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Achieving Excellence Allen Cofer Mrs. Karen Redding Honors English 1101 5 December 2012


Achieving Excellence       Table  of  Contents           Analytical  Cover  Letter  ………………………………………………………………………….  1     Quality  Comparison  …...………………………………………………………………………….  3       Least  Successful  Paper………………………………………………………………..    3       Most  Successful  Paper  ………………………………………………………………      8                                                                       What’s  the  Difference?  ………………………………………………………………..13     Revision  Samples…………………………………………………………………………………..  16     Least  Successful  Paper  (with  mark-­‐up)……………………………………………………16     Least  Successful  Paper  (new  final  version)………………………………………………21     Most  Successful  Paper  (with  mark-­‐up)……………………………………………………  26     Most  Successful  Paper  (new  final  version)………………………………………………  30     Free  Choice  Essay  (with  mark-­‐up)……………………………………………………………35     Free  Choice  Essay  (new  final  version)………………………………………………………  46          


December 1, 2012 Karen Redding Professor of English Gainesville State College Oconee Campus 1202 Bishop Farms Parkway Watkinsville, Georgia 30677 Dear Mrs. Redding, Throughout my education experience, my writing skills have always been moderate in comparison to my math skills; I have always needed to work extra hard in my English classes in order to acquire the desired grade. Various factors have caused those struggles when drafting an assignment. Now, though, through your guidance and the course itself, the struggles are less frequent and minor. At the conclusion of English 1101H, my writing techniques have significantly progressed. In order to gain such progression, I have improved argumentative development, formatting, and academic style in all my papers. My first composition, “The Power of Respect” had many academic style errors. Specifically, I violated Picky Rule 35, 28, 14 and 29 multiple times in the paper. A little discouraged, I made an appointment with you to discuss solutions to the weaknesses I portrayed. In the end, the appointment was nothing but beneficial; the appointment helped the next assigned paper become my most successful essay. During the appointment, you helped me understand the importance of disregarding passive voice (PR 24). Sentences like, “Tsai and Fuligni believe that involvement in extracurricular activities ignites a students will to explore their ethnic identity,” (Cofer, paper 2) prove such understanding of Picky Rule 24. Furthermore, my most successful essay did not violate Picky Rule 29, 35, or 14. Phrases like, “My grandfather has a humorous and a generous personality that most people cannot forget” (Cofer, paper 1) are absent in my most successful essay, which provides evidence of progression. Upon submission, composition three was inevitably my least successful essay. Lack of organization in regards to argumentative development explains the lack of success. The thesis of the original final draft reads, “The point of the advertisement is to increase the sales of the Nike Hyperwarm material, and it accomplishes this by using logos, ethos, and pathos”(Cofer, paper 3). Though this thesis is a good start, I needed to explain how it uses ethos, logos, and pathos so scholars know what to expect in the body paragraphs. In order to display progression, I write, “The point of the advertisement is to increase the sales of the Nike Hyperwarm material, and it accomplishes this by articulating its message, reaching its audience and establishing the product’s credibility with a series of various tactics” (Cofer, paper 3). This thesis is clearer, more imaginable, and more arguable in comparison to the initial thesis submitted. Furthermore, unorganized thesis arguments minimize magnificence of the paper. The paper contained appropriate ideas in support of the thesis, but the ideas were not incorporated into my body paragraphs correctly. For instance, I write, “There is a blur in the background surrounding the man and woman. The blur transforms into shades of red and orange that form a fire around the Nike Hyperwarm shirts they both wear. Farther away from the


individuals, the air turns blue, and the shadows take over the light throughout the stadium. In the midst of the various colors and graphics used to represent uncomfortably cold weather, the man and woman display warmth” (Cofer, paper 3) in order to describe the graphics of the advertisement. The flaw dealing with argumentative development comes from the absence of explaining why the graphics portray warmth in the midst of cold weather. By reading my portfolio, you will uncover my solutions to these problems. The free choice research paper came from Honors Political Science. In drafting the paper, I played close attention to all the writing tactics I had learned throughout this course. As you will see, the tactics and advice implemented in “Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990” allowed for a successful paper. The contents of “Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990” include straightforward facts with proper Chicago style citations. The final grade of the research paper was a 93 due to minor grammatical errors and mistyping displayed on the marked version of the essay. In all, this class has revolutionized my outlook on writing. Now, I am much more confident in my writing skills. Knowledge of the 38 Picky Rules helped my in the latter half of the course, and they will continue to help me throughout my education process. The awareness of the rules allow for precise and more reliable sentences in my future essays. I am highly appreciative of your detailed weekly lectures. They helped start compositions assigned, and they helped understand the desired goal of each essay. Thank you for a great semester. Sincerely, Allen Cofer


Allen Cofer Professor Redding English 1101 17 October 2012


Analyzing a Nike Advertisement This particular ad promotes Nike’s new fleet of warm clothing. The Nike Hyperwarm shirts are designed for athletes and physically active who need to stay warm. Advertisers for Nike originally posted this advertisement on their website homepage, but now it can also be found on the front cover of various sport magazines. The point of the advertisement is to increase the sales of the Nike Hyperwarm material, and it accomplishes this by using logos, ethos, and pathos. Nike is a well known sport company that represents nearly every sport team imaginable. It is trusted that Nike will manufacture quality sport apparel and equipment. This establishes the ethos of the actual Nike Hyperwarm shirt. By examining the advertisement, one can easily analyze the ad’s ethos. Starting on the left of the image, The word Nike is above Hyperwarm with a large text size that is bold and white making it stick out off the dark background. The text is a creamy white color in all caps. Under Nike Hyperwarm, is a slogan that reads, “Nike performance from the inside out.” The slogan text is about a quarter the size of the product name (Nike Hyperwarm). Its text is also white, but it is not capitalized. Moving further right, the dark shades of the shadows become a gloomy, cold blue that fades to a lighter blue closer to the middle of the image. At the middle of the image, stands a woman next to a man. They are both wearing the Nike Hyperwarm material. The woman's material is a light form of lime green. She has a nice fit body with a serious look on her face. Her long hair is blowing in the wind signifying they are in an even colder environment. Her face color has a healthy, warm, and tan tone. Her facial expression has a comfortable but serious look


about her. She is comfortable because of the warmth Nike Hyperwarm shirt provides, and she is serious to hint she may be in the middle of a game or workout. She looks as if she is about to strike or intimidate whatever might be in her way. The man is wearing a darker lime green color. He has a military style, short haircut. Like the woman, the man is in very good shape. The lime green Nike Hyperwarm shirt is tight making his core abdominal muscles clearly visible. His facial expression shows no sign of being cold, yet he is serious, comfortable, and ready to take on any challenge just like the girl. Also, they both have on black pants representing their uniformity. There is a blur in the background surrounding the man and woman. The blur transforms into shades of red and orange that form a fire around the Nike Hyperwarm shirts they both wear. Farther away from the individuals, the air turns blue, and the shadows take over the light throughout the stadium. In the midst of the various colors and graphics used to represent uncomfortably cold weather, the man and woman display warmth. At first glance, the image makes a chill run through the viewer's body from the vivid colors that represent the cold air in the stadium. It is an effective advertisement by providing a powerful logos. The overall point in the advertisement is to increase the sales of the Nike Hyperwarm shirt. It gives evidence that the person wearing the Nike Hyperwarm gear will stay warm even if is freezing cold outside. The graphic designers provide this reassurance with the fire coming off the man and woman. Also, it tells whoever wears the Nike Hyperwarm will have an athletic appearance like the man and woman. The man has toned stomach muscles visible through the shirt, and the woman has a tone and in shape body. One puzzling information I do not understand about the picture is why did they not put two famous people in the picture instead of two random models? It could have encouraged the audience to buy the Nike Hyperwarm if


they noticed two high profile people wearing it in the advertisement. This point brings up the final component of the rhetorical triangle. Together, the ethos and logos of an advertisement denote the pathos. After analyzing the logos and ethos of the advertisement, we appeal to our emotions. Each observer of the advertisement can react with different emotions. For example, a person may see the two fit people wearing the Nike Hyperwarm and click on the next link or flip the page having no relation to the advertisement. Others may relate to the individuals and decide they want the new nike t-shirt. The ethos gives us credibility with text and brilliant colors. With further examination, we notice how the text and colors logically establish why and how the the Nike Hyperwarm material will benefit us. Since the man and woman have a distinct orange in resemblance to fire and warmth we conclude it will keep us warm. After looking at every aspect of the advertisement, we make educated emotional appeals to whether or not we agree with the message the advertisement is representing. This ad achieves its goal of promoting the Nike Hyperwarm material to conclusively increase its sales by implementing ethos, pathos, and logos.


