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march 2012. 1

Education


_editorial

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‘Better education’ is the answer we give to most problems of the world, especially those we don’t blame on globalization, but just how far are we from achieving that? Countries in the so-called developed world already showed a way to educate citizens, and that parameter is the most widespread, but the times have changed. The educational system of Europe and the USA was created during the industrial revolution, as an extension to higher education, and we can say it’s main goal is to graduate workers; but for a society to work properly we should be forming citizens, people capable of critical thinking. That was the challenge to this March issue of Libertas, to diagnose and criticise our standards of ‘education’ and to show alternatives - both the ones we already have and the ones we could have. But Libertas isn’t the only one criticising the system: some philosophers already point out that developing countries need to seriously re-think their way of educating children and adults alike. A system based on 18th century values is flawed in many ways, especially when it comes to critical thinking on the technological advances and democratic participation. Keep reading to know some of the problems different countries are facing and to find out what you can enroll in to become a better human being. Daniel Nunes


_contents 04 Sail into the adventure 06 Pakistan: a homeland of ghost schools 08 Education in east africa: The case of rwanda and kenya 10 does money make the education better or worse? 11 movie review: a sting in a tale 12 instead of getting and education, try learning 14 poetry: is it just me? 15 book review: civil disobedience 16 travel destination: iceland 20 music review: mr. johnson 21 pigs in maputo 22 lifelong education 24 poetry: remember 25 orientalism and uganda: reshaping the western ideology 26 The struggle around higher education in brazil 29 education is stregnt. criativity and abstract noun. 31 nairobi, a china town? 32 internet is freedom. knowledge is power 36 events

Libertas 30 education published march 2012

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Sail

into the adventure! text and photos

Ieva Baranona

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It is the set of the sails, not the direction of the wind that determines which way we will go. - Jim Rohn

Today

the notion of education does not comprise only the formal learning we receive at schools and universities. There are numerous possibilities of informal education and learning through leisure. All the opportunities are in front of us, one just has to open one’s eyes to them. One of the exciting learning opportunities not so well-known is sail training. Last year I was lucky enough to stumble across this possibility, thanks to a friend who told me about it. Now I would like to share my experience with “Libertas” readers – maybe you will find it interesting too or maybe it will inspire you to find your own crazy adventure. Every time I tell someone that I joined a sailing team they look at me curiously and begin to wonder – did she win a lottery or marry a millionaire? The truth is quite the opposite – I needed very little money to join the team. The team of Latvian yacht “Spaniel” is open and accessible for everyone who is ready to be a full-fledged member. Membership includes a reasonable yearly participation fee and helping in the maintenance for the yacht in early spring, before the sailing season. While cleaning, fixing and preparing the yacht we also got to know it better and began to feel more attached to it. When the yacht was prepared for the season we attended training trips that were taking place in the weekends and also

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workday evenings. The attendance was free and the more trips we attended the more things we could learn. These small trainings were a preparation for the big sailing event in summer – The Tall Ships Races 2011 where “Spaniel” represents Latvia every year since 1998. All the preparations were worth it. The Tall Ships Races is an event to enjoy to the maximum and long for all the rest of the year. Hundreds of ships and yachts from all over the world join a friendly competition in 4 classes of vessel types. Every year the competition takes place in a different route, for example last year it was in the North Sea, this year – in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. Overall duration is about 2 months so lots of young people have a chance to participate in at least one of the stages of competition. However, when the sail is set, it is not only about sailing. It is also about testing one’s character, communication and crisis management skills. The Tall Ships Races is organized by an international non-for-profit organization “Sail Training International”. Its purpose is “the development and education of young people through the sail training experience, regardless of nationality, culture, religion, gender or social background”. The membership and activities of this organization are worldwide with 28 countries as official members and 15 other countries as


photos: the other page - Majestic vessels on the start line of The Tall Ships Races 2011 this page - left Part of the team of the Latvian yacht „Spaniel” right Process of learning: folding the sail

participants. The first race of Tall Ships Sail Training took place back in 1956. Most of the participating vessels are owned by foundations, charity organizations, schools or universities or by enthusiastic benefactors like in the case of the Latvian yacht “Spaniel”. The vessels are very different – from huge square-rigged ships to small yachts where the participants become as close as family for the duration of the race. In any case, sail training is an adventure available for people of all social backgrounds. Some vessels are specially equipped for training people with disabilities. For most people who engage in this adventure it is a positive and lifechanging experience. Due to the breathtaking nature of this activity it can truly change one’s character for better, teaching how to cope with challenges, work in a team and accept yourself and others no matter how different they might be. I was not sure what to expect from the race and even from myself in such unusual conditions. Now I can say that participation in this adventure was one of the best decisions of my life. Besides learning a myriad of new things and skills I also found some hidden strengths that I did not know I possessed. Sailing for more than one

week changed my perception of things – many trivial things that I was worrying about before, just began to seem funny while other traits like patience and responsibility became pronounced. Not only did we learn how to change the sales, to steer the yacht according to the direction of the wind and hundreds of special sailing terms for even the smallest components of the yacht. Alongside it we also learned how to cook, eat and sleep in an angle of 45 degrees, how to keep our clothes as dry as possible when waves are washing us and how to orientate ourselves in sea navigation devices. Regardless of our age, gender or experience, we always had to obey the skipper, be very disciplined and ready to act fast. Many learning possibilities today are about the same – discovering and developing oneself instead of forcing information into one’s head. Both physical and emotional challenges sometimes are necessary for us to realize our abilities and needs. Through activities like this our outlook gets broader, we become more tolerant and self-confident and ready for problems and crises we might face in our lives. So my advice is – don’t be scared to exceed yourself or you will never know how far you can sail in your life!

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PAKISTAN a homeland of ghost schools 6 text and photos

Asad Ali Siyal

article.

Education is said to be the foundation of a successful society.

In a country where ghost schools are sometimes more commonly seen than functional schools, what will be the educational system over there it’s not too much difficult to predict. Pakistan is a country where education has always been ruined by the feudal lords and bureaucrats. There are so many problems plaguing Pakistan’s educational system anyone who takes on the challenge would be hard pressed to find its starting point. In Pakistan there is a massive increase of such schools which never existed, so called the ‘Ghost Schools’ If you Google the phrase ‘Ghost School’, Pakistan comes up within the top 10 links that the search engine retrieves. It is estimated that there are between 25,000 to 50,000 ghost schools exist in this country. “A ghost school is a place or structure that is registered in the education system as a running public school but is not currently functioning as a school”. Instead of being used for imparting knowledge to the children the buildings are turned into shelters for animals or even as a place where chief of villages and elders gather in the evening after a hard day’s work for the sake of gossips. Anything can happen in these rundown buildings, except educational activities. Ghost schools fall under numerous categories: Some of them are professionally constructed not for the sake of children but as money-making endeavors for those involved in such unscrupulous activities. This ranges from turning them into cattle pens, camps for floodaffected people, fodder storage centers and ‘Autaaqs’ (the feudal guest houses or drawing rooms). In government records, most of these schools appear to be


