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Architecture 101 Basic Arch Studio A | Fall Semester 2007 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Projects | Understanding Architectural Elements | Figure & Ground Composition | Use of Precedents | “Out of a Box� Exercise | 21st Century Lifeguard Station Design Architecture 102 Basic Arch Studio B| Spring Semester 2008 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Projects | Pattern Design | Bridge | 25x25 Maze Design Exercise | Folly & Maze Design Architecture 399 Advanced Architecture Studio A | Fall Semester 2008 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Projects | Amphiboly & Translation | Words To Writing | Amphiboly & Translation | Idea To Surface | Body Mapping | Material Operation(s) + Assembly | House Design Architecture 342 Advanced Architecture Studio B | Spring Semester 2009 Instructor | Joyce M. Noe, FAIA Projects | Design of a Food Kiosk and Revitalization of the Sustainability Courtyard | Presidential Library Architecture 271 Arch History | Fall Semester 2006 Instructor |Kazi Ashraf Project | Architectural Writing Assignment | Kandariya Mahadeo Temple Architecture 371 Arch Theory| Fall Semester 2008 Instructor |Amy Anderson Project | Architecture Precedent Conceptual Study | Oslo Opera House Architecture 235+L Computer Applications in Arch | Spring Semester 2007 Instructor |Hyoung-June Park Project | Jacobs House Architecture 533 Advanced Design Communication II | Fall Semester 2009 Instructor |Hyoung-June Park Project | Bus Stop Design Architecture 551 Lighting Design | Spring Semester 2009 Instructor |Kristopher Palagi Personal Drawings



Understanding Architectural Elements Architecture 101 Basic Arch Studio A | Fall Semester 2007 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Length | 1 Week The basics elements of architecture are found everywhere, and yet it is through these simple forms that create the foundation for the most spectacular achievements in the built environment today. Our task was to define five architectural elements, find three different examples of each, and then create our own hybrid products by exploring and implementing our creativity. For me, this was a project of breaking down a technology to its mere practicality, letting go of the constraints of reality, and allowing something innovative to take shape.

Architectural Elements 1 Door 2 Roof 3 Furniture 4 Window 5 Light


FIGURE & GROUND COMPOSITION Figure & Ground Composition Architecture 101 Basic Arch Studio A | Fall Semester 2007 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Length | 1 Week Originality is derived from the unique perception of every individual. It is no phenomenon that everything is subjective when experiences, backgrounds, situations, and interests are all taken into consideration. For this reason, we have what we call “figure,” where our spontaneous attention is drawn to in entire completion, while the areas that remain hidden to our senses are called “ground.” In the famous Gestalt example “Young Lady Old Lady,” one’s perception can spontaneously alter based on momentary sensory changes, feelings, and minute fixations. Understanding that concept, we were given a map of “Nolli: The Great Plan of Rome.” We used our own interpretation of the city and enlarged any portion of the map that stood as our individual “figure” until we found a suitable spot of focus. It was then our task to develop our own message from of the city, looking deep into what we personally found to be most important. Through hierarchical ordering, I was able to convey a strong axis running diagonally through the field of focus, creating a point of separation between public and private areas. Although still extremely interpretive, in architecture we have the opportunity to control this awareness and convey a specific idea, and in this case, through the articulation and visual hierarchy of “figure” and “ground.”

“Young Lady Old Lady”



||ADDITIVE & SUBTRACTIVE Use of Precedents Architecture 101 Basic Arch Studio A| Fall Semester 2007 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Length | 1 Week Precedents in architecture stand as a moment in history that transcend a style, an enrichment, and a sense of past. Our task was to capture the embodied feeling from the theoretical foundations found in these precedents, specifically from the analysis of Richard Meier’s “Smith House.” From a variety of studies on the house, we were to choose four that represented the precedent building best. Eventually, that led to the construction of a physical model, which represents a literal form of understanding and a transformation of the precedent description.

Additive & Subtractive | Breaking down the precedent into its crucial pieces means the addition and subtraction of architectural elements to and from a core.

||NATURAL LIGHT Natural Light | Regulating the amount, color, and direction of light that passes through the openings in the precedent has a drastic impact on the feeling of volume in a space. Understanding an architect’s placement of such choices sets a direction for their design intent.


Hierarchy | Each piece to this precedent has its own importance. Based on the understanding of the designer’s intent, different materials were assigned to each area depending on their hierarchical order as a whole.

||UNIT TO WHOLE Unit to Whole | As itself, Richard Meier’s “Smith House” is a whole. Yet, broken into multiple units, the house can be seen as a combination of individual pieces. The model makes this idea come alive by being able to fold up as a whole, and then unwind itself as the solitary shapes take their own form in their assigned areas.


“OUT OF A BOX” EXERCISE “Out of a Box” Exercise Architecture 101 Basic Arch Studio A| Fall Semester 2007 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Length | 1.5 Weeks

The nine basic shapes to the right make up the foundation to the systematic procedure of architectural design. Yet, when applied in an architectural situation, these shapes cannot only be looked at 2-Dimensionally, but instead they must be visualized with a 3-Dimensional understanding. In this project, we were to take these 2-Dimensional shapes and apply them in a 10X10X10 inch box in a way that not only provides recognition to the shapes and what they represent to architectural history, but we were to assemble them in an orientation that “stepped out of the box.” Pulling away from the commonality of simple geometry, the task was to explore our creativity and imagination by creating a box that really wasn’t a box at all. In actuality, this box would become something far more complicated than a six sided cube. With a quick glance, the required 2-Dimensional shapes may be left unnoticed, but upon careful examination of this movable model, it is clear that all components were included in some way or another.

N or Z | This shape is made of a stationary corner shape and a movable piece that slides on a track.

I | This shape was exploded and pieced together with rhythmic gaps to still keep the shape, but allow for a visual finish.

+ | This shape is made of two stationary arms connected to a set of tracks, which run the connecting piece to complete the shape.

L | This shape is composed of the “I” piece and another simple beam located in the background. T | Using the same moving piece that completes the

“+” for the top of the

“T,” the bottom extension is a stationary piece.

H | This shape uses the same sliding piece that makes the “Z” and like that shape, it is only visible from a top view.

O | Made of two semi circle shaped half pipes, the “O” can only be seen from certain angles. U | This shape is made up of two “J” shapes running on the same track, and is only visible when they touch

| The same two objects that make the “O” create the box shape, which can only be seen from certain angles.


