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FUNG CHEUK YIU KRISSY 2014

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INTRODUCTION|

CONTENTS |

about me

pages

contents

3 4 5-11 12-17 18-23 24 25 26 27-29 30-35 36-41 42-49 50-51 52-53 54-55 56-65

Introduction PART A Conceptualisation Design Futuring Design Computation Compositioin to Generation Conclusion Learning Outcomes PART B Criteria Design Research Field Case Study 1.0 Case Study 2.0 Technique: Development Technique: Prototype Technique: Proposal Learning Objectives and Outcomes Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches

My name is Krissy. I’m a thrid year Architecture student I like using Sketch-up, Revit and AutoCAD, as well as at the University of Melbourne. the adobe suite to accomplish my work. I have done Virtual Environments in my first year and had some When I was young I have no idea what I’m going to knowledge about Rhino and Grasshopper. I will try become and I just started my Architecture course in my best to get the most out of this subject by learning Melbourne regarding on my interests in drawing and parametric thinking and enhancing my skills in Grasshandcrafts. Unexpectedly I start to develop interests in this subject. hopper. I truly enjoy learning to use any softwares, as well as conceptulizaing my ideas into real things. I do think architects are responsible for bringing positive changes to the world, although it is an extremely tough job as it would be against the the way how the whole world works today. I guess I am a pragmatic person. Despite my desire to make some little changes to the world, my treasure of family often stops me from being an architect as my future career. I greatly admire those who dedicate most of their life in their pursuit of goal and persist their values. I hope I could have this courage and bravery some days later. I love tennis and swimming. It is a bit hard for me to speak in front of people and I’m trying hard to do my best. Yet in my personally life I really enjoy interacting with my friends. I treasure every opportunity to talk to someone as exchaning information with one another is invaluable to our life progress. Water Studio 2013

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PART A CONCEPTUALISATION |

DESIGN FUTURING |

WHAT is to be built ? HOW it will be built ?

the power of dialogue

4.1

5.1 The Gateway Arch (St. Louis Arch), Missouri, 2008. Built as a monument to the westward expension of the US, Its manifesting height dominating the harbour is used as a device to communicate the country’s eminence.

The definition of architecture is not necessary constrained by a building. It is a broad discipline, one that is both intellectual and physical consisting of an amalgam of intension with iteration. it could be anything ranging from form to abstract ideas. Architecture is a product of the context. Over the centuries, ‘what’ and ‘how’ it is built changes. Factors affecting the shift becomes diverse especially when we are overwhelmed by information and technology, resulting a complex physical and social context. The study of architecture is important because the stories tell us how to further understand ourselves and the place we habitat.

4.1Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art by Steven Holl. How designers combine ‘old’ and ‘new’ depends on their interpretation of the future. 4.2 A render of a building designed in a bicycle hemlet, showing how contemporary digital technology allows designers to virtually (and potentially) construct designs.

What is the meaning of architecture?

experience which makes architecture remarkable. The meaning of architecture is thus the construction of The answer to this question has never been definite; in- ree]lationship between the physical artefacts and public stead, it changes over time - the order and symmetry in – between the architecture and the people [1]. classical orders and Beaux-Arts, the rawness of materials and structural honesty in the Gothic, the elimination It is possible to categorize architecture – as a network of reductsupport in modernist. of communication – into systems of ‘artefacts’, ‘knowledge’ and ‘practices’, such that its ‘ultimate comNevertheless, independent of the medium used and the munications’ would variously service different social various underlying beliefs, the significance of architec- systems within the society [2]. Indeed, the concept of ture has one thing in common – its interactive placeAutopoetic System of communication includes also the making qualities. constitutive moment of self-observation, self-demarcation and self-description[3]. Visual properties are neither nor the only ultimate objective of designs.The power of architecture lies within Therefore, it is essential to maintain an ongoing flow its position of interdisciplinary junction, possessing the of communications, such that unique components and inherent functional and social political properties. It is structures would be generated to suit the ever-changalways the creation of discourse within its surrounding ing and varying context and needs of people. context, adaptable to the addition of qualitative human

4.2 1| Peters, Brady. (2013) Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp 8-15. 2| Schumacher, Patrik (2011). The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture (Chichester: Wiley), pp18. 3| Patrik. The Autopoiesis, pp11.

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6.1

6.2

6.1 and 6.2 shows the exterior and interior of the Guangzhou Opera House by Zaha Hadid. The striking skeleton and glazing, as well as energetic curved finishing give a rich sense of aesthetic. 6.3 On the other hand, how people communicate with the building in real life suggests the gap between designer’s intention and the interpretation of the public.

7.1 The Mountain Dwellings, Denmark, BIG. It is one of the greatest examples of communicating the idea of passive design through the structures responses to the surrounding environmental qualities.

Dialogue could not be made meaningful and effective if it does not suit the contemporary era. Also, it is not only a technical issue, but also an ethical one. What can us as designers bring to people? What responsibility should we take – how can we better the current state of the globe? Damage to the planet’s climate and ecological systems is still increasing which exposes humans’ life to growing dangers; yet it is obvious that we are lack of abilities to change, and to solve problems. The gap between what are we doing and what we actually have to do in order to curb our currently destructive nature and conduct is great. We fail to correct our self-centredness. 6.3

Design is at the front of the transformative action. It reveals humans’ ability to prefigure ‘what we create before the act of creation’, determining the characteristics of our fellows. As the ones who adapts and create our future cities, it is particular important for designers to note such self-destructive values. It is ignorant and irresponsible to create something that is not addressing energy and resources consumption, our future generation, in parallel with architecture and the city space. ‘We actually exist in the medium of time as finite beings in a finite world.’ [4]. Since how long we now exist is determined by the conditiona of the planet which are defined by what we are doing, we should not distinct future from our present existence.

4| Fry, Tong (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp 11.

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8.1 West Kowloon M+, Herzog & de Meuron, Hong Kong, to be completed in 2017.

The M+ Museum, as a core arts and cultural facility in the West Kowloon Cultural District, stands promply on the land of Hong Kong.

tion of different materials within the art discipline. Such internal spatial arrangement facilitate the dialogue between public and art, as well as ‘art’ and ‘art’.

As one of the criterias in the design brief, the building is meant to promote ‘visual culture’ which includes not only visual art but also architecture, design, fashion, graphic and product, mocing image and popular culture.The architects have come up with a solution which meets the needs of the brief as well as creating a ‘landmark’ for the district, subsequently the design would successfully produce a discourse and a dialogue with the community.