functioning. The teachers employed for these schools stay at home, take free salaries and apart from that they pursue other gainful professions. This entire process is facilitated by bribing on the pillars of corruption. The miserable image of such rundown ghost schools bring about a number of financial corruption issues in the society. Because they are registered as public schools, monthly salaries of ghost teachers, provident funds and pensions, along with pocket money for administrative work are actually funneled to the school. Where and to whom this money goes to is none of anyone’s business. Bribery and corruption are facilitating people illegally appointed as teachers who benefit from this shameful and criminal system. It is a sad fate of our country that half of the schools being built here were never completed, and those that were completed were not operated and functioned, not due to the lack of funding, but only because of lack of management, state policies and feudal law in order. The hitch of ghost school has widespread in Pakistan, particularly in rural areas. Teacher absenteeism, low attendance and nonexistent funding are contributory factors which are strengthening ghost school phenomenon day by day. The ghost schools phenomenon is undoubtedly the biggest crime to the future generations of Pakistan. In these ghost schools teachers are ill-equipped, badly trained and unprepared because these primary school teachers are selected and appointed through political influences, without any merit. Around 90 per cent of educational budget is spent on salaries of these criminal government teachers; some of them take out second jobs to extra wages with zero accountability. According to a World Bank report 58 per cent of primary/ secondary teachers in Pakistan lack in proper credentials. Millions of dollars get allocated on a yearly basis for the construction and the maintenance of educational centers for the bright future of students of this country but in reality they never exist and are merely paper based ghost schools with a fully employed staff, and a regular budget hauling out millions from the provincial budget finally our children continue to remain uneducated. Is this the right educational system? Is this the way to our nation’s future? Is this how we is to become a stronger, more successful and developed country? Future of millions of innocent students of my country is looking forward to get answers of these questions‌!

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Education

The Case of Rwanda and in East Africa: Kenya

Jack Shaka

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The case of Rwanda

Rwanda made headlines when it became the first country in Africa to change the language of instruction in schools from French to English. The move was interpreted as Rwanda trying to distance itself from her former colonial master Belgium and the French language .But Rwanda had a bigger picture mind. Her neighbours in the East African Community use English as the language of education and business. Her biggest trading partners are from the region and she wanted to solidify her position especially in the East African Community Organisation. Over the years, it was been difficult for Rwanda to export her labour and goods to her English speaking neighbours like Uganda, Tanzania and most importantly Kenya. After the genocide in 1994, Rwanda started to embrace English. Then it joined the East African Community and went ahead to apply for Commonwealth membership which was granted in November 2009. Part of Rwanda’s language switch in education was a strategy towards achieving a bigger goal. Her admittance to the Commonwealth showed her resolve. Lots of scholars from the Commonwealth especially Kenya went to work in Rwanda after it waived work visas for Kenya through agreements between the two governments. Rwanda has since grown phenomenally from underdevelopment. In December 2011, The 2011 Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) was released by Amnesty International in Germany and Rwanda was ranked the fourth least corrupt country in Africa. Her East African counter parts like Kenya and Burundi remain the most corrupt in East Africa.

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The case of Kenya

Kenya has struggled with its Educational system for a long time and changes have been made where necessary to unburden the students but also prepare them for the harsh world that awaits them after school.8.4.4 is the educational system in Kenya. Eight years in primary, four years in secondary or high school and four years at the university. The change took place in 1985. Before that, Kenya used the British style of education system inherited from the colonial period.7.4.2.3-5, that is 7 years of primary education, 4 years of secondary education, 2 years of high school and 3-5 years of university education.8.4.4 was adopted to cater for the growing number of students who were dropping out of school and had no skills to use to survive. The assumption made was that after eight years of study, one would be able to have basic skills to work in both formal and informal sectors. The subjects were many in the beginning ranging from business to carpentry and metal work. In later years, the subjects were revised and reduced to unburden the students but also to include relevant material. In 2003, Kenya’s educational system underwent the biggest change ever. The introduction of the free primary education in public schools all over the country. A step towards achieving the MDGs (Millennium Development Goals). The government was overwhelmed by the enrolment rates. Thousands of new students enrolled in public schools. As you read this, the classes are still overcrowded and teachers too few to actually offer quality teaching to the students. Donor money poured in to support the government initiative. The United Kingdom opened her purse but got robbed. Ministry of Education officials in Kenya siphoned most of the money meant for free primary school education activities like buying books. According to Kenya’s Vision 2030 document, the government aims to increase the enrolment in schools to 95% and also create avenues for access to higher learning institutions. In addition, they also seek to partner with the private sector. It is important to note that the private sector holds a prestigious position in Kenya since they have more money than the state. They can fund research; they can build schools plus many other activities. Education remains an integral part in building a nation and putting a good foundation is important. The initiative in Kenya led to thousands joining schools to get education which is better than not getting it at all no matter what the quality is. The case of Kenya is just an example of how illiteracy rates can be reduced in developing nations and thereby creating opportunities for those who strive.

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DOES MONEY MAKE EDUCATION BETTER OR WORSE?

Katerina Kostadinova

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What

is more important in life, education or money? Without money, education is not complete and without education we can’t earn money. The price of quality education as each day passes is rising and it’s only a matter of time when education will be a privilege. Money affects every sector of life, but in this case is it a good or a bad influence? Does money improve the education or not? First, some people say that we should spend more money on our education and personal development than on our next hair style. They think that paying more money for education will improve the conditions in the school as well as the system as a whole. Also, they claim that education is the best investment a person can make, so the money you’ll pay now will be returned to you double. However, some people don’t have enough money to pay for the education that they want to get and for those people the government should find a way to grant them a quality education. In theory in my country, education is free, but in practice we pay more than we can afford. There is some relief. In middle school every child has free books (every child now, because before we all had to pay for our books), in high school everyone has a free bus ride (but this is also a new policy of our government) at college we have free index act, but that is not enough. Maybe some of us can pay for middle school, and high school, but there are a large number of students who can’t afford to go to college. Some of those students have to find work so they won’t have the possibility to study.

Secondly, some people believe that the only way to make education available for everyone prices should be low. They think that paying more money will have bad influence on the quality of the education. Therefore if you pay higher prices for education your grades or results will be higher as well. This type of bribery will make us lazy and undeservedly successful. Also, this is very often practice in my country especially in college. The professors know that they can get more money if they don’t let the students pass the exams, so they often find reasons to do so. For example the most absurd reason is not having bought their books. Therefore if you want to pass the exam you have to buy the book no matter how expensive it is. The prices for these books are so high that even if your parents work, and you have a job to help as well, you will not have enough money. If you try to complain and even prove this, they will not do anything, because that’s how our system works. In my opinion education should be available to everyone. I agree that education is the best lifetime investment a person can make, so by having low prices everyone has the chance to receive this investment. So I think that more unnecessary money is bad for the education. Because it makes the quality of education worse and it turns us into ignorant people. We live in the world where we think we can buy anything with money, even the knowledge and later a job and a career. We have to find a way to make the prices acceptable for everyone, and jet to teach us that our knowledge, job or career is our effort.