Works Cited Shepherd, Richard. “Nike Hyperwarm Material.” Nike.com http://www.nike.com/us/en_us/?ref=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%2 6rct%3Dj%26q%3D%26esrc%3Ds%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D1%26sqi%3D2%26ved%3D 0CC8QFjAA%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.nike.com%252F%26ei%3DgD9rUPjD NZOs8QSrkoE4%26usg%3DAFQjCNFfu6fEgeWQlHU5XPqvVX1nIV4b6w%26sig2%3D7wH IXa-MisqnRmUKRSKNpg 7 October 2012


Allen Cofer Mrs. Redding This I Believe 26 September 2012 Compare and Contrast A person’s identity is simply who they are. Different aspects of life can shape the way you define your own identity. In their article, Kim Tsai and Andrew Fuligni explain that a person’s identity is shaped when they go off to college. Their beliefs gather that a four year college prepares students to seek their identity more so than a 2 year college. Another article, written by Silvia Santos, Anna Ortiz, Alejandro Morales, and Monica Rosales addresses identity. It correlates campus diversity with students’ ethnic identity. They ultimately argue that campus diversity allows a more powerful insight to one’s identity. While both articles look at the way colleges influence students to explore their identities, one article believes extracurricular influence it and the other believes it is the multi diversity of the college. Both group of authors would conclude from their findings that students enrolled at four year school will be more involved in searching for their identity. Both studies hint that a sense of belonging is related to a college student’s feel of their identity. For a large number of students, campus diversity was a positive and enriching experience that fostered a greater sense of belonging and feelings of inclusion and acceptance (Santos, Morales, Ortiz and Rosales 107). Tsai and Fuligni write, “Interactions with students from various backgrounds at diverse colleges may also promote search of and belonging to one’s own ethnic group” (58). Both authors agree that a sense of belonging is always needed in establishing your own identity.


The major difference between the group of authors is their belief on the effects of going to a diverse campus and being involved in extracurricular activities. Tsai an Fuligni believe that extracurricular activities drives the student to start looking into their identity, while Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales believe that going to a diverse campus causes the students to seek their identity. Kim Tsai and Andrew Fuligni focus their research on the fact that being involved with extracurricular activities helps strengthen emotional wellness through engaging in ethnic identity (57). The authors explain by engaging in extracurricular activities students encounter different ethnic backgrounds that illuminate differences in their culture raising ethnic identity issues. (62). The authors believe that being involved with extracurricular activities is what ignites a student into their ethnic search. This involvement in extracurricular activities depends mostly on whether or not the student goes to a 2 year or 4 year school. A 4 year school offers more extracurricular activities than a 2 year school will. Because of this, students at 4-year colleges were engaged in greater levels of ethnic search and exhibited marginally higher levels of ethnic belonging than did students at 2-year colleges (Tsai and Fuligni 62). On the other hand Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales focus their research on campus diversity. They write, “A diverse campus environment encouraged a more mature and evolving sense of ethnic identity in some students” (108). A student feels more comfortable having similar ethnic identities surrounding them to further explore them with their peers (Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales 108). Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales tend to develop their study more around the race aspect of the college students. They write, “The interview sample was composed of 29% White, 26% Latino, 22% African American, and 23% Asian” (106). On the other hand Tsai and Fuligni focused their ideas on what type of college the students chose and where they would be living. Both group of


authors made assumptions around these different factors that significantly affect the development of the students ethnic identity. Also, the authors used different methods of researching to find their answers. Tsai and Fuligni write, “In the 12th grade, students completed questionnaires during school that assessed various domains including identity, academic achievement, and wellbeing (59). Participants also provided their contact information, including their home address, phone number, email, and contact information of two people who would likely know their whereabouts. The students were asked a series of questions that corresponded with their ethnic identity. Then, two years later, there was a follow up with the same students on these questions to see how their experiences changed (59). Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales used a bit of a different approach. The authors used actual college students, and the experiment was only conducted one time. They write, “Semistructured interviews were used to provide a holistic picture of the meaning of ethnic identity for students attending multiethnic universities. The interview protocol consisted of 13 questions and related probes that tapped into the following content areas: (a) ethnic identification, (b) personal meaning of ethnicity, (c) expressions of ethnicity, (d) influences of interethnic interactions on ethnicity, and (e) socio historical forces that have impinged on ethnic identity “ (106). One can conclude that these questions focused more directly on diversity rather than college type and involved activities. Santos, Morals, Ortiz, and Rosales conclude that campus diversity is benign in helping a student sculpt their identity, while Tsai and Fuligni believe that involvement in extracurricular activities ignites a students will to explore their ethnic identity. Both group of authors went about different ways to explore how college students interact and develop their identities. All of them would agree that 4 year schools provide more campus diversity than a 2 year school.


Furthermore, Tsai and Fuligni believe that involvement in activities outside of school sparks their insight to their identities. On the other hand, Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales believe that students who go to a college with diversity are more inclined to develop their identity. No matter their similarities or differences though, both group of authors gave the readers a strong understanding of why college students seek their identity.


Works Cited Monica Rosales, et al. "The Relationship Between Campus Diversity, Students' Ethnic Identity And College Adjustment: A Qualitative Study." Cultural Diversity And Ethnic Minority Psychology 13.2 (2007): 104-114. PsycARTICLES. Web. 13 Sept. 2012.

Tsai, Kim M., and Andrew J. Fuligni. "Change In Ethnic Identity Across The College Transition." Developmental Psychology 48.1 (2012): 56-64. PsycARTICLES. Web. 13 Sept. 2012.


What’s the Difference?

To represent my most successful essay, I chose “Two Articles Uncovered.” The essay compares two articles found in Galileo. The thesis of Two Articles pertains to the conclusions of researchers responsible for drafting the articles. One group of researchers, Kim Tsai and Andrew Fuligni wrote the article “Change in Ethnic Identity Across the College Transition,” while Silvia Santos, Anna Ortiz, Alejandro Morales, and Monica Rosales wrote the article “The Relationship Between Campus Diversity, Students’ Ethnic Identity, and College Adjustment.” One prominent reason for the success of the paper is a clear, arguable, and imaginative thesis supported with evidence. Upon submission, the thesis of the paper stated, “While both articles look at the way colleges influence students to explore their identities, one article believes extracurricular influence it and the other believes it is the multi diversity of the college” (Cofer, paper 2). Even though the thesis is strong and coherent, the word usage it obtains derives a weakness. After review of the paper, I found articles are inanimate meaning only researchers or authors can “look at, argue, believe etc.” After revision, the proper thesis reads, “While both sets of researchers look at the way colleges influence students to explore their identities, one group believes extracurricular influence it and the other believes it is the multi diversity of the college” (Cofer paper 2 final). Throughout “Two Articles Uncovered”, I gave evidence from the articles supporting each researcher’s conclusions and ultimately my thesis. This quality of my paper allows for careful  development  of  ideas  in  coherent,  