Externally, the facade is potentially made of displaying panels which are driven by solar energy. It actively puts the moving visual art into the landscape, in contrasts with the cold, glazed facade of the commercial buildings beside. This further conveys the significance of art, as well as sustainability, to people’s life, which also tries to dimish the dominance economic power in contemporary world. It creates a dialogue with people who are outside of the building, such as tourists, and potentially influence the values of people and the image of the land.

The strikingly slim, semi-transparent T-shaped plane, housing education facilities, a public restaurant and museum offices , will rise atop an impressive horizontal slab offering a diversity of well-considered gallery spaces. With various types of galleries, including an ink art gallery, and industrial saces, the building works for the public and for the integra-

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Compared to other art museums, M+ is a specific project for promoting visual culture in Hong Kong. The architects envision the space to be a versatile culture hub, answering the museum’s social demand for versatility.

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10.1

10.2

Designed by New York architecture firm Decker Yeadon for a site adjacent to a wildlife reserve outside of Dubai, Light Sanctuary is reminiscent of an elusive desert mirage materializing as 40 kilometres (25 miles) of vertical photovoltaic panels, standing 33 feet tall. It’s 80,000 square meters (861,000 square feet) in surface area, forming a visual ribbon and “waveform pattern” that undulates in the sand. The installation appears to be almost floating, thanks to the network “of strong but slender masts, structurally recalling the historical inheritance of fabric and nomadic architecture,” which will also allow plant, animal habitats and waterways to remain undisturbed. The piece of installation generates almost 5,000 megawatts of solar energy a year. According to the designers, the serpentine surfaces of Light Sanctuary capitalize on the flexibility and efficiency of third-generation thin-film photovoltaics, which won’t lose performance even under extreme temperatures and can capture sunlight from a wider range of angles, in contrast to conventional solar panels. This responsiveness to the dynamic surrounding context enables a more fluid dialogue between the design and the public.

This dye-sensitized solar cell technology exploits the light-absorbing properties of the organic dyes that provide its rich color. Within the thin laminations of the flexible membrane, an organic dye derived from botanicals like pokeberries and other plants enables solar energy to incite a titanium dioxide electron exchange, thus producing direct current that is harvested by transparent polymer electrodes. This is great precedent which utilizes contemporary technology to increase he design’s intricacy by addressing the surrounding variables and incorporating into the process of manufacture as well as operation. Through the dialogue between architectural design and the public, I am confident in drawing people’s awareness of sustainability in the island of Copenhagen. As suggested by Fry, it can be achieved by first showing the rate of defuturing, then redirecting humans to a more sustainable future [5]. The next section of the journal will investigate how contemporary technology optimizes such the power of dialogue in designs.

10.3 5| Tong (2008). Design. pp14 .

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DESIGN COMPUTATION |

On the other hand, a mode of design called ‘Computation’ enables further extension of designers’ abilities to deal with complicated situations. It is the use of the computer to process information through an understood programe which can be expressed as an algorithm [6].

the catalyst of dialogue

Computation enhances the architectural dialogue through its technological innovations in responsive characteristic, fabrication and materialization. The Signal Box in Basel is an excellent precedent demonstrating the use of computational architecture in a realised project. The implementation of computational design is evidently noticeable through the geometry of the building.

12.1

Difficultes in altering designs increase with its development. Computerization is a mode of design in which deisgners use the computer as a virtual drafting board which allows efficient edit, copy and refine easily and efficiently at any stage of the design process. has been adopted in the construction and design industry for years. Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum captures the seitgeist of the digital information revolution. Initiated from a conceptual sketch, the design concept is being translated into a more understandable, three-dimensional model with the aid of digital technologies in drafting and manufacturing. While the resulted interesting form of the building is said to ‘highly creative’, the approach taken by Gehry is still the tradtional problem-solving design method. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) refers to the use of computer systems to assist creation, but not create creation. It allows efficient modification, analysis and optimization of designs, in which every decision still stemmed from designers’ mind and requires designer’s consideration in relation with other components.

12.2

12.1 Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, 1997. Frank Gehry. The twisting facade made of glass, titanium and limestone is a step towards the use of digital tools in archtiectural design. 12.2 A sketch by Frank Gehry showing the concept of the museum in an early stage of design process

Contained between a bridge and the street, the building’s ground floor plan has a trapezoidal configuration defined by the railroad tracks. The overall form is completed in gradation where the trapezoid terminates into a rectangle at the top as to improve visibility for its higher floors. The strips of copper cladding which make up the exterior are spcifically twisted and distorted in certain areas as to admit daylight as well as give the building its aesthetic appeal.

13.1 The Signal Box, Herzog & de Meuron, Basel, 1994.

It is a piece of performance oriented architecture which utilises computational design in coming up with a design solution by processing the constraints and parameters set by the architect in producing a form and sun shading system most appropriate in its given environment. Without the aid of CAD, the accuracy and precise manipulation of distortion in the louvre system as well as the manufacture/fabrication of these components would not have been possible. Unlike many conventional buildings, the Signal Box is unique in that it critically responds to its context by presenting a relationship with the adjacent railway tracks.

13.2 The louvres produced by a specific script developed by the architects which responded to a performance driven criterias including light, view and insulation. 6| Kolarevic, Branko. Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), pp 10 .

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14.1 Construction in progree of 14.2 A closeer look of the cladding of 14.3 The Museio Soumaya, Mexico, by Free illustrates the digital fabricative technolgoy makes any almost al limaginable form possible to be made

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14.2

Digital technology allows a new manner of materialization and fabrication as tectonic systems which produce paradigm for material design In architecture and for the performative design of material systems[8].

to translate subjective and experiential criteria into a physical mode of expression.

‘Blobitecture’ is adopted as the archtiectural style which refers to an emerging formal and geometric field of paramertric design that describes buildings which have an organic, amoeba shaped forms and hypocontinuous surface topologies. It is first raised by Greg Lynn in 1996.

Like the construction of cars, ships and aeroplanes, architecture is now able to be constructed in a highly complex but accurate geometry. Computation in archtiectural practice encoded all qualitative and quantitative dimensional information necessary for the design process [7]. The resulted single source of data provides opportunity to utilize their ability to create in a freer manner.

This precedent illustartes how computation facilitates dialogue between archtiecture and users by the innovaThe Museo Soumaya is an interesting piece of artion of conceivable and achievable geometries, as well chitecture in terms of its aplplications of parametric as the extension of the possibilities in fabrication and design and digital fabricative technology and the way in construction. which it deals with cultural and social factors. Instead of modeling an external form, designers With the designed intent of being an iconic structure, articulate an internal generative logic which automatithe museum explicitly draws interest into the way archi- cally produces a range of possibilities from which the tecture as a built environment impacts the social and designer can choose an appropriate one for further cultural context of a city/region of a large populace. development.

Composed of a double curvlinear surface/shell, the museum demonstrates how parametricism is able

14.3 7| Kolarevic, Branko. Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), pp 30.

