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5 Main Categories Of Broadcast

Employment Opportunities

Bureau  of  Labor  Sta-s-cs   U.S.  Department  of  Labor   Career  Guide  to  Industries   2010-­‐11  Edi-on   Broadcas-ng   HBp://    

Table Of Contents Program  Produc+on   • Assistant  Producers   • Video  Editors   • Producers   • Announcers   • Program  Directors  

News  Related  

• Reporters   • News  Writers   • Broadcast  News  Analyst   • Assistant  News  Directors   • News  Directors  


• Radio  Operators   • Television  and  Video  Camera  Operators   • Master  Control  Engineers   • Technical  Directors   • Network  and  Computer  Systems  Administrators   • Network  Systems  and  Data  Communica-ons  Analyst   • Assistant  Chief  Engineers  


• Adver-sing  Sales  Agents   • Con-nuity  Directors   • Sales  Worker  Supervisor  


• General  Manager/  Sta-on  Manager  

Program Production

Program Production Employees  in  program  produc-on  occupa-ons  at  television  and  radio   sta-ons  create  programs  such  as  news,  talk,  and  music  shows.   (1)  Assistant  producers-­‐  Assist  with  the  prepara+on  of  musical,   wri=en,  and  visual  materials;  and  +me  produc+ons  to  make  sure   that  they  do  not  run  over  schedule.  May  operate  cameras  and   other  audio  equipment.     (2)  Video  editors-­‐  Select  and  assemble  prerecorded  video  to  create  a   finished  program,  applying  sound  and  special  effects  as  necessary.   Work  in  “Conven+onal  Edi+ng”  as  well  as  newer,  “Non-­‐linear   edi+ng”.   (3)  Producers-­‐  Plan  and  develop  live  or  taped  produc+ons,   determining  how  the  show  will  look  and  sound.  They  select  the   script,  talent,  sets,  props,  ligh+ng,  and  other  produc+on  elements.   Internet  producers  plan  and  develop  Internet  sites  that  provide   news  updates,  program  schedules,  and  informa+on  about  popular   shows.     (4)  Announcers-­‐  Read  news  items  and  provide  other  informa+on.     Many  radio  announcers,  referred  to  as  disc  jockeys,  play  recorded   music  on  radio  sta+ons.  Announcers  and  disc  jockeys  need  a  good   speaking  voice.  Disc  jockeys  also  need  a  significant  knowledge  of   music.   (5)  Program  directors-­‐  In  charge  of  on-­‐air  programming  in  radio   sta+ons.  They  decide  what  type  of  music  will  be  played,  supervise   on-­‐air  personnel,  and  oPen  select  the  specific  songs  and  the  order   in  which  they  will  be  played.  Considerable  experience,  usually  as  a   disc  jockey,  is  required,  as  is  a  thorough  knowledge  of  music.  

News Related

News Related News,  weather,  and  sports  reports  are  important  to  television  sta-ons   because  these  reports  aBract  a  large  audience  and  account  for  a  large   propor-on  of  revenue.  Many  radio  sta-ons  depend  on  up-­‐to-­‐the-­‐minute   news  for  a  major  share  of  their  programming.    

(1)  Reporters-­‐  Gather  informa+on  from  various  sources,  analyze  and   prepare  news  stories,  and  present  informa+on  on  the  air.   Correspondents  report  on  news  occurring  in  U.S.  and  foreign  ci+es   in  which  they  are  sta+oned.     (2)  News  Writers-­‐  write  and  edit  news  stories  from  informa+on   collected  by  reporters  and  correspondents.   (3)  Broadcast  news  analysts-­‐    (Also  known  as  news  anchors  and   newscasters)  They  analyze,  interpret,  and  broadcast  news  received   from  various  sources.    Newscasters  at  large  sta+ons  may  specialize   in  a  par+cular  field.  (Weathercasters,  sportscasters,  etc).   (4)  Assistant  news  directors-­‐  They  supervise  the  newsroom.  They   coordinate  wire  service  reports,  tape  or  film  inserts,  and  stories   from  individual  news  writers  and  reporters.  Assignment  editors   assign  stories  to  news  teams,  sending  the  teams  on  loca+on  if   necessary.   (5)  News  directors-­‐  Have  overall  responsibility  for  the  news  team,  made   up  of  reporters,  writers,  editors,  and  newscasters,  as  well  as   responsibility  for  studio  and  mobile  unit  produc+on  crews.  This   senior  administra+ve  posi+on  carries  with  it  du+es  that  include   determining  what  events  to  cover  and  how  and  when  they  will  be   presented  in  a  news  broadcast.  


