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TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING


TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING fourth edition

THE CULINARY INSTITUTE OF AMERICA


THE CULINARY INSTITUTE OF AMERICA PRESIDENT

Dr. Tim Ryan, CMC

PROVOST

Mark Erickson, CMC

DIRECTOR OF INTELLECTUAL

Nathalie Fischer

PROPERTY EDITORIAL PROJECT MANAGERS

Lisa Lahey ’00 Maggie Wheeler ’00

EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS

Erin Jeanne McDowell ’08

RECIPE DEVELOPMENT

David Kamen, Mark Ainsworth

CONTENT DEVELOPMENT

RD PHOTOGRAPHER

Marjorie Livingston, RD, Catherine H. Powers, MS, Ben Fink

This book is printed on acid-free paper. ∞ Copyright © 2013, 2008, 2000 by The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. Photographs © 2013 by Ben Fink Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley. com/go/permissions. Evaluation copies are provided to qualified academics and professionals for review purposes only, for use in their courses during the next academic year. These copies are licensed and may

not be sold or transferred to a third party. Upon completion of the review period, please return the evaluation copy to Wiley. Return instructions and a free of charge shipping label are available at www. wiley.com/go/returnlabel. Outside of the United States, please contact your local representative. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. For general information on our other products and services or for technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. For more information about Wiley products, visit our website at www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Techniques of healthy cooking / the Culinary Institute of America. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-470-63543-8 (cloth) 1. Quantity cookery. 2. Nutrition. 3. Menus. I. Culinary Institute of America. TX820.T384 2007 641.5’7—dc22 2006038750 printed in china 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

photography by Ben Fink cover and interior design: Vertigo Design NYC


CONTENTS Acknowledgments xii Preface xiii Introduction xiv

1 HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS 1

Techniques for Nuts and Seeds 136 Techniques for Fish, Meats, and Poultry 136 The Role of Flavor 140 Summary 155

What Is a Healthy Eating Pattern? 2 Nutrition 101 3 Calories Count 3 Essential Nutrients 5 Dietary Guidelines and Recommendations 28 Dietary Restrictions 31 Nutrition Labeling 31 Summary 37

4 DEVELOPING HEALTHY RECIPES AND MENUS 156 What Role Do Ingredients Play in Healthy Cooking? 160 Using Existing Recipes 161 Using Standard Portions 162 Modifying Recipes 166 Creating Original Recipes 167 Cooking with Less Fat 168 Cooking with Less Salt 170 Cooking with Less Sugar 171 Cooking with Less Alcohol 172 Menu Development 172 Objectives in Creating a Healthy Menu 182 Menu Development for Special Needs 183 Communicating 186 Summary 189

2 HEALTHY INGREDIENTS 38 Issues in Ingredient Selection 40 In the Kitchen 46 Fresh Produce 49 Grains 64 Dried Legumes 73 Soy Foods 73 Nuts and Seeds 78 Fats and Oils 80 Chocolate 81 Dairy and Eggs 82 Fish and Shellfish 84 Meat and Poultry 87 Seasonings, Condiments, and Beverages 88 Summary 97

5 SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS 190 Beef Consommé 192 Mushroom Consommé with Shiitake, Bok Choy, and Carrot Curls 193 Game Hen Consommé with Roasted Garlic Custards 194 Wonton Soup 194 Michigan White Bean Soup 196

3 THE TECHNIQUES 98 General Cooking Guidelines 100 Techniques for Vegetables 120 Techniques for Fruits 126 Techniques for Grains 126 Techniques for Legumes 132

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Cannellini Bean and Garlic Soup 196 Chickpea Soup with Greens 197 Summer-Style Lentil Soup 197 Louisiana Chicken and Shrimp Gumbo 198 Potato and Vegetable Soup 198 Seafood Minestrone 199 Paraguayan Dumpling Soup (Bori-Bori) 200 Tortilla Soup 201 Traditional Black Bean Soup 202 Beet-Fennel-Ginger Soup 202 Chicken and Rice Stew 204 Sweet Potato Soup 205 Butternut Squash Soup 205 Cold Asparagus Soup 206 Chowder of Corn and Maine Lobster 206 Chilled Gazpacho 207 Chilled Melon Soup with California Champagne 208 Curried Apple-Squash Soup 208 Carpaccio of Beef with Fresh Artichokes and Tomato Salad 209 Wild Rice Salad 209 Grilled Garlic Shrimp and Radish Salad 211 Smoked Duck with Red Lentil Salad and Golden Beets 212 Red Lentil Salad 212 Cracked Wheat and Tomato Salad 215 Curried Rice Salad 215 Black Bean Salad 216 Barley Salad with Cucumber and Mint 216 Tunisian Chickpea Salad 219 Soba Noodle Salad 219 Roasted Red Pepper Salad 220 Green Onion Salad 220

Jícama Salad 222 Daikon Salad (Mu Chae) 222 Spinach Salad (Namul) 223 Southwestern Corn Salad 223 Warm Cabbage Salad 224 Marinated Chanterelles 224 Fruit Salad with Orange Blossom Syrup 225 Stone Fruits with Mint Syrup 225 Mixed Fruit Salad 227 Winter Greens with Warm Vegetable Vinaigrette 227 Chinese Long Bean Salad with Tangerines and Sherry-Mustard Vinaigrette 228 Spinach Salad with Marinated Shiitake Mushrooms and Red Onion 230 Warm Salad of Wild Mushrooms and Fennel 230 Mixed Green Salad with Pears, Walnuts, and Blue Cheese 231 Romaine and Grapefruit Salad with Walnuts and Stilton 231 Mediterranean Salad 232 Modified Caesar Salad 232 Kale, Cashew, and Cranberry Pasta Salad 235 Warm Salad of Hearty Greens, Blood Oranges, and Pomegranate Vinaigrette 235 Grilled Chicken and Pecan Salad 236 Grilled Tuna with Spring Herb Salad and Marinated Tomatoes 236 Grilled Tuna Niçoise 239 Peruvian-Style Tuna Seviche 239 Seviche Plate 240 Scallop Seviche in Cucumber Cups 242 Seviche Estilo Acapulco 242 Salmon Cakes with Cucumber Relish 243 Black Bean Cakes with Mango Salsa 244 Portobello with Tuscan Bean Salad and Celery Juice 245 Asparagus with Morels 245 Stuffed Grape Leaves 246 Prosciutto with Grilled Vegetables 247 Grilled Vegetables with Romesco Sauce 247 Wild Mushroom and Goat Cheese Strudel 248 Mussels in Saffron and White Wine Sauce 248 Steamed Pork Dumplings 249 Clams Steamed in Beer 249 Thai Seafood Salad 251 Grilled Pork Skewers 251 Vietnamese Summer Rolls 252 Mousseline-Style Forcemeat 254 Mediterranean-Style Seafood Terrine 255 Duck Terrine 256 Grilled Bell Pepper and Eggplant Terrine 257 Cucumber Granité 257 TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

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6 MAIN DISHES FOR LUNCHES AND DINNERS 258 Seared Cod in a Rich Broth with Fall Vegetables, Chive Pasta, and Ginger–Green Onion Butter 260 Sautéed Squid and Steamed Mussels with Cannellini Beans, Spinach, and Pancetta 261 Grilled Salmon with Savoy Cabbage and Heirloom Bean Sauce 261 Seared Atlantic Salmon with Corn, Potato, and Arugula Salad 262 Lobster Wrapped in Rice Paper with Asian Salad 263 Stir-Fried Scallops 264 Seared Cod with Shellfish, Tomato-Fennel Broth, Saffron Pasta, and Chorizo 264 Hake in Green Sauce 265 Grilled Herbed Salmon with Southwest White Bean Stew 266 Salmon Cakes with Green Goddess Dressing 266 Shrimp with Tomatoes, Oregano and Feta Cheese 268 Grilled Yellowfin Tuna with Citrus Salad 268 Grilled Soft-Shell Crabs 269 Swordfish in Savory Sauce 269 Seared Scallops with Avocado, Grapefruit, Greens, and Citrus Dressing 270 Scallop Gratin with Wild Mushrooms 272 Pan-Roasted Salmon with Moroccan Spices and Lentil Ragoût 272 Bass and Scallops en Papillote 273 Sea Bass in Tomato, Fennel, and Saffron Sauce 273 Sea Bass with a Ginger Nage 274 Sautéed Sole with Preserved Mango Chutney and Grilled Bananas 274 Bouillabaisse 276 Cioppino 277 Tenderloin of Beef with Wild Mushrooms 277 Albuquerque Grilled Pork Tenderloin with Beans and Greens Sauté 278 Sautéed Medallions of Pork with Warm Cabbage Salad 279 Lamb Shish Kebob 279 Grilled Flank Steak with Roasted Shallot Sauce 280 Grilled Veal with Blackberries and Vanilla 281 Roupa Velha 282 Broiled Lamb Chops with Caramelized Root Vegetables and White Bean–Rosemary Sauce 282 Roasted Loin of Pork with a HoneyMustard Pan Sauce 283 Moroccan Squash Tagine with Couscous 284 Cassoulet with Smoked Tomatoes 284 Buffalo Chili 285

Pork Paprikash 287 Lamb Curry 287 Lamb Shanks Braised with Lentils 288 Curried Goat 288 Chicken Stir Fry with Soba Noodles 289 Curried Chicken 289 Sautéed Turkey Medallions with Tomato-Basil Jus 290 Duck Stir Fry with Shrimp 290 Grilled Chicken with Apples and Pecans 291 Grilled Quail Wrapped in Prosciutto with Figs and Wild Mushrooms 292 Grilled Chicken Burritos 292 Mushroom Tamales with Salsa Verde 293 Poblanos Rellenos 294 Grilled Lamb Kebobs with Smoky Tomato Sauce 296 Chicken Köfte Kebob 296 Grilled Kibbe Kebobs 297 Jerk Chicken 297 Savory Indian Crêpes with Tomato and Peanut Chutney 298 Chicken Breast with Peaches in Zinfandel Wine Sauce 298 Grilled Pheasant with Asparagus and Black Truffle Butter 299 Barbados Barbecued Chicken 299 Pan-Smoked Chicken Breast with Artichoke and Mustard Sauce 300 Tamal Casserole 300 Whole Wheat Quesadillas with Roasted Chicken, Ancho Chile Caciotta, and Mango Salsa 301 Chicken Braised with Piquillo Peppers 301 Smoked Turkey Breast with CranberryOrange Vinaigrette 302 Poached Cornish Game Hen with Star Anise 303 Paella Valenciana 303

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Chicken and Shrimp Pot Pie with Herb-Cracker Crust 304 Rabbit and Oyster Étouffée 305 Udon Noodle Pot 307 Malaysian Chicken Satay with Pressed Rice Cakes and Spicy Peanut Sauce 307 Pad Thai 308 Asian Buckwheat Noodle Salad with Hot Sesame Chicken 309 Mu Shu Vegetables 311 Stir-Fried Garden Vegetables with Marinated Tofu 312 Mangalore Shrimp, Peanut, and Vegetable Stir Fry 313 Sautéed Wild Mushrooms and Smoked Tomatoes with Couscous 313 Roasted Eggplant Tian 314 Risotto Cakes with Green Beans, Wax Beans, and Chanterelles 314 Barley Risotto Pouches 315 Barley Risotto with Garden Vegetables 316 Stuffed Cabbage Roll 316 Farro with Vegetable Ragoût and Parsley and Toasted Almond Salsa 317 Black Bean Chili 318 Green Oaxacan Mole 318 Vegetable Stew 319 Shrimp Dumpling 320 Chorizo Dumpling 320 Goat Cheese Ravioli 321 Linguine with Olives, Basil, and Red and Yellow Tomatoes 321 Open-Face Buckwheat Ravioli with Pork and Vegetable Ragoût 322 Cappellini with Grilled Vegetable Ragoût 322 Grilled Asparagus with Morels, Bowtie Pasta, and Spring Peas 323 Valencian Pasta “Paella” 324 Rigatoni in Wild Mushroom Broth with Spring Vegetables 324 Paglia e Fieno with Peas, Smoked Salmon, and Capers 325 Smoked Tomato and Provolone Pizza with Black Olives 325 Pizza with Roasted Tomatoes and Mozzarella 327 Shrimp and Clam Pizza with Pesto 327 Smoked Mozzarella, Prosciutto, and Roasted Pepper Pizza 328 Pizza with Wild Mushrooms and Goat Cheese 328 Baja-Style Fish Tacos 330

Vegetable Fajitas 330 Vegetable Escabeche 331 Crabmeat and Shrimp Sandwich 331 Grilled Garden Sandwich with Warm Slaw and Crispy Potato Slices 332 Grilled Moroccan Spiced Lamb Burger on Pita with Cool Mint Yogurt 333 Falafel 333 Mujadra 334 Moroccan Chicken Pita Sandwiches 337 Turkey Burgers 337 Chicken and Mushroom Burgers 338 Vegetable Burgers 338 Korean Grilled Beef Lettuce Wraps with Green Onion Salad and “Bulgogi”-Style Beef 339

7 SIDE DISHES 340 Haricots Verts with Walnuts 342 Asparagus with Toasted Anchovies, Garlic, and Lemon 342 Broccoli Rabe with Garlic and Red Pepper Flakes 343 Collard Greens 343 Brussels Sprouts with Mustard Glaze 345 Wild Rice Succotash 345 Smoked Roasted Corn 346 Roasted Corn and Black Beans 346 Zucchini in Sweet-Sour Sauce 347 Grilled Vegetables 347 Pan-Steamed Zucchini and Yellow Squash Noodles 348 Ratatouille 348 Vegetables in Peanut Sauce 350 Artichokes and Mushrooms in White Wine Sauce 350 Braised Belgian Endive 351 Fennel Braised in Chardonnay 351 Beans and Greens Sauté 353 Saffron Cauliflower and Onions 353 Caramelized Pearl Onions 354 Caramelized Root Vegetables 354 Pecan Carrots 354 Corn Pudding 356 Basic Rice Pilaf 356 Barley Pilaf 357 Tabbouleh 357 Barley and Wheat Berry Pilaf 358 Bulgur and Lentil Pilaf with Caramelized Cipollini Onions 358 Quinoa Pilaf with Red and Yellow Peppers 359 Risotto 359

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

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Brown Rice Pilaf 360 Lemon-Dill Rice 360 Pressed Rice Cakes 361 Vegetarian Dirty Rice 361 Couscous 362 Polenta 362 Buckwheat Polenta 363 Goat Cheese Polenta 363 Pumpkin Risotto 364 Farro 364 Curried Teff 365 Kasha with Spicy Maple Pecans 365 Stir-Fried Barley 366 Hazelnut Wild Rice 366 Basic Beans 367 Rice with Black Beans 367 Black Bean Cakes 368 Black Bean and Cornmeal Loaf 368 Vegetarian Refried Beans 369 Chickpea Stew 370 Southwest White Bean Stew 370 Algerian-Style Chickpeas with Cauliflower and Dersa Sauce 371 Stewed Chickpeas with Tomato, Zucchini, and Cilantro 371 Smoky Braised Black-Eyed Peas 372 Steamed Spinach with Garlic and Pernod 372 Purée of Yellow Split Peas 375 Sautéed Swiss Chard 375 Three-Bean Stew 376 Basic Pasta Dough with Variations 377 Buckwheat Pasta Dough 377 Buckwheat Noodles 378 Jalapeño Pasta 378 Saffron Pasta 379 Chile Pepper Pasta 379 Spätzle 380 Gnocchi 380 Saffron Potatoes 381 Rösti Potatoes with Celeriac 381 Potato Pancakes with Roasted Tomato Sauce 382 Potato, Onion, and Tomato Gratin 382 Fondant Potatoes 383 Curried Yukon Gold Potatoes 383 Sweet Potato Cakes 383 Oven-Roasted Potatoes 384 Potato Gratin 384 Celeriac and Potato Purée 385 Potato Purée with Roasted Eggplant and Garlic 385

8 BREAKFAST AND BEVERAGES 386 Granola 388 Basic Crêpe Batter 389 Four-Grain Waffles 389 Breakfast Sausage Patties 391 Maple and Apple Butter Syrup 391 Pumpkin or Banana Pancakes 392 Sausage-Stuffed French Toast with Winter Fruit Compote 392 Steel-Cut Oats with Cinnamon and Dried Fruit 393 Piperade Wrap 393 Tortillas de Papas 394 Spinach Soufflé 397 Bitters and Sparkling Mineral Water 397 Raspberry-Lime Rickey 398 Mediterranean Cooler 398 Juicy Fling 400 Lemonade 400 Sea Breeze 401 Cantaloupe Cocktail 401 Gazpacho Cocktail 402 The American Cocktail 402 Passion Fruit Cocktail 403 Tropical Fruit Smoothie 403 Frozen Cappuccino 404 Mandarin Frappé 404 Chai 404 Hot Mulled Cider 407 Hot Cocoa 407

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9 BAKED GOODS AND DESSERTS 408

Chocolate Cake 427 Chocolate Angel Food Cake 427 Rice Pudding 428 Chocolate Custard 428 Polenta Soufflé 429 Grilled or Broiled Bananas 430 Grilled Bananas with Strawberry Glacé in a Honey Tuile 430 Honey Tuile 431 Baked Figs 431 Apple Cobbler 432 White Chocolate Cheesecake 433 Honey-Vanilla Cheesecake 433 Berry Napoleon 434 Summer Melons with Warm Caramel Sauce 434 Glazed Pineapple Madagascar 435 Tarte Tatin, St. Andrew’s Style 435 Individual Fruit Galettes 437 Lemon Tart 437 Carrot Cake with Cream Cheese Icing 438 Warm Strawberries with Frangelico Glacé and Shortcake 440 Warm Fruit Compote 440 Poached Pears 441 Winter Fruit Compote 441

Whole Wheat Pita Bread 410 Stuffed Roti Bread 410 Peanut Pocket Pita Bread 411 Basic Pizza Dough 412 Country Corn Bread 412 Oat Bran and Dried Fruit Muffins 413 Spiced Graham Muffins 413 Grilled Naan with Eggplant Purée 414 Black Pepper Biscuits 414 Dairy Base 416 Chocolate-Ricotta Bavarian 417 Apple Pie Glacé 418 Pear Sorbet 418 Champagne and Lemon Sorbet 419 Caramel Sauce 419 Apricot Sauce 420 Cider and Raisin Sauce 420 Fresh Berry Coulis 421 Almond-Anise Biscotti 421 Almond Tuiles 422 Chocolate Hippenmasse 422 Fudge Brownies 423 Chocolate Fudge Cookies 423 Oatmeal-Pear Cookies 424 Chocolate Crêpes 424 Strudel Dough 425 Apple Strudel 425 Sweet Ricotta Pastry 426 Sponge Cake 426

10 CHEF’S PANTRY 442 Moutabel (Roasted Eggplant Spread) 444 Skordalia (Greek Garlicky Potato Spread) 444 White Bean Pureé 445 Baba Ghanoush 445 Boiled Peanut and Roasted Red Pepper Hummus 446 Tapenade 446 Guacamole with Toasted Cumin 447 Tomato Salsa 447 Salsa Verde 448 Pico de Gallo 448 Parsley and Toasted Almond Salsa 449 Mango Salsa 449 Green Papaya Salsa 450 Peruvian Ají Amarillo Paste 450 Orange and Herb Conserve 451 Pearl Onion and Raisin Confit 451 Beef Chutney 452 Cucumber Raita 452 Red Onion Confit 452 Tomato and Peanut Chutney 453 Preserved Mango Chutney 453 Chicken Stock 454 TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

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Vegetable Stock 454 Sachet d’Épices 455 Bouquet Garni 455 Fish Fumet 455 Dashi 456 Court Bouillon 456 Fond de Veau Lié 457 Wild Mushroom Jus 457 Vegetarian Demi-Glace 458 Cider Sauce 458 Ancho Chile Sauce 459 Creamy Mustard Gravy 459 Ginger Sauce 460 Shrimp Sauce 460 Wild Mushroom and Rosemary Sauce 461 Roasted Onion and Vinegar Sauce 461 Velouté-Style Sauce / White Sauce 462 Sparkling Wine-Butter Sauce 462 Tomato Sauce 463 Tomato Coulis 463 Yellow Tomato Coulis 464 Red Pepper Coulis 464 White Bean-Rosemary Sauce 465 Heirloom Bean Sauce 465 Black Bean Sauce 466 Spicy Peanut Sauce 466 Lentil Ragoût 467 Romesco Sauce 467 Barbecue Sauce 468 Pesto 468 Gremolata 469 Duxelles 469 Vinaigrette-Style Dressing 470 Balsamic Vinaigrette 470 Port Wine Vinaigrette 470 Lime-Cilantro Vinaigrette 471 Tomato Vinaigrette 471 Ratatouille Vinaigrette 472 Roasted Vegetable Vinaigrette 472 Harissa Vinaigrette 473 Creamy-Style Dressing 473 Green Goddess Dressing 474 Blue Cheese Dressing 474 Ranch Dressing 475 Caesar Dressing 475 Anchovy-Caper Dressing 476 Horseradish and Apple Cream Dressing 476 Honey-Mustard Glaze 477 Ginger-Green Onion Butter 477 Truffle Butter 477

Tandoori Marinade 478 Albuquerque Dry Rub 478 Berbere Spice Blend 479 Oven-Roasted Tomatoes 479 Basil Oil 480 Curry Oil 480 Crispy Potato Slices 481 Garlic Croutons 481 APPENDIX: RECIPE ANALYSIS 482 Table of Nutrition Information 482 Nutrient Content Claims 498 Health Claims 503 Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed per Eating Occasion 509 Weight, Volume, and Temperature Conversions 513 Information, Hints, and Tips for Calculations 514 RECOMMENDED RESOURCES AND READINGS 515 GLOSSARY 517 Grains 533 Selection of Plant-Based Proteins 534 Tofu 536 RECIPE INDEX 537 SUBJECT INDEX 556

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Acknowledgments TO OUR FACULTY, PAST AND PRESENT, who teach the material to our students and

make it come to life for our guests: Dr. Tim Ryan, CMC; Mark Erickson, CMC; Amy Myrdal Miller, MS, RD; Greg Drescher; Chris Loss, B.S., M.S., Ph.D.; David Kamen, PCIII/CEC, CCE, CHE; Mark Ainsworth, PC III/CEC; Michael Garnero; CHE, Anita Eisenhauer; John Kowalski; Lynne Gigliotti; and Brent Wasser.

The Worlds of Flavor and Worlds of Healthy Flavors conferences added

another level of excitement and, ultimately, resulted in our Principles of Healthy Menu Development. We wish to acknowledge Greg Drescher and John Barkley for their important contributions, along with the inspiring recipes and thoughtprovoking conversations between food-service and nutrition experts they have made part of the national discussion of healthy cooking and eating in the twentyfirst century.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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Preface Obesity is an epidemic of global proportions. —WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

CHOOSING A HEALTHY EATING PATTERN is vitally important, as diet directly in-

fluences health.

Obesity causes at least 300,000 deaths a year, while the combination of ex-

cess weight and lack of physical activity are responsible for more than 400,000 deaths a year. The problem isn’t limited to the United States—it affects both rich and poor countries around the world.

Overweight and obesity may soon cause as much preventable disease and death as cigarette smoking. —DAVID SATCHER, former U.S. Surgeon General

Americans need to understand that excess weight and obesity are literally

killing us. Each small step makes a difference: A healthy diet (combined with regular exercise and not smoking) can help prevent not only excess weight and obesity but also heart disease, diabetes, some cancers, and other chronic diseases. A healthy diet can also help control many health conditions. The problem for most people is how to understand what constitutes healthy eating. It’s a daunting task, even for people who consider themselves nutrition savvy.

Dozens of new diet books are published each year, but few are based on solid

scientific principles. An independent team, led by Dr. Walter C. Willett, chairman of the Department of Nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health, has been working to clear up the confusion by defining what constitutes a healthy diet according to the best scientific evidence available. Their work complements research from a range of leaders in the field of nutrition from all over the world. In many cases, this work is running ahead of government policy-makers’ ability to translate it into accurate, up-to-date public health messages.

The Culinary Institute of America’s first Worlds of Healthy Flavors Leader-

ship Retreat was held in 2004 on our Greystone campus to address the needs of leaders in the food-service industry. We invited several internationally acclaimed chefs and cookbook authors to prepare meals and to showcase the healthful nature of their native kitchens. Aromatic, stimulating, and delicious beyond words, the lunches and dinners confirmed that the world’s cuisines abound in healthful ideas: from India’s spicy lemon broth with lentils to Mexico’s green mole with vegetables to a Spanish salad of greens, figs, and gazpacho vinaigrette.

As food experts from Mexico, Greece, India, and Vietnam displayed the riches

of their native table at the Worlds of Healthy Flavors gathering, one point crystallized: Americans still have a lot to discover. With the recipes and healthy cooking techniques in this book, and the drive to continue your study of how food and health are intertwined, the lessons of the world’s most intriguing cuisines can translate into healthier menu options both in your restaurant and in your home.

PREFACE

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Introduction WHEN THE CIA FIRST APPROACHED the idea of nutritional cooking, we set out

to prepare a manual for our students to use in the two courses we then offered in nutrition and nutritional cooking. That manual grew to become the 500-pluspage volume we are now proud to present in its Fourth Edition. Over the years and through each edition of this book, more information has come to the fore about healthy cooking. And with each passing year, our guests have continued to call for great-tasting food that is good for you in every sense of the word.

Our knowledge of nutrition continues to grow. Every day, it seems, the

news features a newly released study on how the foods we eat affect our health. In addition, we have learned that the way foods are grown and distributed can also have a significant impact on our health and the health of our planet’s farmland and overall food supply.

People have become increasingly aware that, as part of a lifestyle that also

includes such elements as proper amounts of rest and exercise, good nutrition is important in maintaining physical health and overall well-being. Consequently, the demand for products and services designed to help support the quest for good health has increased dramatically.

Chefs, restaurateurs, and other food-service professionals are rising to the

challenge of offering foods that appeal to patrons’ desire for a healthy lifestyle. We now know that a healthy diet is based on eating a wide variety of high-quality foods that provide balanced nutrition. Chefs are in the vanguard of efforts to revitalize regional food systems and are urging a conscious evaluation of how we choose to buy, cook, and serve foods.

Chapter 1 covers some of the basics of nutrition by defining the various roles

that foods play in sustaining life. This material is not intended as a replacement for more in-depth study of nutrition. We introduce a number of important concepts, including the importance of calories, and discuss dietary guidelines, healthy diets, and food guide pyramids. We know that a healthy, balanced diet plays a role in maintaining optimum health, along with regular physical activity. When we examine the diets and dining habits of cultures whose members exhibit low levels of heart disease, obesity, and other diet-related health concerns, we can begin to identify the foundations of healthy cooking.

Based on the combined knowledge of dozens of professional chefs, dieti-

tians, and food-service professionals, and on the lessons of the pyramids, The Culinary Institute of America has revised its own set of principles for healthy cooking. These guidelines are an invitation to think about the foods you select, the cooking techniques you use, and the types of beverages you offer. They are not ironclad rules. Instead, they should be regarded as ways to explore the possibilities of flavor and healthy cooking.

INTRODUCTION

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To begin cooking for good health, we have to revise the way we think of meals

and shift our focus to those foods that once were relegated to the side. The major challenge in such an undertaking is the preservation of flavor.

Our recipes offer practical solutions for putting healthy cooking into effect.

The recipes in this book are written to help you learn, or relearn, how portion sizes and ingredient measurements look when using healthy cooking guidelines.

At first, it may seem cumbersome and time-consuming to measure out cer-

tain ingredients, but the extra time will pay off. As you grow familiar with the correct measures and portion sizes, using them consistently becomes easier. You will probably discover that it is always best to weigh or measure ingredients that could add extra calories, cholesterol, sodium, and fats not intended to be part of the dish.

The analysis provided at the end of each recipe is based on the exact mea-

surements supplied in the ingredient list. Adding a few more teaspoons of butter, an extra ounce of heavy cream, or another slice of bacon is likely to have a negative effect on the dish’s nutritional profile.

Not every component needs the same careful monitoring, though. Adding

more basil to the pasta, for example, or increasing the amount of vegetable garnish in a soup will probably not make much difference, nutritionally speaking, but the flavor of the dish might benefit dramatically.

Many factors affect the nutrients in each ingredient (season, ripeness, soil

conditions, etc.), and many factors affect the nutrients in the cooking process (how long, what temperature, storage conditions, etc.). The nutritional analysis we have provided for each recipe is a reliable estimation of the nutrients that are in that dish. The nutrients selected for analysis are based on the current food label and include calories, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars, and protein. To standardize the process and to ensure consistency in the nutritional analysis, the following standards were used:

Each analysis includes only the ingredients in the main ingredient list. Serv-

ing suggestions are not included in the analysis.

All ingredients were measured using the U.S. measurement system.

Nutrient values were rounded using the FDA food label standards.

When a range of ingredient measures is given, the smallest amount is used in

the analysis.

When an ingredient, such as pepper, is listed as “as needed” or “optional,” it is

not included in the analysis.

When more than one ingredient is listed, such as “chicken or vegetable stock,”

the first ingredient is the one used in the analysis.

INTRODUCTION

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1 The benefits and importance of a healthy, balanced diet are more apparent than ever to the general public. Every chef must meet the general needs of their customer base. In order

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS for chefs to provide selections that are both delicious and healthful, they need to understand and be able to apply the techniques and concepts involved in healthy cooking.


WHAT IS A HEALTHY EATING PATTERN?

for clients with specific dietary needs—for instance, clients with diabetes or hypertension, schoolchildren, or the residents of an assisted-living facility. If your clientele is composed of a group that has a variety of

THE ANSWER RARELY IS A SIMPLE ONE. Our indi-

needs or desires when it comes to eating, your chal-

vidual needs differ greatly for a variety of reasons,

lenge is developing menu items that are good options

including age, gender, activity level, and health status.

for those with a personal concern in healthier foods.

As more studies are conducted and the results are

analyzed, the media continue to report about miracle weight-loss diets and wonder cures that don’t neces-

ucts meant to control weight, build muscle, or treat ill-

sarily lead to healthy eating patterns.

nesses. Graham crackers, for instance, were a health

At its simplest, diet means the foods we nor-

food when they first arrived on the market. Today,

mally eat and drink. The definition also encompasses

they are simply sweet crackers, not the cornerstone

the notion of foods that are prescribed to an individ-

of a dietary program. Part of the issue is that today’s

ual for a specific reason. However, diets are popularly

media climate is more frenetic. There are genuine

thought of as restricting the foods someone might

alarms about the dangers of foods that should be

normally eat. Most popular weight-loss diets fall into

taken seriously, like mercury in seafood or trans fats

this category. These diets are often described with an

in snack foods. However, many times the evidence for

emphasis on the “delicious and bountiful” aspects of

“alarming” issues is overturned almost before the ink

the foods the dieter is permitted to counteract the

is dry on the newspaper in which they are reported.

perception that diets are mainly about deprivation.

Diets prescribed by a health-care professional might

some very “adult” diseases like diabetes and hyperten-

or curtailing some foods, reducing portions, or even

sion. Also, baby boomers are nearly or well into their

changing someone’s typical eating pattern. Some of

retirements and are waking up to the fact that staying

these restrictions help control the number of calories

healthy means learning new dietary behaviors from

consumed, while others are meant to prevent dis-

professionals. Chefs are not necessarily going to have

agreeable, or even harmful, consequences.

all the answers about what foods are best to eat. But

A “poor” diet once meant a diet that did not sup-

we believe firmly that people need to learn as much

ply sufficient basic nutrients to prevent an individual

as they can about nutrition so that they can apply that

from starving to death or developing deficiency dis-

knowledge in the kitchen—not as a laboratory exer-

eases. There are still many places in the world where

cise, but in the pursuit of foods and flavors that feed a

these issues are of vital concern. However, in most

hunger for satisfying, sustaining, and healthful dishes.

industrialized nations the reason a diet is described

as “poor” has more to do with excess: too many calo-

Chefs have a responsibility to offer foods that

their patrons will want to eat that are also good for

ries, too much sodium, or too much fat. Ironically, an

them. No one has all the answers about which foods

excess in one area can also lead to a deficiency in an-

are best, but in order to do a good job, today’s chefs

other area; too many calories in the form of sugary or

are honor bound to learn about the basics of food and

fatty foods may indicate a corresponding lack of fiber

nutrition so they can apply that knowledge as part of

or vitamins.

Today, the public is becoming increasingly aware

that schoolchildren are more and more at risk for

also include a number of restrictions, eliminating

The history of medical and culinary science is

littered with dietary plans, special foods, and prod-

the techniques of healthy cooking.

As an individual, you may want to know about di-

ets in order to keep yourself healthy or to lose weight.

In this chapter, we will examine basic nutri-

tion concepts. If you are interested in learning more

As a professional, your motivation for knowing more

about nutrition, please review the Recommended

about a healthy diet might be to develop entire menus

Resources and Readings (page 515).

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

2


NUTRITION 101

CALORIES COUNT

WE EAT BECAUSE WE MUST. Our bodies need food

FOODS PROVIDE OUR BODIES WITH ENERGY. We

in order to function properly. Human beings eat for

use this energy for physical activity as well as for

more reasons than actual hunger, however. Very of-

basic functions like respiration, digestion, circula-

ten, we eat simply because we want to eat. Our love

tion, and temperature regulation. The energy used

affair with food is the basis of the culinary profes-

for these involuntary bodily functions is known as

sion. Chefs have always been in the business of pre-

resting energy expenditure. Energy from food is

paring and presenting foods that do much more than

measured in kilocalories, or the amount of energy or

fill an empty belly. It is precisely because chefs have

heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram

the job of enticing us to the table that they need to

of water by 1 degree Celsius. The term calorie is of-

incorporate lessons from nutrition about food and

ten substituted for kilocalorie.

health in the dishes they prepare.

Calories affect body weight directly: If we

At the same time that nearly every industrialized

consume more calories than we burn, our bodies will

country is reporting a growing number of overweight

convert the extra calories (energy) to fat and store

and obese citizens, we are also growing increasingly

it throughout the body. If we burn more calories than

aware of the relationship between the foods we eat

we consume, our bodies will draw on stored energy,

and the consequences to our health. Nutrition is the

or fat, to perform the basic functions and to fuel

study of how foods affect us. Simply eating “enough”

physical activities.

is not sufficient to ensure that a diet is healthy. It is

SOURCES OF CALORIES

vital that we eat enough of the right foods.

The appropriate foods are those that supply

Calories come from four sources—carbohydrates,

us with a full array of all the nutrients we need in or-

protein, fat, and alcohol. The majority of calories

der to be properly nourished. In 1900, Escoffier used

should come from carbohydrates, protein, and fat.

to talk about the “nutritive” aspects of a dish. How-

(Alcohol does not provide any nutrients and is there-

ever, at that time we were just beginning to identify

fore considered nonnutritive.) Generally, nutrition

the elements in foods necessary to maintain or im-

experts recommend that most people get 50 to 55

prove our health. Because nutrition is a dynamic sci-

percent of their total calories from carbohydrates,

ence, our knowledge of it changes as studies unveil

12 to 15 percent from protein, and no more than 35

new and sometimes contradictory findings. Behind

percent from fat, with an emphasis on limiting satu-

the controversies and inconsistencies there remain

rated fat to no more than 10 percent of total calories.

some basic principles. We know, for instance, that

Similarly, the United States Department of Agricul-

getting the “right” foods generally means eating a va-

ture’s Dietary Guidelines recommend ranges of 45 to

riety of foods; no single food contains enough of all

65 percent of calories from carbohydrates, and 20

the important nutrients our bodies need. This section

to 35 percent of calories from fat, with the remain-

is a brief overview of those nutrients, as well as some

ing 20 to 35 percent coming from protein. This allows

basic concepts in nutrition: calories, protein, fat, car-

for flexibility based on individual or cultural prefer-

bohydrates, vitamins, and minerals.

ences, and for some health conditions.

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

3


FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CALORIC NEEDS

COUNTING CALORIES Not all sources of calories are created equal. Fat supplies more than two times the calories per gram that

Throughout this book, nutrition needs are discussed

carbohydrates and protein do, so fats and foods that

in the context of a 2,000-calorie day. This amount

are high in fat are said to be calorie dense. But these

was chosen because it is the basis for the Nutrition

foods may also be dense in nutrients. Alcohol also

Facts label that appears on all packaged food as

supplies significantly more calories per gram than

mandated by federal law, and because it represents

carbohydrates and protein.

the average caloric needs for males and females between the ages of two and sixty. The actual num-

CARBOHYDRATES: 4 calories per gram

ber of calories an individual requires depends on a number of factors:

PROTEIN: 4 calories per gram

WEIGHT: In the same way that heavier vehicles use

FAT: 9 calories per gram

more fuel than lighter ones, heavier people require

ALCOHOL: 7 calories per gram

more calories than lighter individuals to maintain

(Note: There are 28 grams in an ounce.)

their weight.

ESTIMATED DAILY CALORIE NEEDS CALORIE RANGE AGE AND GENDER

LEVEL AGE

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

(YEARS) SEDENTARY

MODERATELY ACTIVE

ACTIVE

VERY YOUNG CHILDREN

2–3

1,000–1,200c

1,000–1,400c

1,000–1,400c

FEMALES

4–8

1,200–1,400

1,400–1,600

1,400–1,800

9–13

1,400–1,600

1,600–2,000

1,800–2,200

14–18

1,800

2,000

2,400

31–50

1,800

2,000

2,200

51+

1,600

1,800

2,000–2,200

4–8

1,200–1,400

1,400–1,600

1,600–2,000

9–13

1,600–2,000

1,800–2,200

2,000–2,600

14–18

2,000–2,400

2,400–2,800

2,800–3,200

19–30

2,400–2,600

2,600–2,800

3,000

31–50

2,200–2,400

2,400–2,600

2,800–3,000

51+

2,000–2,200

2,200–2,400

2,400–2,800

MALES

U.S. Department of Agriculture Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

4


AGE AND LIFE CYCLE: People who are growing

consumed in sufficient quantities, the body is forced

rapidly, especially infants and adolescents, as well

to inefficiently use protein as fuel.

as pregnant and nursing women, have greater caloric

CARBOHYDRATES are the main source of glucose

needs. As we age, our metabolism often slows down and we require fewer calories.

GLUCOSE is the body’s primary energy source

ACTIVITY LEVEL: Inactive people require fewer

GLUCOSE is the only energy source for

calories than people who move frequently. Physi-

the brain and red blood cells

cally demanding jobs, strenuous exercise, and even

EXCESS CARBOHYDRATES are stored

fidgeting translate into more calories expended.

for future energy

GENDER: Men typically have leaner body mass or

EXCESS CARBOHYDRATES are stored as fat

more muscle mass than women, and thus have higher basal metabolic rates than women do because

TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES

muscle burns more calories than fat.

SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES (SUGARS)

Contain calories but few nutrients Contain “empty” calories

ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS WHEN

NUTRITION

SCIENTISTS

Simple carbohydrates, also known as simple sugars, contain only one or two types of sugar molecules and

use the word

are called monosaccharides or disaccharides. Easy to

essential, they don’t just mean that a nutrient is im-

digest, simple carbohydrates are found in fruit, fruit

portant; an essential nutrient is one that the body

juices, dairy products, and sweets.

does not manufacture. Cholesterol, for example, per-

forms several important functions in the body and

empty calories. Fruits contain nutrients like vitamins

is critical for good health. However, the human body

and fiber, and for this reason are more nutritionally

manufactures all the cholesterol it needs, so choles-

dense than honey or table sugar. Sugar does not di-

terol is not an essential nutrient.

Simple carbohydrates are often considered

rectly cause diabetes, hypoglycemia, or hyperactiv-

Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, min-

ity, but it can worsen an existing condition.

erals, and water are all essential nutrients. The first three are considered nutritive—that is, they supply calories. The last three are nonnutritive because they are calorie-free.

Carbohydrate Facts

CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred source of energy. They fuel physical activity and basal meta-

1 gram of carbohydrate = 4 calories

bolic functions and help burn fat efficiently. As car-

Carbohydrates are found in milk, fruit, vegeta-

bohydrates are digested, they are broken down into

bles, grains, and legumes

sugars that the body can absorb, and use, easily. Carbohydrates provide energy for the nervous system

Not all carbohydrates contain fiber (milk is

and red blood cells, and should be 45 to 65 percent

an example of this)

of the daily caloric intake. If carbohydrates are not

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

5


TYPES OF SIMPLE SUGARS

WHOLE GRAINS

Glucose

Comprise the entire grain, seed, or kernel

Fructose

The kernel has three parts:

Lactose

BRAN, which is the most fiber-

rich portion of the kernel

Maltose

GERM, which contains unsaturated

Sucrose

fats, vitamins, and minerals

ENDOSPERM, which contains starch

COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES

During the milling process, the kernel is crushed or cracked

Are a great source of energy, vitamins, and minerals Generally contain some fiber

After processing, if the grain retains its original proportions of bran, germ, and endosperm, it can be considered a whole grain

Not all complex carbohydrates are whole grains Are found in cereals, oatmeal, grains, vegetables, nuts, legumes, and breads

REFINED GRAINS

Complex carbohydrates contain chains of sugars and

A portion of the germ and or bran has been removed

are called polysaccharides. They are more difficult to

Since the refining process strips away nutrients, they are added back through an enrichment process

digest because they must be broken down into simple sugars first. Because complex carbohydrates take longer to digest than simple carbohydrates, they

THE GLYCEMIC INDEX

provide a sense of fullness and satiety. Whole grains, legumes, nuts, and vegetables contain complex car-

The Glycemic Index, or GI, is a tool some scientists

bohydrates. It is important to note that all carbohy-

use to measure the effects of carbohydrates on

drates influence blood sugar levels.

blood sugar levels. Carbohydrates in some foods

During digestion, carbohydrates are broken

are digested rapidly, and they can cause blood sugar

down into glucose, which is absorbed by the body and

levels to rise and then drop rapidly. The GI measures

released into the blood. When blood sugar levels in-

how quickly 50 grams of carbohydrates from a par-

crease, the pancreas releases insulin, a hormone that

ticular food—not 50 grams of the food itself—raise

makes it possible for glucose to enter the cells and

blood sugar levels compared to 50 grams of glucose.

be used for energy.

A food’s GI is expressed as a percentage, with pure glucose at 100 percent.

WHOLE GRAINS

There are a few caveats with the GI that you

should keep in mind. The first is that a GI value does

For thousands of years, humans ate grains straight

not address the serving sizes of foods. Consider car-

from the plant. Limited processing, if any, meant

rots and bagels. Carrots have a GI of 71, and bagels

that these complex carbohydrates were rich in fiber,

have a GI of 72. The logical conclusion is that eating

minerals, vitamins, and phytochemicals. Advances

carrots will raise your blood sugar as much as eating

in grinding technology made these grains easier to

a bagel will. But remember that the GI is based on the

chew, digest, cook, and store, but also made them

amount of carbohydrate in a food. One 4- to 5-ounce

less nutritionally dense.

bagel contains about 70 grams of carbohydrates, but

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

6


1 cup of cooked carrots supplies only 13 grams. To

In addition, eating foods in combination,

eat 50 grams of carbohydrates from carrots, you’d

whether that’s butter or cream cheese on a bagel,

have to eat about 11⁄2 pounds of them. A serving of

or carrots in a stew or as a side dish, can affect the

carrots, in fact, has a much lower impact on blood

rate at which the sugars from these foods enter the

sugar levels than does a bagel.

bloodstream.

NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS OF SELECTED GRAINS, LEGUMES, VEGETABLES, AND STARCHES AMOUNT*

CALORIES

PROTEIN (GRAMS)

FAT (GRAMS)

CARBOHYDRATES (GRAMS)

Amaranth, dry

1 cup

716

26.17

13.54

125.93

Barley (pearl), dry

1 cup

704

19.82

2.32

155.44

Buckwheat, dry

1 cup

583

22.5

5.78

121.5

Buckwheat flour

1 cup

402

15.14

3.72

84.7

Bulgur wheat, dry

1 cup

479

17.2

1.86

106.2

Chickpeas, cooked

1 cup

270

14

4

46

Corn

1 cup

178

5.4

2.2

41.2

Cornmeal

1 cup

441

9.9

4.38

93.8

Couscous, dry

1 cup

650

22

1.1

133.9

Kidney beans, cooked

1 cup

218

16

0

40

Lentils, dry

1 cup

678

49.5

2

115.2

Millet, dry

1 cup

756

22

8.44

145.7

Peas, cooked

1 cup

110

8

0.5

19

Quinoa, dry

1 cup

626

24

10.3

109.01

Rice (brown), dry

1 cup

885

14.68

5.4

142

Rice (white), dry

1 cup

675

13

1.22

147

Rolled oats, dry

1 cup

160

6

3

28

Spelt, dry

1 cup

588

25.35

4.2

122.13

Teff, dry

1 cup

708

25.6

4.59

141.14

Triticale, dry

1 cup

645

25

4

138.48

Whole wheat flour

1 cup

408

15.8

3

86.36

Wheat germ

1 cup

414

26.62

11.17

59.6

Wild rice, dry

1 cup

357

23.56

1.72

119.8

*All figures based on grains and legumes cooked in water.

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

7


Similar foods may have very different GIs.

Determining GI is a labor-intensive process. To

An oatmeal cookie may have a much lower GI than a

measure a food’s effect on blood sugar, a person first

chocolate chip cookie. That’s because whole grains

must eat the food, and then blood must be drawn

like oatmeal are digested more slowly than refined

and analyzed. Blood sugar levels must be noted be-

grains like all-purpose flour, in part because fiber

fore and after the food is consumed, and because

can slow the rate at which sugar is absorbed by the

individuals respond differently to foods, these tests

bloodstream.

must be conducted on several people before a GI can

Blood Sugar, Insulin, and Diabetes: What’s the Connection? DURING DIGESTION,

carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, which goes into the bloodstream to become blood sugar. In a healthy person, insulin—a hormone produced by the pancreas—regulates blood sugar levels and helps carry blood sugar into cells for energy. In a person with diabetes, insulin either is produced in insufficient amounts or does not perform its functions. Rather than passing from the blood into the body’s cells, glucose builds up in the bloodstream. Excess blood sugar goes into the kidneys to be excreted, causing more work for the kidneys. Over time, high blood sugar levels can cause damage to the kidneys, eyes, circulatory system, and nervous system. Type I diabetes is an autoimmune disease (like lupus or rheumatoid arthritis) that occurs when the cells in the pancreas responsible for

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

8

producing insulin have been destroyed by the body’s immune system. It accounts for only 5 to 10 percent of all diabetes cases. Type II diabetes occurs when the body stops producing as much insulin or becomes resistant to it; it is most often diagnosed in people who are overweight, physically inactive, and older. There is increasing concern among the healthcare and public health community about the increasing rates of Type II diabetes among children in the U.S. It is estimated that 1 out of every 3 American children born after the year 2000 will develop Type II diabetes unless rates of childhood obesity start to decrease. There is no cure for diabetes, but it can be managed. Type I diabetes requires daily insulin, as well as a careful management of diet and physical activity and stress. Type II diabetes can often be controlled through diet, physical activity, and weight management alone, but sometimes oral medication or insulin is necessary. For information about dietary recommendations for people with diabetes, see page 29.