sequential paragraphs  explaining  how,  why,  or  in  what  way  the  details  support  the   thesis. Also, the infrequent use of passive voice throughout “Two Articles Uncovered” helps add to its success. The sentence “Tsai and Fuligni believe that involvement in extracurricular activities ignites a students will to explore their ethnic identity” (Cofer, paper 2), displays the proper use of active voice. Throughout drafting “Two Articles Uncovered,” the rules of writing were executed well. Even though I chose “Analyzing a Nike Advertisement” to be my least successful essay upon first submission, it is now my most in depth and thorough essay. The thesis, “The point of the advertisement is to increase the sales of the Nike Hyperwarm material, and it accomplishes this by using logos, ethos, and pathos” (Cofer, paper 3) was a prominent weakness of the paper. The thesis of the essay needed specification to answer how or why the advertisement used ethos, pathos, and logos. Specification of the thesis would have acted as an outline for the rest of the paper. The lack of specification mentioned lead to improper organization of the supporting details. The supporting details were present in the initial final draft of “Analyzing a Nike Advertisement”, but they were not organized the proper way. Also, “Analyzing a Nike Advertisement” has problems with Picky Rule 30. The sentence, “This establishes the ethos of the actual Nike Hyperwarm shirt,” (Cofer paper 3), shows the violation of Picky Rule 30. It is forbidden to use “this,” “that,” “these,” “those,” “which,” or “it” unless the word has a clear and unmistakable antecedent nearby (38 Picky Rules). Corrections of such problems, lead to a superior essay. Both “Two Articles Uncovered” and “Analyzing a Nike Advertisement” had acceptable theses with evidence to support each one. My least successful essay though


lacked specification in the thesis to outline arguments being made throughout the body. The lack of specification led to organization problems, which is the ultimate reason “Analyzing a Nike Advertisement” went down as the least successful essay. Furthermore, passive voice found in the blueprint of “Analyzing a Nike Advertisement” increases its inefficiency. In the drafting process of a successful essay, authors must disregard passive voice and implement active voice. “Two Articles Uncovered” avoided the use of passive voice allowing stability and clearer thoughts throughout its sentence formation. Smooth transitions from one argument to the next also contributed to the success of “Two Articles Uncovered”. In all, lessons of word usage, transitions, and clear theses come from revising essays like “Analyzing a Nike Advertisements” and “Two Articles Uncovered.” Such lessons will only help benefit the career of a writer.


Allen Cofer Professor Redding English 1101 17 October 2012

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Advertisements: Today’s New Thief? This particular advertisement promotes Nike’s new line of warm clothing. The Nike Hyperwarm shirts are designed for athletes and physically active who need to stay warm. Advertisers for Nike originally posted this advertisement on their website homepage, but now it is found on the front cover of various sport magazines. The point of the advertisement is to increase the sales of the Nike Hyperwarm material, and it accomplishes this by articulating its message, reaching its audience and establishing the product’s credibility with a series of various tactics. Nike is a well-known sport company that represents many sport teams. . Nike will manufacture quality sport apparel and equipment. This quality of Nike establishes the ethos of the actual Nike Hyperwarm shirt. By examining the advertisement, one can easily analyze the ad’s ethos (credibility). Starting on the left of the image, The word Nike is above Hyperwarm with a large text size that is bold and white making it stick out off the dark background. The large text size of Nike adds to the credibility the company possesses. It is bold , creamy white in color and in all caps. The all cap texts signifies importance, which adds to the products credibility of being a Nike product. Under Nike Hyperwarm, is a slogan that reads, “Nike performance from the inside out.” The slogan text is about a quarter the size of the product name (Nike Hyperwarm). Its text is also white, but it is not capitalized. Along with establishing credibility, the text catches the audience’s attention making them want to find more information on the product.

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Moving further right, the dark shades of the shadows become a gloomy, cold blue that

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fades to a lighter blue closer to the middle of the image. At the middle of the image, stands a

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woman next to a man. They are both wearing the Nike Hyperwarm material. The woman's material is a light form of lime green. She has a nice fit body with a serious look on her face. Her long hair is blowing in the wind signifying they are in an even colder environment. Her face color has a healthy, warm, and tan tone. Her facial expression has a comfortable but serious look about her. The woman’s facial expression provides the t-shirt with powerful logos. Since she appears comfortable in the windy, cold air the t-shirt achieves its purpose. At first glance, the image makes a chill run through the viewer's body from the vivid colors that represent the cold air in the stadium. It is an effective advertisement by providing such a a powerful logos. The overall point in the advertisement is to increase the sales of the Nike Hyperwarm shirt. It gives

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evidence that the person wearing the Nike Hyperwarm gear will stay warm even if is freezing cold outside. The graphic designers provide this reassurance with the fire coming off the man and woman. She is comfortable because of the warmth Nike Hyperwarm shirt provides, and she is serious to hint she may be in the middle of a game or workout.. The man is wearing a darker lime green color. He has a military style, short haircut in appearance. The appearance of the man and woman help reach the audience. The audiences of this particular advertisement include individuals who are involved in outdoor activities. These individuals desire the traits the man and woman hold which allows the advertisement to acquire the audience’s attention. The advertisement implements whoever wear the Nike Hyperwarm will have an athletic appearance like the man and woman. The man has toned stomach muscles visible through the shirt, and the woman has a tone and in shape body. The lime green Nike Hyperwarm shirt is tight making his core abdominal muscles clearly visible.. His facial expression shows no sign of being cold, yet he is serious, comfortable, and ready to take on any challenge just like the girl. The observer can distinctively see their clenched mouth signifying the

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mood they hold. Also, they both have on black pants representing their uniformity. There is a blur in the background surrounding the man and woman. The blur transforms into shades of red and orange that form a fire around the Nike Hyperwarm shirts they both wear. Farther away from the individuals, the air turns blue, and the shadows take over the light throughout the stadium. In the midst of the various colors and graphics used to represent uncomfortably cold weather, the man and woman display warmth. The advertisement displays this warmth to establish the products credibility. The prospective customers desire a shirt that will keep them warm in cold conditions. The different graphics found throughout the advertisement help ensure benefits of the Nike Hyperwarm shirt.

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The Nike Hyperwarm T-Shirt Ad significantly increased the sales of the product. The ad

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increases the sales by appealing to the audience’s emotions, establishing the products credibility,

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and articulating its message. The rhetorical triangle of ethos, logos, and pathos are all

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incorporated into Nike’s plan of promoting the Nike Hyperwarm T-Shirt. The audience’s

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emotions are reached through the mood the man and woman set with their serious looks. Also,

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the text and brilliant colors provides us with credibility. The audience notices how the Nike

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Hyperwarm material will benefit them. Since the man and woman have a distinct orange in

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resemblance surrounding their body the audience concludes the material will keep them warm.

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With those different tactics, the ad achieves its goal of promoting the Nike Hyperwarm material

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to conclusively increase its sales.