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article.


movie!

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(Ghana, 2009) Vladimira Bravkova Sparrow Productions: „A twisted tale of two unemployed graduates who embark on a journey to make it in a world where you need more than what you have to get what you want.“ Director: Shirly Frimpong Manso Starring: Adjetey Anang, Lydia Forson, Majid Michel

image: http://www. davidajao.com/blog/ wp-content/uploads/ banner1.jpg

review.

What do African and European youth have in common? And what is very different in their lives? I wanted to know more and decided to watch this film which was recommended to me by a friend from Ghana. Fear of failure, unemployment, intergenerational misunderstandings, love, death... that’s what connect us – young people – around the whole world, I would say. The struggle of Ghanaian youth in earning a living is a story which you can experience in other countries and continents as well. So, what’s different and special in this film? Ghosts, superstition, local folksongs... Touch the Ghanaian culture by watching this movie! Story: The main character is overwhelmed with his need to succeed. Unemployed, he is frustrated and every day reminds him of his failure by the presence of his girlfriend. With his best friend they fight destiny together and the story takes them to incredible places and situations.


Instead of getting

an education, try learning! Sophie Yeoman photo: Alexandre Fonseca

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I’ve recently been spending a lot of time thinking about intercultural learning. I’ve read many articles, looked at activities, planned curricula and attempted to educate others on this topic. I haven’t done any of this in the context of school/university/alternative education, or even because I was paid for it (I wasn’t). I’ve been learning and teaching about intercultural learning because I volunteer for an organisation that sends participants overseas for a year to develop their skills in this area - again, not through school, university, work or alternative education. Teenagers participate in the programmes of this organisation because they want to learn about other cultures, and I teach concepts of intercultural learning to them before they go because I want to share my learning from my own time overseas, some years ago. What I’m getting at here is that all this teaching and learning is done entirely outside the formal or even informal education system. But in my opinion at least it is no less valid - I see the participants on the exchange programme and myself and other volunteers as gaining education from and for life. Intercultural learning is only one example of a kind of education that isn’t commonly taught in the classroom. Many of the most important lessons we learn during our time in the formal education system often come from the breaks, from the time we spend with our friends and the time we spend with people we may not particularly like but have to spend time with anyway! Anyone who does volunteer work at some point in their life, including teaching, will learn a lot from the experience. How to behave respectfully to other people, how to resolve conflicts, how to quickly judge a situation, how to give and receive feedback, how to assess our own performance, how to work with others... These are all things that we to some degree at least have to learn throughout our lives! What I find especially interesting is that these skills which are not taught directly as part of the education system often seem to have the biggest bearing on our happiness and success in life. Read a job description, and it is rare to find ‘Bachelor’s Degree in X’ as a requirement. A Bachelor’s

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Degree may still be necessary, but the subject content is not often important - instead it may be ‘possess the ability to form and maintain relationships with stakeholders’ i.e. work out who the job requires you to deal with, then work out how to get on with them! Not so different from the playground at primary school really... And for most of us, good relationships with the people around us have more of an impact on our happiness than what subjects we studied at university! So why do we go to school, to university, “get an education” at all? School and the various educational facilities we attend before school start us along the process of socialisation - that is by attending and simply being around others of our own age we learn life skills. By the time we graduate from high school most of us are able to integrate reasonably well into society and appear well-adjusted, “normal”. From this point on the path we take has more to do with our career aspirations than anything else - if I want to be a doctor, I know it’s very important to have a good patient manner, but it’s no good me learning how to deal wonderfully with patients if my only qualification is in medieval French literature! But regardless of the path we take, be it post-graduate study or a job in McDonald’s, we continue learning. You might have reached this point and be wondering, how does this help me? I still have to get a degree to get that job I want. And hey, you’re at least partly right. But if we think that education is only collecting qualifications, then we will miss out on a deeper and richer learning experience that can only come from life. If you aren’t getting such good grades at study, think about what else you have to offer - all the skills that won’t be listed on your transcript. If this list seems a little short, think about what you could do to get some new ones! Get a part-time job, volunteer somewhere, join a sports or cultural club. And remember that while there may be barriers to education there are no limits to learning.

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Icelandic

Music Exp eriments

With the likes of Björk and Sigur Rós , Iceland has alway punched s above its weight on the music scene, bu t in late March cap ita rocks! In re l Reykjavik really cognition of its small but internation ally music sc lauded ene, Mu siktilraun introduces ir 40-50 new competitio bands in n.

what where when website

Icelandic

Music Experimen ts Reykjavik , Iceland 23rd to 31 st of Marc h http://www . musiktilra unir.is/

event!


IS IT JUST ME? Jack Shaka

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I notice the sad forlorn faces The drooping heads, the definite sadness The reflective contemplative faces With tomorrow’s fears Shhhhhh… Even the pattering rain Continues to plunge earth Humming melodies night after night Winds from the east to the west Carefully whistling goodbye tunes Wishing you a safe passage over the waters The winds carrying you safely across the sky Is it just me that wonder’s? Time is so unfair, so cruel Why can’t it just stop still? The earth stands in wonder Of her earthly beings You the Asian, the European, the North American, the African, the Latin American Species brought together The earth knows her children She will bring you together again In time Is it just me? That can’t let go? Is it just me? Who can’t say goodbye? Just me who can’t say goodbye Can’t say goodbye Say goodbye goodbye

poetry.


book!

“Civil Disobedience” by Henry David Thoreau Júlia Tessler image: http:// studentsforliberty. org/wp-content/ uploads/2010/11/ Thoreau1.jpg

15 Henry David Thoreau is one of those 19th century men who were ‘intellectuals’ (according to Wikipedia, he was ‘an American author, poet, philosopher, abolicionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, historian, and leading transcendentalist’). One way or the other, he was not afraid of saying what he felt or wanted. Being that way, ‘Civil Desobedience’ is an essay that, as the name suggests, argues that one should not let it’s government rule (such as in the government can not say what people should or shouldn’t say and think). Thoreau wasn’t found of the slavery and defended the abolitionism in every way possible, just like he was disgusted by the American imperialism (and we are talking about the 19th century!). This essay inspired a lot of leaders around the world, such as Mahatma Gandhi (who started his own ‘civil disobedience’ after almost falling in love with Thoreau’s ideas) and Martin Luther King, touching Leo Tolstoy on the way. It’s beautifully written and doesn’t sound in any way like ‘The Communist Manifesto’, as many would think. It talks about living your own life.

review.