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16.1 Cirriform by Future Cities Lab is a project aimes at investigating the practicality of computational designs 16.2 The different glow pattern when people standing at different positions 6.3 A mechanical explantion on how the installation works 16.3

16.1

The project Cirriform is a site specific architectural installation which explores the applications of kinetic architecture in real life.

Light sources disributed in a shape of footprint glow in accordance with the position where users are standing. As they are lightened up by kinetic energy ‘generated’ from the person, there is a intimate dialogue between As performance and interactive architecture is still in its the physical artefacts and the social course. infancy, much of the experimentation, proposals and concepts are generating public discussion about the The installation suggests a new level of interaction beapplications of digital technology and computation in tween the users and architecture where the experience architecture and design. becomes the primary mode of communication. This presents almost inifinite possibilities and applications in which architecture can be used in the future. The flexibilty and adaptability of architecture such as Cirriform seems fitting and appropriate in the volatile and dynamic social and environmental, as well as economical and politcal surrounding circumstances.

The performativity and interactivity qualities are critical to the ery of values and beliefs through architectural design or other physical artefacts. In the creation of land art promoting sustainability in Copenhagen, the adoption and incorporation of computation would definitely extend the possibility and ability of design.

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COMPOSITION to GENERATION | dialogue to impression 19.1 Kinetic Rain, by Art+Com. The installation is also possibly be considered as an example of kinetic archtiecture. Despite the synthesis of form comes from the deeper relationships, the resulted surprising aesthetics suggests that functions and beauty can exist simutaneously.

18.1 The three major stages of a design process. Generative design approach allows a frequent communication between analysis and synthesis.

Shifting from composition to generation, designers have to adopt ‘algorithmic thinking’ - a way of thinking that take on an interpretive role. As an analogy suggested by Kalay, designers adapt computation as a ‘puzzle-making’ process; it does not seek to ‘achieve constraints and goals by an optimized solution’, but to create rules, fit pieces to the puzzle, reduce the solace space and form an ultimate coherent whole [8].

“Kinetic Rain” is an installation consists 1216 droplets made from copper coated aluminium spanning across a field of over 75 square meters.

It provides ‘multiple singularities’ in a ‘continuum of perpetual evolution’[9], which potentially leads to inspirations from unexpected results. This design logic has been redefining the practice of architecture in terms of creating new opportunities in design processes, fabrication and construction.

It is a practice of computational design through the emergence of scripting and programming. In this case, the waves, patterns and gestures the colelction of raindrops produces is controlled and determined by a scripted program that most probably consists of some sort of parametric definition in the way they units respond and interact with one another in an orderly manner.

That is to suit the well-known setting with numous solutions, rather to look for the best solution.

The responsive technology in parametric design extends communication into its operation. It frees designers from the rational analysis of the external, complex data and constraints, allows a greater focus on the internally-drawn idea generation process.

Continuous evaluation - dialogue between ‘analysis’ and ‘solution synthesis is consistently made during the design process like a ‘feedback loop’.

In order to internalize the expertise in utilizing softwares, today designers are actively creating their own design software.

This process allows an earlier discovery of generatlzaions and needs of problems, leading to a more efficient process, as well as ensuring the interdependence of goals and solutions – they would never be separately determined.

This scripting culture - the building of individual, specific of algorithm - further anhance the precision and efficicency in sharing of codes, tools and ideas.

8| Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MIT Press). pp 21.

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Paramatric modeling is based on a logic of associative and dependency relationships between objects and tjeor parts-and-whole relationships.

It is potentially a trend of architects to ‘design how to design’ rather than to design an object.

Although it serves merely as a visual spectacle in the airport terminal, the computational systems employed can be adopted and made applicable to building environmental management systems such as sun shading devices. It is a fine example of the applications of computational architecture in producing a piece of sculpture /architecture that is not only functionally and aesthetically appealing but also one that is performance oriented in its design in the sense that it is able to respond intelligently to its context and environmental conditions.

9| Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; NewYork: Roytledge), pp 7.

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20.1 RV Prototype House, Gehry Lynn. Although the intereactiveness of parametric design is greatly values, its suitability and quality of performance in daily practice is still unknown.

In parametric modeling, designers usually are interested in a specific process or nature of the given context which is usually a micro-scale activity – which ultimately have macro-scale influences. Gehry Lynn’s work is based on a creative investigation of the ways in Computer Aided Design can be adapted as a tool for ‘rethinking’ architecture.

The highly responsiveness of system allows a really intimate dialogue between architecture and the context. Nevertheless, will such sensibility instead result in an excessively changeable object that can be hardly conceived, controlled or adapted? Does every constain in the context can be coded by a function? Or, is every set constrain meaningful to the ultimate design outcome and performance?

Parametric design once described as an ideology, a conceptual re-configuration of how humans think and act which The ‘RV prototype house’ is a 1/5 model of a residence that increases the living space by rotating in two axes on a robotic reject of any notion of urban structural typology, continuity and morphology, as well as historic style and perspective base. It rotates in respond to its surrounding landscape so that it is optimized to the weather, daylight and temperature. framework. The lightweight core made of carbon fibre making the whole shell weighs less than 50 kg which allow it to revolve freely. Indeed, difficulties in adpating such ihighly dynamic, irregular and unpredictable circumstances n fact potentially exist. The dynamic simulation considers forces not originated within the system itself but acting on it externally. The configuraIt might be very useful in conveying abstract, spiritual ideas, yet it practicality in our everyday life might require further tion of the design is a result of the contribution from the virtual forces but not static coordinates. investigation.

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22.1 iSAW, Warsaw, Poland, 2007, Kokkugia with Jonathan Podborsek & Roland Snooks

23.1 Showing how the voids are occupied by people

iSaw is an algorithmic strategy that weaves together disparate programs in the redevelopment and hyper densification It could be viewed as a step the evolution of the form and geometry of buildings. Nevertheless, its ornamental quality of Warsaw’s urban center. could also result in strange spaces that could cause headaches for artists and users. Designers’ ongoing research into wetFoam geometries to create a non-linear gradient where the lattice thickens beParametric designs with great fluidity or highly complex yond a threshold enabling the solid to become inhabitable fobrous structure has been commonly seen. – the emergence of a new space. The two spaces share a common membrane and are consequently mutually dependant; however they exhibit vastly different spatial qualities and characteristics. This project is not a singular design or object but rather a possible instance of an algorithmic strategy devised for the generation of a dense space-filling architecture. Computation allows fascinating and dramatic materialization and fabrication; it helps transform anything imaginable by the designers to something that can be built.