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Works Cited Shepherd, Richard. “Nike Hyperwarm Material.” Nike.com http://www.nike.com/us/en_us/?ref=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%2 6rct%3Dj%26q%3D%26esrc%3Ds%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D1%26sqi%3D2%26ved%3D 0CC8QFjAA%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.nike.com%252F%26ei%3DgD9rUPjD NZOs8QSrkoE4%26usg%3DAFQjCNFfu6fEgeWQlHU5XPqvVX1nIV4b6w%26sig2%3D7wH IXa-MisqnRmUKRSKNpg 7 October 2012

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Allen Cofer Professor Redding English 1101 17 October 2012


Advertisements: Today’s New Thief? This particular advertisement promotes Nike’s new line of warm clothing. The Nike Hyperwarm shirts are designed for athletes and physically active who need to stay warm. Advertisers for Nike originally posted this advertisement on their website homepage, but now it is found on the front cover of various sport magazines. The point of the advertisement is to increase the sales of the Nike Hyperwarm material, and it accomplishes this by articulating its message, reaching its audience and establishing the product’s credibility with a series of various tactics. Nike is a well-known sport company that represents many sport teams. . Nike will manufacture quality sport apparel and equipment. This quality of Nike establishes the ethos of the actual Nike Hyperwarm shirt. By examining the advertisement, one can easily analyze the ad’s ethos (credibility). Starting on the left of the image, the word Nike is above Hyperwarm with a large text size that is bold and white making it stick out off the dark background. The large text size of Nike adds to the credibility the company possesses. It is bold, creamy white in color and in all caps. The all cap texts signifies importance, which adds to the products credibility of being a Nike product. Under Nike Hyperwarm, is a slogan that reads, “Nike performance from the inside out.” The slogan text is about a quarter the size of the product name (Nike Hyperwarm). Its text is also white, but it is not capitalized. Along with establishing credibility, the text catches the audience’s attention making them want to find more information on the product.


Moving further right, the dark shades of the shadows become a gloomy, cold blue that fades to a lighter blue closer to the middle of the image. At the middle of the image, stands a woman next to a man. They are both wearing the Nike Hyperwarm material. The woman's material is a light form of lime green. She has a nice fit body with a serious look on her face. Her long hair is blowing in the wind signifying they are in an even colder environment. Her face color has a healthy, warm, and tan tone. Her facial expression has a comfortable but serious look about her. The woman’s facial expression provides the tshirt with powerful logos. Since she appears comfortable in the windy, cold air the t-shirt achieves its purpose. At first glance, the image makes a chill run through the viewer's body from the vivid colors that represent the cold air in the stadium. It is an effective advertisement by providing such a powerful logos. The overall point in the advertisement is to increase the sales of the Nike Hyperwarm shirt. It gives evidence that the person wearing the Nike Hyperwarm gear will stay warm even if is freezing cold outside. The graphic designers provide this reassurance with the fire coming off the man and woman. She is comfortable because of the warmth Nike Hyperwarm shirt provides, and she is serious to hint she may be in the middle of a game or workout. The man is wearing a darker lime green color. He has a military style, short haircut in appearance. The appearance of the man and woman help reach the audience. The audiences of this particular advertisement include individuals who are involved in outdoor activities. These individuals desire the traits the man and woman hold which allows the advertisement to acquire the audience’s attention. The advertisement implements whoever wear the Nike Hyperwarm will have an athletic appearance like the man and woman. The man has toned stomach muscles visible through the shirt, and the woman


has a tone and in shape body. The lime green Nike Hyperwarm shirt is tight making his core abdominal muscles clearly visible. His facial expression shows no sign of being cold, yet he is serious, comfortable, and ready to take on any challenge just like the girl. The observer can distinctively see their clenched mouth signifying the mood they hold. Also, they both have on black pants representing their uniformity. There is a blur in the background surrounding the man and woman. The blur transforms into shades of red and orange that form a fire around the Nike Hyperwarm shirts they both wear. Farther away from the individuals, the air turns blue, and the shadows take over the light throughout the stadium. In the midst of the various colors and graphics used to represent uncomfortably cold weather, the man and woman display warmth. The advertisement displays this warmth to establish the products credibility. The prospective customers desire a shirt that will keep them warm in cold conditions. The different graphics found throughout the advertisement help ensure benefits of the Nike Hyperwarm shirt. The Nike Hyperwarm T-shirt Ad significantly increased the sales of the product. The ad increases the sales by appealing to the audience’s emotions, establishing the products credibility, and articulating its message. The rhetorical triangle of ethos, logos, and pathos are all incorporated into Nike’s plan of promoting the Nike Hyperwarm TShirt. The audience’s emotions are reached through the mood the man and woman set with their serious looks. Also, the text and brilliant colors provides us with credibility. The audience notices how the Nike Hyperwarm material will benefit them. Since the man and woman have a distinct orange in resemblance surrounding their body the audience concludes the material will keep them warm. With those different tactics, the ad achieves its goal of promoting the Nike Hyperwarm material to conclusively increase its sales.


Works Cited Shepherd, Richard. “Nike Hyperwarm Material.” Nike.com http://www.nike.com/us/en_us/?ref=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fsa% 3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3D%26esrc%3Ds%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D1%26sqi%3D 2%26ved%3D0CC8QFjAA%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.nike.com%252F %26ei%3DgD9rUPjDNZOs8QSrkoE4%26usg%3DAFQjCNFfu6fEgeWQlHU5XPqvVX 1nIV4b6w%26sig2%3D7wHIXa-MisqnRmUKRSKNpg 7 October 2012


Allen Cofer Mrs. Redding This I Believe 26 September 2012

Two Articles Uncovered A person’s identity is simply up to them. Their identity is how they perceive and take on life. Identities shape the pathways individuals take in life, and different aspects of life can shape the way a person defines their identity. In their article Change in Ethnic Identity Across the College Transition, Kim Tsai and Andrew Fuligni explain that a person’s identity shapes when they go off to college. Their beliefs conclude hat a four-year college prepares students to seek their identity more so than a two year college. Another article The Relationship Between

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Campus Diversity , written by Silvia Santos, Anna Ortiz, Alejandro Morales, and Monica

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Rosales addresses identity in relation to the different ethnicities exposed to college students. The

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article correlates campus diversity with students’ ethnic identity. They ultimately argue that

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campus diversity allows a more powerful insight to one’s identity. While both sets of

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researchers look at the way colleges influence students to explore their identities, one group

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believes extracurricular influence it and the other believes it is the multi diversity of the college.

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Both group of authors would conclude from their findings that students enrolled at four

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year schools will be more involved in searching for their identity. Both studies hint that a sense

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of belonging is related to a college student’s understanding of their identity. For a large number

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of students, campus diversity was a positive and enriching experience that fostered a greater sense of belonging and feelings of inclusion and acceptance (Santos, Morales, Ortiz and Rosales 107). Tsai and Fuligni would agree to this statement. Tsai and Fuligni write, “Interactions with

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students from various backgrounds at diverse colleges may also promote search of and belonging to one’s own ethnic group” (58). Both authors agree that a sense of belonging is always needed in establishing a person’s identity. Four-year schools offer more diversity along with extracurricular activities to catalyze this sense of belonging. The major difference between the group of authors is their belief on the effects of going to a diverse campus and being involved in extracurricular activities. Tsai an Fuligni believe that extracurricular activities drive a student to start looking into their own identity (69), while Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales believe that going to a diverse campus causes the students to seek

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their identity (44). Kim Tsai and Andrew Fuligni focus their research on the fact that being

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involved with extracurricular activities helps strengthen emotional wellness through engaging in

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ethnic identity (57). The various types of people partaking in extracurricular allow individuals to

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develop pride in regards to their personal characteristics. The pride contributes to the student’s

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emotional wellness. The authors explain by engaging in extracurricular activities students encounter different ethnic backgrounds that illuminate differences in their culture raising ethnic identity issues. (62). Also, the authors used different methods of researching to find their answers. Tsai and

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Fuligni write, “In the 12th grade, students completed questionnaires during school that assessed various domains including identity, academic achievement, and wellbeing (Tsai and Fuligni 59). Participants also provided their contact information, including their home address, phone number, email, and contact information of two people who would likely know their whereabouts. The students were asked a series of questions that corresponded with their ethnic identity. Then, two years later, there was a follow up with the same students on these questions to see how their experiences changed (59). Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales used a bit of a different approach.