WAIMEA BAY LIFEGUARD STATION DESIGN 21st Century Lifeguard Station Design Location | Waimea Bay Architecture 101 Basic Arch Studio A| Fall Semester 2007 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Length | 2 Months “Eddie would go” Architecture is about finding the perfect combination between design and practicality. In this project we were forced to recognize our contributions and responsibilities as an architect in society, all without losing the essence of beautify and how important that is to the built environment. Our task was to design a lifeguard station for the future, located at Waimea Bay Beach Park. The irony in the design of a lifeguard station speaks for itself. It is a structure built for the purpose of saving lives, and to compete with that level of importance could not be compromised or compensated, especially for aesthetics. With that in mind, along with a heavy list of specific program requirements, it was clear that tackling this project would not be simple. From there, my concept emerged from the project itself. The design of this lifeguard station represents the heroic lifestyle of Eddie Aikau. In fact, he was actually the first ever lifeguard at Waimea Bay, and throughout his entire time in this position, not one life was lost. Therefore, the lifeguard station upholds his historical task by combining the needs of existing lifeguards, modernized tools and design, and visual representation of the concept. Structural metaphors are used to draw uneducated beach visitors to the station, where places of education and information are available. The obvious priority to this design is its functionality, but piecing the puzzle between that aspect and symbolic representation allows this lifeguard station to act more than just a community tool, but it becomes just as much a part of Waimea Bay as the sand, sun, and surf. Eddie Aikau | “Eddie Would Go” is a saying heard frequently throughout Hawaii. It represents the bravery and courage of former North Shore, O’ahu lifeguard and big wave surfer Eddie Aikau and exemplifies his undying spirit. He was lost as sea in a solo rescue attempt for his fellow crew members of the voyaging canoe, Hokule’a. He is honored whenever the North Shore surf reaches its peak, when the most fearless surfers compete in a contest dedicated to Eddie’s heroic actions.


Concept Model | Nature’s true power makes itself known through the ocean. Man kinds constant urge to control will never surpass the awesome power of the sea. This model represents the extreme strength of water and the respect and care we must give to it in order to be able to enjoy it. In that same way, the lifeguard station pays honor to nature while acting with it, rather than against it.


Spatial Process | Initial Design | The first priority of a lifeguard station is to assist lifeguards in saving lives. Working with that idea, spatial diagramming was a necessity when eventually coming upon the initial design of the structure.













Pattern Design | Bridge Architecture 102 Basic Arch Studio B| Spring Semester 2008 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Length | 1 Month Up to the point of this project, what I had learned about patterns was limited to the definition of a recurring set of objects that take place in a predictable fashion. For example: ABC ABC ABC ABC... Yet in this project we were given the task of understanding the definition of “pattern” in the process of synthesis and analysis. Our goal was to design patterns that imply behavior and meaning, which would later become the basis for a form, and eventually a 3-Dimensional, physical model. We started with basic line drawings, employing various line weights to present hierarchy and, in my case, movement. It was important to keep in mind what a pattern really was, and what that meant to me. Getting from simple line drawings to a built form took a gradual process of understanding and visualization of meaning. Our project sequence went from LINE & CURVE to 2D SHAPE, and finally to 3D FORM. The final form represents a bridge, made up of the connection of a single 2D shape repeated and arranged in a random sequence. It then became a question of what does a bridge mean to us? In this project, the bridge became a metaphor for the transfer of information, the connection between one mind to the next, and the ability to teach. The model itself stabilizes groups of pattern shapes on a hinge that branch out to distant receiving points. Interacting with this model is key to understanding the true concept of “bridge” and the deeper usage of a pattern.

2D Shape | The individual pattern shapes were designed on velum, reproduced in AutoCAD, and eventually mass produced by a laser cutter on balsa wood. As shown on the left, branching groups can be moved to further explain the overall concept of this pattern representation.





25x25 Maze Design Exercise Architecture 102 Basic Arch Studio B| Spring Semester 2008 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Length | 2 Weeks What is architecture without human interaction? When designing anything, taking into account the way human beings react within a space is crucial. Understanding how people move, think, and process information given to them can allow us as designers to create spaces that not only appeal to the human eye, but have a greater effect on their response to the overall atmosphere. In this project we designed 3 mazes using a 25x25 template. Throughout the entire process of designing each maze, we had to take into account the difficulty of each by designating a certain amount for each intersection, straightaway, or dead end, until finally reaching the goal. This provided us with a scientific background for each maze design and made it more realistic when keeping in mind actual people moving through our spaces. But, it always seemed too simple. Isn’t the real intent of a maze to provide complexity? It was from that idea that I came upon a concept for my final 3D models: Deceptive Simplicity | Ultimate Complexity

Maze B | What could be easier than a maze marked by see-through walls? In this case, a lot of things could be simpler. Although the participant of this maze is able to see through to the center, the real “goal” is one floor below, and the only way of getting there is a hold in the ground pushed to a far corner of the maze. Even on a map, it might show that the “goal” is in the center, but thinking 2-Dimensionally in this scenario would do you no good. Maze C | The complexity of this maze is based solely on the monotony and specific characteristics of the materials used in making it. Imagine being stuck in this maze. Looking towards the sky, all that are visible are the repetitive wooden posts and the off-white canvas walls. Now, place this maze in a windy location. Those walls that were once static would now be blowing in every direction, opening and closing corridors, and creating dead ends in spaces that were once open.

25X25 MAZE


Maze A | Small scale mazes, like those only 25x25 units squared are always going to be simple enough. But I asked the question, how simple would a maze be if the floors moved, creating gaps where there was once a floor and vise versa? Therefore, as far as materials, I went with a tall, opaque wall structure so that any visitor wouldn’t realize which floors near the center were moved until you got right up to it.



Folly & Maze Design Architecture 102 Basic Arch Studio B| Spring Semester 2008 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Location | Quad Between UHM SoA and Hawaii Hall Length | 1 Month


Taking what we had previously learned about the characteristics of a maze, we were now given the task of applying that to a real world situation. In between the University of Hawaii School of Architecture and Hawaii Hall is a quad where a proposed exhibition and student use space would be built. Our mission as architects was to develop this area with the necessary component while applying the idea of a maze. When working with mazes, it is by definition that there is a goal in mind. In the case of this project, our goal was the incorporation of a Folly. Historically, a folly meant something of extreme undesirability, or something totally contradictory. But presently, the folly is something sought after. It is a form of extravagance that seeks attention, and as long as they’re desired, they have their place in the built environment.