Is Juice Bad for You?

THERE’S CURRENTLY A DEBATE RAGING

over juice. One side says it’s a healthful beverage—much better for you than sugary sodas. The other side says it can contribute to weight gain and tooth decay every bit as much as soda does. The truth is that both sides are right. Compared to sodas, “elixirs,” and sport drinks, juices are a fairly nutritious choice. While all contain sugars in comparable amounts, nosugar-added juices get their sweetness from naturally occurring fruit sugar

called fructose, whereas most sugarsweetened drinks get their sweetness from high-fructose corn syrup. Both types of sugar are metabolized in the same way. Juice, however, does supply some vitamins and minerals, as well as antioxidants and phytochemicals, which are found in the fruits from which they are made. But if you compare an 8-ounce glass of fruit juice to the medium-size fruit from which it’s made, it doesn’t look so nutritious:

FOOD

CALORIES

CARBOHYDRATES (GRAMS)

SUGAR (GRAMS)

FIBER (GRAMS)

Orange juice

120

28

22

0.5

Orange

60

15

12

3

Apple juice

120

28

24

0.2

Apple (w/skin)

100

25

19

4

Bottom line: Juice contains nutrients that other beverages don’t, but it lacks the fiber that fruit contains.

be determined. At present, only a limited number of

regulates the body’s use of sugars by slowing their

foods have been tested.

digestion and release into the bloodstream. Soluble

fiber binds with cholesterol-rich bile acids in the

To review the GI of various foods, visit www.

glycemicindex.com.

intestine, which may help to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Beans, fruits, oats, and barley are good sources of soluble fiber.

FIBER

Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water. In-

Fiber is a form of carbohydrate that is indigest-

stead, it absorbs water and provides bulk in the diet.

ible and nonnutritive. It is a mixture of several com-

Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin are components

pounds, and the proportion of these compounds in

of insoluble fiber. Insoluble fiber helps clear out the

a food varies. Fiber is divided into two basic types:

intestinal tract and may reduce the risk of certain

soluble and insoluble.

types of cancer and the risk of Type II diabetes. Fruits

and vegetables, wheat bran, whole-grain flours, and

Soluble fiber dissolves in water. Pectins and

gums are components of soluble fiber. Soluble fiber

popcorn are good sources of insoluble fiber.

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

9


THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF FIBER HEALTH EFFECT

INSOLUBLE FIBER (CELLULOSE, LIGNIN, HEMICELLULOSE)

SOLUBLE FIBER (PECTIN, GUMS)

Decreases colon cancer risk

No

No

Lowers blood cholesterol

No

Yes

Lessens constipation and hemorrhoids (reduces pressure, softens stools)

Yes

No

Speeds up transit time in the colon (helps body eliminate waste)

Yes

No

Interferes with mineral absorption

Yes

No

Interferes with vitamin A

Not known

Yes, pectin does

Provides feeling of fullness

Yes

Yes

PROTEIN

ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS

Protein is essential for growth. We use it to build,

The basic building blocks of protein are known as

maintain, and repair tissues; to produce hormones,

amino acids. The multitude of proteins found in a hu-

enzymes, and antibodies; to transport nutrients and

man cell are composed of about twenty amino acids,

oxygen throughout the body; and to regulate the bal-

most of which are produced by the body.

ance of bodily fluids. If insufficient carbohydrates

are available, protein can also be used for energy.

1. Isoleucine

However, carbohydrates cannot perform all of the functions that protein does.

The eight essential amino acids are:

2. Lysine

Proteins are made of amino acids. All of the

3. Phenylalanine

proteins found in human cells are composed of about twenty amino acids. Essential amino acids are those

4. Trytophan

that humans cannot produce on their own. Adult hu-

5. Leucine

mans must acquire eight amino acids from their diets. From those acids, their bodies can produce the

6. Methionine

remaining twelve that are necessary to produce the

7. Threonine

proteins they need. Conditionally, essential amino acids are those that our bodies are not currently

8. Valine

producing for one of the following reasons: age (for instance, infants and children require histidine and

Normally the body can acquire these eight amino

arginine), stress, injury, disease, or physical exer-

acids. However, when insufficient amounts of the

tion. Under those conditions, some other amino acids

eight essential amino acids are consumed, a dietary

need to be introduced through appropriate dietary

source for conditionally essential acids may become

sources or supplements.

necessary.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

10


THE AMINO ACIDS ESSENTIAL

CONDITIONALLY ESSENTIAL*

NONESSENTIAL

Isoleucine

Arginine*

Alanine

Leucine

Cysteine

Aspartic acid

Lysine

Histidine

Cystine

Methionine

Tyrosine**

Glutamic acid

Phenylalanine

Glutamine

Threonine

Glycine

Tryptophan

Proline

Valine

Serine

*Essential for infants and small children. **Tyrosine is made from phenylalanine, so if there is a deficiency of phenylalanine, tryosine may be required.

cereals, nuts, seeds, and legumes are incorporated in

PROTEINS IN THE DIET

the diet. Foods that provide protein are divided into two

groups—complete and incomplete proteins. Com-

simple as eating a peanut butter and jelly sandwich

Making incomplete proteins complete is as

plete proteins are those foods that provide all of the

or baked beans and brown bread. Bread is rich in the

essential amino acids in sufficient quantity to sup-

amino acid methionine, but low in lysine. Legumes

port growth and maintenance of body tissues. Foods

(peanuts and beans) are rich in lysine, but low in

that contain complete proteins provide a higher

methionine. When both are combined, they “comple-

quality of protein; examples are meat, fish, poultry,

ment” each other and a complete protein is formed.

cheese, eggs, milk, and isolated soy protein. In short,

Civilizations throughout history have combined

animal and soy products contain complete proteins.

foods to make complete proteins. Some examples in-

Incomplete proteins lack one or more of the es-

clude rice and beans (Mexican), tofu and rice (Asian),

sential amino acids in sufficient quantity to support

pasta and beans (Italian), corn and lima beans (Ameri-

growth and maintenance of body tissues. Foods that

can Indian), and hummus and pita bread (Middle East).

contain incomplete protein provide a lower quality of

It is interesting to theorize whether this “natural”

protein. With the exception of soy foods, quinoa, and

combining of foods to make complete proteins was

amaranth, all other plant foods (grains, vegetables,

by accident, belief, or a factor of cultural survival.

nuts, seeds, and legumes) are considered incomplete proteins. In short, most plant products contain in-

COMPLETE PROTEINS

complete proteins.

Meats Vegetables

While most people choose to include some ani-

Poultry

mal protein in their diets, it is important to note that

INCOMPLETE PROTEINS

Dried and cooked legumes

all of the essential amino acids can be obtained by

Fish Nuts

consuming a variety of vegetable foods, each with a

Amaranth and quinoa

different quality and quantity of amino acids. Plant

Soy

sources of protein can meet nutritional needs for

Animal products

protein if a sufficient variety of foods such as grains,

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

11


MAKING COMPLETE PROTEINS CEREALS, GRAINS, AND DAIRY

LEGUMES

EXAMPLES

Cornmeal

Dried beans

Bean taco

Barley

Dried peas

Barley and pea risotto

Whole-grain breads

Peanuts

Peanut butter sandwich

Rice

Soy products

Tofu with rice

Pasta

Dried beans

Pasta e fagioli

Eggs

Whole grains

French toast

Cheese

Vegetables

Eggplant Parmesan

VEGAN

LACTO-OVO VEGETARIAN

ESSENTIAL PHYTOCHEMICALS

structural elements in cells, helps the immune system to function properly, slows digestion, makes the

Phytochemicals and antioxidants are the new fron-

fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) available to the

tier in nutritional research. They are good news for

body, and supplies essential fatty acids necessary

people concerned with healthy eating because, after

for normal growth and development. However, too

years of hearing about foods that are bad for us and

much of the wrong types of fat can increase the risk

should be avoided, we now have a nutritional cham-

of coronary heart disease, obesity, and certain types

pion to focus on.

of cancer.

Phytochemicals, like vitamins, are compounds

Though it makes sense to conclude that eating

that occur naturally in fruits, vegetables, legumes,

fat will cause you to become fat, this isn’t necessar-

and grains. Unlike vitamins, phytochemicals have not

ily true. Excess calories, whether from fat, carbohy-

yet been recognized as essential to life, and clear

drates, protein, or alcohol, combined with too little

deficiency levels have not been identified. As more

activity, are what cause weight gain and obesity. How-

is discovered about phytochemicals, deficiency lev-

ever, fat is calorie-dense, so it is easier to consume

els may eventually be established for some of these

too many calories from fat than from protein or car-

compounds. Although phytochemicals are a relativity

bohydrates. In addition, fat is more readily stored as

new subject for scientific study, research results so

adipose (body) fat than carbohydrates and protein.

far indicate that they may help reduce the risk of cer-

tain cancers, heart disease, and some other chronic

fatty acids. Each fatty acid is composed of carbon,

diseases. For more information about phytochemi-

hydrogen, and oxygen. The number of slots for hy-

cals, see page 26.

drogen atoms to bond with carbon atoms determines

Fats are comprised of linked chains known as

whether a fat is considered saturated, monounsatu-

FAT

rated, or polyunsaturated. If there is no room for any more hydrogen, the fatty acid is considered satu-

Fat has been maligned for decades, but it is an es-

rated. Monounsaturated fats have room for two hy-

sential nutrient that performs several vital functions

drogen atoms on the chain, and polyunsaturated fats

within the body. It surrounds and cushions vital or-

have more than two “slots” open.

gans, helps to maintain body temperature, maintains

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

12


Monounsaturated fats appear to raise levels

fats include butter, lard, and other animal-based fats,

of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the blood. Some-

as well as tropical oils such as coconut, palm, and

times called “good cholesterol,” HDL is associated

palm kernel.

with reduced health risks for circulatory diseases.

Olive oil, canola oil, and some nut oils are monounsat-

fat than other plant oils. They are less harmful than

urated. Brazil nuts, cashews, avocados, and pumpkin

partially hydrogenated oil, which is high in trans fats.

seeds are high in monounsaturated fats.

But they are less beneficial to the heart than plant

Coconut oil and palm oil are higher in saturated

Polyunsaturated fats, like monounsaturated

oils that are rich in unsaturated fats like extra-virgin

fats, are associated with reduced health risks and

olive oil, canola oil, and sunflower oil. Coconut oil

are liquid at room temperature. Cooking oils made

increases good HDL cholesterol levels, which may

from corn, safflower, sunflower, and soybeans are

make it a good choice when cooking a dish that needs

polyunsaturated. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids

a little hard fat.

are polyunsaturated (see table on page 15).

Trans fats are usually solid at room tempera-

Saturated fats can cause elevated levels of

ture, and they can cause levels of LDL to increase—

low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood. (They also

but unlike saturated fats, trans fats cause levels of

may cause high-density lipoprotein, or HDL, levels to

HDL to decrease as well. They may also be carci-

rise, which can balance the high LDL to a certain ex-

nogenic. Trans fats are formed when liquid oils are

tent.) Usually solid at room temperature, saturated

processed into solids like shortening or margarine.

HIGHLIGHTS OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN PLANTS PLANT FOOD

PHYTOCHEMICAL

PROTECTIVE EFFECTS: SUMMARY POINTS

Grains and beans Soybeans

Saponins Isoflavones Genistein

Neutralize cancer-causing enzymes in the gut Reduce serum cholesterol and plaque formation Alter hormone metabolism

Allium vegetables: garlic, onions, chives, leeks, scallions

Sulfur allyl cysteine Allicin

Help the liver detoxify cancer-causing chemicals Cholesterol reduction

Cruciferous vegetables: broccoli, kale, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower

Sulforane Brassinin Indoles Glucosinolates Indoles Isothiocyanate

Antioxidant properties

Citrus fruits

Terpenes (limonene)

Boost the protective enzyme activity

Wines, grapes, cranberries

Flavonoids Ellagic acid

Combat oxidation and blood clots Antioxidant properties prevent DNA damage

Tea

Polyphenols, catechins Flavonoids

Antioxidant properties prevent DNA damage Prevent cancer cell growth Reduce serum cholesterol

Tomatoes

P-coumaric acid Lycopene

Bind with nitrites before they form cancer-causing nitrosamines Antioxidants protect against colon and bladder cancer

Fiber

Phytoestrogens

Reduce risk of hormone-related cancers

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

13


Additional hydrogen atoms bond alongside the car-

ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS

bon atoms. This increases the smoke point of the fat and improves its shelf life, making trans fats a popu-

There are twenty fatty acids in the human body, and

lar choice for commercial baked goods and frying.

they are made from two: linoleic acid, also known as

It is important to remember that all foods and

omega-6 fatty acid, and linolenic acid, also called

beverages that contain fat usually contain a combi-

omega-3 fatty acid. In addition to the functions at

nation of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyun-

right, these fatty acids are crucial in producing pros-

saturated fat. When a food, like olive oil, is referred

taglandins, hormone-like substances that control

to as a monounsaturated fat, that means that the ma-

pain and inflammation, allergic reactions, and blood

jority of the fat in that product is monounsaturated.

clotting; help to regulate blood pressure; and are

Olive oil also contains smaller amounts of saturated

used in making hormones.

and polyunsaturated fats.

Why Is It Time to End the Low-Fat Myth?

DOZENS OF STUDIES HAVE FOUND

that low-fat diets are no better for one’s health than moderate or highfat diets—and for many people, they may be worse. Low-fat diets are usually high in carbohydrates, which often come from rapidly digested foods such as white flour, white rice, potatoes, sugary drinks, and snacks containing refined starches and sugars. Eating lots of these “fast carbs” can cause quick, sharp spikes in blood sugar and insulin levels, and over time can increase the risk of diabetes and heart disease. High-carbohydrate, low-fat diets also have a negative effect on the fats and cholesterol in our blood: They raise the “bad” blood fats (triglycerides) and they lower the “good” blood cholesterol (HDL), both of which can increase the risk of heart disease. These diets also tend to increase blood pressure. Note that if you’ve been able to keep your weight, blood cholesterol fractions, and blood glucose under control while eating a low-fat diet, this type of diet may be working for you. But for many

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

14

people, low-fat diets don’t work. For many folks, low-fat diets are simply not the best choice for health. Carefully conducted clinical trials found that following a low-fat diet doesn’t make it any easier to lose weight or keep it off. A high intake of carbohydrates, particularly if they come from refined rather than whole grains, can make weight control more difficult. In fact, study volunteers who follow moderate or high-fat diets lose just as much weight—and in some studies a bit more—as those who follow low-fat diets. Calories are what count for weight loss, so it’s important for people to find a lower-calorie eating plan that can be followed for lifelong health. It’s a myth that eating high-fat foods makes people fat. Eating more calories than one needs from any source, whether fat, carbohydrate, or protein, can lead to weight gain. Over the past 30 years in the U.S., the percentage of calories consumed from fat has actually gone down, but obesity rates have skyrocketed. Sugary soft


ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID

FUNCTION

SOURCE

Omega-3

Reduces risk of heart attack by lowering the amount of cholesterol manufactured by the liver. Helps prevent blood clots from forming in deposits of arterial plaque. May slow or prevent growth of tumors, stimulate the immune system, and lower blood pressure.

Fatty fish including mackerel, salmon, trout, anchovies, albacore tuna, and sardines; walnuts; canola, soy, and flaxseed oils

Omega-6

Reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease by lowering total and LDL cholesterol. May also reduce HDL cholesterol levels.

All polyunsaturated foods; corn, soy, and safflower oils

drinks don’t contain any fat—yet the billions of gallons that Americans drink each year have been a major contributor to the obesity epidemic. Some types of fats are, however, more healthful than others:

cooking, though, because foods that are rich in healthy fats also contain a little bit of saturated fat. The best strategy is to limit foods that are very high in saturated fat, such as butter, cheese, and red meat, and replace them with foods that are high in healthy fats, such

UNSATURATED FAT is the healthiest

as plant oils, nuts, and fish. An alterna-

type of fat. Plant oils (such as olive,

tive approach is to just use a very small

canola, soybean, peanut and other nut

amount of full-fat cheese, butter, cream,

oils), nuts (such as almonds, peanuts,

or red meat in dishes that emphasize

walnuts, and pistachios), avocados, and

plant foods such as vegetables, whole

fish (especially oily fish such as salmon)

grains, and legumes.

are excellent sources of unsaturated fat. Eating unsaturated fat in place of refined grains and sugar can improve blood cholesterol profiles and lower triglycerides, and in turn, lower the risk of heart disease. It’s essential to include a special kind of unsaturated fat, called omega-3 fat, in the diet; good sources include fish, walnuts, canola oil, and soybean oil. SATURATED FAT is less healthy, since

it raises “bad” (LDL) cholesterol in the blood. It would be difficult to completely eliminate saturated fat from our

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

15

TRANS FATS from partially hydroge-

nated oils are especially bad for health. Eating just a small amount of trans fats on a regular basis raises the risk of heart disease. So it’s best to avoid trans fats altogether.

Keep in mind that most foods contain a mix of fats. The key to a healthy diet is to choose foods that are higher in unsaturated fat than saturated fat— and that do not contain any trans fats.


SOME FOODS ARE RICH IN HEALTHY

they have too much saturated fat. The worst: partially hydrogenated oil, also known as trans fat. So choose foods rich in healthy fats. Limit foods high in saturated fat. And avoid foods with trans fat.

FATS —and some foods aren’t. The

healthiest: seafood, nuts, and oils, since they have omega-3s and other unsaturated fats. The harmful: red meat, butter, and ice cream, since

Salmon, tuna, fatty fish

<BEST

Finding Foods with Healthy Fats

Walnuts, canola oil, flax seeds

Seafood omega-3 fats Plant omega-3 fats Plant omega-6 fats

Olive* and peanut oils, nuts, avocados

Monounsaturated fats

Red meat, butter, cheese, ice cream

Saturated fats

Partially hydrogenated oil

WORST>

Corn, soy, and safflower oils

Industrial trans fats

*Extra-virgin olive oil is rich in antioxidants and likely has additional health benefits. **Coconut and palm oils are high in saturated fat, but may not have the same harmful health effects as saturated fat from meat and dairy products. Adapted from D. Mozalfarian

CHOLESTEROL

it protects nerves, produces vitamin D on the skin when exposed to sunlight, and is an important build-

Cholesterol is not a fat; it has no calories. It is a

ing block in the manufacture of hormones.

fat-related compound in the lipid family. Although

cholesterol is essential to good health, it is not an es-

by lipoproteins in the bloodstream. Low-density lipo-

sential nutrient because our bodies produce all of the

proteins (LDL) carry cholesterol from the liver to the

cholesterol we need. Cholesterol can be measured in

body’s cells, but they are not very efficient and also

two ways: in our blood (serum cholesterol) and in our

tend to “drop” cholesterol. These deposits, called

foods (dietary cholesterol). Dietary cholesterol is

plaque, may build up on the walls of arteries and

found in animal foods. (Cholesterol does not exist in

blood vessels and eventually block them, obstructing

plant foods.)

the flow of blood. This can cause a condition called

The average adult in the U.S. consumes about

atherosclerosis, which can lead to coronary and ce-

270 milligrams of dietary cholesterol every day. The

rebral thrombosis and embolisms. Plaque buildup

human liver manufactures 1,000 to 1,500 milligrams

happens gradually. It isn’t until arteries are about 75

of cholesterol every day from dietary saturated fat.

percent blocked that symptoms like chest pain or

The best way to reduce serum cholesterol is to limit

shortness of breath occur.

the intake of saturated fat so that the liver can’t pro-

duce as much. Cholesterol is important in our bodies;

lesterol from the body’s cells back to the liver, where

Cholesterol is transported throughout the body

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) transport cho-

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

16


it is broken down and flushed out of the body or reas-

WATER ALSO

sembled into other compounds.

DISSOLVES water-soluble vitamins, minerals,

HDLs also “sweep up” the cholesterol in the

and other compounds to transport them to each cell via the bloodstream

bloodstream that LDLs have dropped, so high levels of HDL indicate a reduced health risk, whereas very

REMOVES impurities from the

low levels can leave cholesterol in the blood rather

bloodstream and the body

than ferrying it to the liver for removal.

CUSHIONS joints, organs, and sensitive

Eating a diet high in cholesterol does not al-

tissues such as the spinal cord

ways translate into high levels of serum choles-

MAINTAINS pressure on the eyes’

terol. For most people, diets high in saturated fats and trans fats have a more direct impact on serum

optic nerves for proper vision

cholesterol levels. However, dietary cholesterol is

STABILIZES blood pressure

found in animal products, which tend to be higher in

REGULATES body temperature

saturated fats than plant foods. For this reason, it is recommended that the daily intake of dietary choles-

We typically lose 2 to 3 quarts of water, or anywhere

terol not exceed 300 milligrams.

from 8 to 12 cups of water, each day as our bodies

Studies show that people who eat more poly-

use it to cleanse and cool the body while it carries out

unsaturated fat than saturated fat have lower serum

different processes. Our need for fluids increases in

cholesterol levels and lower incidences of heart dis-

hot or humid weather and during strenuous exercise.

ease. When most of the fats consumed are unsatu-

We must replenish the water we lose every day be-

rated, there appears to be a positive effect on HDL

cause the body does not store excess water.

levels. Polyunsaturated fats have also been linked to

lower serum cholesterol levels, but in large amounts

Most recommendations suggest a minimum of

eight glasses of water per day. It is possible to con-

they may also lower HDL, which can be detrimental.

sider some of the foods we eat as a surprisingly good

The bottom line: Focus on eliminating trans fats, re-

source of water. Some foods supply little to no wa-

ducing saturated fats, and consuming unsaturated

ter—vegetable oil is 100 percent fat and supplies no

fats from plant sources.

water, and other dense foods like nuts, honey, raisins, and Cheddar cheese are less than one-third water.

ESSENTIAL NONCALORIC NUTRIENTS

Would you guess, though, that roast beef and chicken are two-thirds water? They are. And fruits and vegetables are all extremely good sources of water as

There are some components of food that are essen-

well. Broccoli and carrots, for example, are compa-

tial to good nutrition but that do not supply calories:

rable in water content to milk.

water, vitamins, and minerals.

Fluids other than water can also contribute to

the daily requirement. Milk and juice are adequate

WATER

sources, and it appears that caffeinated beverages may be as well. People were told that caffeinated

The adult human body is nearly 60 percent water.

drinks didn’t count because they were thought to

Water contains no calories and is not a significant

cause a diuretic effect and could actually increase

source of nutrients, but without it humans can sur-

your body’s need for additional water. A small study

vive for only a few days. Water can be found in every

of eighteen adults demonstrated that there was no

cell in the human body and is critical to the body’s

statistical difference in hydration levels when water

chemical reactions.

or caffeinated beverages were consumed. Because

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

17


The Balancing Act

on where and when it is caught, but it typically gets at least 40 percent of its calories from fat—above the 35 percent limit. Top the salmon with a fruit salsa and serve it with a wholegrain pilaf and some sautéed vegetables, and the calories from fat can drop to 25 or 30 percent for the meal. Salmon is also full of healthier fats, which is extremely important to consider when looking at fat consumption. The type of fat used in cooking is much more important than that amount of fat that is used.

MANY EXPERTS RECOMMEND LIMITING FATS

to about 35 percent of calories, but what often gets lost in communication is that this percentage is over the course of a day, and could even be averaged over a few days. It does not mean that only foods with 35 percent or less of the calories from fat should be eaten. For example, salmon can vary considerably in fat content depending

this study was preliminary, it makes sense to moder-

or to enjoy or maintain health. The Dietary Reference

ate consumption of caffeinated and alcoholic bever-

Intake (DRI) for a food is based on age and gender

ages, since both are diuretics.

and gives the amount each subgroup requires.

Our bodies also produce water through meta-

The DV for calcium, for example, is 1,000 milli-

bolic functions—about a cup a day. For most indi-

grams. If a Nutrition Facts label says that 1 cup of yo-

viduals, drinking eight glasses of water can be a

gurt supplies 35 percent of the DV for calcium, that

challenge. A more reasonable, but still appropriate,

food contains 350 milligrams calcium. Not everyone

goal of five or six cups of liquid in the form of water

needs only 1,000 milligrams of this mineral, though.

or other nonalcoholic beverages takes into account

Adolescents and young adults should get at least

the three to four cups of water that foods with a high

1,300 milligrams, and people over fifty need at least

water content provide.

1,200. For them, that cup of yogurt supplies only 27 percent or 29 percent of the DV of calcium.

VITAMINS AND MINERALS

WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS

Like water, vitamins and minerals do not supply calo-

Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and are

ries. Although they are important to overall health,

easily transported throughout the body in the

they are generally required in smaller quantities than

bloodstream. These vitamins include the B-complex

energy-providing nutrients. Recommended Daily Val-

vitamins

ues (DVs) have been established for many of the vi-

biotin, pantothenic acid, B6, and B12) and vitamin C.

tamins and minerals known to be important to good

(thiamin,

riboflavin,

niacin,

folacin,

B-complex vitamins are found in grains, legumes, veg-

health. These are listed in the Appendix.

etables, meats, and fortified cereals. They perform

many functions: Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and B6 are

Daily Values are the amounts listed on Nutrition

Facts labels of packaged food, and they are based on

used in metabolizing nutrients. B12, which is found

the standard 2,000-calorie diet. They are not neces-

only in animal foods, is used to synthesize amino

sarily the amount a person needs to prevent disease

acids and in the formation of blood. Folacin, also called

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

18


folate (when it occurs naturally in foods) and folic

EXPOSURE TO WATER (rinsing cut foods

before they are cooked, cooking foods in water, holding foods in water)

acid (when it is synthetic), are used in blood formation and amino acid metabolism.

Deficiencies of the B-complex vitamins can

TIME (as foods age, they lose moisture and,

along with the moisture, vitamins)

range from reduced stamina and insomnia to nervous system damage, liver damage, ulcers, and death. In-

TO RETAIN WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS, OBSERVE THE FOLLOWING RECOMMENDATIONS:

sufficient folacin is the most common vitamin deficiency and has been linked to birth defects such as

Keep cooking times to a minimum

spina bifida.

Vitamin C is found in fruits and vegetables.

Cook foods in as little water as possible, or choose a dry-heat technique like roasting

Although oranges are practically synonymous with vitamin C, they are not the richest source: guava, straw-

Prepare foods as close to their time of service as possible

berries, broccoli, and red bell peppers supply more per serving. Vitamin C performs hundreds of functions

Purchase foods in reasonable amounts to avoid prolonged storage

in the body: It increases the body’s absorption of iron and is imperative to the growth and maintenance of body tissues. Vitamin C is used to produce collagen,

FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS

a protein substance that helps hold tissues together,

Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble—they are

like muscles to bone or teeth to gums. Vitamin C also

stored in fat tissues and, once ingested, cannot be

boosts the immune system and has antioxidant proper-

easily flushed from the body. In the proper amounts,

ties that protect cells from damage caused by oxygen.

fat-soluble vitamins are basic to health, but ex-

It may also protect against heart disease and cancer.

ceeding the DVs for these vitamins can cause them

A small amount of water-soluble vitamins can

to build up in the body, making it easy for toxic levels

be stored briefly in lean tissue, such as muscles and

to accumulate. Once toxic levels are reached, a vari-

organs, but the body’s supplies must be replenished

ety of dangerous and even fatal conditions may de-

daily. Toxic levels of these vitamins are possible but

velop. These vary by vitamin, but kidney stones, nerve

unlikely because any excess is excreted from the body.

damage, and abnormal bone growth are just a few.

Water-soluble vitamins can be affected by or-

dinary food-handling techniques and cooking meth-

Fat-soluble vitamins are far more stable

than water-soluble ones. They cannot be destroyed

ods. B vitamins are somewhat more stable than

by contact with air or water, and are less affected by

vitamin C, but both can be lost through the following:

heat than are water-soluble vitamins.

EXPOSURE TO AIR (removing peels, cutting

Some fat-soluble vitamins increase in bioavail-

ablity when they are heated. Carotenoids such as ly-

foods, or storing food uncovered)

copene in tomatoes and beta-carotene in carrots are

HEAT (cooking or storing at room temperature)

more available to the body after cooking. Cooking breaks down cellular walls, and it concentrates these nutrients.

UNITS OF MEASURE FOR DAILY VALUES OF VITAMINS AND MINERALS Gram (g)

The equivalent of 1⁄28 of an ounce. Few vitamins and minerals are measured in grams.

Milligram (mg)

One-thousandth of a gram. The majority of vitamins and minerals are measured in milligrams.

Microgram (μg)

One-millionth of a gram. Folacin, vitamin B12, and vitamin A are measured in micrograms.

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

19


Evaluating Studies DEPENDING ON YOUR SOURCE OF INFORMATION,

you may have heard that fiber is good for you or that it has no effect on your health. You may have heard that low-fat diets are the key to reducing cancer and heart disease or that the amount of fat you eat doesn’t matter. And you have read in this chapter that caffeinated beverages might or might not affect dehydration. Studies on human nutrition are done in many different ways, and the strength of the data depends on whether or not it can be replicated by other researchers in other populations. Epidemiological studies track people over time. They can show relationships between diet and lifestyle factors and health outcomes, but they cannot provide “cause and effect” relationships. Case-control studies compare the diet and lifestyle choices of people with a disease compared to people with similar characteristics (e.g., age, gender, where they live, where they work) who never developed the disease. The problem with these types of studies is that they often rely on people’s memories to report what they ate and how much they exercised. The “gold standard” studies are called randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but they are very expensive to run and people

who tend to volunteer for these types of studies are not “average” Americans. They tend to be more educated with higher incomes. One other thing to keep in mind is that nutrition is an evolving science. There are some issues on which experts agree (e.g., whole grains are good for us), but there are other issues for which more research is needed (e.g., whether wild salmon is better than farmed salmon for human health) before consensus is reached. So as you read about nutrition research and you see recommendations or claims that may seem contradictory, remember that the science is constantly evolving and that each year, consensus is reached on more and more issues. TIPS FOR EVALUATING NUTRITION AND HEALTH RESEARCH STUDIES AND ARTICLES

The credibility of nutrition and health information in print and online sources varies widely depending on the level of effort the writer put into summarizing the research findings on a single study or subject. Writers who simply review abstracts of studies, typically 200-word summaries of the research study, may miss important facts that

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

20

are only included in the peerreviewed, full version of the article. Many writers may not even review the original research article, and instead simply rereport what others reported in their consumer articles. It is therefore important to ask yourself the following ten questions, based on “The 10 Red Flags of Junk Science,” originally published by The Food and Nutrition Science Alliance (FANSA) in the 1990s. FANSA is a partnership of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association), the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, and the Institute of Food Technologists. DOES THIS ARTICLE PROVIDE RECOMMENDATIONS THAT PROMISE A QUICK FIX? If so,

be leery. Claims of miracle cures or rapid weight loss should not be viewed as credible. DOES THIS ARTICLE MAKE DIRE WARNINGS OF DANGER FROM A SINGLE PRODUCT OR REGIMEN?

Recommendations to eliminate certain foods or food groups should be viewed with suspicion. Unless a person has a food allergy or other medical condition that warrants eliminating a food or ingredient, there is no need to eliminate foods or food groups. Dietary patterns over time predict


future health outcomes, not the

DOES THIS ARTICLE MAKE

DOES THE ARTICLE MAKE

consumption or avoidance of single

DRAMATIC STATEMENTS THAT

RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON

foods.

ARE REFUTED BY REPUTABLE

STUDIES PUBLISHED WITHOUT

SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZATIONS?

PEER REVIEW? Peer review is the

Here it is important to look at

process by which articles about

the source of information. Is

research studies are evaluated by

the article being published by or

experts in the field prior to publi-

written on behalf of an organiza-

cation in a peer-reviewed journal.

tion that financially benefits from

Peer review ensures that the

providing controversial health

research study was well designed

information? An example of this is

and conducted in an appropri-

an organization that sells newslet-

ate manner, and that results are

DOES THE ARTICLE DRAW

ters. Controversial articles pique

reliable and believable. Popular

SIMPLISTIC CONCLUSIONS

people’s interest and help to sell

magazines like Time or People do

FROM A SINGLE COMPLEX

subscriptions.

not use a peer-reviewed process.

DOES THIS ARTICLE MAKE CLAIMS THAT SOUND TOO GOOD TO BE TRUE? If an article says a

single ingredient, such as parsley, can cure cancer, view this with suspicion. Most health conditions are the result of many nutrition, fitness, and lifestyle habits.

STUDY? This often happens

when the writer only references the study abstract. An example of this may be a claim that eating a single food may reduce risk of cancer, when the actual study may

DOES THE ARTICLE INCLUDE LISTS OF “GOOD” AND “BAD” FOODS? There are no “good” or

“bad” foods. What matters is a person’s dietary patterns over time.

have evaluated a single compound

DOES THE ARTICLE INCLUDE

found in plant-based foods and its

RECOMMENDATIONS MADE TO

effects on cells versus the effects

HELP SELL A PRODUCT? If so,

in the human body.

reader beware! The regulations

DOES THIS ARTICLE MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON A SINGLE STUDY? Dietary

recommendations made by authoritative bodies, such as the U.S. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, are made by looking at the body of research conducted over time in various populations. A single study will never tell the whole truth about the relationship between a food and a health effect. But if multiple well-designed studies show similar effects, the relationship may be real.

that govern claims for dietary supplements differ from the regulations that govern foods, beverages, medicine, and medical devices. Food and medical companies must provide proof that their claims are valid before making the claims, whereas dietary supplement companies can make claims without proof. If the Food and Drug Administration requests proof, then they must provide it. But with limited funding for enforcement, the FDA pursues very few false claims.

Articles are simply reviewed by an editor for grammar and style. Fact checkers work to ensure quotes are accurate, but this process by no means ensures the recommendations or advice is valid for a given nutrition or health claim. DOES THIS ARTICLE MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS FROM STUDIES THAT IGNORE DIFFERENCES AMONG INDIVIDUALS OR GROUPS?

When it comes to nutrition and health, what may work for women may not work for men, or what works for non-smokers may not work for smokers. A classic example of this was a study conducted in the early 1990s to determine the effects of vitamin A supplementation on lung cancer risk. Taking vitamin A decreased lung cancer risk in non-smokers, but it dramatically increased risk of lung cancer and death in smokers.

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

21


in dark green leafy vegetables (the orange pigment

The type of vitamin A present in animal foods

is hidden by the chlorophyll) like kale, collards, and

is called retinol. Beef and chicken liver are excellent

spinach. Beta-carotene cannot be quickly converted

sources, as are fortified dairy products. Vitamin A it-

to vitamin A, so it is difficult for toxic levels to be

self is not found in plant foods, but beta-carotene, a

reached. Excess beta-carotene levels may, however,

phytochemical that the body uses to produce vitamin

cause a person to appear jaundiced because the

A, is found in orange and deep yellow vegetables such

pigment is stored in fat layers just beneath the skin.

as squash, sweet potatoes, and carrots, as well as

The Exercise Equation

TO MANAGE WEIGHT AND PREVENT WEIGHT GAIN RELATED TO AGING AND A SLOWING METABOLISM, 60

NUTRITION IS CRITICAL TO GOOD

minutes of moderate- to vigorous-

HEALTH,

intensity exercise most days of the

but it is by no means the only aspect. Regular physical activity makes an important contribution to our health and well-being and can help to maintain a healthy body weight. People who are physically fit are at a lower risk for developing a host of diseases. Most people in the United States lead a sedentary lifestyle, and that can increase their risk for overweight and obesity, hypertension, Type II diabetes, osteoporosis, heart disease, and even some forms of cancer. Physical activity may also help to manage mild to moderate depression and anxiety. So how much exercise do people need? That depends on goals. TO REDUCE THE RISK OF DISEASE,

30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity most days a week is enough, but greater benefits come with longer sessions or with more vigorous activity.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

22

week is recommended. TO SUSTAIN WEIGHT LOSS, engage in

60 to 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise most days of the week. This activity should be above and beyond normal daily activities. Examples of moderate-intensity activities include hiking, dancing, gardening or yard work, golf (when you walk and carry clubs), bicycling at a rate of 10 miles or less per hour, walking at a rate of 3.5 miles per hour, light weight lifting, and stretching. Vigorous-intensity exercise includes jogging or running, swimming, bicycling at a rate of more than 10 miles per hour, walking at a rate of 4.5 miles per hour, aerobics, heavy yard work (such as chopping wood), vigorous weight lifting, and playing basketball.

Exercise can also help to meet nutrient needs. The more active a person is, the more calories he or she requires, and the easier it is to ensure that a wide variety of nutrient-rich foods is eaten.


Vitamin D is responsible for proper bone for-

Vitamin E, like vitamin C, is an antioxidant that

mation. It works in concert with calcium and phos-

protects the body from oxygen damage and may

phorus and helps the body use these minerals. A

have cancer-fighting potential. It is found in a variety

deficiency of vitamin D causes rickets, a condition in

of foods, especially whole grains and nuts. It is usu-

which the bones grow abnormally. Vitamin D is pres-

ally not difficult to obtain adequate vitamin E with a

ent in foods such salmon, sardines, shrimp, cod, and

healthy and varied diet, but followers of extremely

eggs, as well as in fortified milk and cereals. The skin,

low-fat diets may be deficient.

when exposed to sunlight, produces vitamin D from

cholesterol. Ten to fifteen minutes per day is often

of blood clots and makes a protein that is necessary

enough. People with limited exposure to sunlight may

for strong bones. Although it is produced by bacteria

need to get the amounts needed through fortified

found in the intestines, a person who eats a varied

foods or supplements. The bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to manufac-

diet obtains about half of the DV from food, particu-

ture vitamin D declines with age, so people over age

larly dark green leafy vegetables. Those who take

sixty should consider supplementation. Recent stud-

anticoagulants should avoid foods high in vitamin

ies show that American diets are deficient in this vi-

K because it can interfere with the action of these

tamin. Debate is under way concerning how much we

drugs.

Vitamin K is associated with proper formation

should consume on a daily basis. Some experts have suggested more than doubling the current DV.

Electrolytes THREE MINERALS ARE CALLED ELECTROLYTES:

sodium, chloride, and potassium. There are no minimum requirements for sodium or chloride. Because these two combine to make table salt, they are usually eaten in sufficient amounts. Electrolytes transmit nerve impulses, regulate fluids in cells, and help balance body fluids, including blood and blood pressure. Deficiencies are rare but may result from illnesses whose symptoms include diarrhea and nausea, or from extreme water loss such as that experienced by performance athletes or people

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

23

who work outdoors on hot, humid days. Sodium deficiencies result in loss of appetite, muscle cramps, confusion, and forgetfulness. Potassium deficiencies result in weakness and confusion. Most recreational athletes and people with normal amounts of physical activity are able to replace the electrolytes from the foods they normally eat, and restore fluid balance by drinking water to quench their thirst. Performance athletes and workers like roofers or road construction crews may need to go out of their way to eat foods that are high in salt. Sport drinks may also help to speed rehydration.


MACROMINERALS

unless supplements are taken. Good sources of cal-

Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, and potas-

cium include dairy products such as milk and yogurt, leafy greens such as collards and turnip greens, and

sium are called macrominerals because they are re-

canned fish with bones. Many foods are now fortified

quired in relatively large amounts. Of these, calcium

with calcium, including orange juice and cereal.

is the most abundant mineral in the body.

Ninety-nine percent of the calcium needed by

Phosphorus is used by the body in conjunction

with calcium to maintain bone and tooth structure; it

the body is used in the development of bones and

is also integral to releasing energy from food for the

teeth; the remaining 1 percent is used to regulate

body to use. Deficiencies in this mineral are rare, but

blood pressure and to aid in muscle contractions,

may result in weakness, decreased heart function,

transmit nerve impulses, and clot the blood. A de-

and neurological problems. Phosphorus is present in

ficiency in calcium may cause stunted growth and

animal protein, nuts, cereals, and legumes.

a loss of bone density. Because the body requires

so much calcium, excess calcium in the body is rare

Magnesium is used for bone and tooth struc-

ture, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, and

Nutraceuticals vs. Functional Foods NUTRACEUTICALS ARE FOODS OR SUBSTANCES

in foods that provide health benefits, including preventing or treating diseases; vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals can be considered nutraceuticals. Some foods come by their medical benefits naturallyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;oatmeal doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t need to have substances added to it to help reduce cholesterol levels. Other foods may be enriched, enhanced, or engineered. Medicinal plants or herbs added to sport bars or soft drinks, compounds called stanols added to margarines to reduce blood cholesterol levels, or vitamins and minerals added to bread, cereals, and pastas are all examples of fortifications to food. The phrase enriched with eight essential vitamins and minerals has

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

24

been around so long that many of us do not think twice about how enriched foods first came about. The story of their origin began in 1936, when a survey revealed that the incidence of deficiency diseases resulting from inadequate supplies of certain nutrients was increasing. Until that time, whole wheat bread had supplied the majority of the daily requirements of iron, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, magnesium, zinc, vitamin B6, folacin, and dietary fiber. With the advent of improved milling machinery, it became possible to make a whiter, smoother flour that produced a softer white bread. Unfortunately, highly refined flours lose significant amounts of nutrients. Niacin levels in unenriched white bread, for example, are only 2 percent of those found in whole-grain bread. As white bread became cheap and readily available, the demand for whole-grain breads dropped. The


bowel function. Too little magnesium can cause pos-

Adequate potassium has been linked to lower blood

sible growth failure, behavioral disturbances, trem-

pressure levels and reduced risk of stroke and heart

ors, weakness, and seizures. The U.S. diet tends to be

disease. Bananas have a reputation for being a rich

deficient in magnesium. Good sources include green

source of potassium, but in fact they have almost

vegetables, nuts, legumes, and whole grains.

half the amount of a baked potato. Avocados, white

Sodium and potassium are known as elec-

beans, yogurt, dark leafy greens like spinach, kale,

trolytes. These are essential to regulating bodily

and collard greens, and tomato and orange juices are

functions, helping to maintain the balance of fluid in

also good sources.

the body, and they are involved in nerve and muscle

MICROMINERALS

functions. Both are plentiful in food, so dietary deficiencies are uncommon.

Fluoride, iodine, and iron are known as trace minerals

Whereas most American consume more sodium

or microminerals because they are needed in minute

than recommended, the majority of Americans do not

amounts. Fluoride helps prevent tooth decay and may

consume enough potassium from dietary sources.

play a role in preventing osteoporosis. Many commu-

prevalence of deficiencies made it obvious that nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nutrient supply needed a boost. The Enrichment Act of 1942 required enrichment of all grain products, including cereals, pastas, and breads, that were brought across state lines. Iron, thiamin, niacin, and riboflavin levels are required to be close to what they had been in the whole-grain versions. As of January 1, 1998, an amendment to the law also requires that folic acid, a B vitamin shown to prevent birth defects, must be added. Other nutrients are added as part of the enrichment process, but it is not mandatory that their levels be raised to match those in whole-grain foods. There is no requirement for replacing dietary fiber. Today, nutrition modification is going beyond fortifying foods with nutrients lost in processing. Foods are now fortified with nutrients they have never supplied. Orange juice,

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

25

for example, may be fortified with calcium or with vitamins E and A as well as extra vitamin C. Hens are fed special diets high in flax, and the eggs they lay are rich in omega-3 fatty acids and somewhat lower in cholesterol than eggs from hens fed a traditional diet. Enriched products are certainly a better nutritional bargain than unenriched, bleached, and refined products. However, they are no match for whole grains. Replacing some of the nutrients does not make the product nutritionally complete, even if the label claims that a cereal offers 100 percent of eight or ten essential nutrients. The possible side effects from a diet that relies heavily upon highly processed grains and flours are still coming to light as scientists and researchers uncover more about the special roles played by each nutrient in our bodies.


nity water supplies contain fluoride. This mineral is

advisable. The best way to capitalize on the benefits

also present in saltwater fish, shellfish, and tea.

of phytochemicals is to eat a wide variety of fruits,

vegetables, grains, and legumes.

Iodine is essential for the normal functioning

of the thyroid gland, and it helps to regulate energy

Every plant food appears to have a different

metabolism, cellular oxidation, and growth. Iodine is

mix of phytochemicals that work in concert with each

found most abundantly in saltwater fish and some

other, as well as with vitamins and minerals, hor-

dairy products; its content in fruits and vegetables

mones, and other compounds to provide health ben-

depends on the soil they are grown in. A deficiency

efits. Tomatoes, for example, contain more than one

of iodine results in goiter, or enlargement of the thy-

hundred phytochemicals. Researchers are continuing

roid gland. Since the early 1900s, when goiter was

to identify the compounds in foods and their role in

common in the midwestern United States, iodine has

good health and proper nutrition.

been added to table salt (iodized salt) to eliminate

this deficiency.

part flavor (such as the sulfur compounds in onions or

Iron is a component of hemoglobin, the part of

the capsaicin in peppers) and pigments (beta-caro-

the red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs

tene and lycopene are carotenoid pigments; anthocy-

to the cells. About 75 percent of the body’s iron is

anin is a pigment that gives red cabbage and berries

found in the blood. The remaining iron functions as a

their deep red to purple hue). In general, phytochemi-

component of myoglobin, the oxygen-supplying mol-

cals seem to function in a combination of three ways:

ecule found in muscles, as part of certain enzymes

Some have antioxidant properties, some affect hor-

involved in cellular energy metabolism. Iron deficien-

mone levels, and some change enzymes that may

cies are a worldwide health problem, particularly for

eliminate carcinogens. Phytochemicals like digitalis

women of childbearing age, and cause a form of ane-

and quinine have been used for medical purposes for

mia in which blood cells lack sufficient hemoglobin.

centuries; their anticancer effects are only beginning

Someone who is anemic may appear pale and feel

to be explored.

weak; they will also have an impaired immune system.