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The authors used actual college students, and the experiment was only conducted one time. They write, “Semi structured interviews were used to provide a holistic picture of the meaning of ethnic identity for students attending multiethnic universities. The interview protocol consisted

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of 13 questions and related probes that tapped into the following content areas: (a) ethnic identification, (b) personal meaning of ethnicity, (c) expressions of ethnicity, (d) influences of interethnic interactions on ethnicity, and (e) socio historical forces that have impinged on ethnic identity “ (106). One can conclude that these questions focused more directly on diversity rather than college type and involved activities. In all, the researcher’s goals were to capture the influences of college on a student’s identity. The importance of the different approaches helps one understand the shifting of these outcomes according to different circumstances. In the end, the approaches led to strong, compassionate conclusions. Santos, Morals, Ortiz, and Rosales conclude that campus diversity is benign in helping a student sculpt their identity, while Tsai and Fuligni believe that involvement in extracurricular activities ignites a students will to explore their ethnic identity. Both group of authors used different ways to explore how college students interact and develop their identities. All of them would agree that 4

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year schools provide more campus diversity than a 2 year school. Furthermore, Tsai and Fuligni believe that involvement in activities outside of school sparks their insight to their identities. On the other hand, Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales believe that students who go to a college with diversity are more inclined to develop their identity. No matter their similarities or

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differences though, both group of authors gave a strong understanding of a college student’s

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identity formation.

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Works Cited Monica Rosales, et al. "The Relationship Between Campus Diversity, Students' Ethnic Identity And College Adjustment: A Qualitative Study." Cultural Diversity And Ethnic Minority Psychology 13.2 (2007): 104-114. PsycARTICLES. Web. 13 Sept. 2012.

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Tsai, Kim M., and Andrew J. Fuligni. "Change In Ethnic Identity Across The College Transition." Developmental Psychology 48.1 (2012): 56-64. PsycARTICLES. Web. 13 Sept. 2012.

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Allen Cofer Mrs. Redding This I Believe 26 September 2012

Two Articles Uncovered A person’s identity is simply up to them. Their identity is how they perceive and take on life. Identities shape the pathways individuals take in life, and different aspects of life can shape the way a person defines their identity. In their article Change in Ethnic Identity Across the College Transition, Kim Tsai and Andrew Fuligni explain that a person’s identity shapes when they go off to college. Their beliefs conclude hat a fouryear college prepares students to seek their identity more so than a two-year college. Another article The Relationship Between Campus Diversity, Students’ Ethnic Identity, and College Adjustment written by Silvia Santos, Anna Ortiz, Alejandro Morales, and Monica Rosales addresses identity in relation to the different ethnicities exposed to college students. The article correlates campus diversity with students’ ethnic identity. They ultimately argue that campus diversity allows a more powerful insight to one’s identity. While both sets of researchers look at the way colleges influence students to explore their identities, one group believes extracurricular influence it and the other believes it is the multi diversity of the college. Both group of authors would conclude from their findings that students enrolled at four year schools will be more involved in searching for their identity. Both studies hint that a sense of belonging is related to a college student’s understanding of their identity. For a large number of students, campus diversity was a positive and enriching experience


that fostered a greater sense of belonging and feelings of inclusion and acceptance (Santos, Morales, Ortiz and Rosales 107). Tsai and Fuligni would agree to this statement. Tsai and Fuligni write, “Interactions with students from various backgrounds at diverse colleges may also promote search of and belonging to one’s own ethnic group” (58). Both authors agree that a sense of belonging is always needed in establishing a person’s identity. Four-year schools offer more diversity along with extracurricular activities to catalyze this sense of belonging. The major difference between the groups of authors is their belief on the effects of going to a diverse campus and being involved in extracurricular activities. Tsai an Fuligni believe that extracurricular activities drive a student to start looking into their own identity (69), while Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales believe that going to a diverse campus causes the students to seek their identity (44). Kim Tsai and Andrew Fuligni focus their research on the fact that being involved with extracurricular activities helps strengthen emotional wellness through engaging in ethnic identity (57). The various types of people partaking in extracurricular allow individuals to develop pride in regards to their personal characteristics. The pride contributes to the student’s emotional wellness. The authors explain by engaging in extracurricular activities students encounter different ethnic backgrounds that illuminate differences in their culture raising ethnic identity issues. (62). Also, the authors used different methods of researching to find their answers. Tsai and Fuligni write, “In the 12th grade, students completed questionnaires during school that assessed various domains including identity, academic achievement, and wellbeing (Tsai and Fuligni 59). Participants also provided their contact information, including their


home address, phone number, email, and contact information of two people who would likely know their whereabouts. The students were asked a series of questions that corresponded with their ethnic identity. Then, two years later, there was a follow up with the same students on these questions to see how their experiences changed (59). Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales used a bit of a different approach. The authors used actual college students, and the experiment was only conducted one time. They write, “Semi structured interviews were used to provide a holistic picture of the meaning of ethnic identity for students attending multiethnic universities. The interview protocol consisted of 13 questions and related probes that tapped into the following content areas: (a) ethnic identification, (b) personal meaning of ethnicity, (c) expressions of ethnicity, (d) influences of interethnic interactions on ethnicity, and (e) socio historical forces that have impinged on ethnic identity “ (106). One can conclude that these questions focused more directly on diversity rather than college type and involved activities. In all, the researcher’s goals were to capture the influences of college on a student’s identity. The importance of the different approaches helps one understand the shifting of these outcomes according to different circumstances. In the end, the approaches led to strong, compassionate conclusions. Santos, Morals, Ortiz, and Rosales conclude that campus diversity is benign in helping a student sculpt their identity, while Tsai and Fuligni believe that involvement in extracurricular activities ignites a students will to explore their ethnic identity. Both group of authors used different ways to explore how college students interact and develop their identities. All of them would agree that 4 year schools provide more campus diversity than a 2 year school. Furthermore, Tsai and Fuligni believe that involvement in activities outside of


school sparks their insight to their identities. On the other hand, Santos, Morales, Ortiz, and Rosales believe that students who go to a college with diversity are more inclined to develop their identity. No matter their similarities or differences though, both group of authors gave a strong understanding of a college student’s identity formation.


Works Cited Monica Rosales, et al. "The Relationship Between Campus Diversity, Students' Ethnic Identity And College Adjustment: A Qualitative Study." Cultural Diversity And Ethnic Minority Psychology 13.2 (2007): 104-114. PsycARTICLES. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. Tsai, Kim M., and Andrew J. Fuligni. "Change In Ethnic Identity Across The College Transition." Developmental Psychology 48.1 (2012): 56-64. PsycARTICLES. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. Â


Political Science Allen Cofer Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990

Immigration has been a profound topic in American politics throughout our country’s history. During George H.W Bush’s term as president the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990 was passed. After the act was passed, the amount of immigrants allowed into the United States increased significantly. Why did the U.S government pass the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990? There were endless reasons why the government allowed this. First, business leaders and delegates argued for the appeal of the latest laws that only allowed 40,000 work related visas. These arguments were held in various committees that the Act had to travel. They needed more skilled, educated workers to enter the workforce for the expected growing economy in 10 to 20 years follow.

bill through its legislation process. Third, voting records showed the need for political reform of Immigration was in agreement of both parties. Fourth, Congress did not want to mimic soviet policy of not allowing any immigrants into the country. Finally, interest groups and their members like AFL-CIO and ACLU fought for political reform of earlier immigration laws. Since the 1965 reform of the U.S. immigration laws the primary emphasis of U.S. immigration policy has been on the reunification of families. The 1965

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Second, influential political leaders like Senator Edward Kennedy sponsored the

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reforms rejected the national quota system established in 1924 and the discriminatory principles upon which it was based. Since 1965, the basic policies underlying U.S. immigration law have not changed. Moving into the 1980’s