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While such innovative design raises a discourse, or a dialogue between the designers/architecture and the public, would it be unsuitable for the long-term use due to its incompatible form in the context? Is the highly complex structure resulted in a reponsive device but also a sculpture with visual redunfancy? For the installation in Copenhagen, since sustainability is the theme of the design, excessive visual expression might need to be avoided to avoid undesirable dialogue produced.

23.2 Showing the relationship between the structure and the surround

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LEARNING OUTCOMES |

CONCLUSION |

Computation is a process of ‘making of form’ to ‘finding of form’ – the algorithm describes ‘how’ the function is computed but not ‘what’ the function is [10]. It celebrates structure of relations and interconnectedness that exist internally and externally within an architectural circumstance. This focus on ‘function’ rather than ‘causes’ stimulates functional inquiries, opens the view onto functional equivalences and thus potentially innovates functional substitutions [11]. We may ask – ‘which function does this social structure or institution fulfill in society?’ The adoption of computation is beneficial to the pro-

motion of sustainability in terms of the appreciation of an underlying societal requirement or problem which suggests the further question – ‘in which other way and by which other means might this underlying problem or requirement be addressed?’ The parts-and-whole relationships of parametric design is also an analogy of the ecosystems on the planet. In terms of drawing awareness of sustainability,through the emphasis on functions of architecture, one might realize the excess of the current mode of living; and through the interdependent relationships within, the importnace of thinking in a broader scale could be raised.

Part A of the course has been focusing on the relationship between contemporary architectural design and digital technologies. Although computation is new to me, it has been an interesting learning process in picking up its concept, application, advantages and disadvantages, as well as some basic skills in playing with them. Getting started with grasshopper is sometiems hatic but often it is quite fun to me. Despite the difficultes in getting familar the functions of commands, the infinite possibilities the software can produce is infact quite fascinating. After going through these three weeks’ materials, I

have gained a certain degree of knowledge about the way computation has been incorporated into architecture. I hope I could think of a different way in utilizing it in the following design. I reckon it would not be an easy job for us. I would need to guide myself more strictly in completing the coming week’s assignment so that I would have a greater space for refinement of my thinking as well as design ideas. I may also need to look for the use of paratric design in daily life, as well as any undercovered energy source exists within the fabric wer are habitating. I look forward to the modules ahead.

10| Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keli, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp 11. 11| Schumacher, Patrik (2011). The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture (Chichester: Wiley), pp 27.

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B. CRITERIA DESIGN

An Energy Gnerator + An Art A piece of public art always attracts people, triggers emotions, reflections and inspirations. It is a potential source of thoughts, of inspirations, of creativity – something that brings an individual and the whole species move forward. As held by Moussave, ornamentation is not a tool to emphasis individuality but to communicate with the surrounding context. It has a spirit because it is the expression of the embedded material and structural forces and orders[1]. Although I do not agree with her elimination if interrelationship between ‘exterior’ and ‘interior’, I think her definition for ornamentationis particularly useful for our project. How can we integrate material and geometry into an ornament that is able to communicate, to ‘perform’ and to express our ideas is the key.

RESEARCH FIELD | B.1. embeded material performance

Ornament can be used to visualize contemporary technology [2]. The is applicable to our task parametric design offers an opportunity to improve the quality of design and this our living standard; we may think about how to show the role of computational technology in the creation of our design - for instance, how it extends material and structual capacity, and how it would potentially changes our values. Our aim is to create a sculpture that creates visual and mental impact. Since we are trying to convey the global idea of sustainabilty, it is essential for the structure to be expressive so that the ideas behind should be understandable by everyone. The design should suggest the potential for technology to lead humans’ adoption of a more sustainable way of living in the future. The sculpture will then gain publicity for the city of Copenhagen, becomes an identifier for the community’s vision and aspiration.

1| Moussavi, Farshid and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5. 2| Moussavi, pp.10.

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Today, material performance is regarded as one of the richest sources of innovation. The ability to actively and productively use these behaviors within design is related to advances in computation, fabrication and material science; it opens up new material, tectonic and sustainable possibilities for architecture. Since a material construct can be considered as the equilibrium state of an intricate network of internal and external forces and constraints, architecture is shifting to practices by which the computational generation of form is directly driven and informed by material characteristics. Kolarevic advocates that this mode of morphogenesis refers to a bottom-up methodology in which the architect has the capacity control over the computational aspects of the process [3]. If the embedded behavior of material is used to play an active role in the design and construction process, designers have to study and gain a deep understanding of the world surrounding which requires rigorous experimentation and testing. Historically, Gaudi used the hanging chain model to investigate on distribution of static load on a hanging and inverted chain, subsequently a more interesting way to use masonry; Frei Otto experimented with lightweight tensile and membrane structure leading to the popularity of inflatable buildings.

<27> Material performance has been used widely used to optimize design in terms of its functions and environmental behavior. The Textile Hybrid M1 by La Tour de l’Architecte utilized the characteristics of membrane and bending-active rods to span a long distance with minized force exerted on surrounding context.

3| Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 3-62.

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<28.1> ‘Reactive Acoustic Environments’ in ‘Smart Geometry’; Apart from responding to energy flow in the Responsive Building Envelop, materials can also be responsive to acoustics.

<28.2> ‘Parametric Wood’; computation provides solutions for control and detailing which allows construction of complex geometry with traditional wood joints and standard elements.

<29> ICD research pavilion 2010; a bending-active structure made entirely of extremely thin, elastically-bent plywood strips.

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Computational technology frees designers from mundane, repetitive experimental process or calculations. The embedding physical properties in computational design processes provide a powerful agency for both informing the design process through specific material behavior and characteristics, which in turn informing the organization of matter and material across multiple scales based on feedback from the environment. Such adaptation processes based on material performance are often used by architects to improve the environmental performance of buildings as well as to explore new geometric possibilities In the 2012 annual workshop held by Smart Geometry in New York, different materials were studied and experimented; ceramics, electro-active polymers, thermally active paint, CNC cut foam and plexi-glass, etc. Their aim was to is develop digital tools and physical prototypes and then look for interesting, innovative way in using materials. For example, students carried out experiments with smart material by making prototypes of responsive polymers, showing the potentials of architectural ‘skin’ as folded, double curved, complex and able to be manipulated [4].

When computational technology and the emergence of innovative materials meet, exciting possibilities are potentially born. In relation to our project which focuses on the idea of sustainability, the real-time environmental performance feedback is potentially an intriguing aspect such that it could respond to the surrounding environment actively thus emphasis on the utilization of existing resources, such as the movement of visitors, the heat energy from the sun, etc. Materials and structural joints are dependent on each other; computational design processes are not only able to explore ways to use new materials but also traditional ones. The Parametric Wood by CITA looked for the most efficient way to construct a complex shaped geometry with timber; the types of wood and joints between elements are defined precisely by the material properties and the element behavior. Such adaptability of a ‘standard’ material exemplifies the ability of computational design to extend the capacity and versatility in materials; forms which cannot be merely geometrically defined but closely related to its embedded structural behavior which governs material gestalt [5].