The best food sources of iron are liver and red meat,

icals. They are essential for combating the cellular

but it is also found in whole grains, legumes, leafy

damage caused by free radicals, which are reactive

green vegetables, dried fruit, and egg yolks.

forms of oxygen produced by the body’s metabolic

Phytochemicals include flavonoids, which im-

Antioxidants are a subcategory of phytochem-

processes. Free radicals are present in particularly great quantities during times of stress, illness, and

PHYTOCHEMICALS AND ANTIOXIDANTS

exposure to toxins, and are even a natural by-product of exercise. Antioxidants include vitamins A, C, and E, the mineral selenium, and carotenoid pigments.

Phytochemicals are compounds that occur naturally

in plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, legumes,

nature, and the body uses about fifty of these. Lyco-

and grains (phyto- is from the Greek word for “plant”).

pene, found in watermelon and cooked tomatoes, is

Like vitamins, they occur naturally, but unlike vita-

one type of carotenoid used by the body. Lutein and

mins, they have not yet been recognized as essential.

zeaxanthin, xanthophylls found in corn and in leafy

To date, there are no deficiency levels or daily values

greens such as kale and spinach, also types of carot-

determined for phytochemicals.

More than six hundred carotenoids are found in

enoids, are believed to protect the macular area of

The study of phytochemicals is a very new

the eye. These antioxidants in general seem to inter-

science, and although it is tempting to take supple-

fere with the growth of cancer cells and may reduce

ments of certain phytochemicals that appear to

the risk of some cancers.

provide specific health benefits, this is not always

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

26


One of the most intriguing aspects of phyto-

cessed foods fall into this category. A steady diet of

chemicals for the chef is that they are associated

highly processed foods, on the other hand, can leave

with specific flavors in foods, from the pungency of

us shortchanged on certain important nutrients.

onions (allyl sulfides) to the heat in chiles (capsaicin)

When our nutrition needs are not met, our chances

to the sharp aromas of pine in some herbs (terpense).

of developing diseases or chronic health conditions, including hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, os-

ASSESSING FOODS BASED UPON NUTRIENT OR CALORIE DENSITY

teoporosis, gingivitis, and even some types of cancer, increase.

Foods that have a good supply of essential

Different foods contain different nutrients. The

nutrients in relation to the number of calories they

foods we choose to eat may be a rich source of a wide

contain are considered nutrient-dense. Fruits and

array of essential nutrients. Whole, minimally pro-

vegetables, lean meats and skinless poultry, low-fat dairy products, and whole grains supply a great deal

PHYTOCHEMICALS PHYTOCHEMICAL FAMILY

FOOD SOURCE

POSSIBLE HEALTH BENEFIT

Allyl sulfides

Onions, garlic, leeks, chives

Increase enzymes that affect cancer-causing substances and aid in their elimination from the body

Capsaicin

Chiles

Appears to prevent blood clotting; may interfere with development of cancer cells

Catechins

Apples, dark chocolate, grapes, raspberries, red wine, tea

May reduce the risk of cancers and help to prevent buildup of plaque on arterial walls

Indoles

Cruciferous vegetables (kale, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower)

Stimulate enzymes; make estrogen less effective, possibly reducing breast cancer risks

Isoflavones

Soybeans (tofu, soymilk, soy nuts)

Inhibit cancer cell growth and division under some conditions

Isothiocyanates

Cruciferous vegetables

Protect against cancer through their effects on enzymes

Phenolic acids (ellagic acid, ferulic acid)

Tomatoes, citrus fruits, carrots, nuts, strawberries, raspberries, whole grains, pomegranates

Reduce the genetic damage caused by carcinogens like tobacco smoke and air pollution

Polyphenols

Green tea, grapes, wine

May reduce the risk of certain types of cancers and heart disease

Quercetin

Apples, berries, red onions, red and purple grapes, tea, tomatoes

May reduce risk of some kinds of cancer; also may help to maintain beneficial levels of serum cholesterol and prevent cell damage

Resveratrol

Grapes, especially the skins; red wine, peanuts

Inhibits all three stages of carcinogenesis (tumor initiation, promotion, and progression); lowers serum cholesterol levels

Saponins

Beans, legumes

Prevent cancer cells from multiplying by influencing the genetic material in the cells

Terpenes (perillyl alcohol, limonene)

Cherries, citrus peel, lavender

Block development of breast tumors; cause existing tumors to regress

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

27


DIETARY GUIDELINES AND RECOMMENDATIONS

of nutrients and are fairly low in calories, thus they are all nutrient-dense.

Foods that supply a great deal of calories per

serving are considered calorie-dense. Nuts, for example, are a very concentrated source of calories and other nutrients. Foods with little or no nutritional

IF YOU FIND THE AMOUNT OF INFORMATION in this

value in relation to their caloric content are said to

chapter daunting, you’re not alone. Translating all

have empty calories. Alcoholic beverages, soda,

that information into balanced, nutritious menus for

breakfast pastries, desserts, and jams and jellies are

people who are in good health is a challenging task.

examples of foods with empty calories.

Add diseases or health conditions like diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease to the mix, and it’s easy to be overwhelmed.

Supplements vs. Food WALK INTO ANY HEALTH FOOD STORE

and you’ll see what a huge business vitamin and mineral supplements are. But is it necessary—or even advisable—to get nutrients from a pill? If a person eats a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods, supplements probably aren’t necessary. While some health conditions may indicate the need for vitamin and mineral supplements, currently no strong evidence supports the claim that supplements provide real benefits to individuals who are in good health and who eat properly. And supplements probably won’t counteract or correct health problems brought about by poor nutrition. In fact, taking indiscriminate megadoses of vitamins and minerals can be risky. Toxic levels caused by overdosing can lead to a number of health problems, including nausea,

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

28

depression, even death. And virtually all instances of toxic levels of vitamins are caused by supplementation. However, there are situations where supplementation is warranted. Vitamin B12 is found only in animal foods. Ovo-lacto vegetarians may obtain some levels, but they, as well as vegans, should consider taking supplemental B12, as should people over the age of fifty because the body’s ability to absorb vitamin B12 declines with age. The body’s ability to synthesize vitamin D also declines significantly with age: Seventy-yearolds produce about 30 percent of what people in their twenties do. People who are over sixty, who live in northern climates where the sun sets early in the winter, or who are housebound should also consider supplementing their diets with vitamin D. Women who may become pregnant should discuss folic acid supplements with their health-care practitioner; this B vitamin has been shown to reduce some birth defects.


As scientists learn more about the relation-

were thought to have a greater impact on blood sugar

ship between foods and well-being, various govern-

levels than complex carbohydrates. (Soluble fiber

mental bodies and health organizations are able to

slows the rate of digestion, so although all carbohy-

make recommendations about which foods may be

drates will cause blood sugar levels to increase, eat-

the most beneficial sources of calories and nutrients.

ing a meal that includes soluble fiber will cause them

These recommendations can address specific health

to rise more slowly.) Current research indicates that

conditions and diseases, allergies, and weight-loss

the source of carbohydrates doesn’t matter as much

goals, and they can be adapted for food preferences.

as the amount of them. People with diabetes are now

The majority of these recommendations take

taught to balance their daily allotment of carbohy-

the form of eating plans or dietary guidelines. Most

drates in each meal and snacks while keeping blood

guidelines group foods into categories, along with

sugar under control.

the number of servings from each group to be eaten

every day or week. The groups may go by differ-

Joslin Diabetes Center, world-renowned center for

ent names, but they typically are fruits, vegetables,

diabetes research located in Boston, offers the fol-

breads and cereals, milk and milk products, and meat

lowing recommendations:

and meat alternatives. Some guidelines provide in-

KEEP CARBOHYDRATES to 40 percent of total

formation for food quantities by weight, by piece, or

calories per day, and aim for 20 to 35 grams of fiber. The best high-fiber sources are fresh vegetables, fruits, beans, and whole grains.

by serving; others by a percentage of calories.

There is no specific “diabetic diet,” but the

Grains and grain-based foods such as pasta,

rice, cereals, and bread, as well as fruits and vegeta-

PROTEIN SHOULD comprise 20 to 30 percent of the

bles, usually compose the bulk of the recommended

day’s calories, unless a person has kidney disease.

daily food choices. The vegetable group is sometimes divided into subgroups based on color, with

FATS SHOULD be 30 to 35 percent of the total

calories per day, and most fats should be monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Avoiding saturated fat will help reduce cholesterol levels that may lead to health complications.

recommendations for dark green leafy vegetables, orange vegetables, legumes, starchy vegetables, and a catchall group of other vegetables. Some eating plans group starchy vegetables, such as potatoes, with starchy foods like grains. Legumes supply pro-

The Joslin Diabetes Center also encourages a mini-

tein and complex carbohydrates, and different eating

mum of two and a half to three hours of moderate-

plans may group them in either category.

intensity exercise every week.

DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SPECIAL NEEDS

The American Diabetes Association has also

created a pyramid for people with diabetes. It groups foods by nutrient content rather than type of food. Potatoes and legumes are grouped with grains and

General dietary recommendations are meant to give

other starches, and cheese is grouped with meats

guidance to individuals who are in generally good

and other proteins rather than with milk. Portion

health. However, the demands that certain health

sizes for some carbohydrates are also smaller than in

conditions make on the body may call for more spe-

the USDA’s Dietary Guidelines, to ensure that carbo-

cific eating plans.

hydrate counts are consistent.

DIABETES

The Mayo Clinic’s recommendations for calorie

distribution allow for 50 to 60 percent of calories from carbohydrates and 15 to 20 percent from pro-

For years, people with diabetes were told to avoid

tein. Among the servings of carbohydrates, it sug-

foods that contained sugar. Simple carbohydrates

gests six or more servings of starches, two to four

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

29


Other Dietary Pyramids

AFTER THE USDA FIRST DEVELOPED ITS FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID IN 1991,

other organizations developed pyramid models of traditional cuisines or of diets for special population groups. Oldways Preservation & Exchange Trust, in conjunction with the Harvard School of Public Health, developed Asian, Latin American, Mediterranean, and vegetarian pyramids. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association) has pyramids for vegetarians, older citizens, and children, as well as pyramids modeled on the cuisines of India, China, Italy, Mexico, and several North American cultures. The Mediterranean pyramid represents a diet based on the traditional diets of Greece and southern Italy—areas where people once had the world’s lowest rates of heart disease, obesity, and hypertension. Foods

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

30

rich in carbohydrates make up the bulk of meals, and fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts round out the daily diet. Olive oil is the principal source of fat, and cheeses and yogurt are the most common dairy foods. Although these may be high in fat, they are rich in nutrients, so moderate amounts are justified. Fish, poultry, eggs, and sweets are consumed a few times a week, and red meats are eaten only a few times a month. If your clientele includes a significant number of vegetarians, you may wish to consult a vegetarian pyramid. Several organizations have developed them; the pyramid of Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is based on an earlier version of the USDA’s Food Guide Pyramid. The main difference is that dried beans, nuts, seeds, peanut butter, and soy products replace meat, fish, and poultry.


servings of fruits, two or three servings of milk or

chronic digestive conditions such as celiac disease

milk products, and three to five servings of vegeta-

or Crohn’s disease must be extremely careful in their

bles, depending on calorie needs.

food choices to prevent flare-ups, and research indicates that some foods may trigger migraines in people who suffer from them.

HYPERTENSION

Restrictions based on personal goals, such as

Created by the United States Department of Health

weight loss, and some that are health-related, such

and Human Services, the DASH (Dietary Approaches

as a diabetic person watching carbohydrate intake or

to Stop Hypertension) eating plan is based on the

someone with high cholesterol keeping an eye on her

USDA’s Dietary Guidelines. The DASH eating plan has

saturated fat, might be somewhat more flexible than

been shown to reduce the likelihood of healthy peo-

those based on allergies. But even people who might

ple developing hypertension, and it can reduce blood

adapt the rest of their daily diet to allow for a special

pressure levels in people who are hypertensive.

occasion meal will appreciate menu choices that take

Sodium and high blood pressure are linked.

their needs into consideration. Developing menus

Most people in the United States consume more than

that are nutritious, balanced, and flavorful should be

3,600 milligrams of sodium per day, far more than

a priority.

the 2,300 milligrams most experts recommend. Re-

FOOD ALLERGIES AND INTOLERANCES

ducing sodium to this level can bring high blood pressure down, and reducing sodium to 1,500 milligrams can reduce it even more.

The DASH eating plan is based on 2,000 calo-

As of January 2006, all packaged foods that contain

ries per day and gives two levels of daily sodium

major food allergens—milk, eggs, fish, crustacean

consumption: 2,400 or 1,500 milligrams. It is based

shellfish, tree nuts (such as almonds, pecans, or wal-

on the USDA’s Dietary Guidelines, but the amounts

nuts), wheat, peanuts, and soybeans—must have the

of foods to be eaten are given in number of servings,

allergens identified on the label. Foods in their natu-

not percentages.

ral state do not need to be labeled. However, dishes

Whole grains should make up the bulk of the

on a menu that might contain allergens should be

diet, with seven or eight servings per day. Four or five

identified, particularly if the ingredient’s inclusion

servings each of fruits and vegetables and two or

might not be apparent from the recipe’s name. (To

three servings each of low-fat dairy and fats are also

read more about food allergies, see page 46 in Chap-

recommended. No more than two servings of meats,

ter 2 and consult the Recommended Resources and

poultry, and fish should be eaten daily.

Readings on page 515.)

Four or five servings per week of nuts, seeds,

and dried beans are recommended.

NUTRITION LABELING DIETARY RESTRICTIONS

NUTRITION LABELS CONTAIN specific information

about food products. Labeling can appear on packaged goods or on menus, or the information may appear in advertisements. The food manufacturer

ALTHOUGH SOME PEOPLE VIEW EATING OUT as an

or restaurant creates the content, but any claims or

occasion to splurge, many will not be able to relax

promises used may be mandated by law.

their dietary restrictions. People with allergies or

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

31


Nutrition, and Health recommended that a system be developed to deliver nutrition information to consumers. For nearly two decades, nutrition labeling was largely voluntary and minimally regulated unless a food contained added nutrients or included a claim about its nutrient content or usefulness in the daily diet. Because information was inconsistent, it was difficult for consumers to make accurate comparisons.

Until fairly recently, there were no rules gov-

erning what qualified as light or healthy and the terms were used indiscriminately. Today all of those have been described and defined. In order to qualify for a nutrition claim, specific standards must be met. The term light, for example, might only have meant a slight reduction in calories, fat, or sodium. Sometimes, those reductions were nothing more than a manipulation of the serving size recorded on the label.

can be sure that it was compared to a reference

Deciding which information to communicate

amount. For a more complete description of nutrition

to consumers concerning the nutritional content of

and health claims, refer to the Appendix, page 498.

menu items is a decision that each food-service op-

erator must make. You have the option to say nothing

In 1990, Congress enacted the Nutrition La-

beling and Education Act (NLEA), which required

at all, but you may wish to include information about

that standardized nutrition information be included

the nutrition or health attributes of your food prod-

on packaged food labels. Terms like fat-free, low-

ucts in menus or advertising.

If you see the term light on a label today, you

sodium, light, and healthy were clearly defined to

Any type of nutrition claim is regulated by the

ensure that food producers used nutrition and health

FDA under the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act

claims responsibly and consistently.

(NLEA) of 1990. They are updated frequently as new

studies add to our share of information, so check the

Restaurant menu claims were originally not in-

cluded in these regulations, but two public advocacy

FDAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Web site (www.fda.gov) for the most current

groups, the Center for Science in the Public Interest

regulations. These regulations are complex and run

(CSPI) and Public Citizen, filed suit in 1993 to pre-

to more than four thousand pages. Here is a brief

vent this exclusion. In 1996, the U.S. District Court

overview of them as they apply to food-service op-

issued a ruling that agreed with the plaintiffs, and

erators, with a bit of background first.

the court ordered the FDA to amend its regulations. These went into effect in 1997.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF FOOD LABELING IN THE UNITED STATES

NUTRIENT CONTENT CLAIMS

Since 1906, the U.S. government has developed leg-

The FDA established a specific list of words and

islation to inform consumers about the safety and

phrases that may be used to describe the nutrient

quality of foods by requiring information on food la-

contents of foods that fit certain criteria (see the

bels. In 1969, the White House Conference on Food,

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

32


Appendix, page 498, for the list and definitions).

dient that is associated with the level of a nutrient. High in oat bran carries the implied claim that the food is high in fiber, so any food with this claim must meet the established criteria for high-fiber foods. Other ingredient-nutrient relationships include sugar and calories, oils and total fat, tropical oils and saturated fat, and whole grains or bran and dietary fiber. Implied claims are difficult to define and can be a source of confusion, and it can be easy to unwittingly make an implied claim. Saying a pizza is made with low-fat cheese implies that the pizza is at least reduced fat compared to a similar pizza. The FDA would prohibit such a statement if the pizza failed to meet the criteria for a reduced-fat food.

Nearly all of the criteria are based on standard serving sizes known as reference amounts (these are also listed in the Appendix and can be found at www.fda. gov/Food/default.htm).

According to the FDA, three types of claims

may be used to describe the nutrition profile of foods:

1. AN ABSOLUTE CLAIM characterizes the exact amount or range of a nutrient in a particular food. Terms that indicate an absolute claim are free and low. For example, to meet the definition of low sodium, a food must contain 140 milligrams or less per reference amount. When an absolute claim is made in print, it is not necessary to define it, but the food must meet the established criteria. (Parameters can be found at www.fda.gov/ Food/LabelingNutrition/default.htm.)

2.

3.

Some statements about ingredients are not considered nutrient claims. These are general statements

A RELATIVE CLAIM is a statement that compares the nutrient content of one food to another food, known as the reference food. (The reference food may be the restaurant’s regular product or another restaurant’s product; its nutrition values may be derived from a valid database, an average of top national or regional brands, or a marketbasket norm.) Words like reduced and less can also indicate a relative claim; reduced, as well as added and light or lite, may be used to compare products that are similar (such as cookies to cookies), whereas more and less can be used to compare foods within the same category that may be substituted for one another (such as cookies for cake). Definitions of these claims do not need to be in print, but the food must meet the established criteria, including a comparison of the two foods, the percentage of the reduction, and the actual nutrient content of both foods.

that pertain to ingredients that are perceived to have value (e.g., made with fresh fruit and honey) that do not serve nutritive purposes (e.g., no preservatives), or that may need to be avoided for various reasons. Additionally, statements in which the ingredient is part of the identity of a food, such as whole wheat pasta or multigrain bread, are not considered nutrient claims.

PORTIONS, SERVINGS, AND “EATING OCCASIONS” When you discuss amounts of food, terms like portion and serving get bandied about. Although they both indicate quantities consumed, they are not synonymous. A serving is a prescribed amount of food, but a portion is what is actually consumed.

Consider soda: A 20-ounce bottle of soda fea-

tures a Nutrition Facts label claiming each bottle contains 21⁄2 servings. However, often the bottle is consumed in one sitting and those 21⁄2 servings become one portion. A 12-ounce can of soda lists Nutri-

AN IMPLIED CLAIM is a statement that high-

tion Facts for 12 ounces. In this case, the serving size

lights the presence or absence of an ingre-

and portion size are the same.

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

33


Reference amounts and eating occasions

ments are present. Where space allows, statements

are terms used to determine nutrition and health

may be included such as, “While many factors affect

claims. Reference amounts are often given in met-

heart disease, diets low in saturated fat and choles-

ric amounts, and they indicate the quantity of food

terol may reduce the risk of this disease. Our [recipe

customarily consumed. An eating occasion may be a

name] can be part of such a diet.” If an abbreviated

meal, a snack, or per use. The reference amount of

claim such as heart-healthy or a symbol is used, the

butter customarily consumed per eating occasion,

restaurant must provide a complete explanation of

for example, is 1 tablespoon; for soda, it is 240 mil-

the claim. It can be featured prominently in the menu

liliters, or 8 ounces. A more complete listing of ref-

or ad, or a statement directing patrons to ask their

erence amounts can be found in the Appendix, pages

server can be used if the full claim appears in a bro-

509–512.

chure or notebook that the restaurant uses to convey nutrition information.

HEALTH CLAIMS

The FDA recognizes twelve nutrient-disease

relationships that may be used in health claims: A health claim defines the relationship between the nutrient content of a food and a disease or health-

1. Calcium and osteoporosis

related condition. A nutrient content claim refers

2. Sodium and hypertension

only to a level or range of a nutrient in a food, while a health claim includes two elements: a reference to

3. Dietary fat and cancer

the nutrient or substance, and a reference to a dis-

4. Dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and the risk of heart disease

ease or health-related condition. Generally, a health claim must:

5. Fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables and cancer

1. Be complete, truthful, and not misleading 2. Express the relationship between nutrient and disease

6. Fruits, vegetables, and grain products that contain fiber, particularly soluble fiber, and the risk of heart disease

3. Indicate that the risk of disease depends on many factors

7. Fruits and vegetables and cancer

Health claims may be expressed through statements,

8. Folate and neural tube defects

icons, or symbols, or as a vignette. The form of the

9. Dietary sugar alcohol and dental caries (cavities)

claim is not important as long as all the required ele-

HEALTH CLAIM NUTRIENT LIMITS TOTAL FAT (GRAMS)

SATURATED FAT (GRAMS)

CHOLESTEROL (MILLIGRAMS)

SODIUM (MILLIGRAMS)

Food*

13

4

60

480

Main dish*

19.5

6

90

720

Meal*

26

8

120

960

*Based on the reference amount, as detailed in the Appendix (pages 509–512), or 50 grams when reference amount is 30 grams or less, or 2 tablespoons or less.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

34


want to provide information as dietary guidance and

10. Dietary soluble fiber, such as that found in whole oats and psyllium seed husks, and risk of coronary heart disease

not as a health claim, avoid giving undue emphasis to terms or symbols that could be interpreted as an implied claim.

11. Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease

A restaurant can provide general dietary guid-

ance in several ways. A simple statement such as “This entrée is consistent with the Dietary Guidelines

12. Plant sterols and risk of coronary heart disease

for Americans as established by the USDA” is one approach.

In order to make any of these health claims, a food,

main dish, or meal must meet the following three re-

not strictly regulated by the FDA, it is expected that

quirements: First, as shown in the table on page 34,

truthfulness will prevail. A food should not be associ-

a serving of the food or meal must contain less than

ated with Dietary Guidelines unless it meets all of the

the specified levels of four disqualifying nutrients:

applicable recommendations.

fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. If the

Although Dietary Guideline statements are

OBTAINING NUTRIENT INFORMATION FOR RECIPES

item exceeds any one of the four nutrients, a health claim cannot be made. Second, without fortification, the item must contain at least 10 percent of the Daily Value (DV) for at least one of the following six nutri-

If you wish to make claims regarding the nutrition or

ents: vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron, fiber, and

health benefits of your products, the FDA requires

protein. Third, in addition to the preceding general

that you have those foods or recipes analyzed for

requirements, the item must meet the specific crite-

their nutrient content. There are a number of sources

ria for each approved claim. These criteria for daily

you can turn to for nutrition values.

values are detailed in the Appendix (pages 503–507).

Recipe analysis can also be calculated using nu-

trition handbooks and food labels. This is extremely time-consuming because the tables only give values

CLAIMS ABOUT DIETARY GUIDELINES

for specific portion sizes, necessitating conversions and other calculations. For a handful of recipes this

In addition to nutrient and health claims, food-

method may be cost-effective, but it’s probably not

service operators also have the option of indicating

feasible if many recipes need to be analyzed.

that a particular food falls within dietary guidelines.

A statement that a food or meal meets the

You may also wish to purchase software to an-

alyze your recipes in-house if you would like to design

dietary guidelines of a recognized dietary authority

recipes that are generally healthier. Programs are

is not considered a nutrient content or health claim

available with a wide range of options, and many are

by the FDA, provided that the statement is limited

designed specifically for the food-service industry.

to general dietary guidance and does not character-

These programs provide large databases of food nu-

ize the level of a nutrient in a food. Therefore, food-

trient values and perform the math involved in recipe

service operators should be cautious of making im-

analysis, and some may even create purchasing lists,

plied nutrient content or health claims. A statement

spreadsheets, cycle menus, and menus based on al-

such as “Meets the National Cancer Institute rec-

lergies, preferences, and dislikes. The choices in the

ommendations for fiber” makes the food subject to

database may be overwhelming, however. One data-

nutrient content claim requirements because it char-

base returned 41 variations of beef tenderloin and

acterizes the content of a specific nutrient. If you

149 of chicken!

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

35


Another option is to hire a consultant to per-

programs allow you to update the database, using

form the analysis, and this is crucial when making

nutrient values derived from Nutrition Facts labels.

nutritional claims on your menu. Fees depend on the

You may also find information for uncommon foods

complexity of the recipes and the number of nutri-

on the Internet, or by contacting a food marketing

ents analyzed. This can be a costly approach, but a re-

or advisory council or the food’s purveyor, grower, or

liable consultant who is well versed in the intricacies

producer.

of recipe analysis and is familiar with software and

database choices is likely to do the work more ac-

is important to remember that nutrient analysis is an

curately, and more rapidly, than someone who is not.

estimate, not an actual accounting. Most accepted

Consultants can be found through professional as-

food nutrient values are averages that reflect the

sociations such as the Academy of Nutrition and Di-

natural variations in foods due to growing conditions,

etetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association).

storage, processing, and cooking.

As of March 2012, there are a number of states

Even if all your ingredients are in a database, it

Methods of preparation can affect nutrient

that require menu nutrition labeling for restaurant

analysis. If a marinade is discarded after the soak-

chains, and there are pending federal regulations

ing, only part of it should be included. The amount

that may require restaurants with 20 or more units

discarded can be measured or estimated. If fat con-

to provide calorie and nutrition information for all

tent is important, careful attention needs to be paid

menu items. It’s important to know what is required

to which ingredients are selected from a database.

for your operation. Consulting an expert in this field

Beef tenderloin, cooked does not take into account

who is well versed on local, state, and national regu-

how the beef is cooked or for how long. The amount of

lations is an important consideration if you want to

fat trimmed from the tenderloin, however, will make a

provide your customers with accurate calorie and

significant difference.

nutrient information. In some cases, if you voluntarily

comply with the regulations to provide calorie infor-

take the steps to ensure that your food products

mation on your menu as an independent operator, you

conform to these nutrition profiles. Use standard-

still must meet all of the requirements for providing

ized recipes and techniques to maintain consistency

complete nutrition information upon request.

in preparation. If you use a reliable source in your

If you make the effort to analyze your recipes,

recipe analysis methods and have made a reasonable effort to adhere to the recipes’ preparation methods,

THE VARIABLES OF ANALYSIS

the FDA will consider your operation to have a “reaMany factors come into play when you choose to per-

sonable basis” for believing that a food meets the

form nutrient analyses for recipes. First, you need to

requirements for health or nutrition claims and will

determine which nutrients to analyze for. Computer

not hold you legally liable for any minor variations

software programs can generate a mind-boggling

that may occur in production. However, if a product is

array of nutrient counts, but for many operators the

found to have more or less of a certain nutrient than

most relevant are probably calories, saturated fat,

indicated by a claim, you may receive damaging me-

sodium, and carbohydrates.

dia attention.

Ingredient databases or tables may not list all

ingredients, especially unusual ones. Some software

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

36


SUMMARY

Nutrient content claims describe the nutrition content of a food. The three types of nutrient content claims defined by the FDA are the absolute claim,

IN THE UNITED STATES , consumers have grown

increasingly conscious of the need to make meal

the relative claim, and the implied claim.

choices that are healthful in order to maintain good

Health claims characterize the relationship between

health. Pyramids and guidelines have influenced how

the nutrient content of a food and a disease or

people select food in restaurants.

health-related condition. Twelve nutrient-disease

Food-service professionals need to be aware of

relationships can be used in health claims.

the nutrition concerns of consumers and the ways

A menu may also state that a food is consistent

to satisfy their needs. Because food choices are

with the Dietary Guidelines set up by the USDA or

intensely personal, preferences and expectations

other health organizations. These types of state-

can vary widely from one group to another. Although

ments are not regulated by the FDA as long as they

health and nutrition are important to many consum-

are restricted to general dietary advice and do not

ers, taste is still primary. The food guide pyramids,

characterize specific nutrient levels.

MyPlate, and Dietary Guidelines are tools that can

Any recipe for which health or nutrition claims are

help develop menu items that are nutritious as well

made is required by law to be analyzed for nutrient

as flavorful and satisfying.

content. There are several methods of analyzing

The FDA regulates the language that can be used

recipes, and many variables will affect their accu-

on menus and in advertising to characterize the

racy. If you take the trouble to analyze your recipes,

nutrition and health attributes of foods. Two main

you should also ensure that they conform to their

categories of claims can be made: nutrient claims

nutrition profiles.

and health claims.

HEALTHY EATING PATTERNS

37


2 From field to table, monitoring the U.S. food supply for wholesomeness and safety is a huge job. Farmers and food manufacturers, purveyors and markets, and

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS restaurants and foodservice operators are all required by law to follow regulations to ensure food safety. The way that food is grown and produced can have a profound effect on how safe, nutritious, and healthful it is.


ISSUES IN INGREDIENT SELECTION

farming, synthetic chemicals for fertilization and pest control, improved irrigation methods, and seed

CHEFS CONSIDER A NUMBER OF THINGS when they

stock that is both resistant to disease and produces

decide what foods to buy and where to buy them.

greater yields are but some of the innovations. And

Menus and daily production needs dictate the in-

while some people feel these modern methods, often

gredients. Beyond that, chefs must consider quality,

referred to as conventional farming practices, are a

cost, and availability. Today’s chef also needs to think

necessity if there is to be enough affordable food for

about how foods were raised or grown, the ways in

everyone, others believe that these same methods

which they were processed before they arrived at the

pose a threat to the health and well-being of society

restaurant, and the health consequences for their

and the environment.

customers and the planet.

Food scares and even recalls are common

However, foods that are organic, hormone-

free, free-range, and not genetically modified tend

occurrences. When cantaloupe was infected with lis-

to be more expensive than foods produced by con-

teria at a processing center in the fall of 2011, the

ventional farming methods. Rather than base their

nation learned just how quickly a food-borne illness

choices solely on price, many chefs who are respon-

could spread nationwide. The lesson for the industry

sible for purchasing feel they have an obligation to

is not that you should avoid all cantaloupe, but that

make informed choices about the ingredients they

you need to learn more than just the specifications

buy in order to support or discourage certain agricul-

for the cantaloupe you use in the kitchen. You should

tural practices.

be confident that the foods you are purchasing re-

main wholesome and safe each step on their way in

Some production methods are controversial.

There are consequences for every choice that is

your operation. There is little you can do about a food

made. The challenge to the chef is making the best

you’ve already accepted that arrives at your kitchen

possible choices to meet the objectives and goals of

already contaminated, especially when the pathogen

his or her individual operation and the customers it

is not destroyed during ordinary cooking processes.

serves. For some, this will require giving cost a top

Your best, and really only, recourse is choosing repu-

priority. For others, the nutritional and ecological

table suppliers who deal with reputable food produc-

benefits of one food or producer over another may

ers. The larger and longer your food supply chain,

beat out all other priorities except quality.

the more difficult this can be to maintain. The more direct your relationship to your supplier, the greater

SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

the sense of accountability.

Agriculture in the United States has changed

dramatically in the last fifty or so years. Mechanized

When healthy cooking is an important compo-

History teaches that the decline of many ancient

nent of your operation, you also need to be knowl-

civilizations was in part due to nonrenewable farm-

edgeable about some common farming methods:

ing methods. Many modern farming techniques ap-

conventional farming, organic and sustainable

pear to be similarly depleting our natural resources.

farming, free-range animal husbandry practices,

At the same time, the world’s population is growing at

and aquaculture. Foods that have been genetically

an unprecedented pace. Between 2012 and 2050 the

modified, bio-engineered, or treated with hormones

world population is expected to grow from 7 billion to

are very much on the minds of your customers

9 billion. This raises serious questions about whether

these days.

our present agricultural systems will be able to support so many people.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

40


Sustainable agriculture attempts to choose

agricultural practices according to their effects on society and the environment. Its goal is to secure for farmers the best crop yields and economic returns while considering the needs of society and the health of the environment in the present and the future. Economic profitability in the present is weighed against environmentally conservative farming methods of the future. There are many different ways to incorporate sustainably grown food into a foodservice establishment; however, be sure to take a

USDA Certified Organic label specifications

look at what makes sense for the business fiscally and get to know your purveyor to learn what is avail-

ORGANIC FOODS

able. Buying local or organic produce is not automatically the better choice, so it is key to develop a close relationship with the person or people who are sourc-

In keeping with the tenets of sustainable agricul-

ing your ingredients.

ture, many farmers endeavor to grow crops and raise

Sustainable agricultural practices stem from

livestock using organic methods. Until recently, or-

the concept of biodynamics, a system perspective

ganically grown was generally understood to mean

that recognizes that all things in nature are inter-

“grown without synthetic pesticides and herbicides.”

related. The methods that farmers employ on their

The trouble was that there were no federal regula-

individual fields eventually affect much larger local

tions pertaining to organic growing practices, making

ecosystems and, over time, can have a global effect.

it difficult for consumers to be sure of exactly what

Among the problems sustainable agriculture

they were buying.

seeks to address are topsoil depletion, water and en-

ergy overconsumption, groundwater contamination, overuse of chemical pesticides and herbicides, esca-

national standards for food labeled organic. These

lating production costs, and disintegrating economic

standards are for crops, animal products such as

and social conditions in rural farming communities.

In October 2002, the United States Depart-

ment of Agriculture (USDA) established a set of

meat, milk, and eggs, as well as packaged foods. Be-

One sustainable agriculture success story is a

fore any food or product can be labeled “organic,” a

pest control practice known as integrated pest man-

USDA certifier must inspect the farm or company to

agement (IPM), which uses a variety of strategies to

ensure that all rules are being followed. Those in vio-

decrease the use of chemical pesticides. Farmers

lation of the regulations may be fined up to $11,000.

who use IPM choose strong plant varieties that are

resistant to insect damage. They also use preda-

In addition to using renewable resources and

conserving soil and water, organic foods are produced

tory insects that feed on pests but do not harm crop

without the use of conventional pesticides, synthetic

plants. By carefully monitoring weather patterns, soil

fertilizers or sewage sludge, bio-engineering, or ion-

nutrition, and pest populations, farmers can predict

izing radiation. Prohibited and acceptable materials

when pest outbreaks will occur and use chemical

are outlined in a National List, and these materials

pesticides only as a last resort. IPM is catching on be-

were evaluated under several criteria, including their

cause it works, and because it is often less expensive

effects on human health and farm ecosystems, their

than using chemicals.

toxicity, and their overall compatibility with sustainable agriculture. Contrary to the common assumption that organically grown foods are produced only

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

41


with natural materials, the National List includes syn-

foods have a better nutrition profile, many people

thetic materials that are acceptable.

prefer them for their flavor and quality, or because

Organic crops must be grown on land that has

they reduce the quantity of pesticides and herbicides

been free of prohibited substances for at least three

on their foods or in the soil or in their water. Organic

years. During the time that farmland is being changed

foods are increasingly available and increasingly in

from conventional to organic, it is called transi-

demand. They can be an important part of an overall

tional. Tillage and cultivation practices, crop rota-

strategy for bringing healthy cooking into the profes-

tion, and cover crops are used to manage soil fertility

sional kitchen.

and crop nutrients. Whenever possible, pests, weeds,

FREE-RANGE LIVESTOCK

and diseases are managed through physical, mechanical, and biological controls rather than pesticides and herbicides.

At one time, cattle and sheep were allowed to graze

Organic livestock is fed 100 percent organic

in pastures and chickens meandered from coop to

agricultural feed (although vitamin and mineral

barnyard. Modern techniques in animal husbandry,

supplements are acceptable). They must have ac-

however, make use of practices that are more co

cess to the outdoors, and ruminants (such as cattle)

cerned with high production and yield, rather than fla-

must have access to pasturelands. Animals may not

vor, safety, and humane treatment of animals. Birds

be given hormones to enhance or promote growth,

such as chickens and turkeys are carefully bred to

or antibiotics. Vaccines and preventive management

produce a greater percentage of breast meat to meet

practices are used to maintain animals’ health.

consumer demand. Their diets include doses of anti-

The USDA has also established standards for

biotics, growth enhancers, and ingredients intended

the labeling of organic foods, including processed

to ward off the numerous diseases to which poultry

foods and packaged goods containing organic ingre-

are prone, as well as to promote rapid weight gain.

dients. Foods labeled 100 percent organic must contain only organically produced ingredients. “Organic”

foods must contain at least 95 percent organically

kept in pens or feedlots that inhibit mobility. They may

produced ingredients, and the remaining ingredients

be fed doses of antibiotics, growth enhancers, steroids,

must either be on the National List or must be un-

and substances they are unable to digest, as well as in-

available commercially in organic form. These foods

gredients intended to ward off the numerous diseases

must also be produced using methods that meet the

to which they are prone. Although there is no docu-

USDA’s standards. If they meet the criteria, the USDA

mented evidence that the residues from steroids and

seal certifying that organic standards have been met

antibiotics in the animals’ flesh actually cause illnesses

may appear on the package and in advertisements.

in humans, there is growing public concern about the

potential. Ethical objections to the crowded conditions

Foods that contain at least 70 percent organic

Cattle, pigs, chickens, and other animals may be

ingredients can use the phrase made with organic in-

in which the animals live are also being raised.

gredients. Up to three organic ingredients or foods

may be listed on the label. The percentage of organic

increasingly popular with consumers. The term free-

material may be used, but the USDA seal cannot ap-

range conjures up images of chickens roaming freely,

pear on the package.

but in fact this is often far from reality. The only

Due to higher production costs, organic foods

requirement that the USDA has for birds or livestock

may be more expensive than those grown conven-

labeled free-range is that they are not kept in pens.

tionally. However, buying them may have other ben-

There are no requirements pertaining to the size of

efits that translate into your bottom line. Although

the area, the number of birds or livestock per square

there is very little scientific evidence that organic

foot, or the type of feed.

As a result, free-range animals have become

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

42


Farmers and ranchers who are willing to spend

can now be selected and inserted directly into the ge-

the money to give their animals space to move may

netic code of a plant. Furthermore, scientists are also

also spend money to ensure that they are given ap-

able to insert genes from animals into plants.

propriate feed and are not given hormones or ste-

roids to speed up growth. Meat from these animals

fourths of the soybeans grown in the United States

often costs considerably more than that of their con-

today are bio-engineered. The Flavr Savr tomato

ventionally raised counterparts. Some would argue

was engineered to ripen less quickly, thus prevent-

that the improvement in nutritional value, flavor, and

ing rot during transport; it was not as successful

texture is worth the cost. Free-range birds appear to

as its creators had hoped because consumers were

be lower in fat than their confined counterparts. As

not satisfied with its flavor. Experiments to develop

to whether or not allowing birds and livestock access

strawberries that are resistant to mold, potatoes

to the outdoors lowers their stress levels and results

that absorb less fat during frying, and tomatoes with

in better flavor, there is no definitive answer.

a higher solids content are also under way.

BIOTECHNOLOGY

About half of the corn and more than three-

Plant biotechnology is regulated by the USDA,

the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The technique

The code for the structure of DNA, the building block

has been recognized as safe by the American Medical

of genes, was discovered in 1953. In the following de-

Association (AMA), the Academy of Nutrition and

cades, scientific inquiry quickly advanced our under-

Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Associa-

standing of genetics, revealing that all living things

tion) (ADA), the National Research Council (NRC), and

are similar at the level of DNA. This similarity is what

the World Health Organization (WHO). However, the

makes biotechnology possible. Since the 1980s, sci-

FDA is concerned only with the product itself, not

entists have had the ability to select and transfer sin-

with the method, whether traditional or biotechno-

gle traits between living organisms, be they animal,

logical, used to produce these foods. The FDA does

plant, or microbe. When applied to plants, this tech-

not require product labeling to inform consumers of

nology can produce new varieties that offer better

alterations, whether conventional or bio-engineered.

yields; are more resistant to disease, frost, drought,

IRRADIATION

pests, and herbicides; have improved nutrition profiles; or offer improved production, shelf life, or processing advantages.

Irradiation is a preserva-

Biotechnology is controversial because many

tion technique whereby cer-

people feel that it is interfering with the forces of

tain foods are treated with

evolution, which could precipitate unforeseen ef-

bursts of radiant energy

fects. Proponents of biotechnology hail it as the key

(usually gamma rays in the

to saving an agricultural system struggling to meet

United States) to control

the needs of a world population predicted to double

such problems as insect in-

in the next fifty years.

festation, potato sprouting,

In a sense, plant biotechnology has taken place

and the rapid ripening of fruits. It can also reduce

for thousands of years, both spontaneously and with

pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7, salmo-

human intervention. Crossbreeding and creating

nella, listeria, and campylobacter, as well as parasites

hybrids also produce new plant varieties that offer

like cyclospora.

advantages over old varieties. The difference is that

newer biotechnology processes are quicker and more

sources, it does not make the food itself radioac-

precise. Traits that once took generations to develop

tive. Irradiation extends shelf life and is similar to

Although this process uses radioactive energy

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

43


TOXINS AND ALLERGENS

pasteurization in that it kills pathogenic organisms. Treated foods closely resemble foods in their fresh state because irradiation does not involve the high

The overwhelming majority of food in the United

levels of heat used in pasteurization and canning.

States is safe. While exceptions are real and may

There is some evidence, however, that irradiation can

be of valid concern, steps to ensure the continued

result in nutrient loss similar to what occurs in heat-

safety and wholesomeness of foods are in place.

treated foods, though to a lesser degree.

Chefs can take steps to assure themselves that their

purveyors are reliable and accountable for the safety

Irradiation has been endorsed as safe by many

national and international organizations, and world-

of the foods as they are delivered.

wide nearly forty countries permit irradiation of food.

Nevertheless, it remains controversial. The safety of

prepared in the professional kitchen are free from

irradiated food is disputed on the grounds that irra-

contamination, it is also important to recognize

diation can cause new chemicals, called unique radio-

that some foods can cause an individual to suffer a

lytic products, to be created in treated foods.

reaction. Some reactions are caused by an intoler-

In addition to being certain that the foods

Although some of these chemicals are known

ance; the classic example is lactose intolerance. The

carcinogens, the FDA has concluded that irradia-

symptoms are similar to those for a food-borne ill-

tion performed at allowable levels does not result

ness. Other reactions are caused by allergens. The

in amounts of toxins that are significant. However,

reactions can range from mild, as in a case of hives,

there is currently no way to test foods to make sure

to extremely severe and potentially life threatening.

that the levels of radiation used were within the proper limits.

MERCURY, PCBS, AND OTHER TOXINS IN SEAFOOD

The FDA estimates that about 40 percent of

the foods eaten in the United States might ultimately be irradiated; the procedure is currently approved for

Fish provide many beneficial nutrients, including

wheat flour, white potatoes, herbs and spices, fresh

high-quality protein, but depending on the waters it

fruits and vegetables, dried or dehydrated foods,

lived in, fish can be high in mercury or other heavy

nuts, teas, eggs, beef, pork, lamb, and poultry.

metals or pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls

(PCBs). Farm-raised fish may be high in antibiotics or

All irradiated whole foods for wholesale and

retail sale must be labeled with the international

other chemicals.

symbol for irradiated foods, called a radura, and

the phrase treated by irradiation or treated with

mercury, but the risks from consuming it should not

radiation. Alternative terms include cold pasteuri-

be a concern for most people, with the exception of

zation and electronic pasteurization. Processed

pregnant or nursing women, children under the age

food products are not required to state that they

of twelve years, the elderly, and people with compro-

have been irradiated on the label, and food-service

mised immune systems, who should limit their con-

operations are not required to reveal whether their

sumption of some types of fish. Mercury is of special

operationsuseirradiatedingredients.However,anyop-

concern for infants and fetuses, because their ner-

eration interested in providing healthy options should

vous systems are still developing.

divulge this information to allow consumers to make

fully informed decisions.

amount of fish and shellfish eaten and the levels of

Nearly all fish and shellfish contain traces of

For most people, the risks depend on the

mercury in the fish. Mercury accumulates in the body over time, so larger fish that have lived longer and

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

44


have consumed other fish that contain mercury, as

(CJD). No one knew much about the disease, but in the

well as predatory fish, pose a greater risk.

1980s and 1990s, it hit the headlines when cows in

The Food and Drug Administration and the

Britain appeared to be going mad. Some people who

Environmental Protection Agency have established

ate meat from infected cows developed a fatal dis-

the following guidelines to reduce exposure to

ease similar to CJD that is now known as variant CJD.

mercury:

To date, there have been more than 150 cases of CJD worldwide.

1. Avoid consuming shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish; they all contain high levels of mercury.

At present, the only known way that cattle can

contract BSE is by eating contaminated feed. The USDA and the FDA have policies in place that are meant to lessen the chance of cattle developing BSE,

2. Eat up to 12 ounces a week of a variety of fish and shellfish that are low in mercury. Five common varieties that are generally considered safe are shrimp, salmon, pollock, catfish, and canned light tuna. Albacore tuna has more mercury than light tuna, so it is recommended that canned albacore be limited to 6 ounces per week. Tuna steaks may also be high in mercury and should be limited to 6 ounces per week as well.

and to lessen the chance of infected cattle entering the United States.

Feed that includes proteins derived from

mammals, including ground cattle remains, has been banned since 1997. Material from cattle that are most likely to harbor infectious elements are prohibited in foods, and importing animals and products from countries where BSE has been identified is prohibited. Cattle that test positive for BSE in the United States are not permitted to enter the food supply.

3. If you purchase fish from private sources

BSE has a very long incubation period, however, and is

or individuals, check advisories about the safety of local fish. If no information is available, limit consumption to 6 ounces per week and do not consume any other fish during that week.

rarely found in animals less than thirty months old.