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immigration policy focused on refugees and illegal immigrants, not on legal immigrants, and culminated in reforms to the immigration laws in 1986 that were intended to exclude illegal immigrants. Throughout this period, there was little call for change in the laws governing legal immigration (Dowie 1994). In the late 1980s, however, the United States grew anxious about its position in the global economy (Dowie 1994). Pressure to improve the international competitiveness of U.S. businesses and workers led Congress to propose legislation intended to aid U.S. businesses competing in the global economy. Congress proposed changes to the U.S. immigration laws relating to legal immigrants as part of its broader effort to improve the U.S. position in the global marketplace. Proponents of changing the U.S. immigration laws in order to benefit the economy used both Canada and Australia as models to fight their case. In 1986, Canada initiated a program that granted visas to foreign investors who had a net worth of at least $500,000 and who had invested at least $250,000 in the Canadian economy. This program was designed primarily to attract wealthy Hong Kong residents, who were, anxious about the future of the colony following the 1989 Tiananmen Square Massacre and in light of the Chinese government's pending takeover of the colony in 1997. The Canadian program had been a great success:

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an estimated $2 to $4 billion per year had been invested in Canada by immigrants from Hong Kong and more than 10,000 jobs had been created. Australia also has had success in luring wealthy immigrants with a similar program; over thirty percent of the visas Australia issued in 1990 were to immigrants from Hong Kong. The success of the Canadian and Australian programs led Congress to include the Program as part of the reforms contained in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990. There were two forms of The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990. S 358 was the bill that was proposed in the Senate while HR 4300 was proposed in the House of Representatives (Wright 1997). The law separated immigrants into three categories: family sponsored immigrants, employment based immigrants, and self sponsored immigrants. The law gave the Attorney General the responsibility of studying information from the previous five years and deciding which countries or regions had high or low admissions into the United States. A country with 50,000 or more immigrants that acquired a permanent visa in the United States would be considered high admission. These countries would not receive visas. Visas would be given though to countries that did not have 50,000 immigrants. For the years 1992-1994, 700,00 immigrants would enter the United

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States legally. After 1994, only 675,000 immigrants would be allowed to enter.

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Immediate relatives to the immigrants would be exempt from these numbers. The act was to allow more immigrants to come into the United States for work. A total of 140,000 work-related visas were allowed annually.

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Congress took action responding to the influential political leaders that

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sponsored the bill. The leading sponsor of the Act in the Senate was Senator Edward Ted Kennedy. Kennedy was a Democrat from Massachusetts who had dealt with human resources and immigration since he came into office in 1962 (Ross 1991). Kennedy was responsible for crafting the lottery program that came out of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990. In the program, the United States would give away 50,000 per year to people in countries (particularly European) with close cultural ties (Ross 1991). This was somewhat of compromise Kennedy made himself since his own ethnic group is Irish. He pushed to allow more immigrants from his ethnicity into the United States with work related visas. Kennedy was very supportive of this bill and displayed his support

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with his statement, “This bill  is  not  amnesty.  This  bill  does  not  provide  a  free   pass  to  anyone.  This  bill  does  not  give  an  automatic  pardon  to  anyone.  This   bill  does  not  put  those  that  have  been  illegal  that  are  here  in  the  United  States   at  the  front  of  the  line,”  (“Understand  Grace”,  2007).    He  also  had  help  with   fellow  congressmen.   Other co- sponsors that helped Kennedy draft and push the bill through committees and Congress were Republican Alan Simpson from Wyoming, Democrat Daniel Moynihan from New York, Republican Alfonse D’Amato from New York, and Democrat Christopher Dodd from Connecticut. Particularly Alan Simpson played a big role in explaining the different provisions the Act made (Simpson 2006). He corresponded with the House of Representative’s form of the  

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bill (4300) and the Senate’s form (358) to ultimately define each branch of government’s goals so that the bill could get approved and ultimately signed by the President. These sponsors and co-sponsors initiated the positive energy the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990 had in Congress. Another prominent reason why Congress passed the bill was because of the influence of powerful business leaders. Through the process of ratification, the

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Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990 went through a series of committees directed by delegates. Jack Golodner was one of these businessmen and delegates. Mr. Golodner was appointed Executive Secretary of the Council of AFL-CIO Unions for Professional Employees in 1967. Jack Golodner gave a testimony about how his company and others needed more qualified workers to help business profits before Congress (Citrin and Jack 1997). One committee where the Act was spoken on was the Senate Judiciary Committee (Ross 1991). On this committee, another important individual by the name of Arlen Specter spoke in favor of the

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Act. Specter said, “The concern ought to be on the productivity and competiveness in the world market,” (Shanks 1991, 202). Specter was supporting the policies of allowing more skilled workers into the United States under the Immigration Act of 1990. Another businessman who testified in approval of the Immigration Act was Stanley Lundine. He argued, “Specialized and technical skills such as engineering will be essential to maintaining and increasing the competiveness of American industries in such a rapidly changing marketplace,” (Shanks 1991, 203). These

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delegates and businessmen helped influence all members of Congress to vote in favor of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990. Throughout the ratification of the Immigration Act of 1990 voting records supported its passage entirely. The law was introduced on February 7, 1989. It was then reported on its first committee on June 19, 1989. After that the law was sent to the Senate on July 13, 1989. In the Senate, the law passed with a vote of 81- 17 with 2 no voters. Across the country and across platforms, Senate congressional

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leaders voted yes for the act (DeMoss 1994). For example, Democratic Senator Biden from Delaware voted yes for approval of the act while Republican Senator Gorton from Washington voted yes also. In the House of Representatives, the voting record was also one sided. On October 3, 1990 the House of Representatives voted on the approval of the Immigration Act. The results were in favor of the act by a margin of 231- 192. Just like in the Senate castings, both parties ultimately agreed upon the reform the Immigration Act of 1990 gave to the United States immigration policies. In all, this gave George H.W Bush quick authentic reason for signing the bill into law since he was very busy dealing with foreign affairs at the time (Citrin and Green 1997). Another reason why Congress adopted the Immigration Act was their defense policy. Since the Cold War was still occurring, American legislators did not want to mimic soviet policy. The Soviets were the bad guys; therefore Congress did not want to have any similarities with them. The Soviet Union had very strict immigration policies; it was virtually impossible to enter the country,

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and American immigration policies were the same before the Immigration act of 1990. One proponent of the Act, William Lipinski, argued the United States should accept more immigrants to ensure its credibility in the World. He added, “Why did we do the Berlin Airlift- or go to war in Korea? Did we do all this so we could tell people we were fight to protect and liberate? Well we are glad you’re free just do not think about moving into our neighborhood,” (Shanks 1993). Congressional leaders took this into perspective when adopting the Immigration Act of 1990. Finally, interest groups played a vital role in the passage of the Immigration Act. Interest groups from the left and right during the late 1980’s turned all

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attention to discovering why the United States had ceased to be competitive economically. One of these interest groups was the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations. Just like any other major interest group the AFL-CIO gives contributions to different parties in Congress in order to represent their members’ interests. In 1990, the AFL-CIO contributed $300,000 to Democrats in the House of Representatives encouraging the enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act (Open Secrets, n.d). They also contributed about $100,000 to Republicans in the House of Representatives. In the Senate, The AFLCIO gave approximately $420,000 to the Democrats and $270,000 to the Republicans (Open Secrets, n.d). Also, in 1990 the AFL-CIO payed a significant amount of money to lobbyist to ensure the Act would be approved. In all, the interest group spent $1.4 million on lobbying not including the contributions