Technical Employees  in  these  occupa-ons  operate  and  maintain  the  electronic   equipment  that  records  and  transmits  radio  or  television  programs  

(1)  Radio  operators-­‐  Manage  equipment  that  regulates  the  strength   and  clarity  of  signals  and  the  range  of  sounds  of  broadcasts.  They   also  monitor  and  log  the  outgoing  signals  and  operate  transmi=ers   They  operate  equipment  that  regulates  the  volume,  sound  quality,   brightness,  contrast,  and  visual  quality  of  a  broadcast.    Their  work   can  extend  outside  the  studio,  as  when  they  set  up  portable   transmiXng  equipment  or  maintain  sta+onary  towers.   (2)  Television  and  video  camera-­‐  Operators  set  up  and  operate  studio   cameras,  which  are  used  in  the  television  studio  and  outside  the   studio  when  a  news  team  is  pursuing  a  story  at  another  loca+on   (3)  Master  control  engineers-­‐  Ensure  that  all  of  the  radio  or  television   sta+on's  scheduled  program  elements,  such  as  on-­‐loca+on  feeds,   prerecorded  segments,  and  commercials,  are  transmi=ed   smoothly.  They  also  are  responsible  for  ensuring  that   transmissions  meet  FCC  requirements.   (4)  Technical  directors-­‐  Direct  the  studio  and  control  room  technical   staff  during  the  produc+on  of  a  program   (5)  Network  and  computer  systems  administrators/  network  systems   and  data  communica-ons  analysts-­‐    Design,  set  up,  and  maintain   systems  of  computer  servers   (6)  Assistant  chief  engineers-­‐  Oversee  the  day-­‐to-­‐day  technical   opera+ons  of  the  sta+on.  Responsible  for  all  of  the  sta+on's   technical  facili+es  and  services  


Sales Sales  work  has  expanded  beyond  the  tradi-onal  role  of  simply  selling   adver-sing  through  a  wide  range  of  marke-ng  efforts   (1)  Adver-sing  sales  agents-­‐  (some+mes  known  as  account  execu+ves)   They  sell  adver+sing  +me  to  sponsors,  adver+sing  agencies,  and   other  buyers.  Sales  representa+ves  must  have  a  thorough   knowledge  of  the  size  and  characteris+cs  of  their  network's  or   sta+on's  audience,  including  income  levels,  gender  distribu+on,   age,  and  consump+on  pa=erns.     (2)  Con-nuity  directors-­‐  Schedule  and  produce  commercials.  In  doing   so,  they  take  into  account  the  +meslot  in  which  a  commercial  is  to   be  played,  as  well  as  compe+ng  adver+sements.    Con+nuity   directors  also  create  and  produce  adver+sements  for  clients  who   do  not  produce  their  own.  Large  sta+ons  and  networks  generally   have  several  workers  who  spend  all  of  their  +me  handling  sales.   (3)  Sales  worker  supervisors-­‐  For  businesses  that  have  many  workers   handling  a  few  large  accounts  personally,  Sales  Worker  Supervisors   supervise  these  workers.  In  small  sta+ons,  part-­‐+me  sales   personnel  or  announcers  oPen  handle  sales  responsibili+es  during   hours  when  they  are  not  on  the  air.  

Management General  managers  (sta-on  managers)-­‐  Coordinate  all  radio  and  TV   sta+on  ac+vi+es.  In  very  small  sta+ons,  the  manager  and  a   bookkeeper  may  handle  all  of  the  accoun+ng,  purchasing,  hiring,  and   other  office  work.  In  larger  sta+ons,  the  general  administra+ve  staff   includes  business  managers,  accountants,  lawyers,  personnel  workers,   public  rela+ons  workers,  and  others.  These  professionals  are  assisted   by  office  and  administra+ve  support  workers,  such  as  secretaries,   word  processors,  typists,  and  financial  clerks.  

Employment  of  workers  in  broadcas+ng:   2008  and  projected  change,  2008-­‐2018.

5 Main Categories of Broadcast employment Opportunities