Despite these efforts, it does happen that a

cow infected with BSE is found in a herd in the United States, or that meat products we export are found to be contaminated. Arming yourself with information about how the meats you buy have been handled on

BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE)

the farm is the best defense against buying a con-

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also called BSE,

AVIAN FLU

taminated product.

or more familiarly “mad cow disease”) is one of a number of diseases known as transmissible spongiform

Avian flu, like the flu viruses that infect humans, can be

encephalopathy (or TSE). The first TSE to be identi-

caused by many strains of influenza. Washing hands

fied was found in sheep in Great Britain during the

carefully after contact with poultry is the best way to

1700s. Intense itching was observed in the infected

avoid infection in humans. There is no evidence that

sheep. They scraped themselves incessantly against

eating meat or eggs from infected poultry can cause

trees and fences and gave the disease its familiar

bird flu in humans, so long as the foods are cooked

name, “scrapie.” When the disease was transmitted to

properly. It appears that strains of the flu virus may

humans, it was studied by two doctors, Creutzfeldt

contaminate eggs, but hens with the flu typically stop

and Jacob, in the 1920s. The human form of the dis-

laying eggs. The USDA forbids infected birds from

ease bears their names, Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease

entering the United States, and virtually all poultry

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

45


and eggs sold in the United States are from domestic

kitchen. While you may not think about peanuts

animals. The USDA is working with the Department

when you consider which tomato sauce to buy, you

of the Interior to determine whether bird flu exists

should, since peanut oil may well be an ingredient in

in migratory birds. Although the risk to humans from

a particular brand of sauce. Many manufacturers let

these birds is extremely low, it is possible that they

their customers know if foods that contain nuts are

may pass the virus on to domestic poultry.

processed in the same plant as those that do not contain nuts. Depending upon an individual’s sensitivity, even a very small amount of allergen left on a piece of

FOOD ALLERGIES

equipment and transferred to a food could be enough A food allergy is different from a dislike or an intoler-

to set off a reaction.

ance. When you dislike a food, you may feel like it is

making you sick, even when you merely smell, see, or

gens that the customer would not be able to identify

talk about it, but the reaction is more emotional than

simply from the name of the dish, it is important that

physical. When you cannot tolerate a food well, you

you and your staff, including the front-of-the-house

usually experience symptoms like bloating or cramp-

staff, know the ingredients that are used in every

ing. If you have a true allergy, you may come to dislike

dish. People who suffer from an allergy are likely

the food because of the allergic reaction you experi-

to ask about the foods they cannot eat. You have to

ence, but a surprising number of food allergy suffer-

be able to answer honestly and completely about

ers long for the shrimp cocktail, omelette, or peanut

the dish in question. You may be able to prepare the

butter sandwich that they can’t eat.

dish without the offending ingredient. If not, offer an

alternative from the menu that is safe for them to eat.

The way your body reacts when you eat some-

Since menu items might easily contain aller-

thing to which you are truly allergic can be dramatic and dangerous. An allergic reaction to a food is usually rapid. The skin can become itchy and develop

IN THE KITCHEN

hives or welts. Some individuals report that their throats start to close up or that their tongues start to swell (anaphylactic shock). Severe reactions re-

ONCE A CHEF HAS DETERMINED which foods to

quire immediate medical attention.

order from which purveyor, he or she needs to ensure

A true food allergy is nothing to fool around

that those goods are handled safely after they have

with. It is true that some people claim to be allergic

been delivered. The importance of food and kitchen

to foods that they simply don’t like. As a professional

safety cannot be overemphasized. Few things are as

culinarian, however, you can’t assume that the re-

detrimental to an establishment as an outbreak of

quest for “no garlic” indicates an unevolved palate or

food-borne illness.

an unreasonable food dislike. For the individual suffering from a food allergy, even the merest hint of

CAUSES OF FOOD-BORNE ILLNESSES

garlic in food can set off a reaction. Some sufferers have zero tolerance for a given allergen.

As of January 2006, all packaged foods con-

Food-borne illnesses are caused by consuming adul-

taining major food allergens must have labels identi-

terated foods, and their severity depends on the

fying them; these include milk, eggs, fish, crustacean

amount of contaminated food eaten as well as on

shellfish, tree nuts, wheat, peanuts, and soybeans.

the individual’s susceptibility. Children under twelve

So, you must be certain that you have thoroughly

years, the elderly, anyone whose immune system is

read the label on any prepared foods used in your

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

46


compromised in any way, and pregnant women and

pathogens may look and smell normal. Cooking will

their fetuses are at greater risk than healthy adults.

destroy many of the microorganisms, but careless

food handling after cooking may reintroduce more

Contamination can be chemical (insecticides,

cleaning substances), physical (bits of glass, rodent

pathogens.

hairs), or biological. This last category is responsible

PREVENTING FOOD-BORNE ILLNESSES

for the majority of food-borne illnesses. Biological contaminants can be naturally occurring toxins such as those found in some wild mushrooms and rhubarb leaves, as well as the microorganisms known as

The keys to reducing the likelihood of food-borne

pathogens.

illness are avoiding cross contamination, keeping

Microorganisms are virtually everywhere, and

foods out of the danger zone, and maintaining a clean

most are helpful or harmless. Among those that are

and sanitized environment. Cross contamination

pathogenic, or responsible for causing illness, are

occurs when food comes into contact with infected

fungi, viruses, parasites, and bacteria.

surfaces. During the preparation stage, this might oc-

Fungi, which include mold and yeast, are more

cur if bread or produce is used on a cutting board that

often responsible for food spoilage than food-borne

was not properly cleaned after being used to prepare

illness. Viruses include hepatitis; these are intro-

raw chicken. Separate work areas and equipment

duced to food through poor handwashing practices.

should be used for raw and cooked foods, and equip-

Parasites include amebas and various worms, includ-

ment used with potentially hazardous food should be

ing dysentery and Trichinella spiralis.

cleaned and sanitized after each use.

Bacteria are responsible for the majority of

Cross contamination can also occur when food-

incidents of biological contamination. Bacteria may

service operators do not properly wash their hands

or may not need oxygen to thrive, and different

after they use the restroom; or when they touch

types of bacteria thrive at different temperatures.

their face or hair; eat; smoke; or handle money, dirty

The most common, and the most dangerous, types

dishes, or dirty linens. In addition, bare hands should

of bacteria thrive at temperatures between 60° and

never be used to handle ready-to-eat foods. Utensils

100°F/16° and 38°C. Although bacteria can survive

such as tongs or a spatulas, or deli tissue or single-

at temperatures between 32° and 171°F/0° and

use food-handling gloves, should be used instead.

77°C, the “danger zone” for bacterial growth is con-

sidered to be between 41° and 135°F/5° and 57°C.

but those that are capable of causing food-borne

Bacteria reproduce by fission, or splitting: One bac-

illness thrive at temperatures between 40° and

terium divides into two, these two divide into four,

140°F/4° and 60°C. Storing foods at temperatures

the four form into eight, and so on, at a rate of repro-

below 40°F/4°C will slow or interrupt reproduction,

ducing every twenty minutes. In about twelve hours,

and heating foods to 140°F/60°C will either destroy

one bacterium can multiply into sixty-eight billion

pathogens or prevent reproduction. (Any toxins that

bacteria—more than enough to cause illness.

pathogens may have produced, however, are not de-

Pathogens can live at all temperature ranges,

Bacteria require three things to grow: moder-

stroyed by cooking.) As stated in the 2005 FDA Food

ate pH, moisture, and protein. Foods such as meats,

Code, foods that are left in the danger zone for a

poultry, seafood, tofu, and most dairy products are

period of time longer than four hours are considered

all potentially hazardous. Cooked foods such as rice,

adulterated. This period may be cumulative, not just

beans, pasta, and potatoes, as well as sliced melons,

continuous, so every time the food enters the danger

sprouts, and garlic-oil mixtures are also potentially

zone, the meter is running. Once foods have become

hazardous. Foods that contain harmful levels of

adulterated, they cannot be recovered by heating,

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

47


Meat and poultry stored in a walk-in.

cooling, or any other method. For more information

If separate refrigerators are not available, divide one

about specific foods, as well as foods that require

unit into sections; the back will be the coldest area

both a time and a temperature control for safe hold-

and the front the warmest.

ing, consult the 2005 Food Code, available from the

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CF-

fore refrigerating, and they should be stored above

SAN) at www.fda.gov/Food/default.htm.

raw foods to prevent cross contamination by drip-

Foods may also be delivered already contami-

ping. To cool foods properly, bring them to 70°F/20°C

nated. To reduce this chance, inspect all goods to be

within two hours, and to 40°F/4°C within four more

sure they arrive in sanitary conditions. Make a habit

hours. Place hot liquids in a metal container (which

of checking delivery trucks for unsanitary condi-

conducts temperatures better than plastic or glass)

tions, such as dirt or pests. Check expiration dates,

and then place in an ice water bath. Stir frequently to

randomly sample items, and reject any goods that do

bring the temperature down more rapidly. Refriger-

not meet your standards. Once delivery is accepted,

ate solid foods in single layers in shallow containers.

move the items immediately into proper storage

conditions.

above 140°F/60°C, and cold foods should be kept at

Cooked foods should be cooled properly be-

Hot foods should be kept at temperatures at or

or below 40°F/4°C. When reheating foods, heat them FOODS SHOULD BE STORED AT THE FOLLOWING TEMPERATURES:

to at least 165°F/74°C for at least 15 seconds.

MEAT AND POULTRY: 32° to 36°F/0° to 2°C

Clean all surfaces of food particles and soil,

and then sanitize them to kill pathogens.

FISH AND SHELLFISH: 30° to 34°F/−1° to 2°C EGGS: 38° to 40°F/3° to 4°C DAIRY PRODUCTS: 36° to 40°F/2° to 4°C PRODUCE: 40° to 45°F/4° to 7°C

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

48


FRESH PRODUCE

They are wonderful in salads, sauces, stuffings, des-

FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND HERBS have always been

makes foods suitable for long-term storage and con-

an important part of the human diet, but consumers

centrates their flavors.

today are more aware than ever that these foods

are nutrition powerhouses. They provide impressive

perishable to transport great distances or they have

amounts of carbohydrates, fiber, water, vitamins,

a very short season. The rest of the year, they can be

minerals, and phytochemicals, often with very little

found only in a preserved form. The flavor of dried

fat, modest amounts of protein, and no cholesterol.

chiles, mushrooms, and tomatoes, and fruits such as

They also come in a breathtaking array of flavors,

apples, cherries, and raisins are special even though

colors, and textures. For the most part, fruits and

those same ingredients may be purchased fresh

vegetables do not require the same careful portion

throughout the year.

budgeting that meats, poultry, and fish do. For this

reason, they play a key role in producing the neces-

may often call for them to be rehydrated or “plumped”

sary flavor boost and eye appeal that can help dispel

by letting them soak in a liquid. To rehydrate dried

the myth of bland and boring nutritious cuisine.

vegetables and fruits, check first for insect infes-

serts, grain dishes, and breakfast cereals. Drying

Even today, some vegetables and fruits are too

To get the most from these ingredients, recipes

As a healthier alternative to fat- or cream-

tation and remove any obvious debris or seriously

based sauces, fruits and vegetables can be used in

blemished or moldy specimens. Place the vegetable

the form of purées, coulis, salsas, chutneys, com-

or fruit in a bowl or other container and add enough

potes, and relishes to add flavor and texture to a

boiling or very hot liquid (water, wine, fruit juice, or

variety of dishes.

broth) to cover. Let the vegetable or fruit steep in the

Dried fruits in particular are a clever way to

hot liquid for several minutes, until soft and plumped.

introduce an additional plant element to a recipe.

Pour off the liquid, reserving it if desired for another

An organized produce walk-in.

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

49


use. If necessary, strain it through a coffee filter or

the colors brighter, and the nutrient levels higher.

cheesecloth to remove any debris. Other dried fruits

Sometimes, though, the dictates of common sense

and vegetables may be toasted or charred over a

make this impractical: It would mean, for example,

flame or on a griddle or heated pan to soften them.

that many chefs could never use lemons, or could

Some may be toasted and then rehydrated.

use asparagus or tomatoes only a few months of the year. Foods that have been shipped, frozen, dried, or

PURCHASING AND STORING PRODUCE

canned are also acceptable.

Fresh produce should be purchased in

sufficient quantities to last between deliveries, with Produce should look fresh: It should be free from

care taken not to purchase too much. Overpurchas-

bruises, mold, and brown or soft spots; the colors and

ing leads to degradation in quality, nutrient content,

textures should be appropriate for the type of food;

and eventually a costly loss of raw material. When

and any attached leaves should be unwilted. Dried

purchasing dried, frozen, or canned produce, choose

fruits should be plump and somewhat flexible.

brands of high quality. Be aware that many canned

products contain added sodium, and that dried foods

Traditionally, fresh, local, in-season produce

is best. These foods have been minimally handled

tend to be concentrated in calories.

and shipped, the time between harvest and table is

brief, and often the flavors are more pronounced,

tors to take into account when deciding which form

Tomatoes offer a good illustration of the fac-

HOW TO STORE PRODUCE FOOD

HOW TO STORE

Avocados

Ripen at room temperature, if necessary; refrigerate when ripe.

Garlic

Store at cool room temperature in a well-ventilated area.

Greens and lettuces

Store in 40° to 45°F/4° to 7°C temperatures with high relative humidity but no standing water or moisture.

Herbs

Store in 35° to 45°F/2° to 7°C temperatures, wrapped loosely in a damp paper or cloth. If desired, trim roots from leafy herbs and place bunch in a jar of water before covering.

Onions, dry

Store at cool room temperature, away from potatoes (they hasten spoilage) and dairy (it absorbs odors and flavors).

Onions, fresh

Refrigerate away from dairy.

Peaches

Ripen at room temperature, if necessary; refrigerate when ripe.

Potatoes

Store at cool room temperature, away from onions.

Root vegetables with tops

Remove leaves from root vegetables to prevent leaves from robbing nutrients from roots. Use leaves immediately; they don’t keep long. Keep roots at cool room temperature.

Tomatoes

Store at room temperature. Never refrigerate.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

50


to purchase. Fresh tomatoes, when in season locally,

a wide array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemi-

have an incomparable taste. After the local grow-

cals, many of which are found in pigments. Orange

ing season is over, however, you may prefer to use

and dark green vegetables are good sources of vita-

canned tomatoes because they have a better flavor

min C and are high in beta-carotene, which the body

than the pale, watery versions that are engineered

uses to make vitamin A (the chlorophyll in green veg-

to survive early picking, ripening rooms, and long-

etables masks the carotenoid pigments). Legumes

distance shipping.

and dark green vegetables are good sources of

folate. Potatoes, avocados, and legumes are also

Because many nutrients are unstable, fruits

and vegetables should be handled with the preser-

high in potassium.

vation of nutrient content in mind. Nutrition content

starts to decline immediately after harvesting, and

based on the 2010 U.S. Dietary Guidelines. MyPlate

this loss continues as the produce ages. To minimize

recommends plates or meals be composed of one-

nutrient loss, store produce away from light, air,

quarter fruits, one-quarter vegetables, one-quarter

moisture, and heat. When proper purchasing and

grains (preferably whole grains), and one-quarter lean

storage practices are observed, most food-service

protein. Low-fat dairy products are also included as a

establishments do not store fresh produce for more

part of MyPlate. It’s important to remember that U.S.

than three or four days. When cooking, be aware that

Dietary Guidelines also focus on including sources

some metals, as well as alkalis and extremely acidic

of healthy fats and oils, including nuts and seeds, in

conditions, can affect nutrient content.

healthful diets. So even though MyPlate does not

The 2011 MyPlate dietary guidance symbol is

specify these types of foods or ingredients, they provide essential nutrients and should be included in

STORING PRODUCE FOR MAXIMUM QUALITY AND SAFETY

the diet on a daily basis. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommend at least 21⁄2 cups of vegetables per day

Unless noted, store produce at 40° to 45°F/4° to 7°C

for a 2,000-calorie diet, with the following amounts

and at a relative humidity of 80 to 90 percent. Do not

recommended over the course of a week:

peel, wash, or trim until ready to use. Fruits and veg-

DARK GREEN VEGETABLES: 3 cups/week

etables that need to ripen should be stored at room

(broccoli, spinach, most greens)

temperature until ripe, then refrigerated.

VEGETABLES

ORANGE VEGETABLES: 2 cups/week (carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, winter squash)

Vegetables include a number of foods that botani-

LEGUMES: 3 cups/week (dried beans, chickpeas, tofu)

cally are classified as fruits. Tomatoes, peppers,

STARCHY VEGETABLES: 3 cups/week

squash, and other seed-bearing foods are really

(corn, white potatoes, green peas)

fruits. Because these are often used in savory prepa-

OTHER VEGETABLES: 61⁄2 cups/week

rations, their culinary application is the guiding prin-

(tomatoes, cabbage, celery, cucumber, lettuce, onions, peppers, green beans, cauliflower, summer squash, mushrooms)

ciple for listing them here.

The USDA’s Dietary Guidelines divide vegeta-

bles into five groups: dark green vegetables, orange vegetables, legumes, starchy vegetables, and other

vegetables. Eating a variety of colors—including red

Most people in the United States don’t eat

anywhere near these recommended intakes, with the

cabbage or red bell peppers, yellow sweet corn, white

possible exception of starchy vegetables, specifi-

garlic, and deep green spinach—provides fiber and

cally potatoes.

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

51


DARK GREEN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Broccoli Rabe Kale Collard Greens

Asparagus

Green Leaf Lettuce

Chayote

Lime

Green Grapes Key Lime Broccoli Brussels Sprouts

Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Anjou Pear Artichoke

Spinach

DARK GREEN VEGETABLES include most of the

While fruits and vegetables of other colors

crucifers (cabbage family): broccoli, Brussels

achieve their hues with a myriad of chemical

sprouts, bok choy, kale, and collards; they also in-

pigments and combinations of pigments, all green

clude cooking greens such as Swiss chard and turnip

vegetation is the product of chlorophyll. The chloro-

greens, as well as salad greens such as arugula, leaf

phyll in one plant is identical to the chlorophyll in any

lettuce, and spinach. Some of these vegetables, such

other plant in the world. The darker the green, the

as kale and Brussels sprouts, are at their best in late

more chlorophyll there is.

fall. Their somewhat pungent flavors mellow after

they have been exposed to frost.

and fat (usually under 1 gram per serving) and

These vegetables are extremely low in calories

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

52


DARK GREEN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Honeydew Melon

Celery

Mustard Greens

Green Bell Pepper

Watercress Romaine Lettuce

Swiss Chard

Avocado

Cucumber

Snow Peas

Dandelion Greens Granny Smith Apple

Kiwi

contain generous amounts of fiber, vitamin C, beta

which are thought to protect against some types of

carotene, iron, calcium, folate, and vitamin B6. In

cancer. These vegetables tend to get their distinc-

general, the darker the green, the higher the levels

tive flavor, and sometimes odor, from molecules

of carotenoids. High consumption of these plants

containing sulfur. Some of these molecules serve to

has also been shown to reduce the risk of cataract

increase enzyme activity that eliminates dangerous

development by nearly 40 percent. Dark green leafy

carcinogens. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s best not to overcook these vegeta-

vegetables are also very high in folic acid. Crucifers,

bles; doing so causes nutrient loss and releases the

including cabbage and cauliflower, are also high in

sulfur-containing phytochemicals that cause their

phytochemicals called glucosinolates, a group that

unpleasant aroma.

includes indoles, isothiocyanates, and sulforaphane, HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

53


ORANGE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Carrots

Cantaloupe

Butternut Squash

Mango

Sweet Potato

Navel Orange

Papaya

Yellow Golden Beets Clementines Apricots Kumquats Orange Bell Pepper Dried Apricots

Baby Orange Peppers

ORANGE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES get their color-

high in fiber and several of the B vitamins as well

ing from carotenoid pigments; beta-carotene is the

as vitamins C and even E, and some supply iron and

one the body converts into vitamin A. Their flesh can

magnesium.

range in color from deep yellow (such as butternut

squash) to dark orange (carrots), and their peels can

orange and yellow foods such as corn, spaghetti

be any color. These vegetables are typically very

squash, sweet potatoes, and carrots is known as

The group of chemicals that give color to

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

54


YELLOW FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Spaghetti Squash

Crenshaw Melon

Summer Squash

Forelle Pear

Bose Pear

Yellow Bell Pepper

Pineapple Corn

Saturn Peaches

Yellow Peach

Yellow Tomatoes

Baby Yellow Peppers

Lemons

the carotenoids. Carotenoids function as natural

beta-carotene, which has been shown to protect cell

protectors in the plant world because of their anti-

walls and prevent DNA damage. The carotenoid fam-

oxidant properties and their ability to absorb certain

ily tends to be fat-soluble. This means that the color

wavelengths of the light spectrum. These same

will not be affected when cooked in water.

properties can make them effective protectors in

the human body as well. Particularly deep shades of

room temperature, though carrots do better if they

orange and yellow indicate a higher concentration of

are refrigerated.

Most of these vegetables store well at cool

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

55


RED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Rhubarb Gala Apple Rainier Cherries

Baby Watermelon

Comice Pear

Pink Grapefruit

Bing Cherries

Beet

Red Bell Pepper

Heirloom Tomato Strawberries

Raspberries

Kumato Tomato

Red Plums Radishes

Grape Tomatoes

THE MOST COMMON SOURCE OF RED in vegetables

Anthocyanins found in bright red foods like cranber-

and fruits is anthocyanins. (Some things, such as

ries can also help keep your blood pressure down

watermelons, tomatoes, and some peppers get

and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

their color from carotenoids.) Anthocyanins are

powerful antioxidants that neutralize free radi-

water-soluble. This means that the color will bleed

cals, counteract aging, prevent dementia, and even

out if cooked in water. Anthocyanins change their

protect against several kinds of eye disease. Foods

color depending on the pH of the solution they are in.

that contain potent quantities of anthocyanins, like

They will change from a bright red in very acidic con-

blackberries, can prevent cancer from occurring as

ditions to blue and in neutral conditions to yellow/

well as slow down tumors that are already present.

orange when the pH reaches 13.

Unfortunately, the anthocyanin family is

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

56


BLUE AND PURPLE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Red Cabbage

Dried Black Currants

Radicchio

Italian Eggplant

Red Flame Grapes

Red Onion

Flavorosa Plums

Blueberries

Peruvian Potatoes

Blackberries

THESE FOODS get their coloration from anthocya-

section on red fruits. It is important to incorporate

nins as well. This means that blue and purple foods

a variety of these fruits and vegetables into a bal-

also contain the antioxidants described in the

anced diet.

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

57


WHITE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Daikon Radish

Jícama

Asian Pear

Napa Cabbage

Cauliflower

Belgian Endive

Coconut

White Onion Celery Root

Morels Banana

Garlic

Plantain

Ginger Button Mushrooms

Red Banana

Shiitake Mushrooms

WHITE VEGETABLES from the allium family, such as

nutritional properties of white foods (mainly items

white onion and garlic, have chemicals that contain

like sour cream, mayonnaise, and refined sugar),

sulfur, much like the cruciferous vegetables, that

including white fruits and vegetables in your diet will

help set the body’s natural enzyme detoxification

help to keep it balanced.

methods in motion. Even though some discount the

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

58


STARCHY VEGETABLES

JĂ­cama

Yukon Gold Potatoes

Galangal

Celery Root

Boniato

Sweet Potatoes

Peruvian Potatoes

Fingerling Potatoes

Red Bliss Potatoes Russet Potato

STARCHY VEGETABLES are usually roots and tubers

that serve as nutrient reservoirs for the upper part

place, unpeeled; properly stored, they will maintain

of a plant. They are rich in carbohydrates, vitamins,

their quality for several weeks.

and minerals. Tubers are enlarged bulbous roots

capable of generating a new plant. Potatoes are

soups, stews, and sauces in place of cream or a roux.

the most common tuber, but Jerusalem artichokes,

Pale and blander vegetables like potatoes or cele-

jĂ­cama, and yams are other varieties.

riac are more versatile than beets for these applica-

tions, unless you are preparing borscht.

If leaves are attached to these vegetables,

Root vegetables should be stored in a cool, dry

These vegetables can be used to thicken

check to see that the greens are fresh; they should not be wilted or discolored. Remove them before storing.

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

59


fresh, frozen, canned, or dried, are recommended

LEGUMES

over fruit juice for the majority of this amount to enAlthough most people think of legumes as dried

sure adequate fiber intake.

beans, this group includes thousands of plants: a

legume has seedpods that split along both sides

temperature, most ripe fruit should be refrigerated.

when ripe, and legumes are classified by whether

Berries in particular are extremely perishable and

these pods are edible. The most common include

should be used within a day or two of delivery. Some

beans and soybeans, lentils, peanuts, and peas. Fresh

fruits (including apples, bananas, and melons) emit

beans and peas are sweetest and most tender when

ethylene gas; this can accelerate ripening in some

they are young. Once picked, their natural sugars be-

unripe fruits, but it can also promote spoilage in

gin to convert into starch. Garden peas are especially

produce that is already ripe. Store these fruits sepa-

prone to flavor loss.

rately from other foods.

Most legumes are a good source of protein—

Although unripe fruits can be stored at room

Fruits like lemons and melons emit odors that

for most of the world, they are the primary source of

can permeate other foods; dairy products are prone

protein—and contain B vitamins like folate and ribo-

to absorbing odors, as are fruits such as apples and

flavin, vitamin E, complex carbohydrates, soluble and

cherries.

insoluble fiber, and minerals such as iron, calcium, and magnesium.

APPLES AND PEARS The apple, perhaps the most popular fruit in the

OTHER VEGETABLES

United States, comes in thousands of varieties. The This catchall category includes crucifers that aren’t

most commonly available are Golden and Red Deli-

dark green (such as cauliflower and red cabbage),

cious, McIntosh, Granny Smith, Rome Beauty, Fuji,

foods that are botanically considered fruits (toma-

and Gala, but regional and heirloom varieties like

toes, peppers, cucumbers, and summer squash), as

Northern Spy, Greening, and Cameo are worth seek-

well as the extensive families of mushrooms and

ing out.

onions. These vegetables vary considerably in nutri-

ents, seasonality, and keeping qualities.

United States. They also come in as many varieties,

Pears are to France what apples are to the

with the most common being Bartlett, Bosc, Comice,

FRUITS

d’Anjou, and Seckel. Pears are extremely fragile and are picked before they are fully ripe; they will soften

Although the Dietary Guidelines do not categorize

at room temperature.

fruits as they do vegetables, different groups of

fruits provide different nutrients. Orange and red

controlled cold storage for months without a sig-

fruits like mango, cantaloupe, apricot, watermelon,

nificant loss of quality, so they are readily available

and red or pink grapefruit are high in carotenoids.

year-round. The flesh of many apples and pears will

Citrus, berries, guava, papaya, kiwi, and cantaloupe

begin to brown once it is exposed to air. Dousing

are high in vitamin C, while oranges are rich in folate.

them in acidulated water will help prevent this but

Fruits like apples and pears aren’t especially high in

may affect their flavor. Apples and pears are high in

vitamins, but they contain phytochemicals as well as

fiber, most of which is soluble, and they supply some

fiber.

vitamin C. Those with red skins contain anthocyanins,

At least 2 cups of fruit should be consumed per

Fresh apples and pears can be held in climate-

a powerful antioxidant pigment.

day for a 2,000-calorie intake. Whole fruits, whether

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

60


preserve vitamins. Most often used uncooked, citrus

BERRIES

can add a sweet-tart note to savory dishes, espeThanks to improved methods of shipping, these once

cially in sauces. They are also used in many desserts.

seasonal fruits are becoming more available, giving chefs the options they need to purchase berries of

GRAPES

the best quality year-round.

Most berries are extremely perishable and are

Grapes are technically berries, but because they

susceptible to bruising, mold, and overripening. Be-

come in so many varieties and have so many differ-

cause berries (with the exception of cranberries) are

ent uses, they are usually grouped separately. Grapes

so delicate, the fruit itself and its packaging should

may have seeds or not. They are used for eating out

be inspected carefully before you accept them. Juice-

of hand, cooking, and wine making, and may be dried

stained cartons or juice leaking through the carton

into raisins or currants. Harvested at different times

indicate mishandling or age. Once berries begin to

in different locales, grapes are usually available

mold, the entire batch goes quickly.

throughout the year.

Cranberries are almost always eaten cooked.

Red and black grapes are higher in nutrients

Other berries can be used fresh or as a flavoring,

than green grapes. They contain more flavonoids

purĂŠe, or sauce; in marinades, dressings, or vinegars;

and pigments than green grapes. But green grapes

or in preserves, ice creams, or fruit desserts such

do contain some nutrientsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;all grapes supply some

as pies, tarts, and cobblers. When fresh berries are

vitamin C and B vitamins. Dried into raisins, they sup-

unavailable, IQF (individually quick frozen) berries are

ply some iron. To help the body absorb this mineral,

often a perfectly fine substitute. Dried berries can be

use raisins in preparations that contain some vitamin

used in compotes, stuffings, breads, or other sweet or

C, such as salads.

savory dishes.

There are some classic dishes that use grapes

Most berries are extremely high in vitamin C,

as an ingredient: sole VĂŠronique, a poached fillet of

a nutrient that breaks down when exposed to heat

sole in a cream sauce, garnished with peeled seed-

and air.

less grapes, is one of the most famous. For the most part, grapes are usually used in fruit platters, as an accompaniment to cheese plates, or in salads.

CITRUS Citrus fruits are extremely juicy, with segmented

MELONS

flesh and skins that contain aromatic oils. They can be very sweet to extremely tart. Oranges, grape-

Succulent and sweetly aromatic, most melons are

fruits, lemons, limes, and tangerines are the most

related to squashes and cucumbers. The four major

common citrus fruits.

types are cantaloupes, watermelons, winter mel-

Citrus fruits are best known for their high vita-

ons (such as honeydew, casaba, and Crenshaw), and

min C content, but they also supply folate, fiber, and

muskmelons. Melons are an exceptional source of

phytochemicals. Limonene, which is in the peel, is a

soluble fiber, vitamin C, and most B vitamins, as well

phytochemical that may neutralize cancer-causing

as different carotenoid pigments.

agents. Oranges and tangerines contain a carotenoid

called beta cryptoxanthin, which can inhibit some

Most melons do not ripen after picking, so the chal-

tumors. Pink and red grapefruit supply lycopene, an-

lenge is to identify those that were picked when ripe.

other antioxidant carotenoid.

In general, all melons should be fragrant and feel

Most citrus fruits keep very well. Their fairly

heavy for their size. Firm, uncut melons can be stored

thick skins protect them from bruising and decay, and

at room temperature for two to four days. This will

Determining ripeness of melons can be tricky.

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

61


cause their flesh to soften and become juicier. Once

HERBS

they have been cut, they should be refrigerated and used within two days. Don’t cut melons until just be-

Herbs are the leaves of aromatic plants and are used

fore using in order to preserve vitamin C, and always

primarily to add flavor to foods. They are available

wash them first so that any bacteria on the skin are

fresh and dried, although sturdier herbs like thyme,

not transferred to the flesh.

bay leaf, and rosemary dry more successfully than others.

STONE FRUITS

Aroma is a good indicator of quality in fresh

and dried herbs. Test for smell by rubbing or crumSo called because they have one large central pit, or

bling leaves between the fingers, then smelling. A

stone, this group of fruits includes peaches, plums,

weak or stale aroma indicates old, less-potent herbs.

apricots, cherries, and nectarines. They come into

Fresh herbs should have good color, fresh-looking

peak season throughout the late spring and summer,

leaves and stems, and no wilt or pest damage.

and they must be handled carefully because they typ-

ically have thin skins and flesh that can bruise easily.

in damp paper towels or cloth. If desired, they can

Fresh herbs should be stored loosely wrapped

Stone fruits are used in preserves, short-

then be placed in plastic bags to help retain fresh-

cakes, pies, and cobblers, as well as in savory dishes.

ness, and stored at 35° to 45°F/2° to 7°C. Leafy

Peaches, cherries, and plums are also used in fruit

herbs like watercress, basil, and parsley can be held

brandies, wines, and cordials. All stone fruits are

by trimming the stems and placing the bunch in a

available canned, frozen, and dried.

jar of water. Wrap damp toweling around the leaves

Peaches are sweet and juicy, with a distinc-

or cover with a plastic bag and store them in the

tively fuzzy skin. All fall into one of two categories:

refrigerator. Fresh herbs should be cut as close to

clingstone or freestone. Clingstone peaches have

serving time as possible and added to a dish toward

flesh that clings to the pit, whereas the flesh of free-

the end of the cooking time. For uncooked prepara-

stone peaches separates easily. Peach flesh ranges

tions, fresh herbs should be added well in advance of

from pale white to red in color. Peaches are a rich

serving so their flavors can blend with the other ele-

source of soluble fiber and supply modest amounts

ments. Fresh herbs also add flavor to salads; parsley,

of vitamin E.

basil, and sorrel can be used to good effect.

Fresh herbs are rarely eaten in large enough

quantity for their nutrients to make a significant

OTHER FRUITS

contribution to meeting daily or weekly recommenA wide variety of fruits falls into this category. Many

dations. However, most are high in vitamin C, beta-

are tropical fruits that are available seasonally,

carotene, and iron, as well as a variety of antioxidants.

though some, including mango, papaya, kiwi, and star

fruit, are available year round. Tropical fruits tend to

and heat. They can be added early in the cooking

be very high in vitamin C; some supply vitamin E as

process.

Dried herbs should be stored away from light

well. They are often served raw, but some take well to cooked desserts and savory preparations.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

62


HERBS Spearmint

Kaffir Lime Leaves

Cilantro

Lemon Grass

Shiso Leaf Banana Leaf

Dill Weed

Sage

Oregano

Chervil Flat Leaf Parsley Parsley

Rosemary Chives

Thyme

Tarragon

Basil

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

63


GRAINS

available, including some brands that also include legume flours, which increase the amount of protein

GRAINS, BREADS, AND PASTAS form the founda-

and fiber compared to conventional products.

tion of a healthy diet. Their high levels of complex

carbohydrates (the bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s preferred energy source),

kept cool, dry, properly covered, and away from ex-

vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber make them the

posure to direct light. Their plentiful B vitamins are

perfect choice to provide the bulk of calories in a

light sensitive and degrade over time. Fresh pasta

meal. Furthermore, their often understated flavors

should be tightly wrapped and refrigerated for up to

and neutral colors make them a good foil for more

four days, or frozen for up to a month. Some whole

highly flavored and colorful foods.

grains need to be refrigerated. Grain products can

The number of grains typically prepared in a

last a long time when properly stored, but if allowed

kitchen today is substantially greater than was the

to age too long they become stale and lose flavor and

case several years ago. In addition to standards such

nutritional quality.

All grains, meals, flours, and pastas should be

as rice and barley, previously exotic grains such as quinoa, millet, and amaranth are becoming familiar.

PURCHASING AND STORING GRAINS Grains can be whole, cracked, or milled into meals or flours. Whole grains have the bran and germ intact.

SEITAN

Because the oils in the grain are concentrated in these parts of the grain structure, whole grains are less stable under long-term storage than processed grains.

In general, the more milling and processing a

grain undergoes, the less likely it is to become rancid. However, the germ and bran are also where most of the nutrients are located, making whole grains a better choice from a nutrition standpoint. There is also some benefit to selecting meals and flours that have been stone ground, because this method of milling is less likely to overheat the grain and destroy heatsensitive nutrients such as thiamin and niacin. However, stone-ground products are often higher in price and may be difficult to find.

Many pastas are available both fresh and dried.

Fresh noodles are often made with eggs, but they

SEITAN is made of wheat gluten cooked in soy sauce.

can also be made quite easily using only egg whites

It is extremely high in protein and has a chewy, firm

for binding purposes. Commercially available dried

texture. It can be used like tofu in stir fries. Seitan

pastas are generally made of flour and water. Today,

is available in tubs or cakes, and in a powdered form

more and more varieties of whole-grain pastas are

that must be mixed with water.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

64


WHEAT

Cake Flour

Red Bulgur Wheat

Cracked Green Wheat

Wheat Bran Semolina Flour Pastry Flour

Hard Winter Wheat

Wheat Germ

Whole Wheat Flour Wheat Farina All-Purpose Flour Durum Flour

Soft White Wheat Bulgur Wheat

Vital Wheat Gluten Bread Flour

WHEAT comes in a variety of forms. If left whole, it

added. Bread flour is made from hard (higher gluten)

is called wheat berries. Cracked wheat is coarsely

wheat. Wheat is a good source of soluble and in-

crushed; bulgur is a form of cracked wheat. Semolina

soluble fiber, iron, and protein, as well as riboflavin,

and farina are polished wheat kernels. Semolina can

niacin, thiamin, folate, phosphorus, zinc, and mag-

be whole or ground; couscous is made from this.

nesium. The bran and germ contain phytoestrogens,

Farina is a medium-grind wheat. Wheat bran is the

which may reduce the risk for some forms of cancer

outer covering of the kernel, and wheat germ is the

and heart disease. The germ is also high in vitamin E.

embryo.

that may cause an allergic reaction for certain

Wheat flours include whole wheat and graham,

Wheat contains gluten and is one of the foods

all-purpose, bread, cake, pastry, and self-rising.

individuals. To learn more about wheat allergies

Whole and graham are made from the entire kernel.

and special dietary concerns for diseases such as

Cake, pastry, and self-rising flours are made of soft

Crohnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, consult the Recommended Resources and

wheat; self-rising flour has baking powder and salt

Readings on page 515.

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

65


RICE

Wild Rice Blend

Carnaroli Rice

Long-Grain Brown Rice

Converted Rice

Wild Rice

White Rice Flour Farmed Country Wild Rice

Medium-Grain Brown Rice

Arborio Rice

Basmati Rice

Forbidden Rice Short-Grain Brown Rice

Rice Flakes

Sweet Brown Rice

Brown Rice Flour Sushi Rice

Brown Rice Syrup

Rice Milk Bhutanese Red Rice

Brown Basmati Rice

Brown Rice Farina

Jasmine Rice

RICE is classified as long-, medium-, or short-grain.

Rice provides thiamin, niacin, and vitamin B6, as

Long-grain rices include basmati. Short-grain rices

well as copper, zinc, and magnesium. Brown rice sup-

include Arborio, Piedmontese, and Carnaroli, as well

plies significantly more fiber than white rice and is

as glutinous (sticky) rice. Brown rice has been hulled,

higher in vitamins and minerals. It can take twice as

but the bran is intact; white rice has had the bran re-

long to cook as white rice, however.

moved. Wild rice is the seed of an aquatic grass and is more closely related to barley than to rice.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

66


CORN

Corn Meal

Yellow Popping Corn

Coarse Polenta

White Hominy

Masa Harina

Corn Starch

Corn Flour

White Rice Flour

Stone-Ground Grits

Fresh Corn

CORN can be eaten as a starchy vegetable or as a

Corn products are a good source of fiber. Corn

grain, such as grits, hominy, or polenta. Hulled and

is high in niacin, but unless corn is prepared with an

degermed corn kernels are called hominy; grits are

acid, such as lime, this vitamin is not available to

ground hominy. Cornmeal is made by grinding hulled

the body. Yellow cornmeal is a good source of two

corn kernels. It can be medium or fine ground, and it is

carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, that may protect

white or yellow. Masa is corn processed with lime to

against cataracts and macular degeneration.

remove the hull, then ground; masa harina is ground dried masa. Cornstarch is very finely ground hulled and degerminated kernels. HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

67


BARLEY

Pearled Barley

Quick Cooking Barley

Barley Flakes

Barley (Hulled)

BARLEY has a pleasantly chewy texture. It is most

unpolished kernels. Barley is an excellent source of

commonly available as pearl barley, which are the

iron, selenium, niacin, and fiber, especially choles-

polished kernels. Scotch or pot barley are unpol-

terol lowering soluble fiber. It also supplies thiamin

ished kernels. Barley meal is made by grinding the

and vitamin B6.

OATS

Rolled Oats

Oat Groats

Oat Flour

Quick Cooking Oats

Oat Bran

OF ALL THE GRAINS, OATS are notable in that they

Oats are higher in protein than bulgur wheat or

retain most of their nutrients after hulling, because

brown rice, and they contain thiamin, iron, and

the bran and germ are not removed. Oats can be

selenium. They are also an excellent source of fiber,

left whole (these are called groats) or processed

especially cholesterol-lowering soluble fiber. Oats

into oatmeal or oat bran. Oatmeal can be steel-cut,

also supply saponins, which are phytochemicals that

rolled, quick-cooking, instant, or made into flakes.

appear to regulate blood flow.

These are fairly similar nutritionally, but their textures can be quite different. TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

68


OTHER GRAINS Rye Berries Spelt Millet Spelt Flakes

Rye Flakes

Farro

Amaranth

Medium Rye Flour

Millet Flour

Spelt Flour

Quinoa

White Rye Flour Buckwheat Groats Brown Teff

Roasted Buckwheat Groats (Kasha)

Red Quinoa

Quinoa Flakes

Kamut Flakes Teff Flour

Buckwheat Flour

Quinoa Flour

ALTHOUGH THE GRAINS listed previously are the

including millet, quinoa, rye, and buckwheat,

most commonly consumed in the United States,

supply complex carbohydrates and fiber, as well as

they are by no means the most nutritious, especially

B vitamins.

when they are milled or processed. All whole grains,

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

69


AMARANTH: Once a sacred food of the Aztecs,

in carbohydrates, iron, and calcium, and is available

amaranth is a tiny grain with an aroma and flavor

either polished or unpolished (the unpolished variety

described as corn-like and woodsy. Its high starch

has a better nutrition profile). Still rare in this coun-

content makes it more suitable for soups, stews, and

try, Job’s tears can be imported and purchased from

porridges than drier pilaf-style preparations. Toast-

companies that deal in natural foods and macrobi-

ing the grain first and adding it to already boiling

otic supplies.

liquid helps prevent it from becoming gummy.

KAMUT AND SPELT: These easily digestible ancient

Amaranth is high in protein (18 percent), iron, cal-

forms of wheat can often be tolerated by people

cium, and vitamin E.

with wheat allergies. Both have a better nutrition

FARRO: Farro is the Italian word for “emmer,” or two-

profile than standard wheat. Spelt and kamut flours

grained spelt, an ancient type of wheat. It is tradi-

substitute well for wheat flour in breads.

tionally eaten in the Tuscan region of Italy, and it is

QUINOA: Native to the Andes, quinoa (pronounced

often combined with cannellini beans for a source of

KEEN-wah) has a mildly nutty flavor and an intrigu-

complete protein. Farro contains a starch similar to

ing texture. The germ, which completely surrounds

that found in Arborio rice, but although it releases a

the rest of the grain, falls away during cooking

creamy binding liquid when cooked, it does not be-

and remains slightly crunchy, while the grain itself

come as starchy as Arborio. Farro is high in vitamins,

becomes meltingly soft. This duality of texture

minerals, and antioxidants.

makes quinoa like two grains in one. Quinoa is one

JOB’S TEARS: One of the few nonhybridized grains

of the quickest-cooking grains and has the highest

available today, Job’s tears is so named because

nutrition profile of any grain. With up to 20 percent

the unhulled grain resembles a teardrop. This grain

high-quality protein, quinoa rivals milk as a source of

is said to have a number of medicinal benefits; as

protein and is also high in vitamin E, iron, zinc, potas-

such, it is highly prized in both traditional Chinese

sium, calcium, and B vitamins.

medicine and macrobiotic cuisine. Job’s tears is high

11

2

Before cooking quinoa, rinse it in water to remove any impurities. When the water rinses clear, the quinoa is clean and ready to use.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

70


Baked Goods and Breads

WHETHER YOU SERVE

a bread basket as part of every meal or include breads and baked goods as part of a menu item, you want to be certain that the baked goods you choose are adding as much to the overall nutritional value of the meal as possible. Good choices include whole-grain varieties or versions that include less sugar, butter or shortening, and eggs than traditional renditions, such as those we included in this book. Yeasted breads can be part of a sandwich or can accompany soups or salads. You can improve the profile of any meal that includes a yeasted bread by considering a variety of whole-grain options, including wheat, rye, buckwheat, or millet, to replace some or all of the white wheat flour called for in typical yeast bread recipes. Legume and nut flours can also be used to add essential nutrients and fiber. A vegetable purée is another way to introduce more

nutrients, as well as flavor and moisture. Yogurt can be used instead of milk to add a touch of tang and lightness. Texture is important in baked goods, so select ingredients that are hearty without producing a bread that is too dense, heavy, or wet. Quick breads can be high in fat, sugar, and sodium. You can opt to use a variety of flours in a quick bread that might be more difficult to work with in a yeasted dough. The quantity of sugar in many quick breads can be cut by 30 to 50 percent without producing a significant change in the taste, texture, or color of your muffins and loaves. Batters made by the well mixing method, rather than the creaming method, include far less butter or shortening. Introducing whole grains such as oats and garnish ingredients like dried fruits or nuts are good ways to bolster most quick bread recipes.

TEFF: Native to Ethiopia, teff is a tiny grain that is

TRITICALE: A hybrid of wheat and rye, triticale (pro-

only about twice the size of the period ending this

nounced trit-i-KAY-lee) is the world’s first complete-

sentence. In fact, it derives its name from the

ly human-engineered grain. Its flavor is pleasantly

Amharic word tef, meaning “lost,” because it is so

mild and reminiscent of rye. Triticale was once hailed

easily lost during harvesting and handling. Teff

as the answer to the world’s hunger crisis because

tastes similar to hazelnuts and is often ground into

of its high protein content, high yields, resistance to

flour from which the traditional Ethiopian flatbread

pests, and field hardiness. Sadly, it has been slow to

injera is made. The whole grain is available in brown,

catch on with growers and consumers, despite the

red, and ivory varieties, with the brown being the

enthusiasm of dietitians and scientists.

most flavorful. Teff is high in protein and carbohydrates and is a good source of calcium and iron.

Adapted from The Splendid Grain, by Rebecca Wood. Copyright © 1997 by Rebecca Wood.

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

71


DRIED LEGUMES

Red Kidney Beans

Fava Beans

Cranberry Beans

Pinto Beans

Lima Beans

Navy Beans

Black Beans

Great Northern Beans

Black Eyed Peas

Flageolets

Green Split Peas

Chickpeas

Green Lentils

Red Lentils

Chana Dal

Moong Dal

Lentils

Urad Dal

LEGUMES ARE SEEDS THAT GROW INSIDE PODS.

have a much longer shelf life. They are generally

Fresh legumes, such as green beans and peas, are

mild in flavor and they are a potent source of many

considered vegetables (see page 60). Dried legumes

nutrients.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

72


DRIED LEGUMES

SOY FOODS INCLUDE:

PURCHASING AND STORING LEGUMES

Edamame Tofu Tempeh

If you purchase dried beans in bags, check to see that the beans are whole and the bags are not torn.

Miso

Legumes are best when used within six months of

TVP

purchase. As they age they take longer to cook and

Soymilk

thus require more cooking liquid. They should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area.

Seitan

Canned beans are a convenient alternative to

dried beans—they are already cooked—but they are

EDAMAME

high in sodium. Research shows that draining off the liquid and rinsing the beans can reduce sodium levels

Edamame, Japanese for “soybean,” is typically par-

by up to 40 percent.

boiled then frozen or dried. It can be served as a veg-

etable, used in soup, or eaten as a snack, and is even

Most dried beans are comparable nutritionally.

