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Work in  process!  

Ecology of  mind:    

How pa2erns  “live”  in  cogni9ve  ecosystem   Kai  Pata     Emanuele  Bardone  

Cogni9ve ecosystem   •  Mind  is  a  property  of   •  However,  it  has  not   cogni9ve  ecosystems   been  sorted  out  how   (Hutchins,…).   cogni9ve  ecosystem   works  as  an  ecosystem.   •  The  unit  of  analysis  for   •  Our  inten9on  is  to   mind  must  be  the   cultural/cogni0ve   explain  cogni0ve   ecosystem  (Deacon,   ecosystem  as  an   1997;  Jablonka  &  Lamb,   abstract  cogni0ve   2005).   space  –  an  affordance   space.  

Pa2erns and  affordances   •  A  pa2ern  is  a  solu0on  to  problems  in  a  field  of   interest.   •  The  pa2erns  tend  to  focus  on  the  interac0ons   between  the  physical  form  of  the  built   environment,  and  the  way  in  which  that  inhibits   or  facilitates  various  sorts  of  personal  and  social   behavior  within  it  (Alexander  et  al.,  1976).   •  Therefore,  it  may  be  assumed  that  pa2erns   incorporate  the  affordances  associated  with  the   effec0ve  problem  solu0on.    

Pa2erns in  cogni9ve  ecosystem   •  Culture  propagates  itself  with  pa?erns  and   pa?ern  systems  (languages).   •  The  pa?erns  are  loosely  connected  across   scales:  any  given  pa2ern  typically  points  to   smaller  scale  pa2erns  which  can  support  it,  and   larger  scale  pa2erns  in  which  it  may  par9cipate   (Alexander  et  al.,  1976).    

“Marking” pa2ern  family   •  “Marking”  is  a   family  of  pa2erns   of  sense-­‐making,   place-­‐making,   communica9ng  and   learning  pa2ern   species.   concentra9on   dissipa9on  

finding evalua9ng   sharing  





searching owning   remembering  

marker trail  

Original pa2ern  “bookmark”   •  Pa2ern  solu9on:  mark  to  find  the  right  page  in   Marker  affords  to  “find  the  page”   the  book  

x y   z  

Damaging x=1   Non-­‐damaging  x=0   Non-­‐damaging  x=0   Non-­‐removable  y=0   Removable  y=1   Removable  y=1   Associated  z=1   Associated  z=1   Not  associated  z=0  

Non-­‐damaging x=0   Removable  y=1   Associated  z=1  

Affordance “finding  the  page”  for  each  example  is  a  posi9on  in  n-­‐dimensional  room,  but  all   the  affordance  instances  define  the  niche  for  “find  the  page”  pa2ern,  In  this  niche  different   readers  can  iden9fy  this  pa2ern.   Hidden  constraint  (what  is  not  afforded)  for  these  pa2ern  instances:  cannot  keep  the  line   Con9nued  

Extended pa2ern  from  “bookmark”   •  Pa2ern  solu9on:  keep  the  line  in  the  book  text   Associated  (tangled)  affordances:  Marker  affords  to  “find  the  page”  and   “keep  the  line”  

Keeping the  line  with  finger   x   y   z  

Keeping the  line  with  bookmarker  

Non-­‐damaging x=0   Removable  y=1  

Non-­‐damaging x=0   Removable  y=1  

Non-­‐damaging x=0   Removable  y=1  

Not associated  z=0  

Associated z=1  

Not Associated  z=0  

For associated  affordances,  each  affordance  occupies  a  dis9nct  posi9on.  If  the  posi9ons  of   two  associated  affordances  are  same,  this  enables  to  redirect  finding  one  or  another   affordance.   Con9nued  

New pa2ern  “social  bookmark”   •  Pa2ern  solu9on:  marker  affords  “storing  bookmarks  to  find  many   Pa2ern  “  library”   Pa2ern  “  social  bookmark”   sources”  