unknown beauty, Iceland. an

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text and photos

Evgenia Kostyanaya

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will not say that I will never forget Iceland. I will not either say that it is the most beautiful place I have seen so far in my life. I will neither say that for me it is the place where you meet your real self being brought back to the nature, to the essence of life, no matter how much of a commonplace that might sound. I will not say this because it is all subjective and might be truly valid only for me. You will not easily believe me anyway. But nevertheless I will give it a try. It is easy to fall in love with Iceland but so difficult if not impossible to fall out of this love. I know that a lot of people who come to this island feel there terrific and feel Iceland-sick having left it. And then what do they do? they come back… I assume there are so many prejudices about Iceland: kind of those that Iceland is a very cold country with severe winters… It is true, I guess, that normally not so much is known about Iceland. I used to wonder how they live, so far in the north…and …eventually decided to go there. It was back in 2009 when I first came to Iceland for 2 weeks to participate in a volunteer camp. I fell in love with the country because it was something special, outstanding. It feels exactly the same like when you meet someone and you know s/he is special, not like all the others that you have met before. They all were very nice too, indeed good people, but this one simply takes your breath away. Likewise, no matter how beautiful Germany, Italy, France, Spain, Portugal and other countries I have been to are, Iceland strongly stands out. Then I came back in 2010 for 3 months, and then again for about 1 month in 2011; I was volunteering all these times. To be frank, I should

travel destination.


admit that meeting a lot of great people during volunteering in Iceland contributed to a large extent to my love towards this country, and vice versa – I owe this country a lot for having met them. Coming back to the facts we know about this country…Bjork lives there! That is true, she indeed lives in Reykjavík. But it turned out that winters are not so severe…actually they are so mild that you will be surprised to know – according to the Statistics Iceland website, an average temperature in Reykjavík in January is 2.4C (http://www.statice.is/?PageID=1167&src=/temp_en/Dialog/varval. asp?ma=UMH02101%26ti=Temperature+in+few+places+1997%2D 2010+%26path=../Database/land/hitastig/%26lang=1%26units= %B0C), in July – 13.0C (http://www.statice.is/?PageID=1167&src=/temp_en/Dialog/varval. asp?ma=UMH02101%26ti=Temperature+in+few+places+1997%2D 2010+%26path=../Database/land/hitastig/%26lang=1%26units= %B0C) Days in summer might be very nice, though of course they will not be too hot, but if a day is sunny, it is really very nice to sit outside – and don’t forget to put on your sunglasses – one can get a proper tan, no worries. : ) But be prepared to have to wear gloves, scarves and even a hat even in July…though the beauty of the nature is definitely worth it. Reykjavik is the world’s northernmost capital of a sovereign state. Its population is about 200,000 people – in the so-called Greater Reykjavík Area, out of about 320,000 people in total in the whole country. Just imagine – the population of the whole country is more or less equal to the population of such cities as Bonn in Germany, Aarhus in Denmark, Cordoba in Spain, Bari in Italy, Utrecht in the Netherlands, Nice in France…And these 320,000 Icelanders are extremely friendly, speak perfect English and are willing to help you. One of the most striking traits of a life in Iceland is perhaps the day length: unbelievably short in winter and amazingly long in summer. That is, for instance, in Reykjavík on the 22nd of December 2011 the sunrise was at 11.23 and the sunset at 15.30 (according to the website Timeanddate.

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com http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/astronomy.html?n=211 &month=12&year=2011&obj=sun&afl=-11&day=1). Though on the 26th February, for instance, it is more or less ok for this period of the year, from my point of view at least, – anyway, the timing is practically the same as we have here in Moscow: for Reykjavík on the 26th February the sunrise was at 8.48, and the sunset at 18.35, and for Moscow 8.30 and 18.56 respectively. But in summer…when I first landed in Iceland in 2009 on a bright July night…that almost made me crazy! The night darkness didn’t seem to want to arrive at all! It simply was not getting really dark – a little bit, yes, but you will never find in Iceland in summer a deep, deep darkness. So, on the 21st June 2011 the sunrise was at 02.55 and the sunset was at 00.04 of the following day! (http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/astronomy.html?n=211&mo nth=6&year=2011&obj=sun&afl=-11&day=1) This Icelandic feature is hilarious! Of course it leads to the fact that at midnight in summer you simply don’t want to go to sleep early and this lets you move more – travel longer, or go out….which for sure contributes to the fact that Reykjavík is considered to be one of the most vivid places of nightlife. There are plenty of bars, cafes and nightclubs waiting for you on its main shopping street Laugavegur and nearby. Clubs are normally open till 1 at night on weekdays and till early in the morning on Fridays and Saturdays. On these days bars are filled with people, and there are crowds of people at night in the centre of Reykjavík. Reykjavík is the biggest city in the country, meaning that all the other inhabited

travel destination.


areas are really much smaller. Read again – much smaller. Akureyri, the second largest town in the country, has population of about 17,500 people. That is why for the country Reykjavík is indeed the capital, no matter how small it is in comparison to other capitals in the world. Though enough about the capital. At the end of the day, it is not the clubs that people come to see in Iceland, - normally it is its nature: waterfalls, glaciers, volcanoes, valleys, mountains, glacial lagoons, whales, puffins… Thousands words will not be enough to describe the beauty of it all. This is exactly the case of “seeing once is better than hearing twice”. Some people prefer the south part, with its famous waterfalls and black beach in Vik; others prefer West fjords or East fjords, which are absolutely different; some people like the north, with its valleys different from other parts of the country...Everyone will find here something for their taste, but just don’t go ordinary roads; explore, discover, learn. Get closer to the nature. Forget about Internet, Facebook and Twitter. Feel the nature. Take a car and make your own roads. Though be careful: once you fall in love with Iceland, it will not be easy to switch to anything else. : )

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Feel interested? Feel like going for

an adventure in Iceland? Check it out on this website for offers to help you explore Iceland in an unforgettable way. The projects are designed by true Iceland-lovers, those who care about this mysterious and beautiful country and who want to share their love with others. Volunteering expeditions, geothermal relax, group holidays for solo travelers, educational visits or Arctic fishing – choose what best fits you. http://www.icelandispure.com/

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Music!

“Me and Mr. Johnson”

by Eric Clapton Júlia Tesslter

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Robert Johnson is a blues legend. He was an american singer and musician who died too young (he was 27 years old) but didn’t fail in touching people with music. Many of his songs are well-known even for those who don’t like blues that much. Eric Clapton, on the other hand, is an English guitarrist, singer and songwriter who is known from being part of Cream and The Yardbirds (and many other bands) but also from his solo work. “Me and Mr. Jonhson” is a Clapton’s tribute to Robert Johnson and it wasn’t meant to become an album. Clapton and his band rented an studio and, while jamming Johnson’s songs, realized they had enough material for an album to come out. It was released in 2004 and, later on, and dvd containing Eric Clapton playing the songs and telling Robert Johnson’s story and influence on music (especially blues) world. This tribute is beautiful for those who know Robert Johnson’s work and amazing for those who don’t. The way that a rock and roll legend meets a blues legend is simply touching. Clapton’s amazing skills on the guitar gave Jonhson’s songs a new tone which is also pleasant. Worth listening, worth knowing.

image: http://somethingelsereviews.com/wp-content/ uploads/2011/09/EricClapton_Me_and_Mr_Johnson.jpg

review.