In addition to protein and complex carbohydrates,

used to make desserts.

beans are a rich source of soluble and insoluble fiber and are quite low in fat. Most are a good source of

TOFU

folate; some are high in iron and calcium. Often misunderstood by many Western chefs, tofu is available in a variety of textures. Soft tofu can be

SOY FOODS

silken, firm, or extra-firm; it is packaged in aseptic

PURCHASING AND STORING SOY FOODS

must be refrigerated and used within four to five days

boxes. It keeps indefinitely at room temperature but once opened. Soft tofu has a custard-like consistency that is ideal in purées, soups, sauces, and dips; it can be used in place of sour cream in some recipes.

Soy foods are available in myriad forms and flavors.

Water-packed tofu can be firm or extra-firm. It is

Most soy products are perishable and should be kept

usually packed in tubs or plastic cartons and must be

refrigerated. Those packed in aseptic boxes, such

refrigerated; once opened, it should be used within

as some brands of soymilk, can be stored at room

four to five days. Water-packed tofu has a dense tex-

temperature until opened. Some soy foods can be

ture and mild flavor. It is extremely versatile and can

frozen. Soy cheese can be made to imitate Cheddar,

be grilled or stir-fried, used to replace eggs in a veg-

Parmesan, mozzarella, and cream cheese; those that

etarian egg salad, or added to stews or baked dishes;

contain the milk protein casein will melt better than

it is often marinated before use. Pressing it removes

those that contain no animal products. Some brands

extra liquid, which improves the texture.

contain hydrogenated oils.

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

73


SOY FOODS

Smoked Tofu

Soy Flakes

Soy Cheese

Soy Flour

Soybean Paste

Dried Soybeans Tempeh

Brown Rice Miso Soymilk White Miso

Tamari Soy Sauce Edamame

SOYBEANS ARE A RICH SOURCE of many nutrients,

fat but also contain antioxidants called isoflavones,

and have yet to reach their full potential in the U.S.

which have been linked to reduced risk for some

market. They are an excellent source of all three

cancers, osteoporosis, and heart disease. These iso-

macronutrients, supplying high-quality protein, iron,

flavones are found only in soy protein; soy sauce and

magnesium, vitamin E, riboflavin, thiamin, and folate.

soybean oil do not confer these benefits.

Compared to other legumes, soybeans are higher in

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

74


TEMPEH

TEXTURED VEGETABLE PROTEIN (TVP) OR TEXTURED SOY PROTEIN (TSP)

Tempeh is made from cooked soybeans that are fermented using vinegar and special cultures that allow

These “meat”-like substances are made from a va-

them to be formed into firm loaves and cakes. Prepa-

riety of products including soy, cottonseed, wheat,

ration involves soaking cut pieces in a highly sea-

or oats. Made by heating and denaturing the plant’s

soned sauce or brine prior to frying or grilling. High in

fibers, which allows the liquid to be absorbed, this

umami flavors including mushrooms and meat, it has

paste is then extruded under pressure, forming a firm

a soft exterior and firm, almost spongy, consistency.

texture similar to meat.

MISO

SOYMILK

Miso is a fermented bean paste made by crushing

Soymilk comes in a variety of flavors and can be used

boiled soybeans and adding barley, wheat, or rice.

instead of milk in most recipes. Fortified soymilks

Inoculated with yeast-like mold, miso is aged from

supply vitamins A, B12, and D, riboflavin, zinc, and

three months to three years. A variety of types and

calcium.

colors are available ranging from an almost white, to yellow, red, and very dark. Lighter colors tend to

PROCEDURE FOR MAKING SOYMILK

contain fewer soybeans and are the sweetest and

Soybeans or soy flour is first soaked and then ground

best used for marinades, glazes, or dressings. Darker

up into a paste. Next the mixture is boiled, filtered,

styles are rich in umami flavor and are used in hearty

and fortified before being packaged (see page 76 for

winter-style soups. Color, thickness, and flavor de-

more detailed instructions).

pends on the fermentation style, temperature, region, salt, and even the fermentation vessel that

SEITAN

is used. Seitan is made of wheat gluten cooked in soy sauce. TYPES OF MISO INCLUDE:

It is extremely high in protein and has a chewy, firm

SHIRO MISO: white

texture. It can be used like tofu in stir-fries. Seitan is available in tubs or cakes, and in a powdered form

AKA MISO: red

that must be mixed with water.

AWASE MISO: a mixture of several varieties

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

75


Preparing Tofu

TOFU

TOFU IS A VERSATILE PRODUCT FOR ANY CHEF,

but is especially useful when cooking for individuals with health concerns. Tofu is high in protein, low in fat, and comes in many varieties, each of which can be used in endless culinary applications. While tofu is commonly available from most food purveyors, it can also be made fresh without the use of specialized equipment. Only three ingredients are needed to produce fresh tofu: FILTERED WATER, which provides

clean flavor and ideal finished texture. DRIED SOYBEANS, which are soaked

and then combined and heated with the water to create fresh soymilk. NIGARI FLAKES, a natural Japanese

sea salt derivative (magnesium chloride), which coagulates the soymilk, creating curds that are then pressed to form tofu.

The process is relatively simple, and produces a product with a rich, silky texture and a mild, smooth flavor.

BATCH YIELD: 8 oz/227 g SERVINGS: 2 PORTION INFORMATION: 4 oz/113 g

1.04 qt/990 mL filtered water (see Notes) 2½ cups/591 mL soybeans, soaked 1 tsp/2 g nigari flakes (magnesium chloride) 1. Place 24 fl oz/709 mL of the water and the soybeans in a blender or food processor. Begin processing on low and gradually increase the speed to high, processing until the beans are fully puréed and the mixture is milky white in color, 3 to 5 minutes. 2. Line a chinois with 3 layers of cheesecloth and place over a large heat-safe bowl and set aside. In a medium heavy pot, bring 24 fl oz/ 709 mL water to a boil over mediumhigh heat. Add the soybean mixture to the boiling water and continue to cook, stirring as necessary to avoid scorching, until the mixture is heated through, 6 to 8 minutes. 3. Strain the soybean mixture in the prepared chinois. Allow the mixture to drain and cool to room temperature, about 20 minutes. Gather the ends of the cheesecloth and squeeze the solids to remove all traces of liquid. The recipe should produce 1.25 to 1.50 qt/1.18 to 1.41 L of soymilk. Discard the soybean purée solids. 4. In a large bowl, dissolve the nigari

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

76


Silken

Extra Firm

Firm

Types of Tofu

flakes in 3 tbsp/45 mL water. Set aside. In a medium heavy pot, heat 1 qt/946 mL of the soy milk until it reads 185°F/85°C on a thermometer. Stir constantly as the milk heats to avoid scorching. When the soymilk has reached the correct temperature, slowly pour the milk into the dissolved nigari mixture. Stir to incorporate. The milk will begin to coagulate and resemble wet cheese curds. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and let stand, undisturbed, for 5 minutes.

5. Set up a tofu press by placing a perforated half hotel pan inside a second perforated half hotel pan. Line the interior hotel pan with cheesecloth. Pour the tofu into the lined pan. Take the ends of the cheesecloth and fold over the mixture. Place the second pan on top and weigh down with 5 to 10 lb/2.26 to 4.53 kg of weight (see Notes).

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

77

6. Remove the weight, and unwrap the cheesecloth; the tofu is ready to use. If not using immediately, store the tofu in an airtight container (see Notes).

Using unfiltered water can affect both the flavor and texture of the finished tofu. Use a good-quality filtered water to ensure consistency of product. NOTES

The more weight that is used as well as the length of the pressing time will affect the texture of the finished tofu. Less weight and a shorter pressing time will result in a softer product, while more weight and a longer pressing time will result in firmer tofu. The finished tofu will keep, refrigerated, for up to 1 week.


NUTRIENT CONTENT OF SOYFOODS FOOD (1⁄2 CUP)

KCAL

PROTEIN (G)

FAT (G)

CALCIUM (MG)

FOLIC ACID (UG)

ISOFLAVONE (MG)

Soybeans

149

14

8

88

47

35

Soy protein isolate (4 oz)

380

100

4

Tempeh

165

16

6.5

77

43

40

Texturized vegetable protein

120

22

.4

170

0

35

Soy nuts

404

30

22

120

180

50

Tofu, firm

95

10

6.0

130*

40

40

Tofu, extra-firm

80

8

4

*

30

45

160

24

.6

120

160

50

40

3.3

2.5

5

2

40

140

8

4

92

40

10

Soy flour, defatted Soymilk, plain Miso

15

*The calcium content of tofu ranges from 120–175 mg per serving depending on how the tofu was processed. Sources: U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook, Pat Murphy, Ph.D., and Steven Barnes

NUTS AND SEEDS

PURCHASING AND STORING

NUTS AND SEEDS are the fruits of various trees.

Nuts are relatively expensive and should be stored

(Peanuts, although often referred to as nuts, are

carefully, as they can become rancid quickly. Nuts

actually legumes, since they grow underground in the

that have not been roasted or shelled keep longer.

root system of a leguminous plant.)

Shelled nuts may be refrigerated or frozen, or stored

in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area. Check periodically

Nuts are available in several forms: in the shell,

shelled, roasted, blanched, sliced, slivered, chopped,

to be sure they are still fresh.

and puréed into butters.

Seeds are usually available whole or as a paste

Nuts are high in vitamins, minerals, and phyto-

and should be stored in the same manner as nuts.

chemicals. The favorable nutrition profile in nuts has

Many of the seeds used in the kitchen are considered

made them the focus of several clinical studies, all of

spices (e.g., coriander and fennel seed), while others,

which showed that nuts may play a role in decreasing

such as sunflower and pumpkin seeds, are used more

the risks for cardiovascular diseases, stroke, diabe-

like nuts.

tes, and cancer.

Approximately 80 percent of the calories in

nuts comes from fat, but up to 90 percent of the fat is unsaturated, which has been shown to have a positive effect on serum cholesterol levels. Because they are such a concentrated source of calories, the recommended serving size for most varieties is 1 ounce (roughly 1⁄4 cup).

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

78


NUTS Macadamias Blanched Almonds

Cashews

Walnuts

Pine Nuts

Peanuts

SEEDS

Mustard Seeds

Black Sesame Seeds

Brown Mustard Seeds

Hulled Sesame Seeds

Unhulled Sesame Seeds

Flax Seeds

Golden Flax Seeds

Flax Meal

Sunflower Seeds

Poppy Seeds

Pumpkin Seeds

Fennel Seeds

Caraway Seeds

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

79


FATS AND OILS

a neutral or a pronounced flavor depending on their application, but those used for frying should have

PURCHASING AND STORING

a high smoke point. Oils and shortenings should be stored in a dry place, away from extremes of heat

Several different oils and shortenings are required

and light. Some extremely perishable oils should be

for every kitchen. Oils for salads and cold dishes

refrigerated but brought to room temperature be-

should be of the best possible quality, with a per-

fore use.

fectly fresh flavor. Oils used for cooking may have

FATS AND OILS

Lard

Corn Oil

Shortening Pure Olive Oil

Spray Oil

Butter

Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Margarine Sesame Oil

OILS ARE PRODUCED by pressing high-oil foods,

Hydrogenation causes the oil to remain solid

such as olives, corn, avocados, or soybeans. The oil

at room temperature; this product is also called

may then be filtered, clarified, or hydrogenated to

shortening. Hydrogenation produces trans-fatty

produce a liquid oil or shortening that has the appro-

acids (see page 12); some shortenings are now

priate characteristics for its intended use.

trans-fat free.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

80


CHOCOLATE

Chocolate and cocoa powder contain antioxi-

dants, including catechins, the compounds that make

CHOCOLATE IS PRODUCED FROM COCOA BEANS,

tea so beneficial. Dark chocolate has more of these

which grow on the cacao tree. It is most commonly

than milk chocolate. Chocolate also supplies miner-

associated with sweets and desserts, but it can be

als such as copper, iron, and zinc. Because chocolate

used in savory entrĂŠes; it is common in Mexico, par-

can be high in fat and sugar, however, it should be

ticularly in mole and other sauces.

eaten in moderation.

Chocolate is naturally bitter; sugar is typically

Chocolate should be stored, well wrapped, in

added to make it palatable. Most chocolate also con-

a cool, dry, ventilated area. It should be refrigerated

tains varying amounts of cocoa butter, the vegetable

only if it is hot and humid; refrigeration can cause

fat that occurs naturally in chocolate. Cocoa powder

moisture to condense on its surface.

is usually unsweetened. Dutch-process cocoa powder has been treated with an alkali to reduce its acidity.

Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s in an Egg?

BROWN, ORGANIC, FREE-RANGE,

and

a variety of nutritionally enhanced eggs are available; they can cost twice as much as generic eggs.

FREE-RANGE calls to mind images of

birds scratching for feed in front of a chicken coop, but not all free-range eggs are from hens with access to the outdoors. Eggs can be sold as free-range if

BROWN EGGS come from hens with

the chickens have access to open areas,

red feathers and earlobes. (Hens with

even if these areas are indoors. Free-

white feathers and earlobes lay white

range eggs are nutritionally identical to

eggs.) Brown eggs may be slightly larger

generic eggs.

than white eggs, but otherwise they are identical nutritionally.

ENHANCED EGGS take a number of

different forms. Some brands are higher

ORGANIC EGGS are from hens fed a

in omega-3 fatty acids or vitamin E;

diet free of pesticides, herbicides, and

others are lower in fat or cholesterol

commercial fertilizers. Organic eggs

than generic eggs. Egg producers can

contain the same amount of nutrients as

change the nutrient content of an egg by

other eggs, but also contain fewer chemi-

feeding the hens a special diet. A chicken

cals. (Hens are not allowed to be fed

fed a vegetarian diet high in sea algae

hormones, so all eggs sold in the United

or kelp will lay eggs that are higher in

States are hormone-free.)

vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids, and some nutritionally enhanced eggs contain omega-3s in amounts comparable to such cold-water fish as salmon.

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

81


DAIRY AND EGGS

milk can be stored for about three months unopened. Once opened or reconstituted, these foods should be

PURCHASING AND STORING DAIRY AND EGGS

treated as evaporated or fresh milk, respectively.

Eggs should always be inspected carefully upon de-

yogurt, crème fraÎche, and buttermilk. The less aged a

livery. The chef should make sure that shells are clean

cheese is, the shorter its shelf life will be.

and free of cracks; those with broken shells should be

discarded because of the high risk of contamination.

absorbing flavors and odors from other foods. Store

ensure that only fresh, wholesome eggs are served.

all milk, cream, and butter away from foods with

Fresh milk should be stored for about a week.

strong odors. Cheeses should be carefully wrapped in

Evaporated milk will maintain its quality for six

plastic wrap or waxed paper both to keep the cheese

months unopened; once opened, it should be used in a

from losing moisture and to prevent it from transfer-

few days. Sweetened condensed milk and nonfat dry

A fresh egg (left) will have a tight, round yolk that stands up high in a thick, clear egg white and, unlike an older egg

Careful storage extends beyond food safety.

Dairy products in particular are susceptible to

Refrigerate eggs promptly and rotate the stock to

Ultrapasteurized cream has a fairly long shelf

life, as do cultured dairy products such as sour cream,

ring odors and flavors to other foods.

(right), will stay compact rather than spreading out and flattening when cracked.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

82


CHEESE

Although some cheeses, cream, and butter can add calories and saturated fat to a meal, there are dairy products that can be used in their place. Part-skim ricotta cheese, Greek-style yogurt, cottage cheese made from 2% milk, or reduced-fat cheeses can all be incorporated into a meal

and provide calcium and nutrients. Additionally, smaller portions of aged cheese, such as the aged gouda shown at the bottom of the right column, can be used to impart flavor into a meal while providing fewer calories and the nutrients that dairy products offer.

MOST PEOPLE ASSOCIATE DAIRY PRODUCTS with

USDAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pyramid, while milk is a category unto itself),

calciumâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and while they are an excellent source of

freshness and proper handling are important for

this important mineral, they can also supply a wealth

both. These foods are highly perishable, so careful

of other nutrients. Milk and cheese are good sources

purchasing and storage procedures are extremely

of protein and vitamin B12; fortified milk also sup-

important.

plies vitamins A and D, riboflavin, and phosphorous.

rated fats. Although fat-free milk, yogurt, and sour

Although dairy products and eggs are two

But dairy products can also be high in satu-

different products (from a nutrition perspective,

cream are available, butter, cream and many cheeses

eggs fall into the meat-and-bean category of the

contain significant amounts of saturated fat.

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

83


FISH AND SHELLFISH

carefully for freshness and quality:

PURCHASING AND STORING FISH

SMELL IT. Fish should have a clean, briny aroma. A strong odor is a clear indication of old or improperly handled fish.

Fish can be categorized in a number of different ways: whether it is freshwater or saltwater, farmed or wild, by its skeletal type, and by its fat content.

When fish is delivered, it should be inspected

IF THE SKIN IS ATTACHED, it should feel slick and

Finfish can be round, flat, or nonbony. Round

moist. Any scales should be firmly attached.

fish, such as trout, bass, and salmon, have a backbone

FINS AND TAIL should be flexible and full.

along the upper edge, with two fillets on either side, and eyes on either side of their head. Flat fish have a

PRESS THE FLESH. It should feel firm and elastic

backbone that runs through the center of the fish, with

and spring back after you lift your finger.

four fillets (two upper and two lower). Flat fish, such

EYES SHOULD BE CLEAR AND FULL; as fish

as flounders and Dover sole, have eyes on the same

ages, eyes sink back into the head.

side of the head. Nonbony fish include ray, monkfish,

GILLS SHOULD BE RED TO MAROON,

and shark; these have cartilage instead of bones.

and moist and fresh looking.

Lean fish, sometimes called whitefish, are

usually sold as fillets; very large lean fish may be cut

The most important test of freshness is smell. No

into steaks. Their flavor is usually quite delicate and

matter how clear the eyes are or how firm the flesh, a

mild. These fish are all low in calories and fatâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;most

fish that smells bad should always be rejected.

have about 2 grams per 3-ounce cooked servingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;as

well as saturated fat.

Fish that are more than 5 percent fat by weight

of shaved ice in a perforated container. Cover the

are called fatty. Fatty fish are low in saturated fats,

fish with additional ice. Set the perforated container

fairly low in cholesterol, and most are even fairly low

in another container to catch the water from melting

in total fat. (Those that supply more than 10 grams of

ice. Check the water level and drain it if it appears

fat per 3-ounce cooked serving are mackerel, salmon,

that the fish is sitting in water. Change the ice daily.

sardines, and shad.) Fatty fish are also extremely rich

Scaling and preparing whole fish should be delayed

in omega-3 fatty acids (see table on page 86). These

until close to service.

polyunsaturated fats can guard against hypertension

and reduce the risk of fatal heart attacks.

To store whole fish, fill the belly cavity with

shaved ice, then place the fish, belly down, on a bed

Fillets or steaks should also be stored in con-

tainers set in or on ice, but they should not be in direct

All fish are extremely perishable. It is impor-

contact with ice, because their texture and flavor will

tant, therefore, that the chef be able to select

suffer.

absolutely fresh fish of the best quality. A trustworthy purveyor is critically important. Ideally, fish should be purchased only in the amount needed for a day or two. If a purveyor is able to make deliveries only once or twice a week, fish should be stored properly. When it is, it can be held for several days without losing any appreciable quality.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

84


FISH AND SHELLFISH

Blue Mussels

Crab Oysters Clams

Fish and shellfish have numerous health benefits, especially varieties like the lean white fish, oysters, mussels, and crab pictured here. When determining portion size, be aware that East Coast oysters are larger than West

Coast oysters. Clams can also be high in sodium, so make sure to take that into consideration when balancing the different elements of a plate.

FISH CONSUMPTION HAS DOUBLED in the last few

decades as people have become more aware of the

fats that can cause health problems and many

health benefits it confers. But many Americans are

species may be high in beneficial fats, the American

still reluctant to cook fish at home. It has a reputa-

Heart Association recommends eating at least two

tion for being difficult to cook because it cooks so

servings of fish per week, especially fatty fish like

quickly. For many people, fish is something they

mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore

order at restaurants.

tuna, and salmon. Some shellfish have high levels

of cholesterol, but the health benefits of eating

As fish has become increasingly popular,

Because fish is typically low in the saturated

demand has begun to outstrip supply. Many long-

fish and shellfish outweigh the concerns about the

time menu favorites are increasingly unavailable.

cholesterol level in the fish.

However, the farm-raising of fish, or aquaculture, is growing, and is becoming one of the few reliable sources of fresh fish.

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

85


OMEGA-3 CONTENT OF FISH (per 100 grams raw fillet)

LESS THAN 0.5 GRAM

0.6 TO 1 GRAM

MORE THAN 1 GRAM

Atlantic cod

Channel catfish

Albacore tuna

Atlantic pollock

Chum salmon

Anchovy

Brook trout

Red snapper

Atlantic halibut

Haddock

Spot

Atlantic herring

Northern pike

Swordfish

Atlantic mackerel

Pacific cod

Thread herring

Atlantic salmon

Pacific halibut

Turbot

Bluefin tuna

Pacific whiting

Yellowfin tuna

Coho salmon

Skipjack tuna

Lake trout

Sole

Pacific herring

Striped mullet

Pacific mackerel

Sturgeon

Pink salmon

Walleye

Rainbow trout Sardine Sockeye salmon

PURCHASING AND STORING SHELLFISH

is not available, store them in the shipping containers until they are prepared. Do not allow fresh water to come into contact with lobsters or crabs, as it will kill

Shellfish can be divided into four categories depend-

them.

ing on their skeletal structure. Univalves are single-

shelled mollusks such as abalones and sea urchins.

open as they age. Tap any that are slightly ajar and

Bivalves, which have two shells joined by a hinge,

reject or discard any that do not snap shut; the shell-

include clams, mussels, oysters, and scallops. Crus-

fish are dead. Reject any delivery that contains many

taceans have jointed exterior skeletons or shells;

open shells. Clams, mussels, and oysters purchased

lobster, shrimp, and crayfish are examples. Cephalo-

in the shell should be stored in the bag in which they

pods, such as squid and octopus, have tentacles at-

were delivered. Do not ice them; they last better at

tached to the head.

temperatures between 35째 and 40째F/2째 and 7째C.

Keep the bag tightly closed and lightly weighted to

As with finfish, shellfish should be checked

carefully upon delivery. Live shellfish, like lobsters

Bivalves should be tightly closed; they start to

prevent the shellfish from opening.

and crabs, should move. Live shellfish should be packed in seaweed or damp paper. If a lobster tank

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

86


MEAT AND POULTRY

suggest that these meats have a significantly greater amount of omega-3s. On the negative side, however,

PURCHASING AND STORING MEATS

grass-fed meats are often described as having strong or unpleasant flavors and aromas, perhaps because

Meats should be chosen based on the leanness of

we have become accustomed to the relatively mild

particular cuts and trimmed of as much surface fat

flavors of conventionally raised meats.

as possible before cooking. In general, loin and round

cuts from meats are the leanest choices.

of “traditional” meats. Many game meats have bolder,

The grade of meat can be an indication of fat

more interesting flavors and can be substantially

content. The USDA standards for grading rely upon a

lower in fat and cholesterol than their domestic

number of factors. One is the amount of marbling—

counterparts. Several game breeds, such as ostrich,

the streaks of fat found within the muscle. In the case

emu, venison, and bison, are farm-raised and readily

of beef, Choice grade may be a better selection than

available.

Prime. The quality is still excellent in Choice, but there

is generally less marbling throughout all the cuts.

You may wish to consider specialty brands of

in the refrigerator. Marinades should be discarded after use to prevent contamination.

ular beef. These breeds, which include Limousin, Belgian Blue, Chianina, and Chiangus, can be substantially

PURCHASING AND STORING POULTRY

lower in fat and calories than standard USDA Choice beef, which must meet standards of quality but does not have to identify the specific breed of meat.

With its mild flavor, reputation for leanness, and ver-

IN THE UNITED STATES, meat has long been the

satility, poultry is one of the most popular entrées

centerpiece of a meal. Beef has traditionally been

on menus. Chicken is the most common, but duck and

the most popular, but as Americans become aware

turkey are frequently seen on menus as well. Cornish

of the effects of eating too much saturated fat,

game hens, geese, and game birds like quail, squab,

other varieties have made inroads. Pork is leaner

and pheasant appear less frequently, but they make

than it once was, and pork and chicken are the most

it easy to control portion size for both the chef and

common alternatives. Lamb, veal, turkey, game hens,

the customer.

and game are eaten less often.

Although red meat in particular can be high

Like meat, poultry is an excellent source of

high-quality protein, and it often contains miner-

in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol, some cuts are

als like iron, zinc, phosphorus, and selenium, as well

quite lean. By learning which cuts of meat are natu-

as several B vitamins. Unlike meat, which often has

rally lean, how to reduce the fat in cuts that aren’t,

fat marbling the flesh, most of the fat in poultry is

and which source of lean protein can be used in lieu

in or near the skin. When the skin is removed and

of fattier ones, a chef can create menus that are

discarded before eating, most forms of poultry are

healthy and delicious.

All meats should be refrigerated promptly

upon delivery. Any marinating should also be done

beef that come from breeds naturally leaner than reg-

Keep in mind the option of using game instead

exceptionally low in fat and saturated fat.

To find out if any of these specialty breeds are

available in your area, check with your local purvey-

Poultry is sold by size and age; other marketing

terms include natural, free-range, organic, and fresh.

ors. You may also be able to find grass-fed meats,

These terms often do not mean what you might think.

raised in open pasture and free from antibiotics and

Fresh poultry, for example, may have been stored at

hormones. Conventionally raised meats are grain-fed

temperatures as low as 26°F/−3°C—cold enough to

and held in pens, known as feedlots, rather than forag-

freeze the meat. Free-range means that the bird was

ing for grass in a pasture. Grass-fed meat is usually

not penned (see What’s in an Egg?, page 81) but it

organic and free from steroids and antibiotics, as well

does not automatically mean that the bird is organic.

as lower in total fat and cholesterol. Some studies

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

87


SEASONINGS, CONDIMENTS, AND BEVERAGES

as close as possible to the time they are to be used. Spices, like dried herbs, should be stored away from extreme heat and direct light; they will retain their potency for about six months when stored properly.

Pepper was once the most expensive season-

ing in the world. Whole peppercorns will retain their

THE INGREDIENTS AND FOODS IN THIS CHAPTER

flavor almost indefinitely; ground or cracked pepper

include prepared sauces and flavoring agents; we

loses pungency quickly and should be checked often

cover some of the most common, but our listing is by

for flavor loss.

no means exhaustive. Beverages, particularly those

used in the kitchen, are also discussed. These ingre-

Although black peppercorns are the most com-

mon, most kitchens require a number of different

dients add flavor and texture to recipes. In some

peppers for different uses. White peppercorns are

instances they can affect the nutrition profile of a

preferred for pale or light-colored sauces. Pink pep-

recipe in which they’re used; some are high in sugar,

percorns are actually from a rose plant, and Szech-

and others, in sodium. Brands that contain less sugar

wan peppercorns are from a prickly ash tree. Cayenne

or sodium are usually available. Depending on the

is made from dried and ground cayenne chiles; chile

recipe, these “light” versions can typically be used

flakes, sometimes called red pepper flakes, are

with excellent results.

coarsely ground dried whole chile peppers. Paprika is made by grinding dried pimiento peppers and can

SEASONINGS

be mild, sweet, or hot. Hungarian paprikas are among the best; Spanish paprikas are also high quality.

Dried herbs, spices, salt, and pepper have been used

Some Spanish paprikas are smoked.

for centuries to add flavor to foods; salt has been used as a preservative. Although refrigeration has

SALT

lessened the need for salt-curing foods, salt and all seasonings have important culinary uses. Most

Salt contains sodium, an essential mineral that helps

seasonings are used in amounts small enough to have

maintain the body’s normal fluid balance. It has also

a nominal effect on health. Salt, however, contains

been linked to hypertension, or high blood pressure.

sodium, an essential mineral that can have a pro-

found effect on health.

milligrams of sodium per day. Experts suggest that

Most of the herbs on page 63 are available in

sodium should be limited to no more than 1,500

dried form. Drying alters their flavors, however, and

to 2,300 milligrams, or about the amount in one

improper storage compounds the problem of flavor

teaspoon of table salt. The primary source of sodium,

loss. A chef should purchase only the amount of dried

however, isn’t salting foods at the table during cook-

herbs that can be used within two or three months

ing; it’s in processed foods (see Hidden Sources of

and should store them away from heat and out of

Sodium, below). If you are concerned about reducing

direct light. Crumbling dried herbs or rubbing them

the sodium content of your recipes, opt for lower-

between palm and fingertips before adding them to

sodium products whenever possible.

a dish may reinvigorate their flavors, but musty or

“flat” aromas indicate herbs that are past their prime.

Most Americans consume more than 3,600

Salt brings its own flavor to foods and, when

used wisely in cooking, draws out and enhances the

Spices are aromatics produced primarily

natural flavor of other ingredients. Adding salt early

from the bark and seeds of plants. Spices are nearly

during the cooking process allows for deeper salt

always sold dried, and may be whole or ground. For

penetration and better flavor enhancement. When-

optimal flavor, purchase whole spices and grind them

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

88


SALT

Kosher Salt

Fleur de Sel

Sel Gris de Guérande Velvet

Rose Andes Pink Salt

Iodized Salt

Cyprus Flake Sea Salt

Sel Gris de Guérande

Murray River Pink Flake Salt

Himalayan Pink Salt

Yakima Smoked Salt

Alaea Red Hawaiian Sea Salt

Alderwood Smoked Salt

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

89

Coconut-Lime Smoked Salt


Types of Salt

SALT IS FOUND IN SEVERAL FORMS,

is fluffier. This means that a teaspoon of

each of which possesses different qualities. However, all types of salt, with the exception of light salt, are composed of 40 percent sodium and 60 percent chloride. One teaspoon of table salt, or 6 grams of any salt other than light salt, contains 2,325 milligrams of sodium.

Diamond Crystal Kosher Salt contains fewer grains of salt and weighs less than a teaspoon of other kosher salts, and therefore contains significantly less sodium per measure (1,120 milligrams per teaspoon compared to 2,360 milligrams per teaspoon of fine-grain kosher salt). Although both types of kosher salt are typically more expensive than table

TABLE SALT is most commonly used in

salt, many chefs prefer to cook almost

cooking and as a table condiment. It con-

exclusively with kosher salts.

sists of small, dense, granular cubes that adhere poorly to food, dissolve slowly in solution, and are difficult to blend.

SEA SALT AND BAY SALT are collected

through the evaporation of natural salt water and consist of thin, flaky layers.

IODIZED SALT is table salt to which

They adhere well to food and dissolve

iodine has been added as a preventa-

quickly. These salts also contain other

tive against goiter, an enlargement

trace minerals that occur naturally in

of the thyroid gland caused by iodine

the waters from which the salts are col-

deficiency.

lected. As such, sea and bay salts from

KOSHER SALT is granular salt that has

been compressed to provide a greater surface area, which allows the chef to add less salt to a dish by volume. It is flaky and, compared to table salt, is

different areas of the world taste different. All are generally more complex in flavor than table and kosher salts. Sea and bay salts can be purchased in finegrain and larger crystal forms.

lighter in weight, dissolves more readily,

CANNING AND PICKLING SALTS

and adheres better to food. Diamond

contain no additives and are very pure.

Crystal Kosher Salt is formed through

They are processed specifically to

an evaporation process similar to that

prevent clouding of the brine and discol-

used in the production of sea salt.

oration of food undergoing salt curing.

The size of a grain of Diamond Crystal Kosher Salt is larger than that of other kosher salts and the density of the grain

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

90

ROCK SALT typically is a coarse salt

used in crank ice cream makers and as a bed for shellfish. It has a gray tint


1 Meat seasoned with

1

2

table salt requires more sodium to cover the same surface area.

2 Meat seasoned with

coarse salt, which has much larger granules, adds less sodium to the finished dish.

from the usually harmless impurities it

chloride has a bitter aftertaste and is

contains. Some rock salt is meant only

blander than salt, so people tend to use

for use in ice cream machines or other

it with a heavy hand.

applications where it does not come in contact with the food. Other rock salt contains arsenic. This type of salt is unsafe to use if the foods may come in contact with the salt. SALT SUBSTITUTES contain either no

sodium or a reduced amount (light salt). Potassium chloride is the best known, but too much of this salt substitute can cause an irregular heartbeat in people with kidney problems and people on certain medications. It can also throw off the bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fluid balance. Potassium

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

91

A given volume of each type of salt will have a different weight. Unless noted otherwise, recipes in this book calling for salt refer to kosher salt, although some recipes are written for use with table salt. To substitute a kosher or sea salt for table salt and achieve the same level of saltiness, 1½ to 2 times the volume of kosher salt may be necessary. However, always start with the original amount stated and taste before adding more.


HIDDEN SOURCES OF SODIUM TYPE

ROLE

Monosodium glutamate (MSG)

Flavor enhancer

Sodium benzoate

Preservative

Sodium caseinate

Thickener and binder

Sodium citrate

Buffer, used to control acidity in soft drinks

Sodium nitrite

Curing agent in meat

Sodium phosphate

Emulsifier, stabilizer

Sodium propionate

Mold inhibitor

Sodium saccharin

Noncaloric sweetener

ever possible, taste before adding more salt, and be

NONCALORIC SWEETENERS

aware that chefs often build up a tolerance to salt and may add more than customers prefer. Consider

Noncaloric or nonnutritive sweeteners are hundreds

the temperature at which foods will be served: Salt

of times sweeter than sugar. Because they are so

tends to be more pronounced in cooler dishes.

concentrated, they are typically used in such small

Using high-sodium ingredients to replace some

amounts that they do not add calories to foods. They

of the salt in a recipe allows for the introduction of

are typically offered in packets for customers to use

other flavor elements. Capers, olives, anchovies, soy

in beverages and on foods, and they are found in pro-

sauce, fish sauce, pickles, mustard, green pepper-

cessed â&#x20AC;&#x153;dietâ&#x20AC;? and sugar-free foods.

corns, and cheeses such as Parmesan and Romano

add a dimension beyond just saltiness.

cally different from sugar, they cannot be used in lieu

Because noncaloric sweeteners are chemi-

of sugar in some recipes. Aspartame, for example, breaks down when heated unless it is in a special en-

SWEETENERS

capsulated form. In addition, some people find that Humans are born with a preference for sweet flavors.

noncaloric sweeteners have an unpleasant taste.

The sugar in foods may occur naturally, as in fruits

and milk, or it may be added. Added sugars, other-

in the United States include saccharin, aspartame,

wise known as refined sugars, are made by concen-

acesulfame potassium (also called acesulfame K or

trating and refining the simple carbohydrates found

ace K), and sucralose. Sucralose is created through a

in other foods, as in the manufacture of table sugar,

process that alters sucrose molecules into a form not

molasses, corn syrup, and maple syrup.

metabolized by the body. It is heat stable and can be

Sugars are sweeteners that are typically gran-

substituted in equal volume for sugar in recipes be-

ular in texture. Syrups are pourable liquid forms of

cause a bulking agent, polydextrose, has been added.

sugar. Most sweeteners supply few nutrients beyond

calories, and experts are nearly unanimous in their

ing the safety of noncaloric sweeteners. Aspartame,

recommendations that sugar intake, particularly of

for example, was approved for use in 1974, then

The noncaloric sweeteners currently in use

There has been significant controversy regard-

refined sugar, be limited.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

92


approval was withdrawn for seven years before it

MUSTARD

was granted again. The labels of products containing aspartame must warn of the presence of phenyl-

Mustards are made by mixing powdered mus-

alanine, a substance that cannot be metabolized

tard seeds with seasonings and a liquid. Their heat

by people who have a medical condition known as

depends on whether they are made from white or

phenylketonuria (PKU).

brown seeds. White seeds are milder in flavor than brown, but all mustards are typically quite sharp.

VINEGARS OLIVES Vinegars are made from a variety of fermented ingredients. Consideration should be given to the type

Olives are actually a fruit. They are usually green or

of vinegar chosen for a recipe because each variety

black, depending on whether they are harvested and

has unique flavor attributes.

processed before they are ripened or when fully ripe.

They can be cured in oil, water, brine, or salt. Like wine

Most vinegars contain negligible amounts of

nutrients. Some types of vinegar are higher in sugar

and cheese, olives come in hundreds of varieties.

than others, but even then the amount is usually

not significant enough to affect the overall calorie

high in vitamin E and may be high in iron and other

content of a dish.

minerals. They can be used whole or chopped in a

Olives can be very high in sodium; they are also

number of dishes, or puréed into a paste that’s often called olivada or tapenade.

EXTRACTS Chefs can use a variety of flavoring extracts for

CAPERS

cooking and baking. These are alcohol-based and are flavored with herbs, spices, nuts, and fruits. Vanilla,

Capers are the unopened buds of a shrub native to

lemon, mint, and almond are common flavors.

the Mediterranean. The buds are picked, dried, and

Extracts lose their potency when exposed to

then packed in salt or brine. Capers are pungent and

air, heat, or light. Store in dark bottles or jars, away

quite salty; rinsing them before use can reduce their

from heat or direct light, tightly capped.

sodium. The smaller capers, called nonpareil, are considered superior to the larger Italian capers.

CONDIMENTS

PICKLED FOODS Condiments introduce sharp, piquant, sweet, or hot flavors into foods. They may be used as an ingredient

Pickles and pickled relishes range from the sweet

in the kitchen or served on the side for guests to add

condiment served on hot dogs to the tiny sour

according to their taste.

cornichon served with pâté to kimchi, the extraor-

As with other prepared dry goods, select high-

dinarily pungent Korean condiment made of pickled

quality brands of condiments. Avoid those with a

vegetables. Sauerkraut, made of pickled cabbage, is

variety of fillers or unnecessary ingredients. Store ele-

an excellent source of vitamin C. Most pickled foods

vated off the floor in a cool, dry room, and rotate stock.

are high in sodium.

Most condiments should be refrigerated once

opened. Canned goods that are not used completely should be transferred to other containers, not stored in the cans.

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

93


sweetened with fruit juice. When melted, jams can be

ASIAN CONDIMENTS

used as a glaze. Soy sauce is a very salty Asian condiment made by

Chipotles in adobo have become very popular in

fermenting soybeans and wheat; the best ones are

recent years. Chipotles are dried, smoked jalapeños.

brewed. Tamari and fish sauce are similarly salty and

Adobo is a thick paste made of jalapeños, onions,

pungent, but somewhat different in flavor. Tamari is

vinegar, and spices. Chipotles in adobo can be used

made without wheat, and fish sauce is made of fish.

whole, or puréed and added to a variety of Mexican

Hoisin sauce is made of fermented soybean paste,

and other savory dishes.

garlic, and a variety of spices and chiles. Look for

brands that list soybeans, not sugar, as the first

Bloody Mary cocktail, and it also adds savory flair to

ingredient. Oyster sauce is made of oysters, soy

marinades, sauces, and gravy. Its dominant flavor is

sauce, and other seasonings. Teriyaki sauce is a

tamarind, but soy sauce, garlic, lime, onions, and vin-

marinade made of soy sauce, ginger, sake, sugar, and

egar may also be ingredients. It should not be used in

other seasonings. Chili oil is made by steeping fiery-

vegetarian dishes, as it contains anchovies.

Worcestershire sauce is de rigueur in the

hot red chiles in vegetable oil. Hot chili paste is made

BEVERAGES

of mashed chiles, vinegar, garlic, and other seasonings. Fermented black beans are preserved in a brine and then dried. They can be quite mild in flavor.

Today Americans consume one-quarter of their calories from liquid sources; few of these beverages promote good health but they make a difference in

TOMATO-BASED CONDIMENTS

the chef’s bottom line. Beverages are of great imporIn the United States, the love affair with the tomato

tance to most establishments; besides their culinary

could be said to begin with ketchup. Traditionally

applications, alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages

served with burgers, fries, and frankfurters, ketchup

can be chosen to complement the foods you serve

may also top everything from prime rib to scrambled

and enhance the overall dining experience. In addi-

eggs. Tomato ketchups are typically high in sugar, as

tion, beverages can be great moneymakers for food-

are tomato-based barbecue sauces. Today tomato-

service operations.

based salsas surpass ketchup in terms of popularity.

The rule of thumb for selecting alcoholic bev-

erages for use in cooking and baking is: If it is not suitable for drinking, it is not suitable for cooking.

OTHER CONDIMENTS

Because some people may not consume alcohol Prepared condiments like relishes, chutneys, and

for health or religious reasons, its use in any recipe

salsas are similar, and the terms are often used

should be mentioned on the menu.

interchangeably on menus. All refer to finely chopped

mixtures of ingredients used as a condiment in or

ages used in the kitchen are brandies and cognacs;

on foods. Relishes tend to be uncooked, though

Champagne; dry red and white wines; port; Sauternes;

they may include cooked ingredients. Chutneys are

sherry; stouts, ales, and beers; and sweet and dry

cooked condiments that are usually fruit-based and

vermouth. Bourbon, crème de cassis, fruit brandies, gin,

include vinegar, sugar, and spices. Mango chutney is

Kahlúa, rum, and scotch are frequently used in baking.

the most common. Salsas may be fresh or cooked.

Like chutneys, jams are typically fruit-based,

but not all of these beverages contain just alcohol.

but they rarely include spices. The flavor a jam adds

Liqueurs, for example, typically contain sugar or

to a dish depends on the fruit or vegetable it is made

sweeteners and will be significantly higher in calories

of. Most jams are made with refined sugar; others are

than other beverages.

Among the most common alcoholic bever-

Alcohol contains seven calories per gram,

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

94


ous dent in the day’s allotment of calories, clocking

COFFEE AND TEA

in at around 750 calories and over 20 grams of fat, Coffee and tea have become part of the ritual of

most of it saturated fat. Even a “medium” latte made

daily life in the United States. These beverages do

with skim milk (a 14-ounce serving) contains more

appear to have health benefits, as long as they

than 100 calories, while a 3-ounce cup of espresso

do not become a source of extra calories from sugars

has 0 calories and an 8-ounce cup of regular coffee

and fats. A 20-ounce double mochachino topped with

has about 5 calories.

whipped cream and chocolate curls could put a seri-

Health Benefits of Tea TEA LEAVES CONTAIN CATECHINS,

phytochemicals that may reduce the risk of some cancers and that are thought to boost the immune system. Green tea has become popular recently because it contains higher concentrations of these compounds than black tea. Although green tea was the first tea studied for its cancer-fighting benefits, research shows that any tea derived from the leaf of a warmweather evergreen (Camellia sinensis) contains chemicals called polyphenols that give tea its antioxidant properties. Iced teas can provide as much antioxidant power as hot teas. Bottled prepared iced teas often have a lower antioxidant level, however, because they contain mostly water and sugar. Formal tea service includes the following setup: two heated teapots, one for brewing the tea and one to hold hot water, so the guest can adjust the potency of teas brewed with loose tea. Accompaniments for black tea typically include milk and sugar (or

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

95

honey). Some tea drinkers add lemon to their brewed black teas, although typically not when they add milk to the tea. If tea is brewed from tea bags instead of loose tea, include a caddy and a strainer to hold the spent bag. Iced tea service can be very casual. Sweeteners can be added at your guests’ discretion. Some operations offer a cruet of simple or flavored syrups to add sweetness or additional flavors (fruits, herbs, and spices can all be infused into the syrup). Longhandled spoons—iced tea spoons— should be part of the service setup. Herbal teas, sometimes more properly referred to as tisanes, are not derived from the same plant and so do not have the same healthpromoting polyphenols. What they do provide, however, is a caffeine-free beverage that may offer other benefits. Herbs like chamomile or mint, flowers like hibiscus, or spices such as clove or cinnamon are brewed and served in the same manner that you would a traditional brewed tea. Some herbal teas are served with a sweetener, like honey or a sugar syrup, plain or infused with flavors.


Health and Alcohol

ALTHOUGH ALCOHOL IS NOT

considered a nutrient, alcoholic beverages can have a place in a healthy diet. In the United States, alcohol is regarded with a good deal of caution. It is a drug, and when consumed irresponsibly it can be dangerous, even lethal. But like many drugs, alcohol can have a beneficial effect on health when it is consumed in proper doses. In fact, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans include a recommendation to consume alcoholic beverages in moderation. The modern scientific community first turned its attention to the beneficial attributes of alcohol when it was recognized that the French people have some of the lowest rates of coronary heart disease in the industrialized world even though their cuisine is one of the richest. This contradiction is known as the French Paradox, and although genetics, exercise, and dietary variety with an emphasis on plant foods play a part in the French Paradox, the answer also seems to lie in part in a glass of red wine. Multitudes of studies over nearly fifty years have been conducted concerning the relationship between alcohol and coronary health. A landmark 1988 study of drinking habits in industrialized nations showed that the countries with the

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

96

highest per capita wine consumption had the lowest heart disease rates, while those where the least wine was consumed had the highest rates. This study showed that the countries with the lowest heart disease rates also had the highest rates of cirrhosis of the liver, a disease linked to excessive alcohol consumption. Alcoholic beverages, consumed in moderation, can help to reduce the risk of heart disease. This does not mean that those who do not drink should start, nor does it mean that those who cannot moderate their alcohol consumption should drink. For the general population in good health, moderation is defined as two drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women, with a drink equaling 12 fluid ounces of beer, 5 fluid ounces of wine, or 1½ fluid ounces of liquor. Although all alcoholic beverages have a beneficial health effect when consumed in moderation, red wine and dark beers seem to be particularly effective because they contain phenolic compounds. These compounds are antioxidants that help to lower the level of LDL cholesterol in the blood while increasing the level of HDL cholesterol. They also appear to help prevent blood clots from forming and to reduce genetic damage caused by carcinogens.


SUMMARY

The coffee and tea you serve deserves as

much care in its selection and preparation as any of the other healthy offerings you provide your guests.