Affordance occupies  a  different  niche  that   is  not  associated  with  any  dimensions  to   the  niche  for  original  “bookmark”  pa2ern.   m   n   k   l  

Not shared  m=0  

Shared m=1  

Not distributed  n=0   Not  distributed  n=0   Not  self-­‐organized  k=0   Not  explora9ve  l=0  

Shared m=1   Distributed  n=1   Self-­‐organized  k=1   Explora9ve  l=1  

New dimension  opens  another  affordance  –  discovering  new  sources  

Pa2erns as  niches  in  affordance  space     x   Original   “bookmark”  



Extended “bookmark”   New  “social  bookmark”  


“library  catalogue”   Enlarged  niche  for  “bookmark”  

Associa9ng two  dis9nct  niches  to  extend  the  original  niche  requires  no9cing  and   incorpora9ng  an  extra  dimension  to  the  pa2ern.  This  extra  dimension  may  be  associated   with  one  of  the  pa2ern  (affordance)  dimensions  (e.g.  self-­‐organized  with  explora9ve).  

Pa2ern niche  is  internally-­‐externally   distributed   Every  ac9on  is   cogni9vely  afforded   internally  and   externally  (Zhang  &   Patel,  2006)    -­‐  so  full   affordance  (set  of   affordances)  that   pa2ern  is  is  composed   of  both  dimensions  

Pa2erns are  symbionts   •  Pa2erns  in  this  case  are  symbionts   (like  lichens),  that  exist  as  a   distributed  composi9on  of  culture-­‐ propagated  dimensions  and  mind-­‐ propagated  dimensions  of   individuals  that  come  to  life  in  the   moment  of  ac9on.   So  every  pa2ern  has  culture  determined  variability  (slow  feedback   loop,  is  possible  to  see  to  what  direc9on  culture  is  moving)  and   person-­‐determined  variability  (quick  feedback  loop,   unpredictable  and  bound  to  personal  experiences)   •  Affordance  emerges  when  pa2ern-­‐symbiont  needs  to  ac9vate   itself.  

Pa2erns are  embodied   Pa?erns  are  embodied  as  concrete  prototypes,   rather  than  abstract  principles  (Alexander  et   al.,  1976).     Embodiment  of  pa2ern  prototypes  has  person-­‐ dependent  and  culture-­‐dependent  component   and  variability.  

Biological ecosystem  components   A  species  contains  a  variety  self-­‐ Ecosystem  consists  of   directed  specimen  with  certain   communi9es  and  abio9c   variety  of  phenotypes  and   factors.   genotypes  and  behaviors  who   Communi0es  associate   interact  with  the  habitat  that  the   networked  species.   community  creates.   Communi0es  and  abio9c   The  habitat  factors  that  influence   factors  compose  habitats  for   the  fitness  of  the  species  may  be   conceptualized  as  a  niche.   species.   Fitness  of  specimen  to  the  niche   Communi9es  transform  the   energy  and  ma?er  keeping  it   determines,  what  phenotypes,   genotypes  and  behaviours  form   in  the  flowing  state  and   the  current  form  of  a  species.     rebuild/change  the  habitat   keeping  it  evolving.   NB.  I  must  check  if  all  is  correct  here  

Cogni9ve ecosystem   Pa?erns  are  species  that  exist  in  the  socio-­‐ technological  habitat  of  culture.   Pa?erns  form  networks  –  pa2ern  systems  –  that   have  structural  appearance  (e.g.  designs,   architectural  pa2erns)  and  process  appearance   (ac9va9on  of  some  pa2erns  may  increase  the   likelihood  of  the  ac9va9on  of  the  associated   pa2erns)  .   Pa2ern  systems  may  be  conceptualized  as  pa?ern   communi0es.     Pa?ern  communi0es  exist  in  the  socio-­‐technological   habitat  of  the  culture.  

Cogni9ve ecosystem   •  Pa2ern  is  a   distributed  niche  in   affordance  space  of   the  culture  that   repeats  itself  in  this   culture's  niche,  and   of  what  the   individuals  are   aware  of  or  can   perceive  easily.  