The process of this project took extra care due to the meticulous specifications that have an effect on how one perceives a maze. Subtle changes in one’s view, and even a total lack of visibility describes the maze aspect of this project, but incorporating the folly, and drawing students and staff into this unused area of campus became the ultimate goal. Understanding the circulation of pedestrians, wind and sunlight patterns, along with program requirements was crucial to giving a sense of folly and maze. In the end, this project was almost sculptural rather than architectural. While each structure within this folly had its specific function, it was the form of each that became most important.


AMPHIBOLY | TRANSLATION Amphiboly & Translation | Words To Writing Architecture 399 Advanced Architecture Studio A | Fall Semester 2008 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Length | 0.5 Weeks


Given two random words (Amphiboly and Translation), the task was to decipher the meaning between their combination in a written form, and later represent that idea visually. Why on EARTH would the words “amphiboly” and “translate” coexist together?…when there are obviously so many other planets in our solar system that are more accepting of harmonious word marriage? While that may not be funny (or even make sense) to most people, I’m sure that an amphiboly expert would have found my opening statement to be hilarious. In fact, it would have shot him “out of this world.” In clarification, an amphiboly, made up of two root words (Amphi – meaning “both sides,” and boly – meaning interpose or intervene) is an ambiguous grammatical construction. It is a statement whose meaning is unclear due to the fact that it can be interpreted in more ways than one. Therefore, going back to my opening sentence “Why on Earth would the words “amphiboly” and “translate” coexist together,” it is unknown if I am simply asking why these words were brought up together, or literally, why are these two words together on specifically planet Earth and not Mercury, Venus, Mars, etc. Better examples of amphibolies (aka examples I didn’t make up) make it easier to understand exactly what an amphiboly is: For instance, “The anthropologist went to a remote area and took photographs of some native women, but they weren’t developed;” and one of the most famous amphibolies, “I once shot an elephant in my pajamas. How he got in my pajamas I’ll never know.” Amphibolies are all about how they are interpreted. The implication of each statement can depend on any amount of variables including, but definitely not limited to culture, location, language, or context. But the one thing that needs to remain clear is that there is a way to translate the amphiboly throughout its dynamic, and sometimes humorous meaning. Konobunni wa nanimo imi wa arimasenga. Kono essay wo naga kushite kuremasu. Without knowing Japanese, this statement means absolutely nothing. To most, it is just a random sequence of foreign sounds and pronunciations. Yet to someone who is able to translate this statement, it could mean everything. It could be anything from the directions to a lost city to a password into a vault of monumental amounts of wealth. Unfortunately, literally translated it just means, “This sentence means nothing but makes my essay longer.” But the point is that the ability to translate something gives you an immeasurable power. It’s a power that goes far beyond the translation of languages, but allows for the interpretation of expression and the ability to understand ideally anything. The action of translation is not merely a physical movement, but a mental path into comprehension that holds no limits as well. So, I ask again, why do the words “amphiboly” and “translate” coexist together? An amphiboly is more than just a statement with dual meanings; in fact, it is a symbol for the unknown and the undiscovered. In the same way, the translation and deciphering of these mysteries stands for the directional movement we go through to challenge ourselves and unearth those secrets that are hidden. I don’t mean this literally, but there are always obstacles we face that end up helping us whether we like it or not. To me, an amphiboly is a lot like a Halloween costume. When you wear the costume on October 31st, you fit in with the festivities and it works, but wear that costume on any other day of the year and you just look stupid. Translating, and having the power to solve problems and understand when to wear or when not to wear the costume is what allows people to set no boundaries and do what others thought was once impossible. Translation is a power that allows you to express yourself how you want and at the same time interpret and understand the way others express themselves. And ultimately, when combined, “amphiboly” and “translation” give you the power of choice, so you can still be that mummy on Christmas or that ghost on the 4th of July.

Amphiboly & Translation | Idea To Surface Architecture 399 Advanced Architecture Studio A | Fall Semester 2008 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Length | 0.5 Weeks Everything is subjective, and as long as people continue to be unique, there will always be varying views for any situation. The drawing on the far left is seemingly abstract, but when rotated and additional pieces are included, it becomes a setting to a fictional scene. It is to show that there is never only one way to distinguish something, and especially in architecture, understanding the built form means taking into account all sides of perception. Understanding various meanings to an amphiboly is nothing more than a translation of its complexity. The two drawings to the far right represent the definition of “translation� and how it means so much more than the conversion of one language to another. It is the understanding of an idea, processing that information, and providing one with that choice on how to react. Knowledge is power, and the power to choose is far more valuable than the a blissful ignorance.



Body Mapping Architecture 399 Advanced Architecture Studio A | Fall Semester 2008 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Length | 1 Week Mapping is more than just navigation, but rather it is about uncovering unseen realities. In this project we explored our own bodies, examined the underlying workings of them, and relayed that information through visual representation. The goal was to determine a deeper understanding of something that is always there, but possibly overlooked. This project is a redefinition of the human body, navigating by a map that goes by a geography of its own kind.

Developing Body Map | Learning from the various movements of the first model, it became clear that the final goal would be to map basic emotions through the measurement of movement. Perceiving emotion is largely based on facial expression paired with the positioning of one’s extremities, applying vast hierarchy on points of rotation (neck, shoulders, elbows, knees, etc).

Initial Sketch | Initial sketches explored the inner workings of the human body and the effect of how something unseen and unmapped could have such a huge impact on the perception of emotion. Judging, realizing, and understanding emotion is seemingly such an exterior element, when really it originates from within. Initial Model | A life size cardboard model with labeled hinge points captured basic movements that represented different emotions. Certain expressions often trigger different bodily movements that are unique to that specific feeling.

Emotion Comparison Diagram | Comparing and overlaying the body language of two completely different emotions finds that it is often the case that many points of movement will be similar, while a small change in others can emphasize something Final Model | My final model works on various totally opposite. levels. From a plan view, points of rotation on the body are emphasized through a higher density of vertical wooden cylinders. Cut a section, and one would see the rhythmic waves of those dowels as they rise at those same areas of influence, and fall along areas of the body that hold less importance to conveying emotion. Colored threads link the vertical extensions of the model, representing generic emotions and their influence on body movement at specific points.