CHEFS ARE BEING HELD TO A HIGHER STANDARD

Organic and “fair-trade” coffees are among the

when it comes to the foods they purchase and pre-

options you face in deciding what types of coffee and

pare. As your guests read more about the concerns

tea to buy. Coffee may be purchased as whole beans

surrounding issues like organics and sustainability,

or in preground, portioned vacuum packs.

they will continue to demand that the chef know

Many restaurants brew decaffeinated coffee,

more about the food: Where was it raised? How was it

and some offer espresso and cappuccino, both regu-

raised? What steps go into the processing of the food

lar and decaffeinated. The degree of roasting influ-

before you purchased it? How do those steps affect

ences the flavor and aroma of the coffee. Darker

the flavor and quality of that specific food? For some

roasts tend more to be complex and bitter, while

kitchens, a shift to foods that are unprocessed or

lighter roasts have a milder flavor.

minimally processed may mean learning new prepa-

Tea is the most commonly consumed beverage

ration techniques. It is the chef’s responsibility to

in the world after water. Many of your customers are

learn as much as possible about the role of healthy

aware of recent findings about the potential health

ingredients as the bedrock of healthy cooking.

benefits of tea. We are still learning the health benefits of tea, but it is considered a good choice for at least some of the six to eight cups or glasses of fluids recommended daily. Teas come in many varieties, including decaffeinated black teas and herbal teas. Most are blends and are available in single-serving bags or in loose form. The degree of processing determines whether a tea will be green, black, or red. Green teas are the least processed. They are simply steamed quickly before packaging. Black and red teas are partially dried, crushed, and fermented. Herbal teas (or tisanes) may be a blend of teas along with herbs, spices, flowers, and other flavorings. True tisanes do not contain tea; they are often brewed from leaves, bark, flowers, buds, or fruits.

Although coffee and tea keep well, both should

be stored properly to maintain flavor. Whole beans and open containers of coffee should be kept cool; tea should be stored in a cool, dry area away from light and moisture.

HEALTHY INGREDIENTS

97


3 Nutritious ingredients are only part of the healthy cooking equation. The cooking method you choose is of equal importance. When the best ingredients

THE TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING are prepared properly, great-tasting, healthy foods are sure to follow. Fortunately, most cooking techniques are well suited to a menu designed for healthy cuisine.


Other techniques just require a few minor adapta-

Preparing foods as close to cooking time as

tions, and a few—such as deep-frying and pan frying

possible is one of the best ways to minimize nutri-

—simply have to be used in moderation. First, we will

ent loss. Moist-heat cooking methods, which rely on

review various cooking techniques and explore when

steam, and dry-heat methods retain more water-sol-

and why a chef might want to use one or another. The

uble nutrients than simmering or boiling, which cause

following cooking methods can be used with great

nutrients to leach into the cooking liquid and get

success in healthy cooking.

discarded. Stewing and braising are also nutrientconserving methods because the cooking liquid, which is normally served as a sauce, captures those vitamins and minerals that are not destroyed by heat.

GENERAL COOKING GUIDELINES

Although cooking decreases the level of some nutrients, others become more available when foods are cooked. Heat breaks down cell walls in ways that digestion cannot, and it concentrates nutrients. Using a bit of fat in preparations helps to make fat-soluble

PROPERLY COOKED FOODS should be full of flavor

vitamins more available to the body.

and texture. They should also look appealing. You can

easily achieve these goals by pairing ingredients and

Foods remain juicy and moist if cooked until just

cooking methods to maximize flavor, texture, and ap-

done. Overcooked foods, on the other hand, become

pearance. If healthy cooking is a goal, you should also

dry and tough or soggy and insipid.

plan to minimize nutrient loss.

The key to cooking foods in a healthy manner

example, they may sit in the water, not above it. In

dards and resist the tendency to add butter, cream,

addition, the pan has a great influence on the out-

and salt. Some cooking techniques require minor

come of a dish. Its shape, the material it is made of,

adaptations; others are fine as they are. With each

and any surface treatment of the interior all play a

technique, the quality of the finished dish will be in-

role (see Caring for and Maintaining Cookware, page

creased by selecting the highest quality ingredients

118, for more information about pan care).

and preparing them properly. Foods should be cooked with the goal of

DRY-HEAT TECHNIQUES

retaining moisture and succulence. Sauces should be chosen to enhance flavor without sacrificing

Dry-heat cooking techniques include sautéing, stir-

nutritional benefit. Although ingredients such as

frying, broiling and grilling, baking and roasting, and

butter and cream can be used in small amounts for

smoke-roasting. These techniques permit foods to

enrichment, sauces should be based primarily on

brown. As the water in them evaporates, the foods

vegetables, fruits, reductions, and essences. Coulis,

develop a crust and their flavors become extremely

salsas, chutneys, relishes, and fond de veau lié are all

intricate. Deep-frying and pan frying are dry-heat

good choices.

Choose your pan for each technique with care.

If you steam vegetables in a pan that’s too small, for

is to take a literal approach to classic cooking stan-

Overcooking should be avoided at all costs.

techniques and, if done properly, the food does not

All foods should be handled with nutrient re-

absorb too much fat. The key with pan-fried or deep-

tention in mind. Nutrient levels may drop when foods

fried foods is to consume them in moderation and

are exposed to light or air, subjected to excessively

pair them with healthier items such as leafy greens

high levels of heat, cooked in too much liquid, cooked

or other vegetables. It is possible to approximate the

for too long, or cooked under alkaline or very acidic

texture of some fried foods with baking or sautéing,

conditions. Preparation techniques should therefore

but not all foods can be modified successfully.

limit exposure to these elements.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

100


Sautéed foods are cooked quickly over medium to high heat in only a small amount of fat.

Heat can be either direct, as on a stovetop or in

peal than their precooked counterparts that sit on

a deep fryer, or indirect, as in the oven or occasionally

steam tables, under heat lights, or covered.

on a grill.

Sautéing requires foods that are tender,

portion-size or smaller, and thin enough to cook quickly without toughening. Smaller pieces of foods

SAUTÉING

are often stirred so they do not brown too quickly; Sautéing is a natural for healthy cooking. Foods pre-

larger pieces are usually turned once or twice.

pared in this manner are cooked quickly in a small

amount of fat or oil over medium to high heat. Sau-

or steaks often come to mind when we think of sau-

téed foods are often cooked à la minute—that is,

téing, and they are sometimes said to be pan-seared

they are not prepared until an order arrives in the

rather than sautéed. They are often sliced, butter-

kitchen. Foods that are freshly prepared are higher

flied, or pounded before sautéing. This is done to

in nutrients and flavor and usually have more eye ap-

make the food of even thickness so it cooks evenly,

Steaks and chops, poultry cuts, and fish fillets

or to make the item thinner so it cooks more rapidly.

THE TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

101


Sautéing can be used with fruits and vegeta-

choices is aluminum lined with stainless steel; other

bles, as well as with precooked grains, pastas, and

good choices include copper lined with stainless

legumes. Tender fruits and vegetables like apple

steel, nonstick pans, and cast-iron sauté pans (known

slices, spinach, and mushrooms can go directly into

as griswolds). Dark pans retain heat, and foods

the sauté pan. Denser items, such as carrots, turnips,

cooked in them will brown more, and more rapidly,

and broccoli, should be parcooked before sautéing.

than foods cooked in shiny pans.

Sautéing presents a number of opportunities

to add flavor. All foods should be seasoned before

STIR-FRYING

cooking; this seasoning may be a marinade, a dry spice rub, or a simple sprinkling of salt and freshly

Generally associated with Asian styles of cooking,

ground pepper. (Salt should be applied just before

stir-frying is similar to sautéing. Foods are cooked

cooking to prevent it from leaching out the food’s

using a small amount of fat, but stir-frying takes

natural juices.)

place over very high heat, and the foods are cut into

small strips, dice, or shreds and are kept constantly

As meat, poultry, or seafood items are sautéed,

their natural juices become concentrated in the drip-

moving during the cooking process.

pings that cook down in the pan, forming what is re-

ferred to as the fond. Adding a flavorful liquid to the

conscious diners because they are often based pre-

pan after the food has been removed, a process known

dominantly on vegetables and grains; meat is used in

as deglazing, dissolves the fond and allows the flavors

very small amounts. The chef should choose vegeta-

to be recaptured in a sauce. This sauce can be finished

bles with an eye toward variety in color and texture.

in an infinite number of ways. Sauces should be based

on vegetables, vegetable or fruit purées, fond de veau

traditionally combinations of intensely flavored liq-

lié, or reductions. High-fat ingredients such as butter,

uids thickened with a small amount of cornstarch. As

cream, or cheese can be used in small amounts to en-

long as soy sauce and sesame oil are used judiciously,

rich the sauce if the nutrition profile allows.

these sauces are generally healthy.

Stir-fried dishes are popular with health-

Sauces that accompany stir-fried foods are

Sautéed vegetables retain their color beauti-

fully, and when they are coated with a small amount

WOKS

of fat they look very appealing. They can be tossed

A wok is the traditional tool for stir-frying because of

with herbs, spices, or citrus zest after cooking, or

its shape, although large sauté pans may also be used.

simply served as is.

Woks typically have rounded bottoms with

Sautéing can also be combined with other tech-

steeply sloping sides. This shape concentrates heat

niques. Steaks and chops that are too thick to cook to

in the bottom of the pan. The sides of the wok have

taste on the stove can be sautéed and finished in the

varying degrees of heat, creating “zones” that allow a

oven. Uncooked grains can be sautéed briefly with

variety of foods to be prepared in a single pan with-

aromatics before the cooking liquid is added.

out over- or undercooking any of them.

SAUTÉ PANS

Woks should be heavy enough to withstand

high temperatures without warping, and should be of

Sauté pans should have a flat bottom with sloping

a metal that conducts heat evenly.

sides to encourage juices released into the pan to reduce rapidly (evaporating/expelling water), form-

GRILLING AND BROILING

ing the fond.

The metal should be of a gauge heavy enough

Strongly associated with healthy cooking, grilling

to prevent warping and hot spots, and it should be

and broiling are techniques that produce a distinc-

responsive to rapid changes in heat. One of the best

tive flavor element and attractive appearance. They

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

102


The unique shape of a wok makes it an ideal tool for stir-frying, because stir-fried foods are cooked over very high heat in a small amount of fat.

require little if any additional fat during cooking, and

foods that are grilled or broiled are generally lean.

monly grilled or broiled, but donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t overlook pairing

Tender meats, poultry, and seafood are com-

These techniques are very similar: In grilling,

foods like fruits, vegetables, or even flatbreads with

the heat source is below the food, but in broiling it

these techniques. Just about any vegetable, including

is above. Grilling can be done over wood or charcoal,

such unusual choices as fennel, scallions, radicchio,

whereas broiling is done in the oven. With few excep-

and asparagus, can be grilled or broiled. Dense veg-

tions, foods that can be grilled can also be broiled

etables like winter squash or sweet potatoes should

and vice versa. Broilers can offer a bit more control

either be parcooked before grilling or started on the

than grills, and they can be used to prepare very deli-

grill and finished by another cooking method. Adding

cate foods, such as flounder, or to give foods that are

grilled or broiled vegetables to a soup, stew, or pilaf

not turned a brown crust. Grilled foods may have a

adds an intriguing depth of flavor.

smoky flavor that broiled ones donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t (see The Flavor of Wood Chips, page 108).

THE TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

103


Fruits such as pineapple rings and peach halves

vor to grilled foods. Take care to consider whether

can be grilled or broiled successfully. Serve them

these aromatics will work with the food to be grilled;

alongside meats, chop them into a salsa, or use them

not all foods stand up to the strong aroma and flavor

in a side dish. Fruits can also be glazed with syrup or

of mesquite, for example. If you wish to use aromat-

a sprinkling of sugar before broiling. Broiled grape-

ics, they should be soaked in cold water while the grill

fruit, sprinkled with brown sugar, makes an elegant

heats. When the grill is hot, they can be thrown on top

breakfast or novel starter.

of the coals or firestones, where they smolder and

create a smoke bath that surrounds the food.

Extremely delicate or small foods can

be placed in a hand rack before grilling, or they can be

GRILLING AND BROILING EQUIPMENT

skewered or wrapped in a protective coating such as dampened cornhusks or grape leaves.

In order to produce high-quality grilled foods, proper

Flavors can be added to foods before, during,

preparation and maintenance of the grill is extremely

and after grilling and broiling. Marinades and dry rubs

important. The rack should be scrupulously cleaned ev-

can be used on foods before cooking (see More than

ery day before it is heated, and it should be scrubbed

Flavoring, below), and a variety of basting sauces can

with a wire brush frequently during service time to

be used during and after. The choice of sauce is an

prevent flavors from transferring among different

area where the chef has control over a dishâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nutri-

types of foods. After each cleaning, the grill should be

tion profile. Sugary sauces such as teriyaki or bar-

lightly coated with oil. This facilitates removing food

becue sauce, or emulsified, butter-based sauces or

and lessens the need to apply oil directly to foods.

compound butters such as bĂŠarnaise or ginger-lime

butter, should be avoided or limited. Coulis, reduc-

and delicate foods from falling into the grill; they can

tions, cold or warm salsas, chutneys, and other rel-

also make turning delicate foods easier.

ishes are all healthy choices.

shallow sides to collect fat that drips from the meat,

In addition to wood chips, use stems, herbs,

grapevine trimmings, and other aromatics to add fla-

More than Flavoring

Baskets and perforated sheets prevent small

Broiler pans consist of a rack and a pan with

poultry, or fish during cooking.

RECENT RESEARCH INDICATES

that marinades do more than just boost flavor. They can yield a significant health benefit. All high-temperature cooking methods, including grilling, broiling, roasting, and frying, can result in potentially carcinogenic substances forming on foods. Grilling is particularly dangerous, because fat dripping on hot coals creates smoke that rises back to the foods. Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California found in 1997 that marinating foods for as

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

104

little as 5 minutes before grilling can dramatically reduce the presence of some carcinogens. The researchers tested commercial marinades as well as a homemade version; all produced the same positive results. To lessen the potential for formation of carcinogens, foods can be partially cooked by other methods. Poach, simmer, or steam foods before finishing them on the grill, or mark them briefly on the grill and finish them in the oven.


Just about any vegetable can be grilled, including fennel, tomatoes, radicchio, and asparagus (pictured); denser vegetables, like sweet potatoes or squash, should be parcooked before grilling.

ROASTING AND BAKING

These techniques are basically the same pro-

cedure. In common parlance, large cuts of meat and Roasting and baking are ideal techniques for the

whole poultry and fish are said to be roasted while

healthy kitchen. Foods emerge from the oven or

smaller pieces are baked. (Conversely, vegetables

rotisserie with flavors that cannot be duplicated by

that are cut into pieces are said to be roasted,

any other technique. They are surrounded by hot air,

whereas when left whole, they are baked.)

which cooks foods gently through indirect heat (air is

less efficient at conducting heat than fats, liquids, or

meat or poultry, fruits and vegetables take beauti-

even steam). Although some foods are traditionally

fully to this technique. Their juices evaporate slowly,

coated with fat or high-fat ingredients before roast-

their flavors concentrate, and the heat caramelizes

ing, foods do not require additional fat to be roasted

their natural sugars and leaves them soft and ten-

or baked, and as long as foods are not overcooked,

der on the inside and crisply browned on the outside.

they remain moist and flavorful.

Roasting is ideal for dense vegetables; root vegeta-

While most people associate roasting with

THE TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

105


1

2

1 The bottom of a baking

PRE-TREATMENT OF BAKING PANS

pan may be lined with parchment paper to ease the process of removing a baked product from the pan. Depending on the consistency of the batter, the pan may need to be lightly oiled or sprayed with vegetable oil cooking spray before adding the parchment paper in order to keep it stationary while the batter is spread.

2 Alternatively, prepare a

baking pan with a very thin layer of fat and cover with a layer of flour.

bles like potatoes, carrots, and Jerusalem artichokes

evaporates in the oven’s heat, the food develops the

are commonly roasted, as are squash, garlic, and even

appealing color and crust that are the hallmarks of

fennel. Experiment with less obvious vegetables,

roasting and baking. (For more information about

such as asparagus, broccoli, cauliflower florets, or

salt, see page 89.)

tomatoes. Soups made from these variety of roasted

vegetables are unusually delicious and definitely

sauces, and they do not need to be complicated.

worth trying.

Quartered onions or lemons and sprigs of herbs can

In the past, extremely lean meats and poultry

infuse a roasted chicken with a lovely flavor. Try cut-

were barded or basted before roasting to keep them

ting thin slits or pockets into leg of lamb or pork loin

from drying out. Adding fat before or during cooking,

and stuffing them with a paste of herbs or slivered

and serving meats and poultry with high-fat gravies,

garlic. Grain-based and vegetable-based stuffings

is not necessary. Properly cooked meats, poultry,

can take the place of fat-laden ones, and a jus lié or

and fish retain their moisture perfectly well. Care

a contemporary accompaniment of puréed fruits

must be taken that foods are not overcooked, and

or vegetables can take the place of gravy. Before

that the cooking methods and techniques used match

deglazing the roasting pan, the drippings should be

the food. Some cuts of meat are simply too dry for

clarified. To do this, simply heat the pan until the sol-

roasting and are better braised; other cuts can be

ids and juices drop to the bottom of the pan and the

brined before roasting to add moisture. Poultry can

fat rises to the top. Pour or spoon off the fat before

be roasted with the skin on to retain moisture, but

adding the deglazing liquid.

the skin can be removed before service to reduce the

amount of fat in the dish.

dates for a flavorful crust. Coating items with sea-

Salt is an essential flavoring in roasted and

soned toppings protects them from drying out and

baked foods, and it is critical to the proper execution

creates a crispy coating. Try using dried potato flakes

of these techniques. A judicious seasoning before

or rice flakes, bread crumbs or panko, cornflake or

cooking allows the salt to draw out some moisture,

cracker crumbs, cornmeal, finely ground dried mush-

which dissolves the salt and helps it to permeate

rooms, finely chopped nuts, or nut pastes.

Flavor can also be added with stuffings and

Portion-size baked items are perfect candi-

the food. As the moisture on the surface of the food

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

106


Vegetables should be in a single layer, as they brown

ABOUT ROASTING PANS

best when they are in contact with the hot pan.

Roasting pans should have a flat bottom and rela-

tively low sides so that air can circulate. Sheet pans,

light or shiny interior is better than a dark finish. Dark

half-sheet pans, and jelly roll pans can be used as

metals absorb heat and can hasten the evaporation

well, particularly for vegetables, fruits, and individual

of juices. Any handles should be riveted on. Handles

portions of meat, poultry, or fish. Pans should hold

that fold down make storage convenient, but they

the food comfortably. If the pan is too large, juices

are difficult to grab when wearing mitts or holding

will evaporate too quickly and may scorch rather than

towels. Either avoid handles entirely or opt for those

develop a fond; if the pan is too small, the juices wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t

that stay up all the time.

evaporate quickly enough and the food will steam.

1 When roasting poultry,

Roasting pans should be of a heavy gauge, and a

1 ROASTING POULTRY

placing aromatics, like garlic or fresh herbs, between the skin and the flesh is a simple way to add flavor without adding fat.

2 Serving poultry without

the skin can greatly reduce the fat content per serving. For the best result, roast poultry with the skin on to seal in its natural juices and prevent it from drying out during cooking, then remove the skin from the roasted bird before serving.

2

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The Flavor of Wood Chips

PART OF THE APPEAL

of grilled and smoke-roasted foods is their flavor, and wood chips are often a large part of the taste. Different woods impart vastly different flavors to foods. Use wood chips that complement the food you are cooking for the best results.

MAPLE has a subtle hint of sweetness;

use it with turkey, ham, Canadian bacon, beef or pork tenderloin, poultry, and most kinds of game and vegetables. MESQUITE has a southwestern tang

that imparts a slightly hot, burning sensation as an aftertaste. Use it with pork and most red meats.

ALDER has a very mild taste; it is ideal

with vegetables and fish.

OAK is a mellower version of mesquite,

but it is still quite intense. It is ideal with

APPLE has a unique fruity flavor that

pairs well with fresh ham, frog legs, pork

steaks, hamburgers, and duck.

chops, sweet sausages, Cornish hens,

PECAN has a mellow flavor not unlike

and salmon.

hickory; use it with chicken, duck, and most game birds.

CHERRY is similar to apple but has a

slightly tart aftertaste; it is ideal with

SWEET BIRCH leaves a delicate

lamb, pheasant, duck, venison, and beef.

sweetness on the palate. It is ideal with chicken, tuna, salmon, lamb, barbecued

HICKORY has a strong, heavy flavor

pork, and all vegetables, especially

that is usually associated with bacon;

those in the onion family.

it is ideal for barbecued foods, spicy foods, steaks, and chops.

A rack allows air to circulate on all sides of the

Foods should be marinated or liberally

food. If you are roasting a whole bird or fish or a large

seasoned before smoke-roasting. Thick foods, such

cut of meat, consider using vegetables to elevate the

as duck breasts, should be partially smoked and

food instead of a rack. Thickly sliced onions or car-

finished in the oven. If they are smoke-roasted until

rots accomplish the same, and add flavor to the fond.

they are cooked to doneness, the smoky taste can overwhelm the food’s natural flavor.

SMOKE-ROASTING

MOIST-HEAT TECHNIQUES

Smoke-roasting, or pan-smoking, is a technique for hot-smoking foods without special equipment. Foods

Moist-heat cooking methods include steaming, shal-

are roasted in a bath of smoke and emerge from the

low poaching, deep poaching, simmering, boiling,

pan infused with the flavors of whatever aromatics

stewing, and braising. Foods are cooked in or over

were chosen—hardwood chips, teas, or herbs are

liquid. Because water evaporates at temperatures

most common. Smoke-roasted foods have an advan-

over 212°F/100°C, moist-heat cooking methods keep

tage over traditionally smoked foods because they

foods from reaching the temperatures necessary for

do not contain nitrites, and because they are not

browning. Foods cooked by these methods retain

brined they are generally lower in sodium.

their natural flavors and often their colors as well.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

108


1 The upper basket of

1

2 STEAMING

a tiered steamer has a perforated bottom to allow steam to rise from the pot below to cook the food, and the basket is often lined with a bed of leafy vegetables, such as the cabbage leaves shown here.

2 Place the food to be

steamed in the lined steamer basket in a single layer, secure the lid on top, and place the steamer over a pot or wok of boiling water or other cooking liquid.

3 Steamed foods can easily become rubbery and dry, so itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vital to not overcook them. However, since steaming is done in a closed vessel, it can be difficult to gauge how long foods need to cook. Start carefully opening the steamer to check for doneness at the earliest point at which the food might be done.

3

THE TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

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When foods are put into cold water and then

EN PAPILLOTE

set over heat, their flavors and water-soluble nutrients will leach into the cooking liquid. Foods added to

Foods cooked en papillote are encased in parchment

boiling water, though, develop a seal when they come

paper and baked. The foods are cooked by trapped

into contact with the hot liquid and retain most of

steam; the parchment puffs up, and the envelope

their flavor and nutrients.

is opened to dramatic effect in front of the guest. Foods that are naturally moist and tender, such as fish, are most successfully prepared en papillote, but

STEAMING

any food that can be cooked in a relatively short time When people think of healthy cooking, steaming is

can be prepared en papillote.

probably the cooking technique they think of first.

Foods most suited to steaming are healthy ones

pillote, cut a large, heart-shaped piece of parchment.

like vegetables, fruits, seafood, and poultry breasts.

Make an aromatic bed from herbs, vegetables, or

Steamed foods retain nutrients because they do not

other aromatic ingredients on one half of the heart,

come into direct contact with the cooking liquid, and

top with the main ingredient, and then moisten with

the foods are prepared without the addition of fats

a touch of broth, juice, or other liquid. These ingredi-

or oils.

ents and their natural juices will combine to form a

sauce.

The primary challenge of steamed foods is

To make the paper sack for foods made en pa-

keeping the food from tasting dull or bland. Intro-

ducing additional flavors with a buttery sauce is

the paper heart in half and then make a series of folds

anathema to healthy cooking. Adding aromatics to

around the edge to crimp the paper tightly enough to

the steaming liquid can help, as can using liquids like

trap steam as the food cooks.

broth or juice. Reheating steamed vegetables with

a quick sautĂŠ, perhaps adding garlic or scallions, is

oiled. This is not entirely necessary, but it does cre-

another way to add flavor. Pan steaming and cook-

ate a barrier that keeps the liquid from seeping into

ing en papillote are two steaming variations that can

the paper as quickly. Because the paper, not the food,

also solve this problem handily.

is oiled, very little fat is added to the dish. Once the

Many cuisines have evolved flavorful steam-

packet is assembled and sealed, it is placed in a very

ing techniques. Foods can be combined with a sauce

hot oven. Some chefs like to give the dish a bit of a

or pungent aromatics in a dish and then set in the

head start by putting it in a pan over direct heat to

steamer. Other options include wrapping foods in ba-

warm the pan and start generating a bit of steam.

nana leaves or corn husks. Some wrappers add a bit

You can choose to do this before you put it into a hot

of their own flavor; others permit you to introduce

oven, or you can simply put the packets on a sheet

seasonings, aromatics, stuffings, and toppings that

pan and bake them from start to finish. The paper

can be held in place as the food steams.

heart will puff up into a balloon. Once the packet is

broken open, a cloud of aromatic steam escapes, so

Large steamers are an effective way to pre-

pare foods in batches, especially for volume opera-

Once all the ingredients are assembled, fold

Some recipes call for the parchment to be

this is best done at the table in front of the guest.

tions. It is just as important to assure that foods to be steamed are properly flavored as they cook, as well as after they are fully cooked and ready to be served.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

110


1 Place the item to be

1

2 EN PAPILLOTE

cooked along with all herbs, vegetables, or other aromatic ingredients on a large heartshaped piece of parchment. If necessary, very lightly oil the parchment or spray it with cooking spray.

2 Fold the parchment over

and crimp the edges together to create a seal tight enough to trap steam as the food cooks.

3 After baking, the food

may be removed from the envelope and plated for service, or the envelope may be opened at the table for a dramatic effect.

3

THE TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

111


Pressure steamers and convection steamers are ideal for very large quantities of steamed foods.

SHALLOW POACHING

ABOUT STEAMERS

Steaming must take place in a pan with a lid, and the

Shallow poaching is a popular method of cooking that

pan must be deep enough to hold the food above

is usually used with tender fish and poultry breasts.

the liquid and large enough to allow the steam to

The food is placed on a bed of aromatic ingredients,

circulate.

then combined with a few ounces of flavorful liquid,

Steamer baskets are ideal for small amounts

covered loosely, and gently simmered until done. The

of foods. Tiered steamers, such as those used in

cooking liquid becomes even more flavorful, and it is

Asian cooking, are best for large amounts of food or

usually reduced and used as the basis for the accom-

for several foods that cook for different lengths of

panying sauce.

time. Pressure steamers and convection steamers

are ideal for very large quantities of foods.

Traditionally, the reduced cooking liquid is en-

riched with butter and cream. A more contemporary approach is to combine it with a vegetable or fruit coulis. Another option is to thicken it with a little cornstarch or arrowroot and add a touch of evaporated milk to approximate the mouthfeel, flavor, and color of cream.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

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1 When shallow poaching,

1

2 SHALLOW POACHING

make sure the cooking liquidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s level goes no higher than halfway up the food; generally, less is required.

2 Cover the fish with lightly buttered parchment before putting the pan into the oven.

3 Properly shallow-

poached fish will appear opaque and feel slightly firm to the touch. Wellprepared shallow-poached dishes reflect the flavor of both the food and the cooking liquid.

3

THE TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

113


cuts of meat from the shoulder or shank. Boiling is

DEEP POACHING, SIMMERING, AND BOILING

recommended for some vegetables and dried pasta; it can cause other foods to become tough and stringy.

These techniques involve fully immersing a food in liq-

uid throughout the cooking. The difference involves

and aromatic ingredients like wine, vinegar, and herbs

the temperature range at which the cooking takes

may be added to the liquid to enrich its flavor. Grains,

place. Poaching occurs between 160° and 180°F/71°

particularly those served for breakfast, take on a

and 82°C, simmering between 185° and 200°F/85°

subtle sweetness when cooked in cider and a rich,

and 93°C, and boiling at or around 212°F/100°C.

creamy texture cooked in milk. Couscous or rice sim-

Deep poaching is the gentlest of these meth-

mered in diluted orange juice pairs well with Indian

ods and is best for tender items such as fatty fish

or Moroccan flavors; try coconut milk, too. Use cau-

and poultry breasts. Simmering acts to tenderize and

tion when cooking grains or legumes in acidic liquids,

rehydrate foods and is best for dense vegetables,

including those to which tomatoes have been added.

grains, beans, whole birds such as stewing hens, and

The acids keep these foods from becoming tender.

How Heat Cooks Food

Liquids other than water or broth can be used,

COOKING IS THE ACT OF APPLYING

occur when foods are stirred, as on the

HEAT TO FOODS

stove, or when a fan is used in a convec-

to prepare them for eating. There are three ways that heat is transferred to food: conduction, convection, and radiation. CONDUCTION is the direct transfer

of heat; sautéing and stir-frying are examples. Cooking on a range allows heat to be transferred from the burner to the pan, and then from the pan to the

tion oven. RADIATION is the transference of

heat through waves of electromagnetic energy that travel through space. When they come into contact with the food, molecules on its surface begin to move more rapidly, increasing the food’s temperature.

food. If the pan is not in direct contact

There are two types of radiation.

with the stove, conduction does not

Infrared radiation includes coals of a

occur. Conduction is most efficient in

charcoal grill and coils of an electric

metal (some are better conductors of

toaster, broiler, or oven. As the coils

heat than others); glass and ceramic are

or coals heat up, energy travels from

poor conductors of heat, as are gases

them to the foods. Dark, dull, and rough

such as air and liquids.

surfaces absorb radiant energy; shiny,

CONVECTION is the transfer of heat

through gases and liquids. As the gas or liquid closest to the heat becomes warm, it rises, and cooler, less dense portions of gas or liquid replace it. Convection is therefore a combination of conduction and mixing. This mixing can

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

114

smooth, light-colored ones reflect it. Microwave radiation transfers energy through short, high-frequency waves. These cook foods much faster than infrared radiation because they penetrate foods several inches deep, whereas infrared waves are absorbed mainly at the surface.


1 Gently place the food

1

2 DEEP POACHING

in the cooking liquid that has been brought to the appropriate poaching temperature (160째 to 185째F/71째 to 85째C).

2 Make sure that the food

is completely submerged in the cooking liquid. If a part of the food is above the level of the cooking liquid, the cooking will be uneven and the finished product will not have the proper delicate color.

3 Properly deep-poached

fish appears nearly opaque and feels slightly firm to the touch.

3

THE TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

115


A tagine is a traditional pan for braises and stews.

Others require the main ingredients to be blanched

STEWING AND BRAISING

in boiling water or steam; this step can help control Stewing and braising are techniques in which one or

or reduce strong flavors or odors that might become

more main ingredients and aromatics are gently sim-

overwhelming by the time the dish finishes cook-

mered in flavorful liquids; the cooking liquid becomes

ing as well as to give a dish a particular color. Green

the sauce. Foods can be cooked in the oven, which

vegetables look greener, for instance, when they are

provides very gentle, even heat, or on the stove.

blanched before you add them to a stew.

These techniques are essentially the same; ingredi-

ents in a stew are usually cut into bite-size pieces and

ing is lost in the cooking process. Heat-resistant nu-

are submerged in the cooking liquid, whereas braised

trients and flavors are captured in the sauce. These

items are usually portion-size or larger and are

dishes are best when prepared a day in advance and

only partially covered with liquid. These techniques

refrigerated overnight before serving. When they are

result in very rich flavors and thick sauces. They are

allowed to rest before serving, their flavors blend

often thought of as hearty, but they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have to be.

and mature; the cooling step also affords the oppor-

Ratatouille, the vegetable stew from Provence, and

tunity to remove any fat that rises to the top.

The beauty of braises and stews is that noth-

fish stews can be light additions to summer menus.

PANS FOR BRAISING AND STEWING

Flavor development is critical in stews and

braises and demands careful monitoring through-

A heavy-gauge pot with a lid is ideal for stews and

out cooking time. Some stews and braises call for

braises. It will distribute the heat evenly and help to

the main ingredient(s) to be cooked to a certain

protect the food from cooking too quickly, and the lid

color directly in hot fat, before you add the liquid.

will help to prevent the liquid from evaporating too

This tends to produce a richer, more complex flavor.

rapidly.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

116


1

2 BRAISING

1 Cook the aromatics until

they are tender, then add the vegetable to be braised.

2 Add enough liquid to

go halfway up the food, no higher. If the cooking liquid cooks away too quickly, add more and lower the heat slightly.

3 Braise the vegetable

until it is fork-tender with a concentrated flavor.

3

THE TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

117


Caring for and Maintaining Cookware WHETHER YOU CHOOSE

nonstick pans, stainless steel–lined pans, or cast iron, you’ll need to treat your cookware with care to maintain it. Nonstick surfaces are generally the least durable and should be reserved for special purposes, such as making crêpes or egg dishes. They should be cleaned gently without abrasives and stored carefully with a layer of toweling between each pan to prevent the surfaces from becoming marred. Metal utensils or pot scrubbers should not be used, as they will scratch the finish and eventually destroy the nonstick coating. Pans lined with stainless steel tend to hold up well without much special care. However, their surfaces should be scoured with salt or nylon scrubbers rather than stainless-steel scrubbers to avoid unduly scratching the surface. A cast-iron sauté pan is an iconic kitchen tool as well as an extremely useful one. When cooking in castiron cookware, apply a thin coating of vegetable oil to the interior of the pan before placing it over the heat source. Be sure to use an oven mitt, as the handle will become extremely hot when the pan is heated and ready to use. Cold foods are more prone to stick to the pan; to prevent this, allow

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

118

the food to sit at room temperature as you prepare the pan. Cast-iron pans must be seasoned before the first use. This treatment seals the porous surface by permeating it with oil. A properly seasoned cast-iron pan usually does not need fat added to it, even when sautéing delicate foods. To season a pan, brush or wipe the inside with vegetable oil, then pour in more oil to a depth of ¼ inch/6 mm. Heat the pan for 1 hour in a 300°F/149°C oven. Cool the pan, then wipe away any excess oil. Unless you are reseasoning your pan, you should never, ever use soap on your cast iron. The soap removes the “seasoning,” which is the oil that naturally keeps the cooking foods from sticking. Instead of using soap, you should scrub the pan with a stiffbristled brush and hot water. If this doesn’t get everything out, you can pour a little water into the pan and boil it to loosen any remaining food. Whenever possible, the seasoned pan should be wiped clean after each use rather than washed. This maintains the protective seal on the pan’s interior. If the pan must be washed, dry it thoroughly in an oven or over very low heat to prevent rust from forming, and then wipe the pan with a small amount of oil before storing. The seasoning will last through several uses as long as the pan is properly cared for, but periodic reseasoning will be necessary.


A properly seasoned cast-iron pan should be dark black in color with an even, satiny sheen.

You may need to reseason your pan if you have accidentally washed your pan with soap, your pan has any rust spots, or your food tastes metallic. To reseason cast iron, you wash it with soap (this is the only time you should do this) and hot water. After drying the pan, completely coat the

pan inside and out with vegetable oil. Place upside down into a 350째 to 400째F/177째 to 204째C oven lined with foil to catch the drippings. After 2 hours, turn off the oven and allow the pan to cool. The oven can be a good place to store your pan as well.

THE TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

119


If any of the ingredients are acidic, choose a

so it is best to scrub the surfaces with hot water to

pan made of a nonreactive metal, such as anodized

remove cooked-on foods. If necessary, you can soak

aluminum, enameled cast iron, or stainless steel.

unglazed cookware in hot water, but avoid coarse

Materials like copper, cast iron, and aluminum will

scrubbing pads.

react with such ingredients as tomatoes and lemon

juice to create discolored foods and a metallic taste.

ine or a bamboo steamer, chefs are turning to newer

Earthenware or ceramic casseroles are also

technologies as part of their healthy cooking rep-

commonly used for braises and stews, particularly

ertoire. Techniques like sous vide and cook-chill al-

those traditionally prepared in Mexican, Mediterra-

low the chef to prepare foods that work well in both

nean, and Spanish kitchens. A tagine is one such cas-

batch-cooking systems and Ă la carte restaurants.

serole. It consists of a glazed dish that holds the food

In addition to traditional tools such as the tag-

OTHER COOKING METHODS

and a conical lid that traps the steam from the food and essentially bastes itself through the cooking time. In Spain and Mexico, earthenware cas-

Microwave ovens are common in most kitchens. They

seroles known as cazuelas are common. Be sure to

can be used to cook some foods, but their chief ad-

handle this fragile cookware carefully.

vantage in the healthy kitchen lies in their ability to reheat foods rapidly. Soups, stews, and grain dishes

SPECIAL COOKING TOOLS AND MATERIALS

that are prepared in large batches can be cooled, divided into smaller batches or individual portions, and reheated as necessary before garnishing and serving.

Bamboo, clay, and other materials are used to pro-

duce a wide variety of cooking tools. Matching the

ramic material over an induction coil. The coil creates

material of the tool to the cooking technique as well

a magnetic current that heats metal pans quickly, yet

as to the foods you are cooking is the mark of a more

the cooktop itself remains cool. Cookware for induc-

advanced approach to cooking. Traditional tools have

tion cooktops must contain iron to work properly,

special characteristics.

and they must be flat on the bottom so they come

into contact with the heat. Induction offers the ad-

Bamboo steamers, for instance, are not com-

pletely airtight, making it easier to maintain an even,

Induction cooktops are made of a smooth ce-

vantage of rapid heating and easy cleanup.

gentle cooking speed for foods with bright, clear colors. The material of the steamer absorbs moisture as the food steams eliminating the potential for con-

TECHNIQUES FOR VEGETABLES

densation. The bamboo also imparts a subtle flavor of its own. Bamboo steamers should be washed with warm water and a mild detergent by hand, not in a dishwasher. Let them air-dry thoroughly before storing them in a dry, ventilated area.

DELICIOUS AND PROPERLY COOKED VEGETABLES

Clay and ceramic cookware may be glazed or

are vital to any healthy menu. The cooking techniques

unglazed. Like bamboo steamers, clay cookers also

described previously are all appropriate for veg-

introduce a specific and subtle flavor in foods. Clay

etables. All vegetables must be rinsed and trimmed.

holds heat well and releases it slowly for gentle, even

Some of the techniques are best when vegetables

cooking. However, clay is fragile and can shatter when

are cut into the appropriate size and shape (con-

exposed to extremes of heat, for instance, when put-

sult your recipe for guidance). If you are preparing

ting a hot clay cooker on a cold surface. Unglazed clay

more than one vegetable in a single dish, be sure to

is porous enough to absorb the flavor of detergents,

add them to the dish at the right time. While time-

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

120


temperature tables can be misleading, you can con-

for vegetables introduced in this section, along with

sult them for guidance concerning which vegetables

the technique for making vegetable purĂŠes. These

to add to the stew first and which to reserve for the

purĂŠes can be used to make the base of a sauce or

final few minutes of stewing time. Pan steaming and

soup, a thickener, a binder, or a side dish.

its close relation, oven steaming, are two techniques

Batch Cooking

NOT LONG AGO,

it was an accepted standard practice for a restaurant to prepare single giant batches of the vegetable and starch of the day prior to the beginning of a service period. The batches were left in a steam table, where they degenerated into pallid versions of their original, freshly cooked selves before being heaped onto every plate that left the kitchen, regardless of how well they complemented the main element. Given what we now know about nutrient retention, this type of cooking is anathema to the tenets of healthy cooking. Kitchens that cook menu items to order may be able to devise practical methods for cooking many types of vegetables to order, or they may elect to prepare small batches several times throughout a service period so that a fresh supply of cooked items is constantly available. This second approach, known as batch cooking, minimizes the unnecessary loss of flavor, texture, nutrients, and color that occurs when cooked vegetables and fruits are held for long periods. Cooking to order and batch cooking further eliminate the need to reheat cooked foods, a process that

often requires the addition of fat, and when foods are cooked as needed, costs are often controlled because waste is reduced. Because of the nutrient loss that occurs when its surface is exposed to air and light, produce should be rinsed, trimmed, and cut as close to cooking time as is practical. Blanching vegetables stops many of the enzymatic reactions that cause nutrient loss. However, if the vegetables are shocked in cold water to stop the cooking process, they should be removed as soon as they are cool so that nutrients donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t leach into the water. In fact, holding vegetables in water, before or after cooking, should be avoided unless the vegetable will discolor when exposed to air. Various knife cuts can be used to add visual interest to the plate. You should also try to take advantage of cooking techniques that allow the fruit or vegetable to be cooked quickly, with as little added liquid as reasonable. Grilling, stir-frying, broiling, roasting, steaming, pan steaming, and microwaving are all healthy cooking techniques that can be applied to vegetables with excellent results.

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Steam-Roasting Vegetables WHILE PAN STEAMING IS GREAT

for leafy vegetables, diced or sliced vegetables, and naturally tender vegetables like peas or asparagus, it doesn’t work as well for dense vegetables, or those with heavy rinds. You can roast vegetables like squash or eggplant whole, just as you might do for sweet potatoes. A few additional steps make it faster and easier to cook and prepare these vegetables. If possible, cut the vegetable in half, as we’ve done with the squash shown here. Use a heavy knife to cut through the rind and split the vegetable open. Then, use a kitchen or serving spoon to scoop out the seeds. (Some squash seeds are delicious and make a great addition to salads or as

PAN STEAMING

a garnish for side dishes or soups, so save them to season and roast, if you wish.) Place the vegetable cut side down in a roasting pan with a little water. Cover the pan with foil or a tight-fitting lid to trap the steam that the water will create when it heats up in the oven. Steam-roast the vegetable with the cover in place until the flesh is tender. The vegetable usually takes on an appealing golden color and a rich, roasted flavor. The steam also helps to separate the skin or rind from the flesh. Scoop the cooked flesh out of the vegetable, if necessary, or cut it into pieces. This squash could be puréed and then used in a number of ways: added to a sauce or soup for flavor and color, added to batters for quick breads or griddle cakes, mixed into a timbale or custard, or finished with seasonings and stock to serve as a side dish.

aromatics may be added. Carrots are delicious pan steamed in orange juice with fresh ginger; fish can be

Pan steaming is most often used with vegetables.

pan steamed in court bouillon. Cooking greens also

They are cooked directly in a very small amount of

take well to pan steaming. Sauté them with garlic, if

simmering liquid but are not completely immersed.

desired, then add a small amount of liquid and cover.

As the liquid reduces, it creates a glaze and elimi-

The steam will tenderize tough leaves like those of

nates the need for a sauce. The liquid is usually fla-

kale and collards.

vorful, such as broth or juice, and herbs or other

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122


Working with Leafy Greens

Leafy greens are prepared by

a technique that combines elements of sautéing and pan steaming. Preheat the pan and add a small amount of a flavorful fat such as olive oil or a bit of a well-flavored stock or broth. You can add aromatics like garlic or spices to the pan; add them before you add the greens so they can infuse the entire dish with flavor. Trim and rinse the greens. Let them drain, but some moisture should still be clinging to them to create steam in the pan. Leafy greens are loosely mounded in the pan, then, as they cook, they lose volume quickly and appear wilted and softened. Add seasonings and continue to sauté until the vegetables are fully cooked and flavorful. Some vegetables must be kept in nearly constant motion as they sauté; others develop a better flavor and color when turned only once or twice. Use offset spatulas, tongs, or stir-frying tools to turn and lift vegetables as they sauté. Very tender greens, like baby spinach, usually don’t need to be covered as they cook. Heartier greens, like kale or collards, benefit from a bit of steam heat to cook them until tender. Once the greens are softened and wilted, cover the pan and let the greens cook in a steam bath created by the liquid that they release naturally. As leafy greens cook, their color intensifies. Now is the time to introduce additional flavoring or garnishing ingredients. Pepper is a popular seasoning, but you may also want to add a touch of toasted nuts (pine nuts, walnuts, almonds, or hazelnuts) or dried fruits. You may opt to reserve the oil that might have been used as a cooking medium to introduce as a final flavoring ingredient. You can get a great flavor from a very small amount, if you add the oil at the end instead of the beginning. Cold-pressed oils made from nuts or olives are too volatile to use at high heat, but they shine as a final seasoning.

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Vegetable Purées VEGETABLES ARE OFTEN BOILED, STEAMED, OR BAKED

until they are soft enough to make into a purée. Some are naturally soft or moist enough uncooked to make into a purée. The purée itself can be served as is or it may be used as a base for such dishes as vegetable timbales, custards, croquettes, or soufflés. It may also be used as an ingredient in other dishes or to flavor or color a sauce or soup. Vegetables purées can range in texture from coarse to very smooth. If necessary or desired, cook the vegetables until the flesh is soft enough to mash easily. Cooked vegetables should be puréed while still very hot. Use a clean towel to protect your hands as you work. Once the vegetables are roasted, cut away heavy or inedible peels, rinds, stems, or roots. Scoop or squeeze out seeds. Remove as little edible flesh as possible. Break or cut the vegetable into pieces sized properly for the puréeing equipment.

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124

Select the equipment to make the purée according to the way it will be used. A food mill, ricer, or sieve will remove fibers, skin, and seeds. These tools produce purées with a rather rough texture. Food processors can make quite smooth purées from cooked or raw vegetables that have already been trimmed, peeled, and seeded. If the vegetable is fibrous, the processor won’t necessarily remove the strings, so the purée will need to be pushed through a sieve. Blenders (immersion or countertop) and vertical chopping machines can cut vegetables so finely that they produce a very smooth purée, though they, too, do not remove fibers and strings from some vegetables. A vegetable purée can be finished by adjusting its seasoning, adding stock or a small touch of cream or olive oil, or blending it into other preparations. Or it may be cooled and stored for later use. Cool hot purées over an ice bath before wrapping and storing. Reheat cooled purées over gentle heat or in a bain-marie.


1 Different types of

puréeing equipment will produce different textures in the finished soup. A food mill can be used for a coarsertextured purée, while a food processor, blender, or immersion blender is best for achieving a smooth texture and thin consistency.

1

2

2 The advantage of an

immersion blender is that it can purée large batches of food to a smooth texture directly in the cooking pot.

3 A food mill will remove

the vegetable’s fibers, skin, and seeds and produce a purée with a rougher texture.

3

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125


TECHNIQUES FOR FRUITS

of recipe from salads and stuffings to desserts. For breakfast, grains are a natural and appear in hot and

CUSTOMARILY USED IN SWEET DISHES, fruits are

cold cereals, waffles, pancakes, French toast, and

used in desserts such as pies and ice creams, served

quick breads. Additionally, the high starch content of

with or without cheese as a classic finale to a meal, or

some grains, such as amaranth and rice, makes them

used in soups or salads. But fruits can also be used to

very useful for thickening soups and sauces.

great effect in savory dishes. Fruit is an excellent foil

for richly flavored or oily meat, poultry, and fish. Pork

and a nuttier, more pronounced flavor than those

and lamb with dried fruit, particularly apricots, are

made from white wheat flour (which is stripped of its

natural pairings. Dried fruits add flavor and texture

germ and bran before milling). Formulas for whole-

to compotes, stuffings, and sauces.

grain leavened breads often require the addition

Fruits can be used to great advantage on their

of some white flour, which has a higher ratio of glu-

own. Consider broiling fresh citrus or other fruit to

ten protein. Gluten is necessary in yeast doughs for

caramelize the natural sugars.