4| http://archinect.com/features/article/44893160/smartgeometry-2012-in-troy-new-york. 5| http://cita.karch.dk/Menu/Research+Projects/Digital+Formations/Parametric+Wood+(2007)/Parametric+Wood+(2007).

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ICD research pavilion 2010 is a bending-active structure made entirely of extremely thin, elastically-bent plywood strips. The computational generation of form is directly driven and informed by physical behavior and material characteristics. The project emphasis on the difficulties for conventional digital design processes to accurately reflect he intricate relations between the material and real-life pressures. Instead of producing strips directly according to the digital model, the plywood strips are manufactured the planar elements, and its elastic bending behavior is measured and then computed into parametric process [6]. This approach takes also the stored energy in the bending strips during construction process as well as the morphological differentiation of joint locations into account. From this case study, we realized the importance of acknowledging the variables on site in the dynamic circumstances – the interaction between internal and external pressures and constraints. Although such approach reduces the efficiency of design process which characterizes parametric design, and on-site measurement of structure could potentially possess inaccuracy, I think this way to use parametric tools is also feasible, since different contexts contain different variables which may lead to the same material to react differently. For our project, we are not able to make a full scale model to study its performance; but prototypes in different scales

are still helpful for us to understand the dynamics of the self-organizing system as well as test the relationships between varying material parameters. New possibilities of aesthetics become more readily achieved as constraints of materials have been greatly reduced by the advanced technology. The resulted appearance often creates a certain degree of surprise and fascination which aims at creating a new definition to the pre-defined nature of material. For our project, it would be a good idea to capitalize on the properties of the particular materials in the process of fabrication, contributing to its formal aesthetics as a surprising, eye-catching piece of land art, demonstrating a new way of thinking in the city of Copenhagen. We think that timber would be a good choice as we are intrigued by its unexpected dynamicity in appearance aided by computational design processes; it also has low embodied energy which is suitable for our project. The following case study exemplifies the use of computational techniques to generate designs expressing unique embedded performance of timber grain under the physical world. Various possibilities in the outcome of forms were then explored by our team which can be applied to our design.

6| http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=4458.

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CASE STUDY 01 | B.2.

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The use of a particular material behavior as a major role in form finding and making is practived by the Voussoirs Cloud. The thin sheet of timber does not seem supportive alone; yet when it is folded along its grain, it gains rigidity and resembles a real ‘voussoir’ which can be used to construct structure like vaults. Such exploration of material behavior is further expressed by the relaxed surface of the vaults; pieces of thin timber components are tessellated to form the undulating surface. The internal pressures of structure are revealed by the density of units; more pieces cluster to gain strength at the base and the edge of the vaults, and less on the spanning top. The aesthetic values of this project lies on the contrasting/unrelated relationship between the inelastic nature of individual element and the whole ‘soft’ structure, and the confusion of ‘material’ and ‘structure’ [7]. The geometrically complex voussoirs of a freeform masonry vault embraces architectural, structural and fabrication requirements and constraints, and computation design techniques play a critical role in facilitating the whole process. Based on rules surfaces, a powerful approach for designing and realizing freeform stone 7| http://www.poload.com.br/2012/11/projeto-voussoir-cloud/.

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vaults is presented. Digital fabrication and engineering techniques are critical to its construction. The custommade plug-in also facilitates the construction process by its visualization of complex inderdepencies of material parameters for the streamlined production of hundreds of unique voussirs. Such high efficiency and accuracy in calculating the dimension of structures allows higher flexibility in adjusting the design at any stage, so that designers can concentrate on the development of the design itself. This case study explored anchor aspect of tensile structure where there is strong relationship between structures configuration and material performance in order to achieve a desired aesthetic impact. We are fascinated by the flexibility of tessellated geometries in forming a curved and soft ‘fabric’. Unlike the use of fabric or membrane, the mimic of voussirs in forming a tensile structure is particular inspiring. Such self-supporting feature using unconventional material forms the foundation of our design intent. The project also demonstrates its interrelationships with the surrounding context; we would like to utilize such flexibility offered by particular material to generate an aesthetically appealing free form to respond to different aspects of the site, for example, access, view, direction of the sun, etc.

<31> The intriguing pattern of the triangulated petals create different experiences <30>under and <31> above the structure.

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EXPLORATION| Based on the provided Grasshopper definition, we explored possibilities and look for unexpected outcomes.

Species 1 Size (S) and Legth of vaults (L) | {I} Stiffness 6000 {E} Stiffness 1000 Damp 15

1.1 S 0.1 L -0.8 {I}

1.2 S 0.1 L -0.8 {E}

1.3 S 0.1 L -2.7 {I}

1.4 S 0.1 L -2.7 {E}

1.5 S 0.4 L -0.8 {I}

1.6 S 0.4 L -0.8 {E}

1.7 S 0.4 L -2.7 {I}

1.8 S 0.4 L -2.7 {E}

2.1 TFFFF

2.2 TFFFF

2.3 TFF

2.4 TFFF

2.5 TF

2.6 TFFFF

2.7 TFF

2.8 TF

3.1

3.2

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

Species 2 Ahchor points control

3 Attractor point control (connect to rest length) 3.3

Species 1

Species 2

Species 3

The spcies’ differentiation depend on the dimension of ‘columnc’ and type of materials. While here the materials were broadly identified as ‘stiiff’ and ‘elastic’, actualy practice contain way more variations between materials. Yet, the aim here was form-finding, therefore more extreme values were used.

Being developed upon Species 1, we discovered the change of each outcome when there was an additional parameter. Chaning the anchor points by ‘Cull Pattern’ was done by changing the number and location of supporting points of structure. This species was very interesting. The form seemed to become a memebrane structure.

This exploration was quite experimental as actual application was unclear; it could be used in drawing relationship between the movement of people and the density/ geometry of structure. The use of attractor point could be interesting and unexpected results often occuer.

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FURTHER EXPLORATION| Hydro-pressure

1

SELECTED ITERATIONS| Damping

6

11

16

HydroMesh, Cutoff Scale factor: 0.1 Time: 2t 2

7

12

17

3

8

13

18

4

9

14

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5

10

15

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HydroMesh, Cutoff Extruded Z value: -3 Time: 2t

Scale factor: 0.2 Time: 2t

As we were interested in geometry with fluidity and various internal pressures, we carried out further explorations on the relaxed vaults by adjusting the values of ‘Hydro Pressure’ and ‘Damping’ in the kangaroo engine. We had been looking for a free-form with demonstrate a degree of ‘softness’, regarding on its aesthetics and possibilities for further development. Through this exploration process, we were inspired by the free-forms and came up with a clearer design intent - in addition to attract people by its ‘surprising’ appearance, the structure should be more open and integrated with the surrounding so that visitors could interact with it which at the same time generate electricity.