Material Operation(s) + Assembly Architecture 399 Advanced Architecture Studio A | Fall Semester 2008 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Length | 1.5 Weeks “An ounce of practice is worth more than a ton of preaching.” Knowledge really is a treasure. It is a power that is available to anyone, yet all it takes to acquire is the drive to learn. The first of two parts to this project was entirely applied to the understanding of a material we had little to no experience with. Our task was to take 36 identically sized samples of our material and manipulate them in 12 different ways, which we would then mount and present within a 1’X1’X1’ wood frame. I chose Wax - Mrs. Palmer’s Private Label Ultra Sticky, Courtesy of Tropical Blends Surf Shop Wax, to be specific. It was a material I had never worked with before, but I felt like it had the potential to be useful down the line. And if not anything else, at least it smelt amazing. The second part of this project was the assembly of our newly researched material in a way that represented a portion of our physical body as a site in a 2’X1’X1’ wood frame. This project was a learning experience, not only in our chosen material, but in the idea of appreciating the value of knowledge. Taking the time to understand anything is a gift, and whether it be wax or architecture, or whether you gain a little or a lot, this project taught me to never take for granted the ability to learn.


WEAVE 2 Samples| Weaved like a matt and reinforced with wire, these two samples intertwine like a mesh.

4 Samples | The key element to understanding wax was its ability to change shape, thus allowing it to be enclosed almost anywhere pending its density.

DRIP 2 Samples | The wax was rolled and kneaded with acrylic paint. Moving on built tracks, these samples could move across a set of molds and drip wax into the tight crevices.

MOLD 3 Samples | Utilizing the liquefied form of wax, intricate molds could be produced once with wax hardened again.


4 Samples | If left alone, wax is quite hard, but after enough force, it softens and is able to cut, where it can then return to its hardened state as a new form.

ROLL 1 Sample | A wax ball is enclosed in a rotating container, allowing the semi hardened wax to roll freely with each spin.

PUNCTURE 3 Samples | Similar to “score� in that it uses the softer properties of wax, different materials were used to puncture the samples for different effects.



4 Samples | The wax was rolled like dough around wire, acting as a skin around the metal and taking its twisting shape.

COVER MELT 5 Samples | Using the melting properties of wax, different effects could be achieved that conveyed the perception of being frozen in time. By altering color, orientation, or direction, wax has the ability to be very deceptive.

2 Samples | Wax has an adaptable characteristic that allows it to take any shape and act as a skin or covering to other objects.

SCORE 3 Samples | Wax is like a canvas in that it can be etched or scored and then display those markings externally. Altering the degrees of scoring will leave different marks. Impressions can be very faint to extremely deep.

3 Samples | Although wax holds attributes that allow for high flexibility and manipulation, its able to hold its shape sturdy enough to be able to stack on itself.


Having completed the material manipulations, we now had the freedom and experience to assemble another 36 material samples into a representation of a portion of our body. By using the connective qualities of wax, I depicted the human brain and the ability to learn. Dripping melted wax over the shaped screen mesh was accurate enough to hit where I wanted, but once there, the wax would move unpredictably until solidifying. Its liquefied time frame symbolized one’s ability to gather information. You can be guided and taught, but you never really know what you will retain. Sometimes information drips off your surface, but keep reapplying that wax and over time, that knowledge will hold strong.


HOUSE DESIGN House Design Architecture 399 Advanced Architecture Studio A | Fall Semester 2008 Instructor | Hyoung-June Park, PhD Location | 47-83 Kamehameha Hwy, Kahaluu, O’ahu, HI Length | 1.5 Months “A house is made of walls and beams; a home is built with love and dreams.” The name of this project is House Design, but in actuality it should have been named HOME Design, because building the most beautiful house means nothing if the occupants disagree with it. In this case, we were to design for a family of four (two professional parents, one high school student, and one middle school student. It was always most important to keep their needs, lifestyles, and daily routines in mind. Designing this home was about understanding the client and their issues, and then balancing that with our own concepts as architects.

Site Diagram | Spatial Diagramming | Massing Model

Located at 47-83 Kamehameha Hwy, Kahaluu, O’ahu, HI, this site overlooks the water into Kaneohe Bay. It is framed by mountain ranges on both sides and looks directly into the Kaneohe Bay Sandbar. It was from this sandbar that the concept for this home originated. Throughout the day, the tide subtly rises and falls, revealing and concealing the natural wonder of a sandbar. There is a certain routine to the water, and it goes to show that with something even as vast as the ocean, predictable changes happen. Similarly, the family that would occupy this home go through those same routines everyday. They wake up, go to school or work, come home, then do it all over again. Therefore, I designed this house to separate them from the monotony of life. Coming home should be a reward. It should be a place of refuge from the predictability of a scheduled lifestyle. Within their home, this family of four is able to capture amazing views of their natural surroundings, with an emphasis on the sandbar. It stands as a constant reminder that we’re all part of the routine of the natural world, but when you’re at home, you can live spontaneously and allow your own tides to rise and fall as you please.

Like the tides that rise and fall, the vertical circulation of this home change subtly with a gradual slope that allows the occupants to almost float from one room to another, removing them from their busy lives of task after task after task. Consideration was also given to horizontal cues that would lead occupants through the house with minute turns and carefully laid out views internally and externally. Framing those views became crucial to conveying my concept, while also taking into consideration site specific issues,comfortability, and aesthetics.




Design of a Food Kiosk and Revitalization of the Sustainability Courtyard Architecture 342 Advanced Architecture Studio B | Spring Semester 2009 Instructor | Joyce M. Noe, FAIA Location | University of Hawaii Manoa Campus Length | 1.5 Months “Be the change you wish to see in the world� Currently, the University of Hawaii Sustainable Courtyard is an outdoor gathering space that invites intellectual, cultural, and aesthetic activities. Opened in early 2002, the Sustainable Courtyard is most commonly used as a place for daytime dining. There are currently two kiosks that provide food for students and staff from all over campus. Our task was to redesign this courtyard in hopes of keeping the same atmosphere, but encouraging more people to utilize the space while implementing new ideas that would modernize and revitalize this unaddressed area. After accomplishing that, we would then design a new kiosk for the courtyard to offer sustainable cuisine and provide awareness towards an energy friendly cause. People sometimes have a fault of not appreciating what they have, but with a more cohesive design, there would be a greater sense of enjoyment for not only the natural beauty of the area, but also the company that they occupy it with. Living a sustainable and eco-friendly lifestyle is not something that can be forced onto an individual, but rather, it is a choice to do better. People have to start making the conscious effort to reverse our pollutant ways, and hopefully once that happens, others will follow.