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mentioned. The AFL-CIO’s contributions and lobbying allowed for the bright future of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990. Another interest group that helped influence the passage of the Immigration Act of 1990 was the American Civil Liberties Union. Lucas Guttentag was the headmaster for the groups Immigration Project from 1985 through 2011 (ACLU, n.d). Guttentag received the annual outstanding litigation award from the American Immigration Lawyers Association because of his contributions for the Immigration Act of 1990 (ACLU, n.d). Not only has Guttentag done an outstanding job litigating various court cases regarding immigration in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s, he has also testified before Congress, published numerous articles regarding immigrants’ rights, and spoken on the Immigration Act of 1990 at conferences and conventions throughout its ratification process (Berkeley, n.d). Guttentag and the ACLU significantly influenced Congress to accept the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990. In this paper, I have explored the puzzle of why the U.S. government passed the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990. Congress took many advocates’ viewpoints on immigration reform into consideration and ultimately approved of the Act. The answer to the puzzle has many pathways. Sponsors and co- sponsors of the Act initially sparked the strong, positive energy it maintained through its ratification process. In addition, businessmen spoke in favor of the act on committees explaining the importance of an increase in skilled and specialized workers in America. Also, voting records in every casting of the Immigration Act

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supported its passage. Furthermore, congressional leaders wanted to maintain America’s defense policy and fundamentally oppose the Soviet Union’s immigration policies. Finally, interest groups lobbied and contributed money to congressional leaders to influence the enactment of the Act. From all of its support, it would be utterly impractical for the U.S. government to disapprove of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990.

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Works Cited 1996. "Immigration Today." Congressional Digest 75, no. 5: 131. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012). Citrin, Jack, and Donald P. Green. 1997. "Public opinion toward immigration reform: The role of economic motivations." Journal Of Politics 59, no. 3: 858. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012). Dowie, Mark. 1994. "Bring us your huddled millionaires." Utne Reading (87500256) no. 63: 99. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012).

Allen Cofer 12/3/12 6:47 PM Deleted: Reader

DeMoss II, R.L. 1991. "New rules on immigration." Nation's Business 79, no. 9: 35. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012) Gafner, Chris, and Stephen Yale-Loehr. 2010. "ATTRACTING THE BEST AND THE BRIGHTEST: A CRITIQUE OF THE CURRENT U.S. IMMIGRATION SYSTEM." Fordham Urban Law Journal 38, no. 1: 183-215. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012). Hinojosa-Ojeda, Raúl. 2012. "The Economic Benefits of Comprhensive Immigration Reform” Cato Journal 32, no. 1: 175-199. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012) Legal Resources. n.d. “Home Page” http://www.hg.org/immigration-law.html#1

Lu, Lingyu, and Sean Nicholson-Crotty. 2010. "Reassessing the Impact of Hispanic Stereotypes on White Americans' Immigration Preferences Reassessing the Impact of Hispanic Stereotypes on White Americans' Immigration Preferences Impact of Hispanic Stereotypes on Whites' Immigration Preferences." Social Science Quarterly (Blackwell Publishing Limited) 91, no. 5: 1312-1328. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012).

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Works Cited

Ross, Julia. 1991. "Immigration Update." ABA Journal 77, no. 2: 111. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012). Shanks, Cheryl. 1991. Immigration and the Politics of American Sovereignty 1890- 1990 Snyder, J. M., 1990, “Campaign contributions as investments: The US House of Representatives 1908–1986,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 61, pp. 195– 206. United States Department of Labor. n.d. “Home Page.” http://www.dol.gov/compliance/laws/comp-ina.htm      

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Political Science Allen Cofer Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990

Immigration has been a profound topic in American politics throughout our country’s history. During George H.W Bush’s term as president the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990 was passed. After the act was passed, the amount of immigrants allowed into the United States increased significantly. Why did the U.S government pass the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990? There were endless reasons why the government allowed this. First, business leaders and delegates argued for the appeal of the latest laws that only allowed 40,000 work related visas. These arguments were held in various committees that the Act had to travel. They needed more skilled, educated workers to enter the workforce for the expected growing economy in 10 to 20 years follow. Second, influential political leaders like Senator Edward Kennedy sponsored the bill through its legislation process. Third, voting records showed the need for political reform of Immigration was in agreement of both parties. Fourth, Congress did not want to mimic soviet policy of not allowing any immigrants into the country. Finally, interest groups and their members like AFL-CIO and ACLU fought for political reform of earlier immigration laws. Since the 1965 reform of the U.S. immigration laws the primary emphasis of U.S. immigration policy has been on the reunification of families. The 1965

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reforms rejected the national quota system established in 1924 and the discriminatory principles upon which it was based. Since 1965, the basic policies underlying U.S. immigration law have not changed. Moving into the 1980’s immigration policy focused on refugees and illegal immigrants, not on legal immigrants, and culminated in reforms to the immigration laws in 1986 that were intended to exclude illegal immigrants. Throughout this period, there was little call for change in the laws governing legal immigration (Dowie 1994). In the late 1980s, however, the United States grew anxious about its position in the global economy (Dowie 1994). Pressure to improve the international competitiveness of U.S. businesses and workers led Congress to propose legislation intended to aid U.S. businesses competing in the global economy. Congress proposed changes to the U.S. immigration laws relating to legal immigrants as part of its broader effort to improve the U.S. position in the global marketplace. Proponents of changing the U.S. immigration laws in order to benefit the economy used both Canada and Australia as models to fight their case. In 1986, Canada initiated a program that granted visas to foreign investors who had a net worth of at least $500,000 and who had invested at least $250,000 in the Canadian economy. This program was designed primarily to attract wealthy Hong Kong residents, who were, anxious about the future of the colony following the 1989 Tiananmen Square Massacre and in light of the Chinese government's pending takeover of the colony in 1997. The Canadian program had been a great success:

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an estimated $2 to $4 billion per year had been invested in Canada by immigrants from Hong Kong and more than 10,000 jobs had been created. Australia also has had success in luring wealthy immigrants with a similar program; over thirty percent of the visas Australia issued in 1990 were to immigrants from Hong Kong. The success of the Canadian and Australian programs led Congress to include the Program as part of the reforms contained in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990. There were two forms of The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990. S 358 was the bill that was proposed in the Senate while HR 4300 was proposed in the House of Representatives (Wright 1997). The law separated immigrants into three categories: family sponsored immigrants, employment based immigrants, and self sponsored immigrants. The law gave the Attorney General the responsibility of studying information from the previous five years and deciding which countries or regions had high or low admissions into the United States. A country with 50,000 or more immigrants that acquired a permanent visa in the United States would be considered high admission. These countries would not receive visas. Visas would be given though to countries that did not have 50,000 immigrants. For the years 1992-1994, 700,00 immigrants would enter the United States legally. After 1994, only 675,000 immigrants would be allowed to enter. Immediate relatives to the immigrants would be exempt from these numbers. The act was to allow more immigrants to come into the United States for work. A total of 140,000 work-related visas were allowed annually.

