows according to time and place, etc.The online aids are very good - they will help you savea lot of time and discover possibilitiesyou misht not other-wise know about.

Now click on square 3 - the cursor become a little block with an arrow. Go back to the rectangle which becomes greyish, click on it and then, holding down the button, slide towards the top - a miraclel

menu bar and the palcttc of it'orrs opposite (if not, unclcr l)isplly, choose tools).Here is how to rrst' them for the first tinrc:

Click on 1 (at the bottonr) rrrrtl then on the screen, :rrrd tlrcrr, holding down the nrousc lrtrttorr you can move about youl sl)il('c. The little hand enablcs yorr to move things sideways.Ytxr lcuvt' a tool by clicking on thc sprrc'c bar or on the black arrow ut thc top of the palette.

For more fun click on the little box opposite (in the menus at the top) or go toWindows, Shadows, click on'apply shadows'- another miracle.

These exercises will show you how SketchUp works.You won't have understood everything, and you need severalhours to get used ot it. (Start by printing the'memento'in the Help menu.)


Makinga modelfor your projects When you have grasped the main principles, especiallythe possibilityof grouping elementsor objects and stipulatingtheir dimensions(seethe little box below to the right ofthe screen)you can Lrsethe sofrwarefor various tasks,seeingthe result nlore or lesscomolete and realistic.

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Drawingfor lnteriorDesignersis a practicalguideaimedat helpingbuddlngInterlor designerslearnhow to draw professional ls accesslble, beautifully illustrated and practical. Guidance is givenon drawingperspectlve, floor plans,drawingfurnitureand renditions of rooms.Fittedwith sketches and drawlngs, this is the idealguideto producing successfuI handdrawings of interiordeslgns. GillesRoninis anarchitect andlecturer at theSchoolof Architecture at ParlsMalaquis.

rsBN978-1-4081-zggr-g fl4.99

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Ronin g drawing for interior designers 2010  
Ronin g drawing for interior designers 2010