Being that the majority of designing for this project was landscaping, extra effort had to be put into the site analysis. It was important to understand the site’s answer to issues like circulation, shading, kiosk placement, waste, lighting, etc. For the final design, it was also extra important to know material types, being that there was less emphasis on the built form and more hierarchy with external concerns.


Dusted between the larger stepping stones, and carving an undefined path is light gravel. It’s a material that when kicked up reveals a darker side to it, as moisture is trapped right below the top layer. This makes a visible path through a loosely laid out walkway, symbolizing the paths we must all make towards sustainable living. Walk over that path enough times, and it becomes a trail, where it is then used over and over by other followers in hopes that they will walk in the same path towards change. The new design of the Sustainable Courtyard is a representation of what needs to be done if we want to hang on to Earth’s beauty forever.


The design intent of the new food kiosk within the revitalized Sustainable Courtyard is to act as a Searcher Shoot. The kiosk wall literally opens itself up to potential customers walking past. In a way, it reaches out to those who would normally ignore the detour through the Sustainable Courtyard, and instead draws them towards the kiosk, the courtyard, and eventually towards the thought of making a change into sustainable living. In nature, the searcher shoot sprawls away from the main plant in search of sunlight and nutrients. With that concept in mind, this newly designed kiosk runs its business with the big picture in mind, saving the world through the stomach of one person at a time.



Presidential Library Architecture 342 Advanced Architecture Studio B | Spring Semester 2009 Instructor | Joyce M. Noe, FAIA Location | 43 Ahui Street, Honolulu, HI, 96831 Length | 1.5 Months “Change will not come if we wait for some other person or some other time. We are the ones we’ve been waiting for. We are the change that we seek” Barack Obama, the 44th President of the United States, is a leader of the people. He stands for the common man and the is the symbol for a revitalized nation. Our task was to design the Presidential Library for Barack Obama, in an effort to not only house the documents during his term in office, but to represent his life and archive his greatness in the built form. As a class, we researched all previous Presidential Libraries, from the Herbert Hoover Library to the George W. Bush Library. We scraped these libraries to the bare minimum and came up with our own summary of spaces, site analysis, library statistics, and program list. From there, we were on our own, discovering what President Barack Obama meant to us personally, and to the entire United States of America.



Here in Hawaii, we hear a lot about the term, “Aloha.” Amongst many other things, it is the spirit of giving thanks, showing appreciation, paying respect, and displaying a strong sense of love. Barack Obama’s roots tie down to Hawaii, and it shows in his ability to capture the ears and hearts of millions of people with his personable social skills and his unsurpassed charisma. Obama has a transparency to him. He allows people to see him as a friend rather than just a political leader. With Barack Obama, there is genuine trust being built. But being friendly doesn’t run the most powerful country in the world. Obama is able to find that balance between his leadership and social skills, associating with the common people of America, and supporting them just as much as he needs their support. One cannot stand without the other. Barack Obama is the first African American President of the United States of America. It’s his “claim to fame,” yet he hardly even begins to acknowledge that as a reason for greatness. His transparency allows people to see past the color of his skin and follow him not for who he is on the outside, but what he can do on the inside.


The concept of Barack Obama’s balance through transparency is represented architecturally in this Presidential Library, acting as a museum of his life, and his influence on the world. The library is split into two main sections: the customer service area and the exhibition area. In the same way Obama is able to find balance between the people of the United States and the political aspect of his career, this library finds balance in itself. Extensive vertical and horizontal views are created through the linear design of the library. From important points around the given site, defined axis are created where pathways now lie, creating movement through the created voids. Within the library itself are archiving and artifact preservation rooms, which normally would be off limits to library or museum viewers, but in this museum, the restoration and storing of these historical documents has become an exhibition all alone. It is made sure that people are allowed to witness the care given to Obama’s presidential items, reiterating his openness to the people throughout his years in office. The powerful roof structure mimics the concept model’s symbolization of balance both in plan and elevation view, emphasizing the idea that Obama needs the support of the American people just as much as we need him. One cannot fully blossom without the other, but by working together there is always hope that the possibilities are endless.

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KANDARIYA MAHADEO Architectural Writing Assignment | Kandariya Mahadeo Temple Architecture 271 Arch History | Fall Semester 2006 Instructor |Kazi Ashraf Length | 10 Pages