Pigs in Maputo Pig cartoons of life in Mozambique

by Iris Yan

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for more, every day: pigsinmaputo. blogspot.com/

pigs in maputo.


Lifelong Education Jelena Gavrilov

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Do we actually know what schools are for? Do we only learn for the exams or we learn for life? Does my teacher know that now I have more knowledge than he/she has? Do people know that they should learn by the end of life, not just by the end of university?

The word “education”, many people associate with boring sitting in classrooms, listening to the teachers who don’t know how to make an interesting class, with countless tests. Where is the crack? Is it a mistake in young people who are accustomed to this way of working, so every other way of working is strange and unacceptable for them, or in system which support that way of working? However, one is for sure, educational system has to be changed! When I said that educational system has to be changed I don’t think just about changing the approach to a science, but we should work on improving teacher’s education in primary and secondary schools. In Serbia, as well as in many other countries, a lot of people believe that education last only until the end of secondary school or university. We all should learn that education lasts for the entire life. What makes teacher better or worse is desire for knowledge and improvement, openness to learning, new technology and different approach to the curriculum. Somehow, it looks like that we study for the exams not for knowledge.

article.

What is under the concept of lifelong education? Lifelong learning is the constantly building of skills and knowledge. This process goes through whole life of a person. It occurs through experiences encountered in the course of a lifetime. These experience could be formal (primary and secondary education, training, counseling, tutoring, mentorship, apprenticeship, higher education, etc.) or informal (life experience, etc.). Lifelong learning includes lifelong, voluntary and self-motivated learning and also means when people live in order to foster the continuous development and improvement of the knowledge and skills needed for employment and personal fulfillment. The ability to pass knowledge on from one person to another is very important, because it keeps the learning circle in motion, it makes the knowledge to go round. The country that last the biggest impression on me, when it comes to lifelong education, is Finland. Finland changed whole educational system only for few years. The lifelong education starts in primary school and first aim of schools is to guarantee basic educational rights for every pupil and student according to their abilities and special needs. Learning methods and the form of support help students to complete their studies and to move on the upper secondary level. What is very big difference between Finnish and Serbian education is number of students in one class. In Serbia, or in other countries with


similar educational system, one class consist about thirty students, while in Finland, class is a group of about 10 pupils and it is called flexible education. One very important fact is that in Finland some 94% of school-leavers move on to the upper secondary level the same year and continue in additional basic education. The reform has clearly increased young people’s activity in applying for further education and training. It also gives support to young people in finding a place to study and for monitoring placement in education and training. More than 52% of Finns aged between 18 and 64 had participated in some formal and informal education. As I mentioned before, if we want to have good educational system, first we have to have interested and persistent teachers which will be ready to develop and improve their knowledge and skills. One example for my school, where one teacher works for fifty years and he/she don’t try to learn something new, than teach students the same as he/she did on the beginning of their personal career. After reforms in Finland one of the lifelong educational projects is developing degrees in educational science and teacher training. All universities providing teacher education participated in the project, which provided the training relating to the degree reform, organized and coordinated networks analyzing

and developing core contents in education, issued recommendations concerning the structure and content of education, participated in international degree reform work, and produced a large number of publications in support of development within individual universities. The project dealt with all education and training relating to teachers (kindergarten, class and subject teachers, special education teachers, and guidance counsellors). The main thing in whole reform are marks. For the purposes of assessment, the core curriculum contains descriptions of good knowledge, i.e. what is required for ’good’, expressed as the mark 8 (on a scale of 4 to 10). The description focuses on broad knowledge not detailed rote learning. There are now test scores, because they are ‘learning to learn’ not ‘to get good mark’. In university the aim of lifelong learning is to improve graduates opportunity to study parts of degree programs which would enable employed people to study alongside work applying for admission to higher education institution. There is a lot to say about good education system, but all we can say in the end is that we can change everything just if we want to, that we can learn everything just if we want to, we can improve our knowledge even if we learn through whole our life. Non scholae, sed vitae discimus.

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event!

women film festival

Dedicated to the fairer sex, Santiago’s unique Women Film Festival not only screens films made by female cinematographers but also those which show the realities of women’s lives worldwide. See retrospectives, shorts and more in cinemas and cultural centres citywide.

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what where when website

Women Film Festival Santiago, Chile 20th to 25th of March http://www.festivaldecinedemujeres.cl/


Remember Katerina Kostadinova

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I remember like it was yesterday your hand in mine, your heart beating next to mine, our souls are almost as one. I remember it, like it just happened, I just have returned from the sky. I remember the feeling I had for you, loving you the way that only the stars could understand it. Remember every single little note that my heart was making when you were around? Remember the soft touch of our lips? The kiss, a bridge between heaven and earth. I remember like it was yesterday. But do I remember what have I done ran away from the light, going to the darkest places, where no flower could live?

poetry.

Do I know what my decision brought in to my life? Am I aware of anything now? Why, why have I done it? Because I was too afraid to feel? Because I did not wanted the poison of love in my blood? I given up on touching the stars, flying with wings like an angel, not even knowing that love has already occupied my heart. I was a slave of my heart. And since I stopped feeling the heart beat for you, my world stopped. My inspiration has vanished like it was turned into ashes and spared trough the wind. I have left with nothing not even with the sound of the Broken peaces in me. I remember everything, I remember it.


Orientalism and Uganda: Reshaping Western Ideology Katja Gomboc and Lena Mackey

Surviving in the Education System In trying to crack this impression of Africa as a homogenous, vast wasteland splitting at the seams with extreme poverty and corruption, interviewees Terah Kasozi and Joel Isabibi Nsadha gave some interesting, as well as unexpected responses. In Joel’s words, ‘he was forced to survive’ his childhood where from aged ten onwards, he attended a boarding school. Children as young as six years old were sent to boarding school for a minimum of four months at a time without seeing their parents. There was never enough food, age hierarchies dominated the social life of the school, and discipline was rife. Many stories such as the fights behind the school, friendships made and sports carnivals were told with a tone of nostalgia and humour.

Hospitality Incomparable to Anywhere Else Our impression of Uganda before this interview was very much tainted by the abundance of photos picturing starving children, contributing to the overall picture of Africa in the media as unchanging and primitive. Although when it comes to hospitality, it seems the ‘West’ is far behind. We were told that when visiting Uganda, we would be “blown away” by the kindness and generosity towards foreigners – only the best food and drinks that could be afforded would be presented. Ugandans don’t seem to hold the same prejudices towards foreigners as in Australia or Slovenia, an ideal that I think the ‘West’ has lost, or rather, never had.

