5 Main Categories Of Broadcast
Bureau of Labor Sta-s-cs U.S. Department of Labor Career Guide to Industries 2010-‐11 Edi-on Broadcas-ng HBp://www.bls.gov/oco/cg/cgs017.htm
Table Of Contents Program Produc+on • Assistant Producers • Video Editors • Producers • Announcers • Program Directors
• Reporters • News Writers • Broadcast News Analyst • Assistant News Directors • News Directors
• Radio Operators • Television and Video Camera Operators • Master Control Engineers • Technical Directors • Network and Computer Systems Administrators • Network Systems and Data Communica-ons Analyst • Assistant Chief Engineers
• Adver-sing Sales Agents • Con-nuity Directors • Sales Worker Supervisor
• General Manager/ Sta-on Manager
Program Production Employees in program produc-on occupa-ons at television and radio sta-ons create programs such as news, talk, and music shows. (1) Assistant producers-‐ Assist with the prepara+on of musical, wri=en, and visual materials; and +me produc+ons to make sure that they do not run over schedule. May operate cameras and other audio equipment. (2) Video editors-‐ Select and assemble prerecorded video to create a ﬁnished program, applying sound and special eﬀects as necessary. Work in “Conven+onal Edi+ng” as well as newer, “Non-‐linear edi+ng”. (3) Producers-‐ Plan and develop live or taped produc+ons, determining how the show will look and sound. They select the script, talent, sets, props, ligh+ng, and other produc+on elements. Internet producers plan and develop Internet sites that provide news updates, program schedules, and informa+on about popular shows. (4) Announcers-‐ Read news items and provide other informa+on. Many radio announcers, referred to as disc jockeys, play recorded music on radio sta+ons. Announcers and disc jockeys need a good speaking voice. Disc jockeys also need a signiﬁcant knowledge of music. (5) Program directors-‐ In charge of on-‐air programming in radio sta+ons. They decide what type of music will be played, supervise on-‐air personnel, and oPen select the speciﬁc songs and the order in which they will be played. Considerable experience, usually as a disc jockey, is required, as is a thorough knowledge of music.
News Related News, weather, and sports reports are important to television sta-ons because these reports aBract a large audience and account for a large propor-on of revenue. Many radio sta-ons depend on up-‐to-‐the-‐minute news for a major share of their programming.
(1) Reporters-‐ Gather informa+on from various sources, analyze and prepare news stories, and present informa+on on the air. Correspondents report on news occurring in U.S. and foreign ci+es in which they are sta+oned. (2) News Writers-‐ write and edit news stories from informa+on collected by reporters and correspondents. (3) Broadcast news analysts-‐ (Also known as news anchors and newscasters) They analyze, interpret, and broadcast news received from various sources. Newscasters at large sta+ons may specialize in a par+cular ﬁeld. (Weathercasters, sportscasters, etc). (4) Assistant news directors-‐ They supervise the newsroom. They coordinate wire service reports, tape or ﬁlm inserts, and stories from individual news writers and reporters. Assignment editors assign stories to news teams, sending the teams on loca+on if necessary. (5) News directors-‐ Have overall responsibility for the news team, made up of reporters, writers, editors, and newscasters, as well as responsibility for studio and mobile unit produc+on crews. This senior administra+ve posi+on carries with it du+es that include determining what events to cover and how and when they will be presented in a news broadcast.
Technical Employees in these occupa-ons operate and maintain the electronic equipment that records and transmits radio or television programs
(1) Radio operators-‐ Manage equipment that regulates the strength and clarity of signals and the range of sounds of broadcasts. They also monitor and log the outgoing signals and operate transmi=ers They operate equipment that regulates the volume, sound quality, brightness, contrast, and visual quality of a broadcast. Their work can extend outside the studio, as when they set up portable transmiXng equipment or maintain sta+onary towers. (2) Television and video camera-‐ Operators set up and operate studio cameras, which are used in the television studio and outside the studio when a news team is pursuing a story at another loca+on (3) Master control engineers-‐ Ensure that all of the radio or television sta+on's scheduled program elements, such as on-‐loca+on feeds, prerecorded segments, and commercials, are transmi=ed smoothly. They also are responsible for ensuring that transmissions meet FCC requirements. (4) Technical directors-‐ Direct the studio and control room technical staﬀ during the produc+on of a program (5) Network and computer systems administrators/ network systems and data communica-ons analysts-‐ Design, set up, and maintain systems of computer servers (6) Assistant chief engineers-‐ Oversee the day-‐to-‐day technical opera+ons of the sta+on. Responsible for all of the sta+on's technical facili+es and services
Sales Sales work has expanded beyond the tradi-onal role of simply selling adver-sing through a wide range of marke-ng eﬀorts (1) Adver-sing sales agents-‐ (some+mes known as account execu+ves) They sell adver+sing +me to sponsors, adver+sing agencies, and other buyers. Sales representa+ves must have a thorough knowledge of the size and characteris+cs of their network's or sta+on's audience, including income levels, gender distribu+on, age, and consump+on pa=erns. (2) Con-nuity directors-‐ Schedule and produce commercials. In doing so, they take into account the +meslot in which a commercial is to be played, as well as compe+ng adver+sements. Con+nuity directors also create and produce adver+sements for clients who do not produce their own. Large sta+ons and networks generally have several workers who spend all of their +me handling sales. (3) Sales worker supervisors-‐ For businesses that have many workers handling a few large accounts personally, Sales Worker Supervisors supervise these workers. In small sta+ons, part-‐+me sales personnel or announcers oPen handle sales responsibili+es during hours when they are not on the air.
Management General managers (sta-on managers)-‐ Coordinate all radio and TV sta+on ac+vi+es. In very small sta+ons, the manager and a bookkeeper may handle all of the accoun+ng, purchasing, hiring, and other oﬃce work. In larger sta+ons, the general administra+ve staﬀ includes business managers, accountants, lawyers, personnel workers, public rela+ons workers, and others. These professionals are assisted by oﬃce and administra+ve support workers, such as secretaries, word processors, typists, and ﬁnancial clerks.
Employment of workers in broadcas+ng: 2008 and projected change, 2008-‐2018.