Distributed affordance   space  

Actualized affordances  of   Dimensions  of  culture  1   the  pa2ern   Pa2ern   instance   niche     Culturally   bound   mind   Pa2ern   with   pa2ern   instances  

Dimensions of     culture  2  

Cogni9ve ecosystem   Pa2erns  have  a  variety  of  pa?ern   •  instances  (fenotype,  dimensions,   behaviour  differ).     Pa2ern-­‐instances  become  ac9vated   when  coupled  with  individual   •  minds  in  the  cultural  habitat.   Currently  ac9vated  pa2erns  in  cultural  habitat   Pa2ern  Pa2ern  1   niche  

Cogni9ve niche  of  the   culture  

Pa2ern 2  

Pa2ern 3  

The habitat  factors  that  influence   the  fitness  of  the  pa2ern  may  be   conceptualized  as  a  niche.   The  fitness  of  each  pa2ern   instance  in  the  niche  of  the   currently  ac9vated  pa2ern  system   community  and  pa2ern  niche   (personal  mind  determined   variability)  determines  the   pa2ern-­‐instances  that  can  survive   and  propagate  themselves  in  the   pa2ern  species  among  the  other   pa2erns  of  the  pa2ern  community   (culture  determined  variability).  

Cogni9ve ecosystem   A  pa2ern-­‐species  consists  of  instances    

Dimensions of  the   cultural  niche  are  in   dynamic  change,   evolving  due  to   embodied   cogni9on  –   Personal  space   dimensions  are   integrated  to  the   pa2erns  or  omi2ed   from  them,   extending  or   narrowing  pa2ern   niches.    

Crea9ve space                                                           Pa2ern  instance  

Shared/cultural space  

Pa2ern instance  

Three spaces  in  cogni9ve  ecosystem   •  1)  Personal  or  tacit  space.  This  space  is  not   available  to  others  and  it  cannot  be  en9rely   shared.   •  2)  Shared/joint/public  space/cultural  space.   This  space  grapples  cultural  pa2erns  as  shared   pa2erns  in  a  given  niche.   •  3)  Crea0ve  space.  In  this  space  a  person   revives  pre-­‐exis9ng  cultural  pa2erns.  

Cogni9ve ecosystem   •  Ac9vity  in  the  nervous  system  is  linked  to  high-­‐level   cogni9ve  processes  by  way  of  embodied   interac0on  with  culturally  organized  material  and   social  worlds  (Hutchins,  2008).     •  Embodied  cogni0on  is  ac9va9on  of  pa2erns  from   culture  in  the  externally-­‐internally  distributed  mul9-­‐ dimensional  dynamic  affordance  space  to  carry  out   ac9ons.     •  Cogni9ve  ecosystem  as  an  affordance  space   appears  from  many  socio-­‐technologically-­‐culturally   situated  humans’  ac9ons.    

Pa2erns in  cogni9ve  ecosystem   Culture’s  habitat   Pa2ern  phenotype  variability   Wild   instances   Designed   “domes9cated”     instances  

Pa2ern behaviour   Pa2ern  instance  ac9va9ons  –   “living  instances”   (actualizing  some  affordances  )   reveal  the  fitness  of  these   instances  in  culture’s  habitat.  

Culture’s niche  in  affordance  space   Pa2ern  species  genotypical  variability   Pa2ern  instance   Pa2ern  instance  niche  dimensions  carry  genotype   varia9ons  of  this  pa2ern  species.   Pa2ern  prototype  is  a  species  that  exists  in  affordance   space  (culture’s  niche)    as  a  dynamic  sum  of  all  pa2ern   instance    niches.   The  fitness  landscape  in  affordance  space  indicates  more   fit  (more  abundant)  “living”  pa2ern  instance  types  of  this   pa2ern  species  in  current  9me.    

Ecology of mind  

An attempt to explain the concept of ecology of mind

Ecology of mind  

An attempt to explain the concept of ecology of mind