Social Hierarchies and Relationships From the answers we received from Terah, it seemed that social customs in regards to relationships were very much similar to what I was used to. Arranged marriages still occur in smaller tribes and communities but are being phased out. However, from what Terah implied it seems that younger people have a lot more respect for their parent’s and elder’s opinions than where I come from- in other words, he most likely wouldn’t marry someone his mother and father did not like. In comparison to my culture, parents have very little say in their children’s relationships – but similarly, I would most likely not spend time with a person my parents didn’t approve of.

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The struggle around

higher education

in Brazil Júlia Tessler

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image: colaborative work between Alexandre Fonseca, Amanda Nunes, Camila Marques, Gabriel Leão, Isabela Lopes, João Gabriel

The Beggining of a New Era Here in Brazil, in the state of São Paulo, we have three big (and good) state universities. One of those has it’s bigger campus in the city of São Paulo and it’s called University of São Paulo (USP). It’s the oldest state university and it’s recognized everywhere. It’s rector is João Grandino Rodas, who was nominated by the state governor José Serra after some long discussion. He is graduated in law by the Faculty of Law of USP. Before becoming rector of USP, Rodas was head of the Faculty of Law (which isn’t located inside the campus, but in an beautiful old building downtown). During this period, some of his actions were questionable: he nominated two classrooms after determined people after the humble donation of R$1 million (which is prohibited in Brazil: a public institution can’t simply receive a donation); moved the library with numerous irregularities (and failed to invest in taking care of the old building, which was almost falling apart) and supported an action from the Military Police to interfere in students

manifestations in the Faculty (in Brazil, ever since the Military Dictatorship which lasted from 1964 to 1984, the Police is forbidden inside any public university). But this is now past... Every single one of these actions, and many others, were put aside and Rodas became rector. In Brazil, it’s not unusual for the three state universities from São Paulo to go on strike action, either from the employees or the students (or, as usual, both) asking always for almost the same things: more student residences, a rise on the salaries, more blah. Sometimes, they’re right. Sometimes, it’s just a rant. These strike actions normally end up with no benefits for either sides: the students can have their classes canceled (or get expelled for being involved in it) and the employees rarely get out of it with anything at all (they usually don’t get payment for each day stopped on strike) and most of the time, all the claims are flushed down the toilet. But it happens every year. During Rodas’ first year as rector (2009), a huge conflict started inside the campus because the rector put the Military Police inside the


university to ‘control the strike actions’. Somehow, it looked like civil war... The police used rubber bullets against the students and employees and occupied the campus for a long time, during which USP looked like a ghost town. All classes were canceled and students started fighting against the police – that had it’s own ways of dealing with the chaos. Violence was kicking in. But this doesn’t mean that the rector is the bad guy and everyone else is good. During those strike actions, a lot of places in the university are damaged and the strikers are rarely open to negotiation. They occupy every place they can and mess a lot with everything.

Some Historic Background When Brazil was under the Military Dictatorship (1964-1984), USP was the main stage for many performances. The dictatorship was heavy on everybody, but the students weren’t afraid of having a voice. This is, more or less, when our student activism got shape. The police arrested and tortured a lot of students during the dictatorship. Many of them are still missing and only now the truth is starting to come out from the state’s mouth because Dilma Rousseff (Brazil’s president) was part of the people who fought against the dictatorship and got arrested and tortured (but she wasn’t related to USP at all). When the dictatorship ended, the Brazilians were fragilized. A new law came up that forbid any kind of police inside any public university campi to avoid persecution and opression from the police against the students. So... Yes, what Rodas did was kind of... illegal. The student activism is somewhat alive, but it turned out to be a group of the original dictatorship fighters sons and daughters, that feel bounded by a kind of nostalgia that doesn’t belong to them. Even though, these are the prototypes of our future politicians, because they’re, basically, the only people interested in politics in Brazil, and, well, that’s what most of them want to be.

The New Claims In 2011, USP was on the news a lot. Not because of new researches or anything academic... But because things got out of control. Ever since Rodas became rector, strikers had new claims: more transparency on what was going on with the university, the chance to have a voice (after all, students and employees are part of the university, right?) and more security inside the campus (students were victims of assaults and rapes and had unprepared guards to save them if needed). But not all the students agree with the strike actions, which always creates some tension between them. Among all the universities students, only a few agree with the shape the strike actions get. Most of them believe that it would be better if strikers found a new way of fighting for what they want. It’s somewhat divided by area: usually, humanities students (like philosophy, history, geography and social sciences – which are all part of the Faculty of Philosophy, Languages and Literature, and Humanities, FFLCH) and arts students go for the strike actions and fight for what they believe right while the sciences students (engineering, math, physics, administration, economics and so on) prefer not to get involved in anything that can be considered ‘political’. Even though, when it came to Rodas, most of the students supported the claims, just not the way the strike actions where headed to. But on the police issue, they couldn’t be more divided...

How Each One Strikes During May 2011, one of USP’s student was killed during an attempted robbery on his faculty parking lot, inside the campus. He had just left his last class of the night and was headed to his car when he got shot on the head. This sad episode brought the security issue back on track... All the students agreed that the university needed more security. Those students defended

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the presence of the police inside the USP and about 70% of the university students approved the police patrols that started inside the campus even though the ghost of the almost civil war on campus was still present. This is how it went: in the second semester of 2011, three students were caught smoking marijuana on FFLCH’s parking lot. The university decided to call the police and the three of them got arrested. But it wasn’t this easy... In Brazil, smoking marijuana is considered illegal and you can get arrested for it. Even though, some other students fought against the police, which caused some chaos. And this is just the beginning...

‘leavers’ won, but the others made a new pool as soon as the others left. They decided to occupy the rector’s office. During the time the students were camped inside the rector’s office, the rector put a permanent base of the military police inside the campus. And it didn’t take long for a major police act against the students to take part... The police broke in violently around 5am. Most of the students were asleep and 73 students were arrested (63 for occupying the office and 10 for contempt). The USP’s labor union payed for each of the students to go free. It made headlines all around the country.

The Protests Get Violent

Silencing the Students

The presence of the police inside the campus bothered the students who were already dissatisfied with the way the rector was conducting the matters on the university (which was already on strike action, as usual). The FFLCH’s students occupied the building of the faculty (later on, students from other faculties joined them) and the police got more violent (just as the students). As the hate for the police inside the campus increased with the violence, it became clear that the police wasn’t a solution for the security issue brought up when the student was killed on May. Besides, some students complained that the presence of the police was a powerful way of repression and oppression. So the police that should be there to protect the students was actually hurting them? What would the rector do about it? Nothing. In fact, he got more and more aggressive. Rodas said he wouldn’t hesitate in punishing students by expelling them from the university if they didn’t change their approach. Well... Neither the rector nor the strikers were good at trying to make deals... So, after some police acts to remove the students from the faculty, the FFLCH’s occupiers voted for what they would do next: leave the building and find a new way to fight or stay there. The

The police act didn’t stop the strike, but surely found a way of shutting it up. While students can’t find a way of asking for their claims (which are, finally, fair and useful) without fighting against each other or being violent, it will be hard(er) for them to be heard. When dealing with a rector that acts more as a dictator than the most important person inside a university (one of the most important in the country), the USP will stay chaotic. The security system must be able to provide comfort for the students, not goosebumps. The rector must act in favor of the hole university, not in favor of himself... As said earlier, there are no good or bad guys in this story, there are only a lot of people who can’t talk with each other. This is how the university said goodbye to the student movement and this is how Rodas is making more and more enemies in Brazil’s educational system. The Brazilians, in general, can’t decide who to support: the violent students or the dictator rector, which puts our education on a bad place. What will become of our higher education?