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1 This geomtry was quite pleasing and balanced that seemed to be able to stand well in reality. The size of structure could be massive but soft which fit our design intent. The elevated part which could potentially act as a viewing platform for visitors to enjoy the view over the skyscrape.

2 This outcome contained an enlarged structure compared to 1, which could potentially result in structual failure. Yet, if we have sufficient techniques in selecting materials and structures, it could be seen as an innovation as it had an greatly elevated area which would encourage people to actively explore the design and the context.

3 We were really pleased by this soft vaulting geometry. It contained less intersections which would be easier to fabricate, as well as possessed more possibilities in innovative use of materials or structure. Also, it fit our intention to create an interactive structure since it contained voids of space where visitors could occupy.

4 This outcome created a different atmosphere in the interior space compared to 3. Instead of merely walking around, the large internal surfaces of structure could potentially become venues such as gallery space. In terms of structural performance, both 3 and 4 were stable and possessed great possibilities for further development. Scale factor: 0.9

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CASE STUDY 02 | B.3.

<36> The innovative structure contrasts with the medieval architecture surrounding it, giving ‘life’ and ‘energy’ to city.

Jurgen Mayer H took a waffle approach in the structuralization of the ‘parasols’. The Metropol Parasols is a digital design made from bonded timber with a polyurethane coating. The individual laminated wood plates (LWL) are generated by cutting vertically in an orthogonal 1.5 x 1.5 meter pattern through the form. This modern structure formed a stark contrast with the medieval surroundings of Sevile. The structure defines Sevile’s iconic cultural role, meshing a historical archeological destinations with an innovative, contemporary landmark [8]. There is no two parts of the parasol are identical; computerized design and construction made such complex shapes and non-repeating elements possible. The variation in structural thickness of the elements is the result of an iterative calculation. For this the engineers developed an automated iterative tool with which the thickness of each timber element can be determined and the connection detail optimized at each intersection. Such precision in dimension of elements, aided by computation design process, is critical to aesthetic value of this project. While computation design seems to be characterized by the initiating design process from soft, streamlined freeform, visual impact is often created by using contrasting textures in different scales. Timber waffles strips which

look hard on individual are composed to form a soft structure as a whole. As we perceived, while case study 1.0 uses the embedded material behavior, this project utilizes the characteristics of structural compositions to contrast with such undulating form; unlike case study 1.0 being self-supportive, this project contains steel abrs which are glued inside the timber by means of a new bonding process, ideal for use in the hot city of Seville. Onw of the aspects we have learnt from this case study is the ability of parametric design to give new definitions to old ideas. Although the structure might look a bit detached from the surrounding, I think the sense of innovation is important in expressing the vision of a community; computation design is a particular desirable device to convey ambitious ideas - from cultural and technological development to a sustainable future of the whole planet. We were inspired by the aesthetics in the use of ‘rigid’ structural component - the waffle grid - to create a ‘soft’ surface. In relation to the material performance, we therefore proceeded to explore alternative structures in highlighting the ‘softness’ of surface in an innovative manner. The structure acts as a community center for residents <37.1>, as well as a potential tourist spot for visitors to view the city in the elevated platform <37.2>. The dual function approach could also be adpated in our project.

8| http://www.yatzer.com/Metropol-Parasol-The-World-s-Largest-Wooden-Structure-J-MAYER-H-Architects.

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REVERSE ENGINEERING PROCESS|

1 Create curves according to the shape of parasol.

2 Loft the curves into a surface.

3 Draw intersecting lines which are perpendicular to each other on the loft surface.

Extrude lines into surfaces.

First, we created curves and found the points on them. Then, by constructing arcs in between the points on curves and lofting them, a base surface for the geodesic curves was created. By shifting the ends of lines by one unit, the twisting effect of gridshell was created based on this mushroom-like free form.

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We think this experiment was quite successful. Although it did not look exactly the same as the original design, it captured the essence of the structure - the expression of ‘softness’ through rigid ‘intersacting components’.

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After interpreting the case study through its structural behavior, we tried carrying out the reverse-engineering process in grasshopper in two different approaches.

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Before doing research on creating waffle structure in grasshopper, we at first approached the design as a gridshell structure made from geodesic curves.

Extrude surfaces to create thickness.

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1 Create curves according to the shape of parasol and loft them to a surface.

2 Create a box to enclose the whole structure.

3 Look for the base edges of box using â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;List Itemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Divide and create planes on points of the edges.

4 Intersect the loft surface with planes created.

After further exploration on scripts to create waffle structure, we took an alternative approach in re-creating the Metropol Parasols.

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5 Extrude intersection lines to create thickness.

The major difference between the two was the regularity of grid - while the metropol Parasols is structured by a regular waffle grid, the outcome of our experiment was more random and organic. Surprisingly, we found that such irregularity characterized by geodesic curves was aesthetically pleasing. Its expressive appearance would potentially contribute to our design intent to draw awareness from people. Nevertheless, due to the potential complexity of loft surface, structures created by geodesic are often messed up which would be very difficult to fabricate. On the other hand, the waffle grid was established in a more systematic manner such that it would be an easier option for us.

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TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT| B.4.

1 Square

6 Triangular A

2 Quad

7 Triangular B

3 Diamond

8 Triangular C

4 Quad random

9 Hexagon

5 Skew quad

10 Delaunay edges

Waffle structure is often used to create semi-public space that acts a canopy which allows sunlight to cast interesting shadows. The characterstics of the structural configuration also enables the creation of various visual stimulations from the outside and inside. While waffle structure is manually formed, geodesic which is self- generated according to properties of curves can create smilar but more irregular, dynamic light effect and spatial experience.The dynamicity of such structure from Geodesic also contains potential aesthetic values that resulted from the different internal pressures. In the exploration of pre-determined form in case study 1.0, simulation of a certain material performance was carried by computational technology which has been a tool for form-finding; while in the fabrication stage in both cases, computational tools play another role by providing accurate evaluation of each component. Such ability to calculate complex dimension could not be achieved without the tools. The following explorations studied formal possibilities of structural performance on a relaxed surface derived from the Kangaroo component. By varying structural configuration on the same curved surface, we would be able to look for the best approach in achieving our desired effect - the texture of structure being rigid in the scale of individual element but soft in an overall scale.