Located in Southern Asia, the country of India proves to be a significant contributor to the modern world. Many of India’s ancient structures have questioned and puzzled scholars and archaeologists since studies began, while also continuing to leave them in awe at the sheer beauty of its architecture. Yet, to fully understand the meaning and design of Indian architecture, specifically the Kandariya Mahadeo (also spelled Mahadeva) Temple, the history of its origins must first be briefly comprehended. The earliest evidence of similar structures to that of the Kandariya Mahadeo was built in the beginning of the eighth century A.D. These original structures of India were carved straight into the Himalayan Mountains in the city of Masrur, which is the present state of Himachal Pradesh in India. Although these earthquake-damaged, sandstone buildings were never entirely completed, they led to the influence of similar temples in the flourished city of Khajuraho. The history of Khajuraho begins with the Chandellas, who were a powerful Indian dynasty with a long line of leaders. They ruled Central India between the 10th and 14th century A.D., and strived throughout that time until their eventual conquering by a Muslim invasion. Vidyadhara, who was the second to the last leader of the Chandellas before their defeat, is considered to be the most powerful leader of them all, while also being credited for the construction of the Kandariya Mahadeo temple. This temple is just one of 22 preserved temples in Khajuraho, which initially housed over 80 temples total. After Vidyadhara’s death in 1029 A.D., the power of the Chandella dynasty slowly diminished into history. Yet, even though Vidyadhara perished, his legacy of the Kandariya Mahadeo Temple immortalizes his soul. Religiously, the Kandariya Mahadeo temple is dedicated to the Hindu God known as Shiva, also known as Rudra, or “the howler.” In essence, Shiva is one who oversees a wide variety of elements in the Hindu religion, such as protecting animals and performing a cosmic dance, supposedly causing the destruction and re-construction of the world. In Marilyn Stokstad’s Art History, she states, “The exterior has a strong sculptural presence, its massiveness suggesting a “cosmic mountain” composed of ornately carved stone.” When rituals were performed within this sculptural mountain, only an appointed Brahmin priest could enter the temple, where he would pray and circle around the heart of the temple, the Shiva statue. In honor of Shiva, the Kandariya Mahadeo is adjourned with hundreds of sculptures split into five main categories: 1. The first set of sculptures is considered to be the “cult” sculptures that are usually within the innermost chamber of the temple, also known as the garbhagrha. These cult sculptures are represented with statues of servant gods and goddesses. This is especially suiting since the garbhagrha also houses the most important statues of Shiva and other main deities. 2. The second category of rock cut sculptures normally appears within the recessed walls of the Kandariya Mahadeo temple. Depicted in these niches are statues of Parivara (Family), Parsva (servants), Avarana Devatas (divinities), or different Gods and Goddesses. These figures can be specified to a common theme or much less formal depending mostly on their placement on the temple walls. 3. The third arrangement of sculptures includes celestial dancers or celestial beauties known as Apsaras and Surasundaris. These women are often depicted in dancing postures while showing viewers a Hindu hand signal called anjali mudra. Also, these statues, which are usually found on the janghas (central part of the temple wall), pillars, or ceiling brackets, are used to express common moods in human life. 4. The sculptured scenes found in the fourth category are what the Kandariya Mahadeo temple, and the Khajuraho temples in general, are most recognized for. These sculptures convey scenes of teachers and students, dancers, musicians, and most intriguing and questionable of all, statues of erotic couples or groups. 5. The final category of sculptures are carved out images of animals such as lions, elephants, humans, parrots, and boars. These symbolic images are most abundant on the walls of the Kandariya Mahadeo temple.

Amazingly, the Kandariya Mahadeo temple has around 900 separate statues symbolizing the social and cultural basis of Indian and Hindu culture. Yet, the erotic sculptures which gave the temple its fame in the first place makes up only a small fraction of the total amount of carvings. At the same time, those pieces of art are of such importance to the culture and beliefs of that time in history and the followers of Shiva. K.M. Suresh, in Kandariya Mahadeva Temple of Khajuraho writes, “The art of Khajuraho matches and surpasses the medieval school of Orissa, in some cases, revealing the sensuous and many sided charms of the human body.” Rather than think of the erotic sculptures as demeaning or crude, they seem to evoke more of a spiritual awareness in light of the Hindu religion. Ashok Khanna feels, “Whether erotic or not, all the sculpted images on the Khajuraho temples emit an energy, a lust for life, power, grace and gaiety.” Oddly, in many of the actual photographs within Khanna’s book, Rhythm in Khajuraho, the Indian women in society are heavily clothed and fully covered, contradicting the lustful sculptures on the Kandariya Mahadeo temple, but emphasizing the fact that the Indian and Hindu social premise is more about a balance between the physical and spiritual world than anything else. The Kandariya Mahadeo temple was built around 1000 A.D. and is considered to be the most typical of the Khajuraho temples in the way that it represents the majority of structures in that area. “Kandariya” means cave, while “Mahadeo” is one of the many names of Shiva, the God worshiped within the temple. Kandariya Mahadeo therefore literally means, “Cave Shiva,” most likely translating into the cave of Shiva, or the home of Shiva. While the Kandariya Mahadeo temple is considered the grandest of all Indian temples, the entirety of temples within Khajuraho epitomizes Indian architecture to its fullest. Architecturally, the Kandariya Mahadeo temple is representative of Mount Kailash. This mountain is supposedly the home of Shiva within the Himalayan Mountains. Similar to the peaks of Mount Kailash, the Kandariya Mahadeo temple consists of a brilliant spire, also known as a Sikhara. This spire reaches a majestic 30.5 meters, making it the highest point on the temple. From the first spire at the entrance of the Kandariya Mahadeo temple till the final, and largest tower, a gradual increase in height is evident that leads the viewers eyes to the heavens. This use of axis mundi emphasizes the great power of Shiva and the honor and praise the Indian people hold for their Gods and Goddesses. The overall form of the Kandariya Mahadeo temple is generally a symmetrical pyramidal shape with five distinct vertical projections, also known as Rathas. But rather than the stereotypical pyramidal style as in Egypt, the Kandariya Mahadeo temple’s roofing is more domical in contour. The temple stretches about 30 meters in length and 20 meters in width. When first viewing the temple from the outside it is possible to see two main entrances hoisted above a high platform, also known as the jagati. The floor plan of the temple resembles a simple rectangular form, with the exception of four projections protruding from the Northern and Southern walls of the building. The main entrance, or mukhamandapa, is located on the Eastern wall of the temple and follows a path going west through to the mandapa, mahamandapa, antarala, and finally, the garbhagrha. The mandapa and the mahamandapa are both chambers within the Kandariya Mahadeo that lead up to the most sacred area of the temple, the garbhagrha. In between the mandapa and the garbhagrha is the antarala, which rests on an octagonal base and is heavily fortified with carved figures. Within the direct center of the garbhagrha is a grand, marble statue of Shiva, resting on a platform known as pithika. Expectedly, this statue is stationed in the most enclosed and protected part of the temple, exemplifying its importance to Hindu religion and sacred stature. Directly around the sculpture of Shiva is a circular isle allowing circumambulation within the garbhagrha, or womb chamber, beneath the highest sikhara. The Kandariya Mahadeo temple is split into four main parts when looking at it vertically. The bottommost section is considered the base or terrace, while above that is an elevated basement story. Grabbing the attention of viewers is the next section, which is a slight gap that opens into the interior of the temple and fits between the basement floor and the highest sikhara roofing. This gap runs throughout an entire cross section of the Kandariya Mahadeo temple and serves the purpose of light intake and air ventilation. Yet, as stated by J.C. Palmes in A History of Architecture, “The verticals are dominant, but the skilful counterpoint of horizontals prevents monotony.”