Items baked with whole-grain flours generally

have a darker appearance, a chewier, denser texture,

and apples, duck and orange, turkey and cranberries,

Grains have great potential for uses other

than side dishes. They can be used in every category

proper rising, which lightens the texture. The greater

When using apples, take care to match the

the proportion of white flour, the lighter the bread.

variety to the dish. Some varieties hold their shape,

Flatbreads that do not rely on yeast and gluten for

while others disintegrate and are better for sauces

leavening can be made entirely from whole-grain

or purées. Some have thick peels that are obtrusive

flours.

in a cooked dish, while others have thin skins.

Consider cooking grains in liquids other than

water. Broth, juice, or dilutions of both add flavor. Toasting grains or sautéing them with aromatics before adding liquid enhances their inherent nuttiness.

TECHNIQUES FOR GRAINS

Mixing herbs, nuts, or dried fruits into cooked grains adds flavor and texture.

cessed or refined grains. Consult the Cooking Ratios

THE USDA’S DIETARY GUIDELINES recommend

and Times for Selected Grains table, page 129, for

6 ounces of grains a day for a 2,000-calorie diet, and

specific information.

at least half of those should be whole grains.

Whole grains take longer to cook than do pro-

The subtle flavors of many grains and grain-

based products make them ideal for carrying the flavors of other foods, and enable them to act as a base for smaller portions of more pungent and highly flavored foods. A mound of steaming couscous served with a spicy stew and piquant harissa sauce does more than fill up the plate. It also offers the diner a chance to calm a tongue burned by hot spices and chiles. A bed of fragrant basmati rice makes a serving of seafood curry appear more bountiful, and each grain can carry the complex flavors of the sauce without losing its own special savor.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

126


Grilling and Roasting Fruits A fresh fruit plate is a classic end to many meals, but a guest in your restaurant may want something that is more dramatic or unusual. Grilling and roasting enhance the natural sweetness in fruits. These intense, dry-heat cooking methods also change a fruit’s texture and color. Certain flavors that are hard to identify in the fresh fruit become more prominent. Fruits are usually softer than vegetables and you may need to give them a very light coating of oil or put them in a hand rack so they don’t stick or tear when you turn them over. Pineapple has a lot of natural sugar and is quite juicy. Be sure the heat is high enough to quickly mark the outside. The grill marks add color and some texture, of course, but they also introduce a pleasantly smoky, bitter taste. Roasted fruits, like the oranges shown here, are prepared by slicing the fruit thinly enough so that it cooks to the texture and flavor you want. Like grilling, roasting amplifies some of the fruit’s natural flavors. It also has a more noticeable effect on the fruit texture, drying it until it is almost leathery. Fruits can be roasted at a low temperature for short periods to soften them slightly, or for a longer period to create crunchy or chewy textures. Roasted fruits are a good garnish for fruit desserts, or salads, or as an element in a sauce, compote, or salsa.

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127


1

2

1 To make seitan, in an

MAKING SEITAN

electric mixer fitted with a dough hook, combine the vital wheat gluten and water, and mix until a thick dough forms.

2 Separate the dough into

two pieces. Pull each piece of dough by hand until it is a uniform texture, then shape into a log.

3 Simmer the logs of

seitan in a flavorful cooking liquid until they can be easily sliced.

3

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

128


COOKING RATIOS AND TIMES FOR SELECTED GRAINS GRAIN

RATION OF GRAIN TO LIQUID (CUPS)

APPROXIMATE YIELD (CUPS)

COOKING TIME

Amaranth

1:1

11⁄2

12 to 17 minutes

Barley, pearl

1:2

4

35 to 45 minutes

Barley groats

1:21⁄2

4

50 minutes to 1 hour

Buckwheat groats (kasha)

1:11⁄2

2

12 to 20 minutes

Cornmeal

1:3 to 31⁄2

3

35 to 45 minutes

Farro

1:2

21⁄2

20 to 25 minutes

Hominy, whole

1:21⁄2

3

21⁄2 to 3 hours

Hominy grits

1:4

3

25 minutes

Job’s tears

1:2

3

1 hour

Kamut, whole-grain

1:11⁄2

2

1 hour

Millet

1:2

3

30 to 35 minutes

Oat groats

1:2

2

45 minutes

Quinoa

1:2

31⁄2 to 4

10 to 12 minutes

Rice, Arborio (risotto)

1:3

3

20 to 30 minutes

Rice, aromatic

1:11⁄2

3

15 to 25 minutes

4

25 to 30 minutes

4

40 minutes

3

Rice, converted

1:1 ⁄4

Rice, long-grain, brown

1:3

Rice, long-grain, white

1:11⁄2 to 1 ⁄4

3

18 to 20 minutes

Rice, short-grain, brown

1:21⁄2

4

35 to 40 minutes

Rice, short-grain, white

1:1 to 11⁄2

3

20 to 30 minutes

Rice, wild

1:3

4

30 to 45 minutes

3

3

Rice, wild, pecan

1: 1 ⁄4

4

20 minutes

Spelt, whole-grain

1: 11⁄2

2

45 minutes

Teff

1:1

11⁄2

7 minutes

Triticale, whole-grain

1:3

21⁄2

75 minutes

Wheat berries

1:3

2

1 hour

Wheat, bulgur, pilaf

1:21⁄2

2

15 to 20 minutes

Wheat, bulgur, soaked

1:4

2

2 hours

Wheat, cracked

1:2

3

20 minutes

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129


Pasta

Grains are also used to make pastas

and noodles, which are often among the most popular items on a menu. There are hundreds of pastas and noodles in the global pantry. Italian pasta comes in a multitude of shapes; Asian noodles are made from a variety of grain and legume flours; German cuisine has spätzle, which is traditionally made from wheat flour but can also be made with whole wheat flour; and North African cuisine has couscous, made from semolina. The possibilities for pastas and noodles are as endless as the forms in which they come. Pasta dough can be flavored and colored with various ingredients such as fresh herbs, saffron, spinach, or tomato (these ingredients comprise only a small amount of the actual serving and thus have a negligible impact on nutrient intake). The dough can also be stuffed with sweet or savory fillings, but avoid high-fat, high-cholesterol ingredients such as cream, butter, and bacon for these fillings for best nutrition. Vegetables and herbs make much better companions and should be used as much as possible.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

130


1 Toasting a grain prior

1

2 TOASTING AND SOAKING GRAINS

to cooking will intensify its natural flavor.

2 Most grains are soaked prior to cooking, but it is essential to soak whole grains, such as wheat berries, rye berries, and whole barley (pictured), in order to soften the tough outer layer of bran.

3 Cooked grains are

extremely versatile. Their subtlety makes them an ideal base for more flavorful ingredients, such as herbs and vegetables.

3

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131


TECHNIQUES FOR LEGUMES

gases that lead to the flatulence problem so often associated with beans.

Tolerance for oligosaccharides can be built up

by frequently eating high-fiber foods, but because

BEFORE USING DRIED LEGUMES, pick through them

most people in the United States tend not to eat

to remove shriveled, moldy, or damp ones, as well as

beans regularly, soaking and discarding the liquid is

any small stones that find their way into packages.

probably the easiest route. Soaking beans softens

All high-fiber foods, including beans, contain com-

their skins, making them less likely to burst while

plex sugars called oligosaccharides that are indi-

cooking, and it also causes most of the oligosac-

gestible by the human body. When they are ingested,

charides to leach into the water. However, soaking

these sugars are consumed by bacteria in the colon.

also causes nutrients, flavor, and color to leach into

The bacteria then produce carbon dioxide and other

the water. Discarding the water reduces the level of

Before cooking dried legumes, like the lentils shown here, sort through them to remove any rocks or other sediment.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

132


Clockwise from top: Fresh fava beans in the pod, fresh pods, dried fava beans, and fresh fava beans that have been cooked.

oligosaccharides and nutrients; using this liquid to

cold water to cover them generously and brought to

cook the beans preserves both.

a boil. As soon as the liquid boils, turn off the heat,

cover the pot, and let the beans soak for 1 hour.

Before soaking beans, they should be carefully

sorted to remove broken, damp, or moldy beans or

bits of stone and then rinsed in cold water. The long-

desired), and then cook them at a simmer in plenty of

After soaking the beans, drain and rinse them (if

soak method calls for beans to be soaked in cool wa-

plain, unsalted water. Add flavorings such as a bouquet

ter under refrigeration for the appropriate amount

garni, epazote, or onions during the final 30 minutes

of time (see table, page 134). The short-soak method

or so of cooking, once the beans have stopped pro-

calls for beans to be combined in a pot with enough

ducing large amounts of foam on the top of the water.

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133


APPROXIMATE SOAKING AND COOKING TIMES FOR SELECTED LEGUMES TYPE

APPROXIMATE SOAKING TIME

APPROXIMATE COOKING TIME

APPROXIMATE YIELD FROM 1 CUP

Adzuki beans

4 hours

1 hour

21⁄2

Black beans

4 hours

11⁄2 hours

3

Black-eyed peas*

1 hour

21⁄2

Chickpeas

4 hours

2 to 21⁄2 hours

3

Fava beans

12 hours

3 hours

3

Great Northern beans

4 hours

1 hours

2 ⁄4

Kidney beans (red or white)

4 hours

1 hours

2 ⁄4

Lentils*

30 to 40 minutes

3

Lima beans

4 hours

1 to 11⁄2 hours

3

Mung beans

4 hours

1 hour

3

Navy beans

4 hours

2 hours

2 ⁄4

Peas, split*

30 minutes

2

Peas, whole

4 hours

40 minutes

2

Pigeon peas*

30 minutes

21⁄2

Pink beans

4 hours

1 hour

3

Pinto beans

4 hours

1 to 11⁄2 hours

31⁄4

Soybeans

12 hours

3 to 31⁄2 hours

2 ⁄4

3 3

3

3

*Soaking is not necessary.

Dried chickpeas must be rehydrated before using. Add enough water to cover the dried chickpeas by at least 3 inches (right) and allow to soak for at least 4 hours to overnight. Add more water as necessary to keep the chickpeas covered throughout the soaking time. Properly soaked chickpeas (left) will have absorbed enough liquid to more than double in size.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

134


1 Work in batches to

1

2 MAKING TOFU

prepare the soymilk. Once purĂŠed, transfer the soybean mixture to a pot of hot water, and simmer until the mixture has no bean flavor. Strain the soymilk through a chinois lined with cheesecloth.

2 When poured over

the nigari, the soymilk will immediately start to coagulate and curdle. Allow it to set and curdle for 5 minutes in a covered bowl, then ladle the curds into a lined tofu box. Neatly fold the liner or cheesecloth over the tofu curds, cover with boxâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s top board, and press with a 5- to 10-pound weight. 3 After pressing, remove the tofu from the box, unfold the liner or cheesecloth, and cut the tofu into the desired size and shape.

3

THE TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

135


TECHNIQUES FOR NUTS AND SEEDS

PREPARING BEEF In the United States, people take their beef very seriously. The United States produces more beef

NUTS AND SEEDS ARE FULL OF FLAVOR and have

than any other nation, and it is second only to

a number of culinary uses. Toasting them in a dry

Argentina in per capita consumption of beef.

pan or in the oven enhances their flavor. They can be

used effectively as a crusting ingredient because

Flavor and texture of beef depend on which

muscle the cut comes from. In general, the more ex-

their higher oil content reduces the need for oil in

ercise the muscle gets, the tougher the meat will be,

the pan. Coatings made of nuts, however, must be

and the more fat, whether intramuscular (called mar-

handled carefully; the nuts can burn more easily than

bling) or on the outside of the cut, the more flavorful

other crusts, and they must be turned with care. Nut

the meat will be.

butters can be used for thickening. Nuts and seeds

are also naturals for garnishes.

No matter which part of the animal the cut

comes from, beef is high in protein, iron, and vitamin B12. Portion sizes should be limited to 3 to 4 ounces (cooked weight) per serving. Even at this amount, beef can supply nearly 100 milligrams of cholesterol

TECHNIQUES FOR FISH, MEATS, AND POULTRY

and 10 grams of fat. Using meat as an ingredient—in a stew or tagine, for example, or pasta sauce—allows you to serve portions that are appropriately sized yet don’t appear meager.

PREPARING FISH

flavor. Loin cuts are extremely tender as well. Cuts

MORE THAN TWO HUNDRED TYPES OF FISH are

from the round are generally less tender, but some,

caught in and around the United States. Some are

particularly top round, take well to roasting. Flank

naturally lean, others oily; some have a delicate

and skirt steak are quite flavorful and have a fair

flavor, others are almost meaty.

Steaks and roasts that come from the rib are

especially prized for their balance of tenderness and

amount of marbling; they must be cooked carefully

A fish’s skeletal structure helps to determine

and sliced properly to ensure they remain tender.

how it will be cut up for marketing, but its fat con-

Most cuts from the rib, loin, round, and flank can be

tent is the most important distinction for cooking.

roasted, broiled, grilled, pan fried, or sautéed; short

The best way to pair a fish and cooking technique is

ribs and back ribs, as well as some round cuts, take

to consider the flesh. Oily fish, such as bluefish and

well to braising.

mackerel, are often prepared by dry-heat techniques.

Fish that are moderately fatty, such as salmon and

Cuts such as tripe, tongue, oxtails, heart,

and liver are not as popular in the United States as

trout, can be prepared in just about any method. Very

elsewhere in the world. These cuts are generally ex-

lean fish, such as flounder or cod, is most successfully

tremely flavorful and take well to simmering and

poached, sautéed, pan fried, or deep-fried. They cook

braising. Organ meats are an excellent source of

very quickly, and their flesh is often quite fragile, so

vitamins and minerals. Liver is extremely high in vita-

fillets are often coated or breaded before cooking.

mins A and C, as well as iron—but a 3-ounce/85-gram cooked serving supplies almost as much cholesterol as two large eggs.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

136


Whenever possible, broil or grill steaks to

the chef. Lean pork can become dry and tough if not

allow fat to drip away; setting roasts on a rack does

handled properly.

the same. Prepare braises, stews, and pot roasts in

advance. Chill the liquid separately from the meat so

butt, butt, picnic ham, or picnic butt are a few. This

the fat congeals on the top, then scrape it off before

cut is somewhat higher in fat than other cuts, so it

reheating.

is often used in sausages and charcuterie. It can be

Pork shoulder goes by many names: Boston

roasted, but it is better braised or stewed.

PREPARING VEAL

Pork loin is cut much longer than loins from

beef, veal, and lamb. It can be roasted bone-in or A fine-textured meat with a delicate flavor, veal has

boneless. Chops from the loin differ in composition

fallen out of favor due to the practices used in raising

and shape depending on the end of the loin from

veal calves. A full consideration of this issue is be-

which they are cut. Shoulder or arm chops are often

yond the scope of this book. Veal is lower in calories

braised; center and leg chops take well to any dry-

and fat—particularly saturated fat—than beef, but it

heat method. The tenderloin is extremely lean. Left

is slightly higher in cholesterol.

whole, it can be roasted; cut into medallions or noi-

settes, it can be sautéed, broiled, or grilled.

Veal shoulder, or chuck, can be prepared in the

same way as beef chuck cuts. Shanks are typically

braised as well; osso buco is one of the most famous

or may not have been cured. Fresh ham is typically

dishes using veal shank. Cuts from the rib and loin

roasted; leaner parts of the ham can be ground or

may be bone-in or boneless and rolled; left whole,

cut into stew meat as well. Ham steaks can be fresh,

they are usually roasted. Portion-size cuts are re-

cured, or smoked. Cured or smoked hams are usually

ferred to as chops or medallions. They are often pan

cooked and ready to eat, though roasting enhances

fried, broiled, or grilled.

tenderness and flavor. Specialty hams such as pro-

sciutto and country ham are also available.

The leg yields numerous cuts, including the top

The ham simply refers to pork leg, which may

and bottom round, as well as cutlets. Veal breast can

be braised; it can also be boned and stuffed, then

percent of the calories may come from fat. They also

rolled and tied.

have a high proportion of bone. Nevertheless, they

are immensely popular.

Variety meats from veal are especially prized.

Spareribs are exceptionally fatty: Nearly 70

Sweetbreads, brains, tongue, and heart are less pop-

ular in the United States than elsewhere in the world,

or smoked. Pork belly is smoked or cured (or both)

but calf’s liver has its fans. It is significantly lower in

to make bacon; Canadian bacon is boneless smoked

cholesterol than beef liver, and it is more tender and

loin. Ham hocks, pig’s feet and knuckles, and even

milder in flavor. Because antibiotics, fertilizers, and

snouts are available fresh, cured, and smoked. They

other chemicals can accumulate in an animal’s liver as

are often used in soups and as flavorings in simmered

it ages, calf’s liver contains lower amounts of these

dishes such as beans and greens.

substances than beef liver.

Ham is not the only part of the pig that is cured

PREPARING LAMB

PREPARING PORK

Increasingly popular, lamb is raised to be consistently Most pork today is much leaner than it used to be.

lean and tender. It is milder in flavor than in years

While some cuts are still extremely high in fat, others

past, and it is available year-round rather than just in

are as much as 30 percent leaner than they were

the spring. Choose lamb that is pink to deep pink with

twenty-five years ago. This is a boon for health-

pearly white fat; deep red meat indicates an older

conscious consumers, but it presents challenges to

animal, which will have a much stronger flavor and

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137


When a spice blend is used as a dry rub to coat a food, the dry rub may be left on or scraped away before cooking.

PREPARING GAME

slightly coarser texture. Older lamb also tends to have more marbling than younger animals and is therefore higher in fat. The layer of external fat can be trimmed

Game meats are increasing in popularity, due in part

off easily; in addition to lowering the fat content, it

to their nutritional benefits. As a general rule, game

also lessens the â&#x20AC;&#x153;gamyâ&#x20AC;? flavor lamb may have.

meats are exceptionally lean and particularly low in

Like veal, lamb is cut into ribs (also known as

saturated fat. Venison and bison are excellent alter-

racks), shoulder, breast, shank, loin, and leg, and it can

natives to beef for red meat lovers. Both are farm

be prepared similarly. Lamb shank is the leanest cut,

raised, and this type of venison is less gamy and more

but it can be tough. It should be braised or stewed.

tender than animals from the wild. Venison, bison, and other farm-raised animals such as rabbit are available throughout the year.

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PREPARING POULTRY

Because game meats are so low in fat—a

3-ounce cooked serving of venison shoulder roast supplies about 3 grams—it must be cooked carefully

Poultry skin may be left on during roasting and bak-

to prevent it from toughening. As with other animals,

ing, because this helps prevent the loss of natural

cuts from less exercised parts of the animal, such as

juices without adding any significant amount of fat to

the loin and rib, can be prepared with such dry-heat

the meat. Tucking herbs or other aromatics under the

methods as grilling, roasting, and sautéing. Leg or

skin before cooking is a clever way to introduce an

haunch, shank, and shoulder are better braised or

extra flavor element. For any cooking method other

stewed; they can also be ground for use in pâtés and

than roasting or baking, though, the skin should be

charcuterie.

removed before cooking, and when roasted, the skin can be removed before service.

A marinade may be brushed on the meat, or the marinade may be poured on to coat the meat thoroughly.

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USING MARINADES

THE ROLE OF FLAVOR

Marinades are effective ways to add flavor to foods

GOOD COOKING IS THE ART OF CAPTURING the

before you cook them. To read more about the role of

most appropriate flavors in a dish. The first step in

marinades in healthy cooking techniques, see More

mastering this art form lies in understanding exactly

Than Flavoring, page 104.

what constitutes flavor. Learning how to develop fla-

Marinades generally contain one or more of the

vors, as well as when to bring them into balance and

following: oil, acid, and aromatics (spices, herbs, and

harmony and when to allow one flavor to dominate in

vegetables). Oils protect food from intense heat dur-

a dish, is a matter of experimentation and tasting.

ing cooking and help hold other flavorful ingredients

in contact with the food. Acids, such as vinegar, wine,

with choosing the right ingredients and is improved

yogurt, and citrus juices, flavor the food and change

through the chef’s skill. The term flavor dynamics in-

its texture. In some cases, acids firm or stiffen foods

dicates that two or more flavors have been blended in

(e.g., the lime juice marinade that “cooks” the raw fish

some way to produce a new flavor experience. Some-

in seviche).

times the dynamics are the result of mixing things

Flavor is composed of many elements. It begins

Marinating times vary according to the food’s

together so that you can’t easily recognize specific

texture. Tender or delicate foods such as fish or poul-

flavors. The term also applies when two or more fla-

try breast require less time. A tougher cut of meat

vors are put into an unexpected juxtaposition so that

may be marinated for days.

one flavor acts to improve the way another flavor is

experienced.

The ratio of acid to other ingredients may also

affect timing. High-acid marinades such as those

used to prepare ceviche produce the desired effect

to talk about the specific preferences you might find

within fifteen or twenty minutes of applying them

within a cuisine. An Asian flavor profile includes gin-

to a food. Others are best left in contact with foods

ger, garlic, soy sauce, cilantro, and lemongrass, for

for several hours, while some require several days.

instance; a Mexican flavor profile includes chiles,

Some marinades are cooked before use; others are

pumpkin seeds, cilantro, and cumin. Politics, econom-

not. Sometimes the marinade is used to flavor an

ics, religion, and the environment influence flavor

accompanying sauce or may itself become a dipping

profiles.

sauce. Marinades that have been in contact with raw

foods can be used in these ways provided that they

senses. All five of our senses provide us with percep-

are boiled for several minutes first to kill any linger-

tions that, when taken collectively, become “flavor.”

ing pathogens.

How we perceive a dish depends on its appearance

and texture as much as it does on its aroma and taste.

To use a liquid marinade, add it to the ingredi-

Flavor profiles are a kind of culinary shorthand

Flavor is something we experience through our

ent and turn the ingredient to coat evenly. Cover and

DEFINING FLAVOR

marinate, refrigerated, for the length of time indicated by the recipe, the type of meat, poultry, or fish, and the desired result. Brush or scrape off excess

Flavor is nothing if not subjective. What one person

marinade before cooking and pat dry, particularly if

thinks is delicious another thinks is anything but, and

the marinade contains herbs or other aromatics that

what one person perceives as much too salty or spicy

burn easily.

may be “just right” to someone else. Researchers attribute this to the number of taste buds a person has. People who have several thousand more than normal are called supertasters. They perceive tastes in foods

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

140


far more than medium tasters and nontasters do and

in substances called alkaloids, which make them

tend to avoid highly flavored foods, whether spicy

taste bitter. This biological imperative to seek out

chiles, bitter coffee, pungent vegetables, sugary bev-

sweet foods and to avoid bitter may have helped our

erages, or buttery rich frosting. With fewer taste buds

ancestors survive. Preferences for other flavors can

than normal, nontasters are less sensitive to flavoring

develop over time or through repeated exposure.

compounds that others find unappealing. Nontasters

are more likely to eat a wide variety of foods, so they

for salty or spicy foods, we often develop a taste for

are more likely to get a broader array of nutrients

them. Too much exposure to some flavors can result

from food, but they may also eat too much.

in â&#x20AC;&#x153;flavor fatigue.â&#x20AC;? Over time, people can develop a

Although humans are not born with an affinity

Nutrition and flavor are inextricably linked

tolerance for some flavors and may become desen-

in other ways, too. Humans have an innate prefer-

sitized to them. Chefs themselves need to be espe-

ence for sweet foods and an instinctive aversion to

cially careful to guard against this, as they may end

bitter foods. Carbohydrates, the bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s preferred

up adding far more seasoning to a dish than custom-

source of fuel, are sugars. Many toxic plants are high

ers prefer.

Developing Flavor in Meat, Fish, and Poultry Dishes WHEN A SPICE BLEND

is used as a dry rub (also called a dry marinade) to coat food, the food is refrigerated after application to allow it to absorb the flavors. Very often these rubs contain some salt to help intensify all the flavors in the dish. Dry rubs may be left on the food during cooking or they may be scraped away first. Spice blends may also be added to aromatic vegetables as they cook during the initial stages of preparing a braise or stew. To use a marinade, combine the marinade and meat in a resealable plastic bag or shallow container. Turn the meat to coat it evenly, cover, and marinate it in the refrigerator for 30

minutes to overnight, depending on the size of the pieces and the level of acidity in the marinade. During longer marinating times, turn the meat once or twice. If a recipe calls for using part of the marinade in an accompanying sauce, reserve some of it before adding the meat or boil the marinade for several minutes after removing raw meat. A pan sauce gives you the chance to incorporate the flavorful drippings released by foods as they cook. Those drippings reduce and collect in the pan. Adding a flavorful liquid, such as a broth, wine, prepared sauce, or coulis, helps to dilute and dissolve those drippings. Classic pan sauces were often thickened with flour, roux, butter, or cream. Chefs today prefer to let natural reduction develop the flavor, leaving the sauces with a somewhat lighter body.

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The human tongue recognizes only five basic

exists for developing flavors in foods. However, we

tastes: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami, derived

can begin to analyze individual dishes in order to gain

from the Japanese adjective umai (“delicious”), often

an understanding of flavor relationships and learn

described as being savory, brothy, or meaty. How-

how to create pleasing flavor combinations.

ever, we are capable of discerning incredibly subtle

variations on an almost infinite number of combina-

each ingredient contributes to the overall flavor pro-

tions of those tastes, in large part due to the aro-

file of the dish. Take one of your favorite recipes and

mas of food. Lemon juice and distilled vinegar are

ask yourself why each ingredient is there. For many

both sour, and white sugar and maple syrup are both

ingredients, the answer is obvious, but for others, the

sweet, but no one would ever confuse these foods

function may not be immediately clear. As you exam-

with each another.

ine the role of each ingredient, evaluate whether it

Most foods have extremely complicated com-

is a healthy one. How would replacing a less healthy

binations of flavors. The chemical composition of

ingredient with a nutrient-rich one affect the dish’s

foods give them their flavors—cruciferous vegeta-

flavor profile and nutrition profile?

bles like cabbage and Brussels sprouts contain sulfur

compounds that give them a bitter, pungent taste;

placed the main ingredient. Could you substitute a

the acids in citrus fruits provide the tartness that

chicken breast for a pork chop? Or brown rice and

their sugars tame somewhat. Umami appears to be

quinoa for couscous? Similar foods can often be

related to glutamate, an amino acid in foods like beef

substituted for one another, but look to less obvious

and mushrooms.

substitutions. Duck breast has a rich, savory flavor

The first thing to consider is what attributes

Imagine how the dish would taste if you re-

Preparation affects the flavor of foods as well.

and succulent texture that stands up well to robust

Foods like garlic and onions get their flavor from

seasonings. Consider using it in a dish that typically

volatile oils, which are released when the food is cut.

features beef.

Finely minced or crushed garlic has more exposed

surfaces to release these oils than sliced garlic, so

provide most of the flavor, such as dill in a sauce to

crushing will impart a stronger garlic taste than slic-

accompany salmon? Or do the other ingredients com-

ing. Heat changes the chemical makeup of foods, too.

bine to become something completely different from

Raw garlic is harsh and pungent. Sauté it quickly and

their individual flavors, such as chili powder, cumin,

it becomes palatable yet retains a strong, distinctive

garlic, and onion in chili? How would the flavor of a

flavor, but roast it slowly and it becomes sweet and

dressing change if you used sherry vinegar instead of

mellow. Another example is white sugar, which has a

red wine vinegar or lemon juice as the acid? Could you

purely sweet taste. Heat the sugar until it melts and

use tapenade or fish sauce in a marinade in place of

caramelizes, though, and you have a complex array of

salt?

sweetness, bitterness, and sourness.

Next, explore the other ingredients. Does one

If you are cooking grains, how flavorful are

they? Simmering them in water allows their flavor to dominate, but not all grains are interesting enough to

CREATING FLAVOR

withstand such exposure. Bland grains may benefit Individual foods and ingredients often can have com-

from a more flavorful cooking liquid that enhances

plicated flavors on their own. Combining ingredients

their taste, or you may wish to use a different, more

and then cooking them, whether in a dish or a meal,

flavorful grain.

can heighten or intensify a specific flavor, or may

blend them to make the flavors even more intricate.

dish’s flavor. Dry-heat cooking methods allow brown-

Because flavor is so subjective, no standard formula

ing to occur. How do the resulting caramelization and

Take a look at how the technique affects the

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

142


crust affect the food? Imagine how the dish might

soup just before adding the croutons. The fresh on-

taste if you used a different technique, or a combi-

ions impart another dimension to the flavor of the

nation of techniques. Steamed broccoli has a much

soup, and their sharp, pungent note contrasts dra-

simpler, purer taste than roasted broccoli, for exam-

matically with the sweet, mellow caramelized onions.

ple, and a stew that is made without first browning

the meat or sautéing aromatic vegetables will taste

several different ingredients. Consider what hap-

quite different from one that uses these techniques.

pens when you cook meat and then make a mushroom

Timing affects flavor as well. Look at when the

sauce. You might dry sauté beef medallions or filets.

ingredients are added to the pot, and at how long

After you remove them from the pan, you deglaze it

they cook. Adding different ingredients at certain

perhaps by first adding fond de veau lié, which re-

times helps to maximize flavor and ensures that each

leases the bits of meat that are left in the pan into

ingredient is cooked just enough. Onions, garlic, and

the sauce. The mushrooms are added next so that

some spices are normally added at the beginning

they can release their essence into the sauce. Aro-

and cooked with a touch of oil or fat to develop their

matic components—fortified wine, fresh herbs, and

sweetness and allow their flavors to permeate every-

ground pepper—are added just before serving so

thing else that is eventually added to the pot. Fresh

that their volatile compounds are not lost to pro-

herbs, on the other hand, are often added to foods

longed cooking.

shortly before serving so their delicate flavors aren’t

muted and their aromas and colors really stand out.

these flavors in nearly the opposite order. First, the

By adding ingredients in a certain sequence, we cre-

bright aromatic quality of the herbs and the spiciness

ate a layering of flavors. A fairly simple example is

of the ground pepper become apparent, quickly fol-

when you add freshly minced onions to French onion

lowed by the darker earth tones of wine, mushrooms,

A more intricate layering occurs when you add

When we eat this dish, we perceive each of

The Temperature Connection THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH FOODS ARE SERVED

affects our ability to perceive tastes. According to Harold McGee in On Food and Cooking (2004), we are most sensitive to taste in the temperature range of 72° to 105°F/22° to 41°C. McGee further states that sweet and sour sensations seem to be enhanced at the upper end of this temperature range, while salty and bitter tastes are more

pronounced at the lower end. Good chefs intuitively know this to be true, because from experience they have learned that foods served very cold, like ice creams and terrines, need to be especially flavorful or highly seasoned. A classic example of this dichotomy is potato-leek soup. When served hot, the sweetness of the leeks tends to stand out over the thick, creamy potato base. The same soup served cold, as vichyssoise, is refreshingly salty, and the starchy quality of the potatoes is more apparent.

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and fond de veau lié. At the base of all this is rich,

Dairy foods, for example, can absorb odors from

meaty beef. This inverse linear quality of flavor per-

pungent foods and should be kept away from citrus

ception is one of the key elements in composing suc-

and onions. Improperly stored produce may lose nu-

cessful recipes.

trients and texture as well as flavor. Flaccid carrots, limp greens, and mushy apples will only detract from a dish. Proper storage does more than preserve fla-

DEVELOPING FLAVOR

vor and texture; it helps to ensure that foods will not At every step, a chef controls the flavor of a dish. At

be exposed to contaminants.

the same time every chef is limited by his or her cus-

tomers’ expectations and what they are willing to pay.

handled as it is prepared for cooking. Some foods

A chef at a three-star restaurant is expected to use

may need to come to room temperature before use

pristinely fresh produce, properly aged meats, well-

to attain the proper texture of flavor when cooked—

made cheeses, and high-quality dry goods to produce

eggs to be beaten, some cuts of meat before cook-

elegant plates that look like works of art. The prices

ing—but the chef should ensure that they are not left

on the menu are generally high, and the food budget

out for extended periods.

is correspondingly generous. The director of food

service for a school will most likely be working with

different from foods that are not. Salt and other

a significantly less lavish budget, but is by no means

spices and marinades can penetrate the food, so

exempt from the customers’ expectation of delicious,

even when mixtures are wiped off, as with grav-

flavorful foods. Regardless of what type of budget or

lax, their essence remains. Whether the chef grinds

kitchen is at the chef’s command, any cook worth his

spices fresh every day or relies on containers of

or her salt knows that a mediocre chef can ruin high-

ground spices matters, as does whether the spices

quality, expensive ingredients in any number of ways,

are toasted before use and when they are added dur-

but a talented chef can turn ordinary or inexpensive

ing the cooking process.

ingredients into something fabulous.

Food safety and flavor extend to how food is

Foods that are seasoned before cooking taste

One of the biggest areas where chefs influence

This control begins with selecting the best in-

flavor is in choosing the cooking technique. Heat al-

gredients the budget allows from reliable purveyors.

ters the chemical structure of food, breaking down

Chefs who are concerned with providing healthy, nu-

cell walls, releasing flavor compounds and nutrients,

tritious options would do well to select foods based

and making the food more tender.

on their positive attributes. Rather than focus on

what should be avoided, chefs should choose healthy

tures higher than moist-heat methods. These higher

ingredients for their flavors, then consider how those

temperatures allow foods to brown and develop a

ingredients can be integrated into a menu for widest

crust. Moist-heat cooking methods are typically gen-

appeal. Say you want to use kale as an accompani-

tler. Because foods do not brown, their flavors tend

ment to pork medallions. A side dish of steamed kale

to be simpler and purer. Compare the difference be-

is rich in several nutrients, but its fairly pronounced

tween grilled or roasted salmon and poached salmon.

flavor might be too intense for many diners. Prepar-

ing it with an Italian-style agrodolce sauce or dress-

ceived by how the food is presented. The texture of

ing, however, gives it another dimension without

foods can affect how their flavors are perceived as

detracting from its rich flavors and nutritional ben-

well. A silky-smooth bisque and a chunky potage may

efits, and will complement the richness of the pork

have the same ingredients, but the puréed soup’s fla-

better than the unadorned steamed version.

vor may be subtler than the latter, where each ingre-

Once the best ingredients have been selected,

dient remains distinct. Imagine, too, the difference in

the chef must make sure they are stored properly.

flavor between a crab cake with large, meaty chunks

Dry-heat cooking techniques attain tempera-

Finally, the chef controls how flavors are per-

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

144


of crab and one with small shreds. Because all of our

Sometimes perfectly complementary flavors are

senses are involved in tasting (see Sense of Flavor,

desirable, as in the case of a slowly cooked lentil

page 146), food that looks attractive on the plate is

stew.

more appealing than a carelessly arranged dish.

Here, balance is the goal because the desired

The length of time that a food stands between

result is the melding of several ingredients into a

the initial preparation and when it is actually eaten

singular taste experience that is completely differ-

also affects flavor. Some foods, such as delicate

ent from the individual ingredients. If the stew isn’t

vegetables, fish, and sautéed meats, are best imme-

cooked long enough, the ingredients may still retain

diately after they are cooked because the quality of

their distinct flavors.

their flavor, texture, and nutrient content begins to

degrade quite quickly. Other foods, like soups and

light a particular flavor. In this case, contrasting fla-

braised dishes, benefit from being prepared a day or

vors can be used to let one or more elements come to

so before they are to be eaten. The extra time allows

the forefront of the flavor profile. Pesto, for instance,

their flavors to fully mature.

showcases the flavor of fresh basil or other herbs and

uses the contrasting flavors of garlic, pine nuts, Par-

Finally, temperature can be used to add an un-

Other times, though, the chef may wish to high-

expected element to a dish. Very hot and very cold

mesan, and olive oil to round out the flavor profile.

foods tend to have less discernible flavors. Foods like

ice cream, cheeses, and fruits have more developed

the palate after we have swallowed also influences

flavors if they have been allowed to sit at room tem-

our perception of the dish’s overall flavor. We refer

perature for a while. Piping-hot foods and beverages

to this as the flavor finish. Consider, for example, a

can deaden the palate. We generally tend to separate

clear soup versus a puréed soup. The clear soup has

hot foods from cold foods to keep the two tempera-

a lighter and cleaner finish than the thick and creamy

tures from canceling each other out, but by serving

puréed soup.

The amount of time that a flavor lingers on

hot and cold foods together, an interesting contrast can be created. In cuisines where food is often spicy,

FLAVOR PROFILES

this is a time-honored tradition. For example, in Indian cuisine, a mango lassi (mangos, yogurt, spices)

Each ingredient and dish has a flavor profile—a

might be served as a beverage with a fiery pork vin-

“fingerprint,” so to speak, that makes it unique. But

daloo and spicy mango chutney. Some of the ingre-

the term can also be used to describe the distinc-

dients are similar, and several are the same (mango,

tive combination of ingredients and techniques that

spices), but the temperature and creamy quality

make each cuisine unique. Cultural, economic, politi-

of the chilled drink provide a cooling counterpoint

cal, religious, and geographic factors play influential

to the hot and spicy pork dish. Dairy is traditionally

roles in the development of flavor profiles.

served with very spicy foods because proteins in milk

interfere with pain receptors in the mouth and lessen

cuisines somewhat similar. Thai and Mexican cooking,

the burning sensations caused by capsaicin.

for example, both use lime and chiles as flavorings.

Climate often makes geographically disparate

From there, however, the cuisines diverge. Their cuisines use different chiles and herbs, Mexican cuisine

BALANCING FLAVOR

commonly uses tomatoes, and Mexico’s most com-

Balance is something that we often assume to be the

mon grain is corn whereas Thailand’s is rice.

ultimate goal in the creation of pleasing flavor combi-

nations. This is not always the case, however. Colors,

spices like cinnamon, clove, and ginger. Moroccan

sounds, textures, tastes, aromas, and temperatures

cooking is associated with tagines and couscous and

can either complement or contrast with each other.

mint tea, whereas Indian cooking is associated with

Indian and Moroccan cooking both use “hot”

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145


curries and tandoori. In India, flavor profiles vary

Even within countries, this geographic influence can

considerably from one region to another, but also

be seen. Compare the cooking of Brittany and Paris

from cook to cook. Each makes his or her own blend

to that of the Côte d’Azur: Northern France has more

of curry powder and garam masala, and thus each

in common with many northern European countries

cook puts his or her own stamp on dishes that contain

than it does with southern France. This is also seen

these spice blends.

in Italy. Landlocked and mountainous regions in the

Northern European cooking is significantly dif-

north such as Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna have

ferent from the cooking of Mediterranean countries.

dramatically different culinary traditions from the

Scandinavian and German foods tend to be heavier in

southern regions of Sicily and Puglia.

texture, and they rely on fruits and vegetables that

thrive in colder climates and that keep well through

ferences can be seen. Agriculture and climate play

long winters: cabbages, kale, potatoes, and apples

a part in each region’s preference, but immigration

are far more common than tomatoes and citrus fruit.

does as well. Northern Europeans settled in the upper

Sense of Flavor

Even in the United States, these regional dif-

FLAVOR IS MORE THAN A MATTER OF TASTE.

We experience flavor with all of our senses. When a plate of food is set before you, you experience it in many ways: You see its colors, you smell its aromas, and you might hear sizzling. You might hear it crunch when you cut into it or when you chew it. In addition to tasting its flavors, you’ll feel the temperature of the food, its texture or consistency, and perhaps whether it is cooling, like mint, or fiery from peppers. Sight gives clues to flavor: For example, you expect vibrantly green sugar-snap peas to taste from-thegarden-fresh and slices of orange sweet potato bearing grill marks to have a sweet, slightly smoky taste and a dense, melting texture. Sight also adds to the appeal of food in far more subtle ways. Artfully presented food that is carefully arranged is more tempting than if it were casually or even sloppily set on the plate.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

146

We might not think of foods as making sounds, but they do, both as they cook and when we eat them. A sizzling platter of fajitas and a fizzing glass of champagne send flavor cues before the food or beverage reaches the mouth. Some foods become audible when we eat them. When tucking into a crispy-looking, golden piece of herb-breaded baked chicken, you expect that first bite to be accompanied by a hearty crunch. If the coating turns out to be quietly soggy, you will most likely feel disappointed, even cheated somehow, regardless of the actual taste and aroma. When you touch a food with your fingers or with a utensil, you receive a preview of its texture. A piece of poached salmon that softly flakes under the gentle prodding of a fork hints at the tenderness of the fish. A steak that resists your most insistent sawing tells you that it is dry and lifeless and ought to be sent back to the kitchen.


Midwest; menus in the Dakotas, Minnesota, and Wis-

foods are typically made with sheep’s milk instead of

consin may well feature Swedish meatballs, pickled

cow’s milk, and have a tangier, deeper flavor.

red cabbage, and a number of wursts and sausages.

Portuguese fishermen in Rhode Island and Massa-

are based primarily on the foods indigenous to a re-

chusetts added tomatoes to New England’s cream-

gion or area. Colonization and exploration can influ-

based chowder. Louisiana’s famous Creole cooking

ence them; as foreign powers invade and settle in an

shows the influence of Choctaw Indians, French and

area, they bring with them their culinary traditions,

Spanish settlers, African and Caribbean blacks, and

including ingredients, equipment, and techniques.

Canadians (or Cajuns).

Lemongrass, cilantro, mint, chiles, and fish, for exam-

In addition to crops, livestock play a role in

ple, are common in both Thai and Vietnamese cook-

flavor profiles—sometimes in unexpected ways.

ing. But for decades Vietnam was a French colony,

Greece’s rocky terrain is more suited to raising sheep

and its cuisine bears a distinctively French stamp

than cattle, for example. As a result, Greek dairy

that Thai cooking does not.

Flavor profiles evolve over time. At first, they

Smell plays an enormous role in our perception of flavor, as anyone who has ever had a head cold knows. In fact, aroma is perhaps the primary component of flavor. While we are able to perceive a few basic tastes, we are able to distinguish among hundreds of aromas. For example, an orange and a tangerine share the same basic tastes of sweet and sour, but in a blind taste test most people are still able to tell the difference because each fruit has a different set of characteristic aromas and slightly different textures. When you chew and swallow the first bite, you experience the full flavor of a dish. What we typically think of as “taste” or “flavor” is actually the interaction of taste and smell, combined with the feel of the food in the mouth. Our sense of taste comes from the chemical receptors on our tongues, referred to as taste buds. Ad-

ditionally, the insides of our mouths feel such sensations as, for example, the burn of hot chiles, the cooling effect of mint, the astringency of tannins in tea or wine, the numbing sensation of cloves, and the fizz of carbonated beverages. Chefs often return home from traveling to experiment with new ingredients and techniques, coming up with different combinations. When playing with flavor profiles, it is wise to stay within flavor families when substituting one ingredient for another. Say, for example, you wish to introduce an Italian flavor to a Thai dish. If the recipe contains fish sauce, you might first try replacing it with anchovies. If the change isn’t quite what you were looking for, experiment with other salty foods: Capers or olives might be acceptable alternatives.

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It is difficult to imagine the cuisines of Medi-

vice, plays a part. We’ve examined many of the basic

terranean Europe without tomatoes, but this ingre-

culinary techniques you may choose from throughout

dient did not appear in Europe until the sixteenth

this chapter. Look to specific recipes in this book for

century, when Spanish explorers brought it back

more inspiration.

from the Americas. Tomatoes were considered poi-

sonous for a few more centuries and did not become

the interplay of flavors, textures, and colors on a plate

widely used until the 1800s. Each country, however,

will affect the flavor of the entire dish. Incorporat-

has since then combined tomatoes with other in-

ing fresh, crunchy salsa or salads, creamy stewed or

gredients that reflect its profile: Italy with basil and

braised elements, or adding a crisp item is a key aspect

mozzarella; Spain with garlic, olive oil, and peppers;

of developing flavor in your menu offerings. If there are

Greece with oregano, mint, basil, and dill.

no contrasting elements on the plate, it is easy for your

A third tactic is to pay careful attention to how

Travel has allowed people to encounter authen-

guest to develop a sort of flavor fatigue. The first few

tic cooking that they seek to enjoy at home. Before

bites of a dish taste wonderful, but the intensity begins

World War II, pizza was found only in Italian neighbor-

to drop off after a few bites. Giving your guests a way

hoods in the United States. But as GIs returned home,

to refresh their palates enhances their enjoyment of

they sought out this and other Italian foods. As air

every part of the dish, not just the “main” item.

travel became affordable in the 1960s, people went

to Europe, Africa, and Asia and discovered how differ-

voring ingredients determines the ultimate flavor of

ent authentic foods could be from the versions served

the dish. A fourth tactic is to select and use flavor-

in U.S. restaurants. People came home from their

ing ingredients that bring out the flavor of your other

travels and wished to recreate or experience the fla-

ingredients or add a pronounced flavor of their own.

vors and textures they discovered on their journeys.