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Education is strength

creativity an abstract noun Martin Naunov

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I recall the government campaign “Knowledge is Strength, Knowledge is Power”, which, in recent times, has moved from the TV screens and newspapers directly to the schools as a regular subject for writing assignments. However, whether this was due to an accident or manipulation done intentionally, the subject has now been changed and stated “Education is Strength, Education is Power”. I would like to make an argument that in fact it is not education, but knowledge that should make us powerful. On my previous writing assignments next to my maximum mark the professor wrote “Well done”. Although, this time there was “You can do better along with an explanation stating that we receive knowledge through education, thus making education the thing that makes us powerful. I’ll add that I could have written anything when the subject was love or hate, but when it’s mentioned that power doesn’t come from education, then my reply must be the statement that directly points out that if you think you have the right to think with your own head, the leash around your neck gets tightened. I was eager to see these government advertisements on the subject of Knowledge versus Education as Power. In the first advertisement, I saw a professor trying to explain that if God exists he also created evil, thus making him evil too. One of his students is Albert Einstein, who easily disproves all of his

arguments pointing to the fact that God is evil. He sits down with pride, and the advertisement ends. What I reasoned in this is the typical frontal teaching by forcing “facts” rather than motivating the student’s logical reasoning. I saw blind followers who take the professors point of view, accepting all of his “facts: and becoming puppets, whose main goal is to earn a good grade no matter how absurd the subject or how boring the teacher may be. I saw a system in which the intellect is put on the same plane with intellectuality, although intellectuality goes much higher than the intellect itself. Intellectuality requires imagination, creativity and courage. I proceed to the second advertisement that in the end says: “We have a dream. And every dream may come true only if it is dreamt at the right place.” And here comes the question; is the school a place where we can dream our dream? Can we do that at the place where only analytical intelligence is developed and required - a place where the frame maker is worth much more than the artist that made the picture? Can we dream in a place where everything is expressed numerically? Exam points, GPA, tardiness and absences, and so on. Numbers do not only show the result that we have achieved, but also our identity. That is a measure not only for the academic success, but also for the value of some moral and metaphysical meaning. Can we dream our dream at the same place where we forget about it?! This is a place where creativity,


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social, emotional and other forms of intelligence are just abstract and unknown subjects. Because of this system of values and rules, forced by the expectations and requests for us to be more successful than others, our academic success becomes our overall success. Therefore, if someone is “better at something” he becomes “better in everything”. Most people start forgetting their childhood dreams; the dreams that simply weren’t dreamt for the right place. That occurs owing to the fact that we, as a society, do not acknowledge that, as Albert Einstein has said, everybody is a genius; but if we judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing it is stupid. On that account, I ought to say that I am very content of being student in Li Po Chun United World College of Hong Kong, which is part of the 13 other UWC colleges that

event!

present a perfect example of an educational system. More specifically, UWC colleges deliver a challenging and transformational educational experience, inspiring and enabling us, the students, to discover the possibility of change through courageous actions, personal example and selfless leadership. That is the education we, and the governments of the country, live in. An education focused on creating illuminated men and women rather than forming a legion of mindless workers is an education where everyone will be recognized and acknowledged. Where the weird will not be forced to become normal, nor the normal will be encouraged to become weird.

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Infecting the City

Infecting The City is a performing arts festival held in Cape Town’s streets and public spaces. Talented creative artists from around the world investigate a new theme every year through collaborative performance works, art installations, choreographed pieces and public interventions.

what where when website

Infecting the City Cape Town, South Africa 6th to 10th http://www. infectingthecity.com/2010


Nairobi, a China Town? Jack Shaka

The face of

Kenya’s capital city, Nairobi, is changing rapidly. Nairobi’s roads were once full of potholes are now smooth thanks to cooperation with the Chinese Government. Driving on the new eight lane Thika superhighway gives one the impression of a country finally on its way to economic recovery after the meltdown in the 2007-2008 ethnic war. A huge signboard in Westlands shopping area in Nairobi reads, ‘We apologise for the inconvenience. Please bear with us. China Wuyi Company.’ Well-It is just another road China Wuyi is constructing. That’s the scene as China continues to make inroads in Kenya. The cooperation with China has brought Kenya more infrastructure development in less than ten years than ever experienced in the 40 years before that. Welcome to China Town. From the roads to highrise penthouses and office buildings that adorn the concrete jungle that is now Nairobi’s skyline, China retains a place of honour. It is four pm in downtown Nairobi and hawkers are already displaying their wares illegally-as usual. It’s China Town where cheap wares from China make it possible for the poor to buy something new at an affordable rate. Its quality is often disputed, but the fact is that it’s affordable even if it’s not of good quality. Commodities that are of good quality are beyond the reach of over 85% of Kenyans who live below the poverty line. Thanks to China, the lifestyles of Kenyans are changing rapidly. It’s cheaper to buy new clothes from China than second hand ones from the West. The trolleys are dancing with wares in the supermarkets. Children are wailing at the toy section, ‘Mummy I want this! I want this! I want

this!’ Mummy gives in to avoid another prolonged tantrum. She picks the perfect pink doll for her wailing daughter and the silver remote controlled car for her equally wailing son. The labels read, ‘Made in China.’ The now quiet siblings give each other a winning smile and run towards the shoe section where another China awaits them. Chery is the new thing in town. It is a car of all shapes and sizes to drive on the good China Town roads. Kenya was previously a Toyota (Japan) country, which now sources the spare parts from Taiwan where It’s cheaper than getting them from Japan. Kenya has never seen such phenomenal infrastructure growth. This has had an exponential growth effect on the construction industry. In Capital Hill, Nairobi, a new skyline emerges. Well designed futuristic towers and domes smile like teeth from the high skies. The residential areas are changing also. There is a new suburbia to cater for the new middle class who are pushing for tastefully designed houses. Chinese restaurants have also sprouted up all over the city’s shopping malls and suburbia to pamper these new suburban elite with an alternative cuisine. After all, the suburban’s can afford it. Some of the Chinese restaurants are even cheaper than local restaurants. Truly, Kenya is a free market economy! Nairobi has come a long way since the wars in the recent past, but with China, she has made a quantum leap. In her relations with her former colonial master Britain, she never made it anywhere. She remained in sheer poverty and a state of underdevelopment. Now, she is making progress. One question remains to be answered, is Nairobi the new China Town?