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Congress took action responding to the influential political leaders that sponsored the bill. The leading sponsor of the Act in the Senate was Senator Edward Ted Kennedy. Kennedy was a Democrat from Massachusetts who had dealt with human resources and immigration since he came into office in 1962 (Ross 1991). Kennedy was responsible for crafting the lottery program that came out of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990. In the program, the United States would give away 50,000 per year to people in countries (particularly European) with close cultural ties (Ross 1991). This was somewhat of compromise Kennedy made himself since his own ethnic group is Irish. He pushed to allow more immigrants from his ethnicity into the United States with work related visas. Kennedy was very supportive of this bill and displayed his support with his statement, “This bill  is  not  amnesty.  This  bill  does  not  provide  a  free   pass  to  anyone.  This  bill  does  not  give  an  automatic  pardon  to  anyone.  This   bill  does  not  put  those  that  have  been  illegal  that  are  here  in  the  United  States   at  the  front  of  the  line,”  (“Understand  Grace”,  2007).    He  also  had  help  with   fellow  congressmen.   Other co- sponsors that helped Kennedy draft and push the bill through committees and Congress were Republican Alan Simpson from Wyoming, Democrat Daniel Moynihan from New York, Republican Alfonse D’Amato from New York, and Democrat Christopher Dodd from Connecticut. Particularly Alan Simpson played a big role in explaining the different provisions the Act made (Simpson 2006). He corresponded with the House of Representative’s form of the  

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bill (4300) and the Senate’s form (358) to ultimately define each branch of government’s goals so that the bill could get approved and ultimately signed by the President. These sponsors and co-sponsors initiated the positive energy the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990 had in Congress. Another prominent reason why Congress passed the bill was because of the influence of powerful business leaders. Through the process of ratification, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990 went through a series of committees directed by delegates. Jack Golodner was one of these businessmen and delegates. Mr. Golodner was appointed Executive Secretary of the Council of AFL-CIO Unions for Professional Employees in 1967. Jack Golodner gave a testimony about how his company and others needed more qualified workers to help business profits before Congress (Citrin and Jack 1997). One committee where the Act was spoken on was the Senate Judiciary Committee (Ross 1991). On this committee, another important individual by the name of Arlen Specter spoke in favor of the Act. Specter said, “The concern ought to be on the productivity and competiveness in the world market,” (Shanks 1991, 202). Specter was supporting the policies of allowing more skilled workers into the United States under the Immigration Act of 1990. Another businessman who testified in approval of the Immigration Act was Stanley Lundine. He argued, “Specialized and technical skills such as engineering will be essential to maintaining and increasing the competiveness of American industries in such a rapidly changing marketplace,” (Shanks 1991, 203). These

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delegates and businessmen helped influence all members of Congress to vote in favor of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990. Throughout the ratification of the Immigration Act of 1990 voting records supported its passage entirely. The law was introduced on February 7, 1989. It was then reported on its first committee on June 19, 1989. After that the law was sent to the Senate on July 13, 1989. In the Senate, the law passed with a vote of 81- 17 with 2 no voters. Across the country and across platforms, Senate congressional leaders voted yes for the act (DeMoss 1994). For example, Democratic Senator Biden from Delaware voted yes for approval of the act while Republican Senator Gorton from Washington voted yes also. In the House of Representatives, the voting record was also one sided. On October 3, 1990 the House of Representatives voted on the approval of the Immigration Act. The results were in favor of the act by a margin of 231- 192. Just like in the Senate castings, both parties ultimately agreed upon the reform the Immigration Act of 1990 gave to the United States immigration policies. In all, this gave George H.W Bush quick authentic reason for signing the bill into law since he was very busy dealing with foreign affairs at the time (Citrin and Green 1997). Another reason why Congress adopted the Immigration Act was their defense policy. Since the Cold War was still occurring, American legislators did not want to mimic soviet policy. The Soviets were the bad guys; therefore Congress did not want to have any similarities with them. The Soviet Union had very strict immigration policies; it was virtually impossible to enter the country,

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and American immigration policies were the same before the Immigration act of 1990. One proponent of the Act, William Lipinski, argued the United States should accept more immigrants to ensure its credibility in the World. He added, “Why did we do the Berlin Airlift- or go to war in Korea? Did we do all this so we could tell people we were fight to protect and liberate? Well we are glad you’re free just do not think about moving into our neighborhood,” (Shanks 1993). Congressional leaders took this into perspective when adopting the Immigration Act of 1990. Finally, interest groups played a vital role in the passage of the Immigration Act. Interest groups from the left and right during the late 1980’s turned all attention to discovering why the United States had ceased to be competitive economically. One of these interest groups was the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations. Just like any other major interest group the AFL-CIO gives contributions to different parties in Congress in order to represent their members’ interests. In 1990, the AFL-CIO contributed $300,000 to Democrats in the House of Representatives encouraging the enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act (Open Secrets, n.d). They also contributed about $100,000 to Republicans in the House of Representatives. In the Senate, The AFLCIO gave approximately $420,000 to the Democrats and $270,000 to the Republicans (Open Secrets, n.d). Also, in 1990 the AFL-CIO payed a significant amount of money to lobbyist to ensure the Act would be approved. In all, the interest group spent $1.4 million on lobbying not including the contributions

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mentioned. The AFL-CIO’s contributions and lobbying allowed for the bright future of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990. Another interest group that helped influence the passage of the Immigration Act of 1990 was the American Civil Liberties Union. Lucas Guttentag was the headmaster for the groups Immigration Project from 1985 through 2011 (ACLU, n.d). Guttentag received the annual outstanding litigation award from the American Immigration Lawyers Association because of his contributions for the Immigration Act of 1990 (ACLU, n.d). Not only has Guttentag done an outstanding job litigating various court cases regarding immigration in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s, he has also testified before Congress, published numerous articles regarding immigrants’ rights, and spoken on the Immigration Act of 1990 at conferences and conventions throughout its ratification process (Berkeley, n.d). Guttentag and the ACLU significantly influenced Congress to accept the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990. In this paper, I have explored the puzzle of why the U.S. government passed the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990. Congress took many advocates’ viewpoints on immigration reform into consideration and ultimately approved of the Act. The answer to the puzzle has many pathways. Sponsors and co- sponsors of the Act initially sparked the strong, positive energy it maintained through its ratification process. In addition, businessmen spoke in favor of the act on committees explaining the importance of an increase in skilled and specialized workers in America. Also, voting records in every casting of the Immigration Act

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supported its passage. Furthermore, congressional leaders wanted to maintain America’s defense policy and fundamentally oppose the Soviet Union’s immigration policies. Finally, interest groups lobbied and contributed money to congressional leaders to influence the enactment of the Act. From all of its support, it would be utterly impractical for the U.S. government to disapprove of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990.

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Works Cited 1996. "Immigration Today." Congressional Digest 75, no. 5: 131. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012). Citrin, Jack, and Donald P. Green. 1997. "Public opinion toward immigration reform: The role of economic motivations." Journal Of Politics 59, no. 3: 858. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012). Dowie, Mark. 1994. "Bring us your huddled millionaires." Utne Reading (87500256) no. 63: 99. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012). DeMoss II, R.L. 1991. "New rules on immigration." Nation's Business 79, no. 9: 35. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012) Gafner, Chris, and Stephen Yale-Loehr. 2010. "ATTRACTING THE BEST AND THE BRIGHTEST: A CRITIQUE OF THE CURRENT U.S. IMMIGRATION SYSTEM." Fordham Urban Law Journal 38, no. 1: 183-215. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012). Hinojosa-Ojeda, Raúl. 2012. "The Economic Benefits of Comprhensive Immigration Reform” Cato Journal 32, no. 1: 175-199. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012) Legal Resources. n.d. “Home Page” http://www.hg.org/immigration-law.html#1

Lu, Lingyu, and Sean Nicholson-Crotty. 2010. "Reassessing the Impact of Hispanic Stereotypes on White Americans' Immigration Preferences Reassessing the Impact of Hispanic Stereotypes on White Americans' Immigration Preferences Impact of Hispanic Stereotypes on Whites' Immigration Preferences." Social Science Quarterly (Blackwell Publishing Limited) 91, no. 5: 1312-1328. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012).

10  


Works Cited

Ross, Julia. 1991. "Immigration Update." ABA Journal 77, no. 2: 111. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2012). Shanks, Cheryl. 1991. Immigration and the Politics of American Sovereignty 1890- 1990 Snyder, J. M., 1990, “Campaign contributions as investments: The US House of Representatives 1908–1986,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 61, pp. 195– 206. United States Department of Labor. n.d. “Home Page.” http://www.dol.gov/compliance/laws/comp-ina.htm        

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