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Species 1 The grasshopper plu-in, Lunchbox, allowed the production of different panel patterns very easily. Variations were limited in this species, yet it could be an efficient tool to look for structural options for complex geometry.

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1 Skew squad

6 Triangular A

2 Diamond

7 Triangular B

3 Quad random

8 Triangular C

45.1

4 Quad

5 Staggered quad

Species 2 This species could potentially result in interesting sturctures, and it unexpectly looked like ‘tensegrity’ structure. Yet it failed to achieve many variables, since the extruded surfaces often intersected with each other. The ‘strings’ supposed to hold pieces of elements together did not seem workable in read life.

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45.2

The Mantashell was one of the inspirations for our group. The expression of soft, undulating surface with thin timber strips constructed in an regulated geodesic pattern was very intriguing. We could see potential in further developing on this approach; since thin members were used to create a soft, relaxed surface which spanned for a long distance, it could be used to demonstrate an example of efficient use of materials as a means of convey sustainability. At the same time, it could achieved our desired visual impact. Therefore, we decided to focus on geodesic curves in the following exploration.

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1 Geodesic with arc

2 Geodesic with arc

3 Geodesic with liine

4 Divide points 20 1 Connect points on contour, Aa Ba Cl

6 Height B>A>C

2 Connect points on contour, Aa Ba Ca

7 Height B>A>C, B divide 30

3 Connect points on contour, Al Bl Cl

8 Height C>A>B, A divide 40, B20, C15

5 Joining curves

6 Joining curves, simplified 4 Geodesic Shift, clockwise 5

9 Height C>A>B, A shift clockwise 5

Species 3 & 4 Based on the geometry selected from case study one, we tried to apply the geodesic structure we experimented at the beginign of case study two in various ways. Some resulted geometries were interesting but seemed to be unable to be built as the elements could not support each other. 5 Geodesic Shift, anti-clockwise 10

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1 Divide points: 70 Shift clockwise: 6 anticlokwise: 6 Offset: 3 Extrude: 0.2

6 Divide points: 35 Shift clockwise: 10 anticlokwise: 10 Offset: 3 Extrude: 0.2

2 Move control points Divide points: 70 Shift clockwise: 6 anticlokwise: 6 Offset: 3 Extrude: 0.2

7 Divide points: 35 Shift clockwise: 2 anticlokwise: 10 Offset: 3 Extrude: 0.2

3 Divide points: 10 Shift clockwise: 6 anticlokwise: 6 Offset: 3 Extrude: 0.2

8 Divide points: 35 Shift clockwise: 2 anticlokwise: 20 Offset: 3 Extrude: 0.2

3 Divide points: 10 Shift clockwise: 6 anticlokwise: 6 Offset: 3 Extrude: 0.2

9 Divide points: 35 Shift clockwise: 2 anticlokwise: 10 Offset: 5 Extrude: 1

5 Divide points: 20 Shift clockwise: 6 anticlokwise: 6 Offset: 3 Extrude: 0.2

10 Divide points: 35 Shift clockwise: 2 anticlokwise: 10 Offset: 3 Extrude: 1

Species 5 As the previous two species looked rather messy, we tried using just one set of geodesic curves instead of two. However, the results were not satisfactory and the structures would be even more unstable.

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This is the final design we have chosen. Although we were interested in exploring new possibilities of form and structure formed from geodesic curves, the waffle grid in fact offered a simpler option for our design in terms of for further developmet as well as fabrication. Due to the compelx mesh resulted from Kangaroo manipulation, the structure was often over-complicated when geodesic curves being applied later on. Being able to step back, we found that the use waffle grid over the pre-determined free-form would best demonstrate our design intent. First, the timber strips giving a ‘hard’ texture were used to form an overall fluid geometry. As inspired by the two case studies, such contrasts would be a potential quality in catching people’s attention as well providing a definition of ideas.

Second, as we intended to create a structure which would have close interaction with visitors such that energy would also be generated in the process. This form, composed of relaxed vaults structre with timber strips widely spaced, the physical contact between structure and people becmae highly facilitated. Finally, we were inspired by this result in the way of further connecting with the surrounding context. Instead of being merely a shelter, the voids of structures could become a representational connection with the mermaid, as well as a closely related venue of the taxi terminal. These aspects we found in this outcome provide us opportunity to fine-tune our design in later stage.

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TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPE| B.5. From the technique development process, embedded material performance is studied in relative to the supporting structure. Although the formal outcomes produced interesting observations and variations, there is still area for further exploration in the behavior of materials. The visual effect of timber was pleasing; its organic texture and color would easily blend with the surrounding environment as well as give an elegant, pure impression. This echoed with our design intent as to promote sustainability. Equilibrium and its spatial quality were also observed. The configuration and the equilibrium of the structure was determined by the parametric tool; nevertheless, we found there were some deviation in perception in terms of scale. We found the height the vaults at the entrance as well as the canopy part were lower than what we viewed in Rhino. This might due to poor techniques in producing the prototype; yet we still have taken note to it as a reminder for the aware of the unconsidered aspects encountered in the actual construction process, or we might need to adjust that part of the design by moving the control points on curves. Due to our insufficient knowledge in dealing with complicated geometry derived from Kangaroo, we failed to unroll the components in Grasshopper. We instead did unrolling in Rhino and manually cut out the strips, as well as made the ‘boolean’ joints to ‘interlock’ each element. This led to the poor quality of prototype which greatly reduced the effectiveness of the process. The structure seemed to be not wellbalanced or cohesive, which was probably caused by the inaccuracy in measurement. Our group would definitely try our best to solve the issue and to test our design with a series of prototypes produced in a more professional way. Apart from embedded materials performance which is guided by the internal pressures of the structure, we discovered that behavior resulted from external factors can also capitalize the design; for example, the different shadow casted under sunlight by different materials. Therefore, we proceeded to research on various interactive mechanisms from the external environment that would best optimize the aesthetic value in the expression of material performance.

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<50.1> Strips were numbered and cut.

51.1

<50.2> The structure was not well-balanced.

<50.3> The vault at the entrance seemed a bit too low in comparison with the massive structure.

<50.4> The efffect created by light was quite interesting. This possessed potential in further develop the the pattern and density of the waffle grid in creating various atmosphere.

It was clear that the joints between strips did not work very well. Although the cause could be due to the inaccurate dimension of strips, we explored an alternative method of joints.As inspired by the previous case study, we made prototype with strips connected by pins at certain distances. We think this method was a bit more time consuming but would potentially produce a more stable and flexible structure. Yet, the uniqueness of material would be interrupted by the steel pins. 51.2

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TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL| There were a number of potential drawbacks of the design that we would have to overcome. One of them was the

B.6.