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Internet is freedom. Knowledge is power. text Marija Gavrilov

photo Alexandre Fonseca

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Education as we know it, mostly free and omnipresent in one’s life, has gone a long way, developing from learning by observation inside a family union, or philosohpers giving lessons while walking as some teachers in the Ancient Greece did, to the modern ages where millions of children worldwide are put in a system from an early age on. They become a part of a system which aims to create the way they interpret the reality and their surrounding. The characteristics that education retained from its beginning on are the primary roles it has in one society - it is a link in the chain of the process of socialization and a factor in maintenance of models of behaviour when looking at the micro aspect, to forms of government in one state in a broader context. Progress in science or any other complex field humans have specialized wouldn’t be possible without organized transfer of knowledge, values and ideas from elders to youngsters. Also, it has remained luxury for most people and threat to most governments. Books, magazines and other media have enabled people to access limitless quantity of information - true and false, necessary and the opposite. It is where the power of the general public lies and where the biggest changes begin. Access to education has been exclusive for numerous groups throughout the history, but the ones who did possess it have always been the ones who had power, since knowledge has proven itself as efficient manipulative tool. This is why, even today, when most countries provide free education of certain kind to its citizens, the number of people who know the true ingredients of food being sold in supermarkets, real effect of the medicines we are taking or what is actually going on at the battle field, can be counted on fingers. WikiLeaks affair has shown us what happens as the concealed information are published and shared with millions of Internet users, ordinary people, academics, politicians... Nobody was left unimpressed by the data on wars in Afghanistan and Iraq or, almost trivialy on relations between top politicians. Frenkly, Wikipedia blackout struck me harder. It happened a few days


before the exam I had in General Methodology (I’m a sociology student and this includes reading original pieces from philosophy of science, so Wikipedia’s help is always welcoming when having to briefly remind myself of the authors and their ideas), and I spent double time longer researching the Internet and jumping from one web site to other, while the Encyclopedia had it all at one place. That made me realize the significance of the Wikipedia project – I might even compare it to the 18th century Encyclopaedia which was a symbol of Enlightment, the awakening of free minded Europe and progressive values. Yes, I imagined the world without free knowledge, as Wikipedia suggested us to do and that thought evoked despondency in me. World without free knowledge is the world in which liberty leaves no traces. Just for the record, Wikipedia is only one of nine Wikimedia Foundation’s projects, including the most interesting in my opinion - Wikiversity. This project offers tutorials and courses, so for example you can get to learn web design or its basics, at least – online and for free. The most important of all – the content on Wikipedia, Wikiversity, Wikinews, etc. is created by people like you and me, which means that ordinary people are actively participating in exchange of information without boundaries. Wiki projects, however, are just a part of the growing community of institutions, individuals, organizations who engage to foster libre education. Universities are increasingly opening themselves to the idea of sharing some courses and learning material online and among them are world’s best rating universities such as Yale and MIT. Free books and magazines can be found using Google Books and Google Scholar, project Gutenberg, ReadCentral.com, etc. If Internet remains free in teeth of the new regulation being proposed to the American Senate and the EU institutions, in several years time it Hypo Alpe-Adria Bank A.D. Beograd.could truly revolutionise the way we teach and learn. Open Educational Resources is a database of over 30,000 links to high-quality teaching and learning material, and is envisioning the way teachers, students or anyone else interested could interact online. Besides the possibility to use the educational material, visitors can also add theirs. OER staff evaluates the resources for quality and authenticity, and publishes if they fit the criteria. As an alternative to the rising costs of education, OER is used in some countries such as South Africa as the only source for textbooks by some teachers. Very similar to OER are Connexions and the Globat Text project. They all provide learning sources to a variety of age groups, learning levels and areas of study. Knowledge is power. Knowledge is freedom. Knowledge is progress. For the first time in history, anyone with access to Internet has access to unlimited flow of information, millions of people, opportunities. No wonder why Internet’s often described as a window to outer world. It is still uncontrollable. Until legislative makes it another media under the controll of those who have money. Who’s in for fighting for the free web space?

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and WOMAD New Zeal aland welcomes WOMAD New Ze ic, art and the world of mus outh, ym dance to New Pl tended ex an r fo Taranaki ndly ie -fr ild ch y, da threeultural tic ul celebration of m spected Re r. ou av artistic ende nd the globe artists from arou discuss, teach perform and also music and art. and share their

w Zealand

what WOMAD Ne , New Zealand where Taranaki ch when 6th to 18th of Mar mad.org website http://wo

34 Kauai Orchid & Art Fe stival Nature’s beauty and ma n’s ingenuity merge at the annual Kauai Orchid & Art Fes tival, held at Hanapepe Tow n Park. The event showcases ex otic, tropical orchids along side stunning art by Plein Air painters from around the state.

what Kauai Orchio & Art where Festival Hanapepe, Hawaii, US

when 31st of March website http://hanapepe.org/

A

OrchidArtFestival/fest

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val.html

Bursa Book Fair Supported by the Turkish Publishers Association, the Bursa Book Fair offers an opportunity to browse the latest journals, periodicals and books. Held at the Bursa International Fair & Congress Centre, the fair attracts both industry professionals and the general public.

what where when website

Bursa Book Fair Bursa, Turkey 10th to 18th of March http://expopromoter.com/ Redirect/lang/en/event_ id/100878/

events!


credits Contributors for this issue: Alexandre Fonseca Asad Ali Siyal evgenia kostyanaya ieva baranova Iris Yan jack shacka jelena gavrilov júlia tessler katerina kostadinova katja gomboc lena mackey Marija Gavrilov All texts published in Libertas martin naunov represent solely the opinions of vladmíra bravková their authors, not of the magazine sophie yeoman or of its publishers. Libertas and creACTive are not responsible in any way for the contents of the articles, or for the photos published with them.

Libertas Team: Daniel Nunes Vladimíra Brávková Dragan Atanasov Kristijan Nikodinovski Scott Pinkster Christine Moore Ivana Galapceva Carolina Santana Evgenia Kostyanaya Marija Gavrilov Marina Danic Rjasnoj

Have you signed up? Send an empty message to hello@magazinelibertas.com and receive your personal copy of Libertas by e-mail every 5th in the month! Have something to say? Contact us at hello@magazinelibertas.com and read your article in the next edition! about us: Youth Magazine Libertas was founded in September 2009 as a project of Youth Association creACTive. Youth Magazine Libertas aims to be a place where young people from all over the world can share their thoughts and views on topics that matter for them, in this way starting discussions and working as a means of change for the future. Every month, Libertas is published on the 5th, featuring articles about a different main topic and other kinds of articles such as movie, book and music reviews, travel destination, interview and brainstorm.

designed by Carolina Santana

COver and back cover photos by Alexandre Fonseca.

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