Not surprisingly, the construction of the Kandariya Mahadeo temple, its rooms, and all of its aesthetic sculptures was not an easy task to accomplish. The process began at a neighboring city called Panna, which provided the sculptors with the blocks of fine-grained sandstone taken from the quarries along the Ken River. This material produced the beige and pinkish color of the temple. The rocks were brought to the site of the temple and cut down to their specific sizes before being hoisted to their final spot on the building with the use of winches and wooden ramps. Accordingly, Percy Brown in Indian Architecture states, “With the plan so simply and logically projected, the formation of the elevation presented no difficulties, and the designers showed great intelligence and aesthetic knowledge by the manner in which they carried out their handiwork.” Therefore, It is obvious through the fact that the temples of Khjuraho still stand that the Indian builders of the Kandariya Mahadeo temple were extremely advanced in their knowledge of materials, location, and structure, while paying special homage to the religious and cultural aspects of the building. The entire interior and exterior structure of the Kandariya Mahadeo temple are flooded with sculptures of all sorts of depictions and representations. Like all of the temples in Khjuraho, this temple tells the stories of lineage, religion, lust, and life through its architectural art form. But, the beauty and completion of this temple specifically titles it as one of the greatest achievements in Indian architecture. And while the Kandariya Mahadeo’s deepest secrets can never be fully understood, it is through these puzzling questions that we come to the fact that in the future this temple has much more to offer to India, and to the world.

Footnotes Michael W. Mesiter, “Mountain Temples and Temple-Mountains,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 65, no.1 (March 2006): 26-49. Ibid (“in the same place”)., 26. “Khajuraho Tourism.” Delhi Tourism, October 29, 2006. (accessed November 12, 2006). K.M. Suresh, Kandariya Mahadeva Temple of Khajuraho. (Delhi: Bharatiya Kala Prakashan, 1999), 4-8. “Khajuraho Travel Guide.” Surf India 10 Years of Searching India Online, November 5, 2006. (accessed November 10, 2006). K.M. Suresh, Kandariya Mahadeva Temple of Khajuraho. (Delhi: Bharatiya Kala Prakashan, 1999), 8. Marilyn Stokstad, Art History Revised Second Edition Volume 1. (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc, 2005), 348-349. Ibid., 349. Ibid., 352 Ashok Khanna, Rhythm In Khajuraho. (Delhi, India: South Asia Publications, 1997), 38. K.M. Suresh, Kandariya Mahadeva Temple of Khajuraho. (Delhi: Bharatiya Kala Prakashan, 1999), 21, 22 ,35-41, 61. Ibid., 22 Ibid., 22-23 Ibid., 23 Ibid., 23 Anita Thakur, “Khajuraho Temples.” South Asian Women’s Forum. April 17, 2000, (accessed November 14, 2006). Ashok Khanna, Rhythm In Khajuraho. (Delhi, India: South Asia Publications, 1997), 123. K.M. Suresh, Kandariya Mahadeva Temple of Khajuraho. (Delhi: Bharatiya Kala Prakashan, 1999), 21. Ashok Khanna, Rhythm In Khajuraho. (Delhi, India: South Asia Publications, 1997), 123-124. J.C. Palmes, Sir Banister Fletcher’s A History of Architecture. (London, England: The Royal institute of British Architectus and the University of London, 1975), 100-101. Ashok Khanna, Rhythm In Khajuraho. (Delhi, India: South Asia Publications, 1997), 42. Ibid., 37-38. Ibid., 42. K.M. Suresh, Kandariya Mahadeva Temple of Khajuraho. (Delhi: Bharatiya Kala Prakashan, 1999), Pl. 6, 12. Percy Brown, Indian Architecture (Buddhist and Hindu Periods). (D.B. Taraporevala Sons & Co. Private LTD., 1959) 110-112. Ibid., 12-19, 59-67. A.S.R., Vol. 21, p.62, Krishna Deva, Temples of Khjuraho, New Delhi, 1991, pp. 370-371. Timothy Lubin, “Rel. 132 Review Guide For Test 2,” God and Goddess In Hinduism, November 5, 2006. (accessed November 15, 2006). Percy Brown, Indian Architecture (Buddhist and Hindu Periods). (D.B. Taraporevala Sons & Co. Private LTD., 1959) 110-112. Ibid., 111. J.C. Palmes, Sir Banister Fletcher’s A History of Architecture. (London, England: The Royal institute of British Architectus and the University of London, 1975), 100-101. Ashok Khanna, Rhythm In Khajuraho. (Delhi, India: South Asia Publications, 1997), 38 Percy Brown, Indian Architecture (Buddhist and Hindu Periods). (D.B. Taraporevala Sons & Co. Private LTD., 1959) 110-112. K.M. Suresh, Kandariya Mahadeva Temple of Khajuraho. (Delhi: Bharatiya Kala Prakashan, 1999), 55-56.

Bibliography A.S.R., Vol. 21, p.62, Krishna Deva, Temples of Khjuraho, New Delhi, 1991, pp. 370-371. Brown, Percy. Indian Architecture (Buddhist and Hindu Periods). (D.B. Taraporevala Sons & Co. Private LTD., 1959). “Khajuraho Tourism.” Delhi Tourism, October 29, 2006. (accessed November 12, 2006). “Khajuraho Travel Guide.” Surf India 10 Years of Searching India Online, November 5, 2006. madhya-pradesh/khajuraho-info.html (accessed November 10, 2006). Khanna, Ashok. Rhythm In Khajuraho. (Delhi, India: South Asia Publications, 1997). Lubin, Timothy. “Rel. 132 Review Guide For Test 2,” God and Goddess In Hinduism, November 5, 2006. http://home.wlu. edu/~lubint/Rel132T2.htm (accessed November 15, 2006). Mesiter, Michael W. “Mountain Temples and Temple-Mountains,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 65, no.1 (March 2006): 26-49. Palmes, J.C. Sir Banister Fletcher’s A History of Architecture. (London, England: The Royal institute of British Architectus and the University of London, 1975). Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History Revised Second Edition Volume 1. (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc, 2005). Suresh, K.M. Kandariya Mahadeva Temple of Khajuraho. (Delhi: Bharatiya Kala Prakashan, 1999). Thakur, Anita. “Khajuraho Temples.” South Asian Women’s Forum. April 17, 2000, history.asp (accessed November 14, 2006).