<52.1> Site analysis of the site. <53.1> Photo Montage

After studying our design with prototypes, we made adjustments in grasshopper in order to make it suit better into the site; the number of supports, the height of vaults and the southern canopy were elevated, the positions of supporting columns were also altered so that the overall design would more precisely with the existing major pathway and surroundings as evaluated in the site analysis.

<52.2> The relationship between the structure and the surrounding landmakr and facilities.

To generate electricity in an interactive way, we decided to adpot Vibrational Energy Sheet Pavement on the major pathway connecting the main access on south and the river side, as well as the area inaide our design. This would offer opportunity for visitors to walk around the structure ‘with a purpose’ and capitalize the affects of our design in terms of drawing awareness and conveying the idea of sustinability. According to the research, it is says that one square meter of an energy sheet is placed in the one the world’s busiest pedestrian area where there are 900,000 people walking across. During the testing period of 20 days, the energy sheet is able to generate around 78 Wh daily. Nonetheless, while a household consumes 301 kWh per day, the energy generated merely by this method could probably unable to provide electricity for thousands of household. Therefore, we would proceed to look for alternative or a coombination of ways to generate sufficient electricity.

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The intereactiveness which would characterize our design should be capitalized by the parametric tool in a greater extent. For instance, where the density of waffle grid of the canopy area would need to be higher, instead of adjusting the control points on curves, parameters such as attractor points could be used in order to observe the immediate respond of structual elements in terms of their density, thickness, orientation, etc.

The aesthetic and efficiency in the innovative use of materials has in fact become a common approach of designers today as to reveal the advancement of technology and future possibilities. Thus the technique developed aims to generate an eye-catching structure with the visual impact of contrary material and structual systems as a medium to promote sustainability as well as a sign by the community to show its awareness of future development.

<53.2> Attractor points could be used to control the density, as well as dimension and thickness of waffle strips in order to meet different spatial functions.

Grasshopper and Kangaroo will be used as a form finding tool through its simulation of material performance, both in the stage of form-finding and structual rationalization. In conclusion, by looking at the sources of inspiration for the innovative use of material we are able to see the true values architecture could possess – create visual fascination as well as deliver an ambition in the future of human beings.

<52.3> The plan of our design with yellow region indicating the floor area paved by Vibrational Energy Sheet.

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES| B.7.

Academic references Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 3-62. Objective 5 : Developing ‘the ability to make a case of proposal’ As we carried out our weekly tasks and developed our design intent, we focused too much on our own project but could not realize the importance of learning from precedents. We failed to develop a critical thinking over the drawbacks and limitations of one’s approach. Importantly, we have to continuously criticize our own design and to look for arguments and data to support our design intent. Objective 8 : Begin developing a personalized repertoire of computational techniques Grasshopper is a challenging but intriguing tool for us to explore new possibilities in thinking about design. I think if we really want to be well-equipped by scripting techniques, we have to constantly paying effort watching online tutorials and experimenting– merely watching or reading is not helpful for us to gain real experience.

After the mid-semester presentation, we were given feedback with regards to our scheme. It was a shame that our design failed to meet the criteria of the project. Our design ideas were almost totally rejected – the major problem was that we were simplifying stuff such that parametric tools were used in a little extent. In fact, we attempted to fabricate an outcome made by geodesic curves instead of simple waffle grid; however, we failed to unroll the structure such that we were not able to laser cut our files and we at last made a series of estimated models which totally did not make sense regarding on the essence of parametric design. Although the major cause of our failure in this mid-semester presentation was our failure to fabricate the model, I think we definitely did not try hard enough to look for ways in optimizing our design with parametric tools – which is the core objective of the subject. More explorations are definitely needed to investigate different techniques of producing the structure, if the shape, size, density, angle of inclination and expansion can be controlled, etc. Apart from taking advantage of parametric design, we also have to look at more and more precedents of design that is based on expressing fluid geometry with rigid materials such that we could learn from them and look for any drawbacks that we could prevent.

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Moussavi, Farshid and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-14. Image references 27 http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=7799 28 http://archinect.com/features/article/44893160/smartgeometry-2012-in-troy-new-york http://cita.karch.dk/Menu/Research+Projects/Digital+Formations/Parametric+Wood+(2007)/Parametric+Wood+(2007) 29 http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=4458 31 http://www.poload.com.br/2012/11/projeto-voussoir-cloud/ 37 http://www.yatzer.com/Metropol-Parasol-The-World-s-Largest-Wooden-Structure-J-MAYER-H-Architects. 45 http://matsysdesign.com/category/projects/ 51 http://matsysdesign.com/category/projects/ 52 http://ourworld.unu.edu/en/lets_generate_electricity_by_walking

Objective 2 : Developing ‘an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation’ The variety and dynamicity of grasshopper components is challenging for beginners like me to really understanding how they work and to utilize it in an effectively manner in a short period of time. I wish I have started investigating parametric tools as well as parametric design earlier before the course since I think the project would be much more interesting if one has already gained a certain degree of knowledge about the techniques. Objective 3 : Developing ‘skills in various three-dimensional media’ We were failed to use models in different media to study the scale, material effects, and other aspects of our design. I think it is very important to the success of our final design as it is always difficult to perceive any limitations or possibilities for beginners like us to perceive in a virtual, digital world. We definitely have to pay more effort in producing physical prototypes to explore possibilities in extending the capacity of our design. Objective 7 : Develop foundation understandings of computational geometry, data structures and types of programming The reverse-engineering process was critical to our understanding of scripting; we could make our own design only after knowing how designers use computational design processes to visualize their ideas.

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ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES|

Fractal Tetrahedral

week 4

B.8.

various number of sides of polygon

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change to another brep

use average of points on polygon as centre of scale

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Scrulpture Creation

A canopy structure is formed by moving the point charges upwards.

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week 5

Divide the curves on veronoi pattern and Assign a use the points to make field lines material

Picture sampler

Supporting structure is obtained by curves from the divided field lines controled by graph mapper

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Evaluating field

week 4

Graph mapper

Bezier -2.5

Bezier 7.0

Conic 7.0

Perlin 7.0

Spin force

Ellipse on plane

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Line on plane

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Ellipse

Voronoi

Veronoi + rectangular boundary + move curve Benzier

Gausian

Gausian + power output of graph

Power + power output of graph

Graph controllers

Benzier

Parabola

Square root

Linear + ellipse

Perlin + circle + delaunay edges

Power + square + delaunay edges

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Data tree

week 6

Construction - Creating frames

Creating a grid of points, Tree statistics & Text tag

Relative item

{A;B;C} {A;B;C+1}

{A;B;C} {A;B;C+1} {A;B+1;C} Graph mapper

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{A;B;C}

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