Architecture Precedent Conceptual Study | Oslo Opera House Architecture 371 Arch Theory| Fall Semester 2008 Instructor |Amy Anderson Location | Oslo, Norway Architect | Snohetta Group Members | Alena Reyes | Chreitien Macutay | George Raco Length | 1.5 Months The ability to see architecture conceptually is a process of development and careful interpretation. For the entire semester leading up to this final project we practiced the skill of analyzing architecture for its purpose, not just in the way that it serves people, but really digging deep to find the architect’s intent. As a group, our task was to tear apart the Oslo Opera House wall by wall, room by room, and floor by floor, searching for meaning, hierarchy, and a complete understanding of the Opera House’s concept . Among many other things, we took into account its relation to the city landmarks, circulation axis, historical importance, inner working, public and private spaces, etc. What it would eventually come down to is the fact that as a group we would be making our own judgements about the theory behind the Oslo Opera House. Whether it was in agreement with Snohetta Architects or not, we had evidence to back up our claim. The Oslo Opera House is basically separated into three working sections: One we called the “factory,” another known as the “wave wall,” and the last one called the “carpet.” The factory represents the inner workings of the Opera House. Everything that goes on to produce a show for the audience happens within the factory. While the factory is an entirely private space, its foil is what we called the carpet, which is a total public space. The carpet is open to anyone. It acts not only as the roof to the Opera House, but also as a free flowing pedestrian circulation space, which is quite different from the uniformed, well oiled machine that happens behind the doors of the factory. Connecting these two spaces is the wave wall, a physical and metaphorical boundary that is neither public or private. The actual shows take place here, combining the hard work from the factory along with the excitement of the audience. The irony in this concept is the oddity of the culmination between these three separate entities. Why would a factory be put in charge of presenting art? And why a carpet? A carpet is a personal belonging, something private and limited to one’s home. The truth is, a factory is a systematic industry for production, whether that be the production of a household product or an Opera, it does what it needs to do, and it does it well. At the same time, ancient, hand-made carpets were once the most unique products to ever be designed. No two were ever alike. In that same way, the carpet of the Oslo Opera House continues that tradition by always putting on something amazing, unique, and extravagant. Long story short, the product of this conceptualization is the Opera House seen today in Norway. Along with a scaled model of this structure, our group was also given the task of representing this concept through any form of media. Being that we were doing a study on a building conveying the arts, we chose to make a short film. In this film, we emphasized the collaboration of both fine arts and the industry that makes it come alive. In effect, our project came alive in both the built form and on screen.





Architecture 235+L Computer Applications in Arch | Spring Semester 2007 Instructor |Hyoung-June Park Architecture 235+L is a computer application course that teaches both in-depth and basic instruction in programs including: Google Sketchup, AutoCAD, Adobe Photoshop, and Form Z. For this specific project, I researched Frank Lloyd Wright’s Jacobs House and rendered images in Form Z under different specifications.






Architecture 533 Advanced Design Communication II | Fall Semester 2009 Instructor |Hyoung-June Park As an advanced version of Arch 235, this class introduced me to programs like Rhinoceros and Maya. In the process of learning these computer applications, we also got acquainted with the School of Architecture’s laser cutter, which was the key component to creating this 3-Dimensional mesh above. For this particular project, the initial design program used was Rhinoceros, which was then used to create the contour DNA model. From there I imported the file into Maya to create renderings using the Mental Ray plug in tool.


TWIN PEAKS: FIRE WALK WITH ME - In dreams, there are no limits. Opening a door could re reveal a cruel reality, or in this case, lead you to the pot of gold at the end of a rainbow. LAMP WATTS BTU/HR Shockwave II Dive light 15 52.5 Mini Mag Light 3 10.5 Eveready Flashlight 3 10.5 TOTAL: 21 73.5

A CLOCKWORK ORANGE - What goes on within the eye of the extended eye lashes? LAMP 2 DESK LAMPS DIVE LIGHT MINI MAG LIGHT CLAMP LIGHT TOTAL

WATTS 52 12 3 100 167

DR. STRANGELOVE 

BTU/HR 182 42 10.5 350 584.5

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WATTS 3 60 23 86


10.5 210 80.5 301

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Architecture 551 Lighting Design | Spring Semester 2009 Instructor |Kristopher Palagi In this class we watched a film per project, analyzed the lighting techniques used, and attempted to recreate our own interpretation of light all from the same camera angle. Who would have thought lighting could be so interesting? As my first online class, it proved to be worth while. The concept behind trying to mimic the lighting representation after watching a film really got me thinking about light and its effect on the built environment. It was a semester long project on an experimentally structured class, and now I’ll never look at lighting the same again.



Someti s, in the midst of one of those way too common all nighters, I’ll just sit there and ponder. I’ll think about how people are out right now, having fun without a care in the world. I’ll think about how little stress other people have, knowing that even though their school work isn’t even started, they can pound it out in a burst of diligence before turning it in for the grade. I think about my choice of major. Is it worth it? Is it worth the seemingly endless amount of time put into one project? Is it worth cutting fingers building models, losing sleep over concepts, living off of chewing gum because there’s never time to grab a meal, and then all to get bashed by a jury that doesn’t feel even an ounce of the passion you put in up until the point of presentation? The truth is, yes, of course it is. Coming into the University of Hawaii School of Architecture my freshman year, I didn’t think it would be as hard as everyone made it out to be. But I stood corrected instantly. Each year spent in this school, I’ve surprised myself with the amount of work I allow to be put into each project. I’ve come to realize that it’s not just for our professors, the grade, or the school, but it genuinely is for ourselves. With every detail put into a model, or every hour spent on a rendering, the concepts we put into our projects reflect who we are as students, and ultimately who we are as people. Hard work should not be taken for granted. Even in myself, I sometimes forget how lucky I am to be able to dedicate so much time and effort into architecture. I am lucky to have the drive to be diligent, to learn, and to think. I am lucky to be a student of architecture, and I will gladly spend my time building a final model over studying for a written test. Being in the School of Architecture has taught me that it is okay to be creative. It is okay to make a career out of something that is subjective, beautiful, and thought provoking. This school has taught me to embrace a unique gift and to work hard at building that talent to become the best at what I am most passionate about. -Kreig Kihara

To Mom and Dad, because the School of Architecture isn’t cheap. And to Dene, because neither is storage space. Thanks.

Kreig Kihara's Undergraduate Architecture Portfolio