Some flavoring ingredients don’t require any spe-

The way you choose and use seasoning and fla-

cial monitoring. Toasted, parched, or freshly ground

TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING FLAVOR

spices and chiles add rich smoky flavors without introducing sodium or fat. Fresh herbs and aromatic ingredients like garlic, lemongrass, ginger, or lime

There are a number of ways that chefs can develop

juice add flavor but not calories. Steeping or infusing

flavor in their dishes. The first approach is to buy

these ingredients in vinegars or oils produces your

foods that are naturally flavorful. You can use the

own custom blends to use as an ingredient in a dish or

information in Chapter 2 to help you choose wisely.

as a sauce or dip. High-sodium foods, such as salt, ca-

Getting to know what’s in season in your location, the

pers, anchovies, and olives do call for strict measur-

purveyors and producers with a reputation for high-

ing and proper handling. Sometimes, you may rinse

quality, often handcrafted foods, is an important

away some of the brine or soak salty foods to reduce

part of assuring that your offerings are as flavorful

the sodium they add to a dish. You can often find low-

as possible.

or reduced-sodium versions of salty condiments like

soy or tamari sauce. Salt itself should always be used

The second tactic is to maximize flavor through

proper techniques. Impeccable technique results

properly and with care.

in foods that have visual, textural, and aromatic appeal. Every technique, from the basic preparations

SALTING FOODS

tasks of rinsing, trimming, and cutting, through the selection and execution of culinary techniques like

Salt is a seasoning that is almost taken for granted.

roasting or steaming or stir-frying, and on through

Nearly everyone notices when you leave it out of

the techniques of plating, presentation, and ser-

a dish, because foods taste a little dull and flat. As

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148


we continue to learn more about the potential heath

tively even layer. If the pan is crowded, the spices

risks of a diet high in sodium, chefs and culinary nu-

won’t toast evenly. If there are too few to fill the pan,

trition professionals alike are looking at salt more

the pan could heat unevenly and increase your chance

closely once again. Adding a little salt before you

of scorching them. Toast small amounts in a dry skil-

cook foods can have the effect of bringing out the

let. For large quantities, use the oven.

best flavor in the cooked foods. If you wait until the

very end of cooking to add salt, you may be inclined

ately transfer them from the skillet or sheet pan to

to add too much. Humans crave salt, but our craving

a cool container. This keeps them from continuing to

appears to be very out of proportion to both our need

brown. Spices are relatively high in oil and toasting

and our ability to process it once we eat it.

brings those oils to the surface. Let them cool be-

We do not advocate simply eliminating salt,

fore you grind them so you don’t end up with an oily

unless there is a specific reason to do so, but we do

mixture. A mortar and pestle grinds them into a rela-

encourage all cooks and chefs to use salt wisely. Use

tively even mixture. Spice grinders and even blenders

kosher salt, as we have done in our recipes, wherever

or food processors are also good options, as long as

salt is called for. The same volume of kosher salt has

you take care not to overgrind or -process them.

about half the sodium of table salt. Use your finger-

tips to apply salt in a more even coat.

herbs into a dish is making an infusion. There are a

Once the spices give off a rich aroma, immedi-

Another way to get the flavor of spices and

Salt isn’t the only source of sodium in foods.

variety of ways to treat the flavoring ingredients, de-

Processed and prepared foods are often high in

scribed in greater detail on page 151. Take the time to

sodium, even when they don’t actually taste salty.

properly cool and store infused mixtures. Some need

Look for low- or reduced-sodium versions of ingre-

time to rest so that their flavor develops. If you have

dients like soy sauce, prepared broths or stocks, and

included raw ingredients in an infused oil or vinegar,

condiments.

keep them safe by storing them under refrigeration.

Spices, nuts, and seeds can be toasted to bring

out more of their flavor. Once toasted, they can be used

BLENDING FLAVORS

whole as part of a bouquet garni or a sachet, lightly Whenever you combine ingredients in a dish, you are

crushed to add a flavorful crust to foods, or ground

combining flavors. Some flavors are classic combina-

into a fine powder to add to dishes as they cook.

tions that reflect the characteristic seasonings of a

particular cuisine. (For instance, the French combina-

herbs, and some vegetables and fruits into a liquid is

tion known as fines herbes includes herbs you find

another means of developing a specific flavor that

in typical French cooking—parsley, chives, chervil,

you can add to a dish. Flavored oils and vinegars as

and tarragon—while a spice mixture that combines

well as infused stocks or essences (which are essen-

chiles, cinnamon, cumin, and oregano evokes Mexican

tially a stock made by steeping aromatic ingredients

dishes.)

in water or stock) can be used as finishing ingredi-

Infusing aromatic ingredients including spices,

ents or as major components in sauces, dressings, or marinades.

TOASTING AND INFUSING SPICES Spices, nuts, and seeds store best if they are pur-

FLAVORED OILS

chased whole and untoasted. To bring out their rich, aromatic flavors, toast them as close as possible to

Oils suffused with garlic, fresh herbs, dried herbs, or

the time that you want to use them. You can toast

hot peppers are called flavored oils or infused oils.

more than one spice at a time, as long as you don’t

These oils are simple to prepare and they make the

overcrowd the pan. There should be just a thin, rela-

most of the flavor-carrying capability of fat. Fla-

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1

2

1 Toast aromatic spices in

TOASTING AND GRINDING SPICES

a dry pan.

2 Grind spices in small batches.

3 Grinding spices with a mortar and pestle.

3

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vored oils have a multitude of uses in the kitchen. In

FRESH ROOT OIL

the dining room, they make a healthier alternative to

The intense and fresh flavor of roots and bulbs, such

butter as a spread for breads.

as shallots, garlic, horseradish, and fresh ginger, mix

Flavored oils can, however, become a breed-

well with oils.

ing ground for harmful bacteria, so it is important to exercise caution. Avoid using low-acid, fresh ingredi-

1. Peel and mince the root.

ents with a high moisture content, such as raw garlic

2. For every 3 tablespoons of minced root, use 2 cups of the appropriate oil.

and blanched fresh herbs, to infuse oil meant to last for some time. When these ingredients are combined

3. Place in a jar and store in the refrigerator for 1 day before using. Store under refrigeration for up to 1 week.

with oil, the anaerobic (oxygen-free) environment can encourage the growth of pathogens, such as the organism that causes botulism.

Infused oils made with dried ingredients, like

FRESH HERB OIL

spices and chiles, are much safer than, and just as

Any fresh herb, such as basil, chives, cilantro, mint, or

potent as, those made with fresh products. If you still

parsley, will work well. The finished oil will have a bril-

want to use fresh ingredients for infused oils, either for cooking or as a dip for customers, make it in small

liant green color.

quantities that can be used quickly. Oil infused with

1. Blanch the herbs, including their stems, for 5 seconds in simmering water. Refresh them under cold running water and pat dry.

fresh ingredients may be refrigerated for up to one week before being discarded. Discard immediately if the oil becomes cloudy.

2. Measure the herbs and place in a blender

The oil you choose to flavor should be either

with an equal amount of the desired oil. Blend to a smooth paste, place in a clean jar, and add 3 times the amount of oil.

olive oil or a neutral vegetable oil, such as canola or grapeseed. The following are basic procedures for making spice oil, fresh root oil, and fresh herb oil.

3. Store in the refrigerator for 1 day.

GROUND SPICE OIL

4. When the herbs have settled, strain the oil through a coffee filter and use immediately or store under refrigeration for up to 1 week.

For a more complex flavor, toast whole spices before grinding.

1. Mix 3 tablespoons of the desired ground spice with 1 tablespoon water to make a smooth paste. If the paste is dry, add a little more water.

FLAVORED VINEGAR

Making flavored vinegar is extremely easy, and the beauty of it is that you can experiment and create your own combinations. You can use any mixture of

2. Place in a clear jar, add 2 cups of oil, cover

fresh herbs, fresh fruit, spices, garlic, shallots, and

tightly, and let sit for 2 days. You can shake the jar several times at intervals to increase the strength of the oil.

fruit and herb extracts. The only requirement is that the flavoring ingredients you use be very fresh. The basic recipe is as follows:

3. When the spice has settled down to the

1. Wash and rinse a glass jar in boiling water and air-dry thoroughly.

bottom, remove the oil from the top with a ladle.

2. In a stainless-steel saucepan, gently heat enough vinegar to fill the jar. Use low heat and do not boil.

4. Store the oil, tightly covered, for 2 to 6 months.

(continued on page 154)

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Cooking Aromatic Vegetables

Mirepoix will add a

distinct aroma to a dish, even if the cut-up vegetables are simply added to the pot as it simmers. Sweating, smothering, or browning them in fat, however, significantly changes their flavor. Start by cooking onions and leeks in just enough fat to coat the bottom of the pan and vegetables, then add the carrots, and finally the celery. (You can omit the fat, especially if you don’t want to brown the ingredients, and replace it with a little flavorful liquid.) White stocks or cream soups generally call for cooking the mirepoix over low heat in fat until it starts to give off some juices, known as sweating. If the pot is covered as the aromatics sweat, the technique is known as smothering. Mirepoix can cook until it turns a deep, rich brown (sometimes referred to as caramelized), either on the stovetop or in the oven. Tomato paste or purée is often added to the mirepoix for added flavor and color. Add it, if required, once the mirepoix ingredients are partly cooked. Cook carefully until the ingredients are a deep brown with an intense aroma. The tomato paste, if you have added it, will turn rusty brown and develop a sweet aroma. This technique is called pinçage, from the French pincer, “to stiffen or pinch,” which is a good description of what happens to the tomatoes as they cook in hot fat.

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A sachet d’épices is one method of infusing aromatic ingredients into a dish.

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153


Making flavored vinegar

3. For an herb-flavored vinegar, use about 1 cup of fresh herbs for every 2 cups of vinegar (the herbs can be on or off the stem). For fruit-flavored vinegars, use about 1 cup of fresh fruit for every 1 cup of vinegar. Clean the herbs or fruit and place in the jar along with any other flavoring ingredients desired. Cover with the warm vinegar and cool before sealing.

4. Allow the vinegar to rest in a cool, dark spot for 10 to 14 days before tasting. If the vinegar is still weak, let it sit for another few days. 5. Once you are satisfied with the flavor of the vinegar, you can either leave the herbs or fruit in or strain the vinegar through a piece of cheesecloth and discard them. Transfer the vinegar to a bottle if you like and store in a cool, dark place.

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SUMMARY

SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR FLAVORED VINEGAR COMBINATIONS INCLUDE:

Champagne vinegar with raspberry extract and fresh raspberries

GOOD FLAVOR BEGINS WITH HIGH-QUALITY INGREDIENTS. It is developed and enhanced through

Cider vinegar with mint and a touch of sugar

preparation, cooking technique, and the manner in which the food is served.

Cider vinegar with fresh dill and dill seed

All of our senses contribute to our perception of

Cider vinegar with chile and garlic

flavor. In addition to taste and smell, we also see,

Red wine vinegar with opal basil and garlic

hear, and feel flavor. The experience of flavor is

Red wine vinegar with fresh blueberries

highly subjective, affected by differences in people’s ability to sense and interpret flavor cues and in their

Rice vinegar with fresh ginger

expectations for the meal.

White wine vinegar with rosemary and orange zest

Several variables affect our perception of flavor.

White wine vinegar with tarragon and lemon balm

The combination of ingredients, the timing involved

White wine vinegar with crushed dill, celery, coriander, cumin, and caraway seeds

in preparing the food, the order in which ingredients are added during the cooking process, and the final

White wine vinegar with orange slices and orange extract

serving temperature are some of these variables.

White wine vinegar with fresh raspberries

sine—they are characteristics that identify each

Flavor profiles are like the “fingerprint” of a cuicuisine’s unique combination of ingredients and

White wine vinegar with garlic, shallots, and orange zest

techniques and are typically based on indigenous ingredients. Developing flavor in every dish is the chef’s primary responsibility in healthy cooking. There are many tools in the chef’s arsenal to accomplish this goal, from ingredient selection to choosing the cooking technique. Flavorful ingredients chosen from around the world also give excitement, color, and texture to dishes. Healthy cooking is much more than cutting out calories or serving smaller portions. At its best, healthy cooking delights your guests by feeding all their senses at the same time that it provides them with nourishment and energy.

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4 For years chefs have been developing healthy menu items that do not sell. They are often highlighted on the menu by a heart or carrot denoting some type of

DEVELOPING

HEALTHY RECIPES AND MENUS healthy choice, which the chef sometimes doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t really understand. Customers routinely pass up these items as flavorless, bland, and unexciting.


WHAT DOES HEALTHY MEAN?

Since all food in moderation can be healthy, it is a much better strategy to prepare delicious food that is nutrient dense and tastes great. With the wide

THE FIRST STEP IN EVALUATING A RECIPE for a

variety of fruits and vegetables available, and herbs

healthy menu is to understand how your customers

and spices from around the globe, a healthy menu

perceive the word healthy. Unfortunately, most con-

that customers will order from is easier to construct.

sumers receive a lot of conflicting dietary information from multiple sources, leaving them confused

NUTRITIOUS FOOD AND SMART RECIPES ARE THE FOUNDATION OF A HEALTHY MENU

and misinformed. To many people, healthy means low-fat, low-sodium, reduced sugar, or high in calcium, but low can be subjective to an individual’s personal needs. As a chef, it is nearly impossible to

BEFORE YOU TAKE THE TIME TO DEVELOP new

customize menu items that meet everyone’s individ-

recipes, analyze your current offerings for nutrient

ual requirements.

density, flavor, and popularity. Chances are that some

will fit into your well-thought-out healthy param-

producing a small handful of menus designed for the

eters, while others might need updating or need to be

entire building’s population. All food was prepared

removed.

without salt and without any added fats or flavor de-

velopment. These meals were then sent up to all pa-

Three ways to add healthy recipes to your

menu:

tients, even if their medical conditions had nothing to do with specific dietary needs.

1. Use existing recipes.

This approach worked for several decades,

until hospital administrators began seeing pizza de-

2. Adapt or modify recipes based on your

livery vehicles parked in the fire lanes and custom-

established goals.

ers sneaking fast-food meals into the rooms. Today,

3. Develop original recipes.

Years ago, hospitals dealt with this problem by

hospitals have real menus and operate more like hotel room service, customizing each meal according to

This chapter explains the basic methods of

the patient’s specific needs.

evaluating recipes and how to adapt, develop, or modify them. It also explores ways to reduce ingre-

SUBSTANTIATING MENU CLAIMS

dients such as saturated fat, salt, refined carbohydrates, and alcohol without sacrificing taste, texture,

FOOD IS COMPLEX; its delicious outcome has a lot to

or flavor. Because there’s more to healthy eating than

do with its freshness, its unique characteristics, how

simply avoiding potentially harmful ingredients, you’ll

it was processed, where it was grown, and how it was

also find suggestions for increasing the presence of

cooked. Individual tastes are also subjective, which

nutritious foods like whole grains and vegetables on

leads to inconsistencies of food preparation by indi-

the menu.

vidual cooks and chefs.

Menus are tools to market and sell food. They

have limited space to make substantiating descriptive claims about the foods healthful properties, so a lot of information has to be conveyed in just a few words. Truth in a menu is important to any restaurant operation, so specific nutrition claims have to be backed up with consistency and documentation.

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Principles of Healthy Menu Development THINK STRATEGICALLY ABOUT FLAVOR, with an emphasis on lever-

aging long-term flavor trends, the public’s growing interest in world cuisines, and its discovery of “culinary adventure,” in order to broaden options and approaches to healthier menu development. FOCUS on fruits and vegetables first—

in a full range of colors and types, and in applications across all day and across all menu parts. Accept that your customers on average must double their consumption of produce for better health. HIGHLIGHT the increased use of

healthy plant-based oils, eliminate trans fats, and substantially reduce saturated fats. INCREASE options for healthy protein

choices by adding fish, nuts, and complementary proteins, if underrepresented on the menu.

options with zero or little added sugars and other “empty calorie” sweeteners. LOOK for opportunities to reduce salt

and sodium in food preparation. PROVIDE a wider range of calorie/

portion options, and consider menu concepts that change the value proposition for customers from quantity to a focus on quality and culinary differentiation. LEVERAGE small measures of indul-

gence for the maximum creative impact, and create new categories of options for healthy menu choices. SHARE nutrition information with

customers as appropriate, but emphasize strategies for selling healthier menu options that rely more on the language of flavor, texture, and culinary adventure. ENGAGE colleagues and industry

partners in a long-term process of discovery to better understand the art and science of healthy menu research and development, and reimagine the operational designs, technologies, human resource strategies, and

EMPHASIZE healthy carbohydrates,

increase the menu presence of whole grains—especially “intact” whole

marketing innovation necessary to successfully sell and deliver these flavors to customers.

grains—and add food and beverage

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WHAT ROLE DO INGREDIENTS PLAY IN HEALTHY COOKING?

SALT Salt is a necessary mineral that sustains life by balancing our bodily fluids. The majority of our salt comes from processed foods, so following the strategy of preparing fresh foods that are minimally pro-

UNDERSTANDING YOUR INGREDIENTS and cooking

cessed is the first step in avoiding excess sodium

methods is extremely important in healthy cooking.

(also see page 89 in Chapter 2). When developing

Certain recipes should not be attempted if they fall

recipes using nutrition analysis software, you will see

short of their original identity and flavor profile. A

that natural food does not contain a lot of sodium.

crème brûlée made with skim milk and sugarless

Once the recipe has been entered into the computer,

sugar is no longer a crème brûlée.

salt quantities can be added based on individual guidelines. Proper measuring, often using electronic

THE ROLES OF FAT, SALT, AND SUGAR

scales, will ensure accuracy. If you are making nutritional claims on the menu, however, it is imperative to consult a professional when analyzing the recipes for

FAT

salt content.

Fat comes in the form of butter, oil, cream, animal fat

Like fat, salt should not be buried in the recipe.

Using contrasting ingredients, flavors, and cooking

such as lard or bacon fat, and plant oils. It lubricates,

methods will allow you to increase the flavor without

adds crispiness, and has a satiating quality. In healthy

using excess sodium. Finally, think about finishing a

applications, it should be used with great care and

dish with salt. Sprinkling a small amount of textured

focus. The customers should be able to see, feel, and

sea salt immediately before the dish is sent out of

taste the fat they are eating, and it should be used

the kitchen adds texture, flavor, and visual appeal to

correctly. Finishing a soup with 2 tablespoons of

the food.

butter does not have the same effect as finishing a dessert with the same amount of whipped cream because the customer can’t see the butter in the soup,

SUGAR

even though they both add fat. After your customers

The average American consumes more than one hun-

look at the plates of food that are in front of them,

dred pounds of added sweeteners a year! This star-

they should say “Wow, that looks good.” However, the

tling statistic tells you something that you should

most important rule to remember is that the type

already know: We have a sweet tooth. Because our

of fat that is used is much more important than the

customers come to us for things they normally would

amount. It would be better to drizzle some olive oil

not prepare at home, it is difficult in the professional

on top of the same soup (the customer would see it)

kitchen to work against an addiction to sweets. In ad-

than to add butter to the soup.

dition to flavor, sugar adds color (through caramel-

Butter contains fat and milk solids at a ratio of

ization) and has a role in leavening. It is hydroscopic

about 80/20. It adds flavor, texture, and mouthfeel to

(attracts moisture) and is used for texture, especially

a recipe. It even has the ability to add volume through

after it has been cooked.

the production of steam, as seen in a flaky pie crust.

Reduce the amount of butter in a pie and it will not be

The amount of sweeteners that we use in the

professional kitchen has increased along with the na-

as flaky.

tional consumption of sweeteners. Once only found

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160


in desserts, these days, dips, spreads, sauces, dress-

cannot change an ingredient, consider changing the

ings, and even cold cuts are made using added sugar.

technique to bring a recipe into nutritionally accept-

Also on the increase is the use of nonsugars. Prod-

able parameters. Grilling or broiling a pork chop, for

ucts like Splenda, stevia, and Equal may have a place

example, may allow you to omit the fat that sautéing

in the world of healthy cooking, but these sweeteners

requires, and roasting vegetables instead of steam-

do not function in the same way as their more natural

ing and then sautéing them preserves nutrients and

counterparts.

may streamline preparation.

Utilizing products that are naturally sweet also

offers solid nutrition value like minerals, vitamins, and fiber. Understanding the seasonality of the fruit

USING EXISTING RECIPES

you purchase and having proper ripening space will allow you to maximize the flavor and texture of the product you purchase. You will need to consider the roles that fat, salt, and

BEFORE YOU SPEND the time, effort, and money

sugar play in your recipes, as well as the type and

adapting or creating recipes, review the ones you

source of each. Recipes for baked goods are far more

currently use. Look to see that they are in line with

difficult to adapt for healthier menus using substi-

the standards for a healthy menu you have estab-

tute ingredients because ingredients such as butter,

lished for your operation. Evaluate the technique, the

eggs, salt, sugar, and flours all perform very specific

ingredients, and the portion size to be sure they work

functions. Butter, for example, is unlike other fats in

for you.

that it contains milk solids. You might be able to re-

place it with another fat, but you might need to use

stewing, and baking are all techniques that do not

less of the substitution.

necessarily require additional fat during cooking.

In other recipes, salt, fat, and sugar may be

Great cooking has a lot to do with the ingredients

used as flavorings or for texture or mouthfeel. You

and how they are prepared and contrasted together.

may be able to swap an unhealthy trans fat or satu-

Choosing fewer items will allow you to focus on fla-

rated fat for a monounsaturated fat, or build flavor

vors that support and complement the final dish.

with spices or seasonings other than salt, to make

Cooking methods can also be used for great con-

your recipes healthier. Or you may devise a way to re-

trasting flavors. Combining a variety of methods of

move the fat entirely from a dish without sacrificing

preparation on each plate adds depth of flavor devel-

flavor or texture. As you read the list of ingredients

opment that is important.

to identify those that you or your customers might

deem “unhealthy,” look for ways to add nutrient-rich

meats, and skinless poultry indicate a recipe that is

Healthy cooking isn’t just about limiting

potentially healthy. Ingredients for sauces should

potentially harmful ingredients. To make a recipe

be low in saturated fat, salt, and refined sugar. If

truly healthy, you’ll want to include beneficial nutri-

everything appears to be acceptable, review the por-

ents as well. See Increasing the Nutrition, page 173,

tion size. Some recipes that are not initially within

for suggestions and ideas.

Next, review the ingredients and their amounts.

Whole grains, vegetables, fruits, pasta, fish, lean

ingredients and foods.

Grilling, broiling, roasting, poaching, steaming,

these parameters can be brought in line if served in

Next, look at the technique to see if changing

a smaller amount.

it will improve the recipe. As discussed in Chapter 3, many cooking techniques are healthy, so if you

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161


USING STANDARD PORTIONS

where from 6 to 16 ounces—with smaller portions of vegetables and starchy side dishes. Pasta entrées are often 3 to 4 cups. One critical aspect of healthy cooking is to move away from large portions overall,

OFTEN OVERLOOKED, portion size is critical when

and large portions of center-of-the-plate proteins,

trying to bring recipes into acceptable nutrition pa-

fats, and calories. Whole grains, legumes, fruits, and

rameters. In recent decades, people in the United

vegetables should now be the focus of the plate;

States have come to expect enormous helpings of

massive servings of any food should be avoided.

food at mealtime, particularly in entrées, proteins,

and beverages. The standard is normally a large help-

When designing a healthy recipe, start by pay-

ing particular attention to the sizes of meat, poultry,

ing of meat, poultry, or fish—and “large” can be any-

and fish; large amounts of these items are often re-

Salmon Cakes with Green Goddess Dressing, Roasted Sweet Potatoes, and a Green Salad

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162


Seared Scallops with Avocado, Grapefruit, Greens, and Citrus Dressing

sponsible for pushing the dish beyond the limits of

One of the biggest challenges in decreasing

good nutrition. Generally, if the portion size of fat-

portion size is avoiding the consumer perception of

and calorie-dense foods is kept to 3 to 4 ounces (raw

decreased value and quality. Even though many peo-

weight), menu items will begin to fall in line. You are

ple want to eat healthier, they are still accustomed to

then free to round out the plate with more generous

huge servings of meat and may not yet be comfort-

helpings of vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and

able with smaller amounts. Before making adjust-

fruits, all of which add variety, color, texture, and fla-

ments to your recipes, survey your customer base to

vor. Initiatives such as MyPlate.gov help both chefs

determine changes that are desired and those that

and consumers visualize portion size and relative

will not be tolerated.

proportions of foods in a healthful meal by dividing

the plate into vegetable, fruit, and protein portions.

they are somehow being cheated, there are a number

In order to prevent customers from feeling that

of strategies you can employ.

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Udon Noodle Pot

Offering two versions of the same dish, with

on fillet on the bias before cooking, for instance, or

different-size portions (at different price points), is

thinly slicing and fanning cooked meat or poultry on

one method of determining interest. Youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re allowing

the plate gives the appearance of a larger portion.

customers to vote, in effect, on which portion size

Pounding or butterflying a piece of meat, fish, or

they prefer. After a few months, you can drop the

poultry before cooking has the same effect by in-

less popular version from your menu or keep it at full

creasing the productâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface area; it looks larger.

or half portions.

Height is an important element to the final pre-

Another important strategy in preserving value per-

sentation. It is important to have the main protein

ception is artful presentation. Stuffing a meat, fish,

elevated and presented so the customers see what

or poultry item with vegetables or grains (or both)

they are paying for. Make sure that the portions of

adds bulk, improves visual appeal, and increases the

whole grains and vegetable do not appear to be mas-

apparent portion size. Special knife cuts can be used

sive in relationship to the entrĂŠe.

to give the illusion that less is more. Cutting a salm-

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164


Size of plates has been shown to have an influence

pasta and increasing the amount of vegetables. The

on how we eat. If you use a large bowl for ice cream,

same applies to desserts. Find ways to decrease the

you want to fill it up and therefore overeat. Consider

calorically rich, decadent part (e.g., flourless choco-

reducing the size of the plate to match the foodâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

late cake) and increase the fruit (e.g., raspberries).

portion size.

While employing these techniques, it is

important to incorporate whole grains and vegeta-

One way to alter calories in a dish without changing

bles into the dish. These foods fill the plate and cre-

the portion size is to adapt the proportions of foods

ate a feeling of satiety in diners. Patrons who leave

in mixed dishes. If you are serving a pasta dish with

feeling comfortably full are less likely to feel they

some vegetables, consider decreasing the amount of

were given skimpy portions.

Mujadra and Spinach with Raisins

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165


Individual Peach and Blueberry Galette

MODIFYING RECIPES

In modifying recipes, two areas can be ad-

justed: techniques and ingredients. Fat is often criti-

THE MOST COMMON METHOD of developing a

cal in both areas. To identify recipes that are good

healthy recipe is to modify a traditional or classic

candidates for alteration, look at the amount and

recipe to reduce its calories, sodium, sugar, fats, or

purpose of fat. Recipes that rely on fat for the ma-

cholesterol. The key to successful modification is to

jority of their flavor and texture, such as deep-fried

imagine comparisons between the modified recipe

foods or sauces like hollandaise or beurre blanc,

and the original version.

should be avoided.

If a modified recipe cannot emulate the flavor

Those that have a moderate amount of fat and

and texture of the original but is still tasty, consider

that rely on other ingredients to contribute flavor,

calling it by a new name and forgoing any association

moisture, and structure have potential. You may be

with the original dish.

able to use less fat if you modify the technique. Adaptations may be as simple as relying on the fat natu-

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

166


rally present in a food when sautéing or using less fat

Using Standard Portions, page 162.) High-calorie,

or a healthier fat in the pan. Often healthy techniques

high–saturated fat, and high-sodium ingredients

can be substituted for less healthy ones. Deep-fried

such as cheese, butter, or bacon need not be totally

chicken may be “oven-fried” to obtain a similar tex-

eliminated in healthy cooking; use them in smaller

ture with a fraction of the fat content. A game bird

portions so they do not send any dish over the limits

can be poached in water or broth rather than poêléed

you have established.

in a bath of butter, and so forth.

Substituting other ingredients requires a bit

more thought. The basic elements that made the

CREATING ORIGINAL RECIPES

original dish successful can often be retained if you take an open-minded approach to solving the puzzle and use your imagination. Two considerations that should be addressed are the function of the ingredient and the flavor it provides. Ingredients that are

THE INSPIRATION FOR A NEW DISH can come from

high in fat, calories, or sodium can usually be substi-

many sources. Perhaps a delivery brings a box of bril-

tuted for or substantially reduced, as long as care is

liantly colored, fragrant fruits that leads to a new

taken to emulate the function of the original ingre-

dessert. Or maybe the memory of a dish enjoyed in

dient. Heavy cream sauces and cream-style soups

another country returns when you smell a bouquet of

can be made using a velouté thickened with a modi-

pungent herbs. Or perhaps a new cookbook, a maga-

fied starch rather than a roux and “creamed” with

zine article, or a newspaper clipping from years ago

evaporated skim milk or low-fat yogurt. A mixture

might be the impetus.

of nonfat yogurt and ricotta cheese can fill in for a

traditional Bavarian cream base. Vegetables can be

inventing a new recipe requires that you understand

enhanced with a flavorful thickened vegetable stock

how ingredients, flavor dynamics, and nutrition inter-

and fresh herbs instead of butter. You can also sub-

act. By using the freshest ingredients of the highest

stitute smaller quantities of strongly flavored foods,

quality, incorporating a variety of textures, flavors,

such as extra-sharp Cheddar or Roquefort for milder

and temperatures, keeping sauces light and flavorful,

Cheddars or Gorgonzola, or spicy chorizo for linguiça

and using cooking techniques that are healthy, you

or Italian sausage. Try using egg whites for up to half

can develop an idea into a wonderful addition to the

the amount of whole eggs called for in a recipe. Co-

healthy menu, as illustrated in the hypothetical pro-

coa powder can often substitute for chocolate, as

cess that follows.

long as a small amount of the chocolate is retained

to provide the rich mouthfeel that cocoa butter im-

for example—it is time to start putting it down on pa-

When you find a formula that works for one

per or plugging it into a computer. This step is where

recipe, apply it to similar recipes. The same changes

portion sizes and ingredient measurements come un-

in techniques and ingredients often work on other

der their first scrutiny.

foods of the same type. What works for one cream

soup, for example, often works for others.

Once the basics of the recipe are laid down—

a dish of steamed fish with an Asian-inspired sauce,

parts. (See Cooking with Less Fat, page 168.)

No matter what inspires you, the process of

Perhaps when you first imagined the dish, you

envisioned an 8-ounce portion of snapper, but when

Portion sizes can also be adjusted to help a

the recipe was analyzed for its nutrition content this

recipe fall in line. Protein-based and fat-laden foods

version showed that the calorie count and sodium

should often be reduced in size. Putting a generous

were unacceptably high. Reducing the portion size to

assortment of properly prepared vegetables on the

6 ounces made the calories somewhat better, but re-

plate tips the scales in favor of good nutrition. (See

ducing it to 4 ounces allowed you a little more leeway

DEVELOPING HEALTHY RECIPES AND MENUS

167


The Importance of Measuring

You should insist that kitchen staff weigh and measure everything. This is as important for managing costs and inventory, reducing waste, and maintaining product consistency as it is for keeping nutrients in line. Garnishes, flavorings, and other potentially high-fat, high-sodium ingredients should be carefully measured to keep them from upsetting the balance of flavor in a dish. Whenever practical, foods should be preportioned as part of the regular prep routine. Accurate scales are a must in the nutrition-conscious kitchen. Other equipment that can be used to help control portion sizes and amounts of ingredients include ladles, scoops, molds, and pumps that dispense the same amount of product every time.

ONCE A STANDARD RECIPE IS ESTABLISHED,

it is imperative that kitchen staff adhere to the amounts specified. If a nutrition claim is made about a particular dish, using standard portions ensures that the customer is actually getting the amount of nutrients referred to in the claim. For example, a pizza referred to as low-fat on the menu is not lowfat if the pizza cook habitually uses twice as much cheese as the recipe states. (See Chapter 1, page 33, for more on claims and nutrient analysis in recipes.)

in the side dishes you were thinking about. Replacing

a balance. In the same way that the inspiration from a

the tamari with a reduced-sodium version and omit-

dish can come from any of a thousand sources, so the

ting the added salt in the marinade brought the so-

evolution of the recipe might follow a thousand paths.

dium to a level appropriate for the menu category. When you finished making the adjustments on paper,

COOKING WITH LESS FAT

your next step was to make a few trial dishes.

As each test recipe was prepared, you evalu-

ated not only the nutrition but also the visual appeal, flavor, texture, and interplay of colors. When the consensus was that 4 ounces of fish did not fill the

FATS ARE NOT EQUAL: Some types are much more

plate enough, you decided to increase the portion to

desirable than others when creating nutrient-

5 ounces. Finally, to keep the calories in line and to

conscious menus. You may be able to improve your

increase the eye appeal, you replaced the rice pilaf

recipes by choosing the right type of fat, but some-

with a bed of wilted spinach and baby bok choy, and

times the solution is not as straightforward.

garnished with carrot cut into julienne.

As this example demonstrates, there are no

Fat is an essential nutrient, and it performs

many important culinary functions. It contributes

strict rules that govern the creative process. Devel-

to the flavor and texture of foods on its own, and it

oping a new recipe is a game of give and take to reach

blends the flavors of other ingredients and foods.

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168


Nutrients and flavor compounds that are fat-soluble

butter in a cake batter, for example, affects the leav-

are hidden in foods that are prepared or served with-

ening, color, and texture of the finished item.

out fat. Fat helps to create a crisp texture when used

in fried and sautĂŠed foods, helps to tenderize and

can figure out your strategy for improving the fat

create a flaky or crumbly texture in baked goods, and

content of a dish. You can use a leaner cut of meat or

helps to retain moisture. It contributes to feelings of

poultry, or replace a high-fat meat with a meaty fish

satiety and can actually help people eat less.

steak. You can replace meat in a stew with legumes or

After the function of the fat is identified, you

vegetables. If you are roasting poultry, leave the skin

REDUCING FAT

on to help retain moisture; tuck herbs or other aromatics under the skin to introduce another flavor ele-

Reducing fat is one of the most intriguing challenges

ment. Just be sure to remove the skin before serving.

facing a chef. Although many people want to eat less

fat, they are usually unwilling to sacrifice flavor or

vides a unique flavor and can be used as a condiment

texture to do so.

in some dishes. Render it first and pour off most of

The first step in creating lower-fat recipes or

the fat before proceeding with the recipe to minimize

reducing the saturated fat content of existing reci-

the amount of saturated fat while taking advantage

pes is to evaluate whether the recipe can be made

of its flavor.

with less fat. Sometimes this is easy. Rather than

toss butter on vegetables or top a stack of waffles

essary fat throughout the cooking process. Fat drips

with a pat of butter, another ingredient can be used.

off grilled and broiled meats, and is not used in pan

Flavored olive oil may complement the vegetables,

sauces. Soups, stews, and braises can be refrigerated

and a fruit purĂŠe may add great flavor to breakfast

overnight. The fat will rise to the top and solidify,

cakes. Sometimes, though, the fat contributes to the

making it easy to remove.

Choose your saturated fats wisely. Bacon pro-

You also may have the option to remove unnec-

finished product in a more complicated manner. The

1 Yogurt may be drained

11

2 DRAINING YOGURT

for a richer mouthfeel.

2 Add flavor to drained

yogurt by folding in fresh herbs.

DEVELOPING HEALTHY RECIPES AND MENUS

169


REPLACING FAT

provide volume in cake and soufflé batters, and when a cooked meringue is folded with a small amount of

Many low-fat and fat-free ingredients can be used

whipped heavy cream, the result is a good substitute

to replace fat. You’ll have no trouble finding high-

for full-fat whipped cream. Buttermilk is naturally

quality reduced-fat dairy products. Some nonfat

low in fat; it can be used in lieu of milk or cream in

dairy products may not be suitable for cooking and

many baking recipes. It adds a pleasant tang to the

baking because they tend to break down when sub-

finished dish, and its high acidity helps to leaven and

jected to high heat. Others, however, can be used with

to create a more tender product.

great success. The cream cheese in a cheesecake can be replaced with a combination of reduced-fat cream cheese, nonfat yogurt drained of its whey, and

COOKING WITH LESS SALT

puréed low-fat cottage and ricotta cheeses. Evaporated skim milk can be used in place of cream in many dishes. In recipes that call for eggs, several of the egg yolks can often be omitted without adverse effect on the finished product.

SALT DOES MORE THAN ADD SALTINESS TO FOODS.

Reduced-fat dairy foods may curdle because

It intensifies the other flavors in a dish, which is why

they often lack sufficient fat to inhibit protein co-

a small amount is often added to desserts and baked

agulation. To avoid this, add the reduced-fat product

goods. Improperly seasoned foods taste bland and

at the last possible minute and use gentle heat. Or try

unappealing, but underseasoning foods in the kitchen

mixing a small amount of starch, such as cornstarch

so customers need to add it at the table is unwise.

or flour, into the dairy product. The starch will swell

Cooked foods often require more salt to achieve the

and block the proteins from coagulating in much the

same amount of flavor than if they had been salted

same way that fat would.

throughout the cooking process. In addition, the

The fat in a cream soup can be reduced in a va-

majority of the sodium we consume is in processed

riety of ways. Rather than use a roux to thicken the

foods, such as canned goods and snack items, not

broth, purée vegetables or starchy ingredients such

from salt added before, during, or after cooking.

as potatoes, cauliflower, rice, or legumes. These can

also be used in many classic sauces. Gravy, tradition-

adding a lot of salt or using high-sodium ingredients.

ally thickened with a roux, can be made with jus lié.

Aromatic ingredients such as onions, garlic, shallots,

Roasted, braised, fresh, or dried fruits and vegeta-

fresh ginger, and scallions are fundamental. They of-

bles can be used in coulis, relishes, and chutneys to

ten go into the pot first so their flavors and aromas

give a dish a completely different flavor profile.

It’s possible to create flavorful dishes without

can infuse everything else in the dish. Look to cuisines

Replacing fat in baked goods presents greater

from other countries for characteristic flavor pro-

challenges because of the complex physical and

files that may complement the recipe you are mak-

chemical changes that take place during the baking

ing. Greek cuisine, for example, often uses olive oil,

process. Using a silicone baking mat or parchment

lemon, tomato, and oregano; Asian dishes might begin

paper to line a pan rather than butter, oil, or shorten-

with ginger, garlic, or scallion. Latin American cooking

ing reduces the fat somewhat. When replacing the fat

often uses chiles, lime, and cilantro to build flavor.

in batters and doughs, it is doubly important to con-

sider the function of fat. Fruit purées like applesauce,

Herbs and spices are essential to healthy cook-

ing. Fresh herbs in particular can lift the flavor of

mashed bananas, or other fruits with high pectin and

any food. Choose those that have intense or unique

sugar levels can be used to replace up to 75 percent

flavors, such as rosemary and saffron, for the most

of the fat in some recipes. Meringues can be used to

impact, but add them sparingly so they do not over-

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

170


COOKING WITH LESS SUGAR

whelm the other flavors. Chiles add a pleasant heat and a piquant zest to foods. Smoked, dried, and fresh chiles are widely available in an array of heat levels.

Pungent ingredients can add bold flavors; mus-

HUMANS ARE BORN WITH A PREFERENCE for sweet

tard seeds and dry mustard, horseradish, tamarind

foods, which can make it difficult to limit the use of

pods, and wasabi provide a noticeable kick. Reduced-

refined sugars and to resist desserts. Providing your

sodium soy sauce and fish sauce, Worcestershire

guests with the option to choose foods that taste de-

sauce, and pastes like tapenade can add a depth of

licious but do not contain excessive amounts of sugar

flavor beyond mere saltiness. Be sure to check labels

is a hallmark of healthy cooking.

on prepared varieties of these ingredients and avoid

those with extremely high sodium levels.

Before you turn to refined sugars, try to capi-

talize on the natural sugars present in many foods.

The bright, sharp flavors of acidic foods can

Fruits are a source of sugar, but they also are packed

often reduce the need for salt. Citrus and flavored

with nutrients. Combining several fruits, or combining

vinegars (see page 151) can give recipes a refresh-

the same fruit in different forms (fresh, dried, cooked,

ing taste without affecting their sodium content. By

or puréed) expands the flavor profile of a dessert.

combining and contrasting spices, herbs, and other

distinctive flavoring agents, you can moderate so-

Caramelizing foods enhances their natural sug-

ars. Cooking foods using a dry-heat method browns

dium levels while enhancing the flavors of the main

them, creating a deep, rich, complex flavor.

ingredients.

Adding Complexity to Carbohydrates THERE’S MORE TO COOKING

with less sugar than simply using less sweet stuff. Refined grains like white rice and pasta, and starchy vegetables like white potatoes, have an effect on blood sugar that’s almost as dramatic as cake or cookies. Adding whole grains is the obvious solution, but customers may resist unfamiliar flavors and textures. Farro, wheat berries, amaranth, and wild rice are high in nutrients and flavor, but less adventurous diners may be disinclined to try them, and those

who do sample them may find their chewier textures and stronger flavors off-putting. You can make these unusual grains more palatable by combining them with familiar grains. Pilafs made of barley and wheat berries, of bulgur and amaranth, or of a blend of rices might find a more receptive audience. Think of ways to combine unfamiliar and familiar vegetables, too. White potatoes have some nutrients, but they pale in comparison to other root vegetables. Puréeing turnips or sweet potatoes and adding to mashed potatoes boosts nutrition. Stirring cooked greens, toasted nuts, or fruit into a grain dish expands its flavor profile and adds texture and nutrition.

DEVELOPING HEALTHY RECIPES AND MENUS

171


Sweeteners other than sugar add flavors be-

A wine used to deglaze a pan can be replaced with

yond just sweetness. Consider how different ginger-

broth or a mixture of water and a small amount of vin-

bread would taste if it were sweetened with maple

egar or lemon juice. Alcohols used for flavoring, such

syrup rather than molasses. Honey often has a flavor

as fruit-based liqueurs, can be replaced with juice or

that hints of the flower from which it originated; sage

fruit purées.

and eucalyptus honey are rather bold and somewhat

resinous, while orange blossom honey is sweetly

serts might not work or will be less successful if you

citrusy. Like molasses, honey can be used in sweet

omit the alcohol. Because alcohol freezes at temper-

and savory recipes.

atures much lower than water, frozen desserts that

Of course, recipes for flambés and frozen des-

contain spirits will have a different texture. Be sure to account for the calories from the alcohol in the dessert.

COOKING WITH LESS ALCOHOL

MENU DEVELOPMENT

MANY DISHES, including entrées, sauces, and des-

serts, can be enhanced with flavorful spirits. A bottle

BEFORE YOU CAN DEVELOP HEALTHY RECIPES, you

of beer added to the chili pot adds a depth of flavor

need to create a menu for your operation. The num-

some chili aficionados require, and deglazing a sauté

ber and type of healthy offerings will depend on sev-

or roasting pan with wine or liquor can transform a

eral interrelated factors that center around the type

sauce from ordinary to outstanding.

of establishment and your clientele.

Alcohol’s contribution to the caloric content

of a dish depends on how much, if any, of the alcohol

venues. You may work at a spa, on a cruise ship, at a

evaporates before the dish is served. Careful studies

resort hotel, as a caterer. You may be the director of

have dispelled the notion that all of the alcohol and

food service at a school, office complex, hospital,

its calories are lost; at least a small amount always

residential facility, or chain of upscale supermarkets

remains. The rate of evaporation depends on several

offering home-meal replacements. Even restaurants

factors: the degree of heat to which the alcohol is ex-

can vary widely: Do you work at a small, casual bistro

posed, the length of exposure, and the surface area

or for a large chain of family restaurants?

of the pot in which the alcohol is cooked (a larger sur-

face area results in more evaporation).

Where you work determines who your clientele

is and the type of food they will expect. Factors such

In a 1990 study, a pot roast made with bur-

as the number of meals you prepare in a shift, the

gundy retained just 5 percent of its alcohol after simmering for 21⁄2 hours, while cherries jubilee made

availability of ingredients, and the amount of storage and equipment you have will affect your menu.

with brandy that was heated and quickly ignited still

contained 75 percent of its alcohol. In cases where

The menu is the medium through which your

customers learn what your kitchen is able to offer.

spirits are added at the last moment or when a

Making good nutrition the focus of the menu or of-

liqueur is added to a cold preparation, virtually all of

fering health-oriented dishes in addition to the more

the alcohol and its calories are retained.

Chefs today work in a variety of nonrestaurant

usual fare provides a new level of information to

If you wish to omit alcohol from your recipes,

your customers. A menu that places an emphasis on

you will need to consider the function of the alcohol.

nutrition, no matter how small, tells your customers

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

172


Increasing the Nutrition

INTRODUCE THE EXOTIC SLOWLY.

Although people in the United States are willing to embrace unusual tastes,

DEVELOPING HEALTHY RECIPES

you’ll have better luck incorporating

isn’t just about replacing unhealthy fats with healthy ones or using fresh herbs instead of salt. The dishes you devise should supply beneficial nutrients, and they need to be tasty and flavorful as well. You’ll find ideas throughout the recipe section, but here are some basic suggestions:

those tastes if you combine them with the familiar. An entrée of freshly caught grilled sardines might have limited appeal, but add them to a sampler plate that includes olives, marinated vegetables, pungent cheese, and a grain salad like tabbouleh, and these healthy little fish might find an audience. Kale or mustard greens might be too strongly

BUILD SALADS WITH DARK GREENS.

flavored for a side dish; stir them into a

Iceberg and Boston lettuces have their

soup or add them to a popular pasta dish

place but are low on the list of nutritious

on your menu.

salad greens. Darker lettuces and salad greens like romaine, spinach, and arugula contain significantly more vitamins A and C, as well as phytochemical pigments.

COMBINE THE SWEET WITH THE SAVORY. Don’t limit fruit to your des-

sert menu. Toss red or black grapes into savory salads or sauté peach or nectarine slices in the pan drippings

INTENSIFY FLAVORS WITH

after cooking chicken breasts. Look

VARIATIONS ON A THEME. Rather

at your sandwich menu to see if a fruit

than adding a variety of seasonings to a

purée can replace mayo as a spread, or

tomato-based pasta sauce, for example,

consider adding a roast pork sandwich

use several different tomato products,

with apple butter and grainy mustard.

such as canned tomatoes, slow-roasted or sun-dried tomatoes, and fresh tomatoes, to create an intensely rich taste by “layering” the same ingredient. Purée smoked salmon and add to a paste that tops salmon fillets before

GO NUTS. Top mashed sweet potatoes

with chopped pecans, stir walnuts into chicken salad, or garnish a Mexican entrée with toasted pumpkin seeds. Serve dishes of spiced nuts at the bar.

broiling, or simmer apples in cider when making a sauce.

DEVELOPING HEALTHY RECIPES AND MENUS

173


APPETIZERS

that your establishment cares about offering them choices to meet their needs.

Sometimes customers’ needs may not be the

You may want to use appetizers as a vehicle to intro-

driving force behind creating a healthy menu. Know-

duce a greater array of ingredients onto the menu.

ing the basics of good nutrition and having the desire

Using vegetables as containers for hors d’oeuvre is

to provide foods that have healthful components

one way. Cucumber cups, endive spears, and other

may be all the impetus you need.

vegetable “containers” are a good alternative to highfat crackers or chips.

Scallop Seviche with Cucumber plated as a first course

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

174


Scallop Seviche with Cucumber presented for platter service

Appetizers served on a plate as a first course

SELECTING AND PREPARING APPETIZERS

should be thoughtfully garnished. Once again, this is an opportunity to add a greater variety of vegeta-

Perfectly fresh clams and oysters, shucked as close

bles, fruits, and other healthful ingredients. These

to service time as possible and served with sauces

additions can also improve the dish’s visual appeal.

designed to enhance their naturally briny savor, or a

Adding a small amount of cheese, meat, or even

classic shrimp “cocktail,” served with a cocktail sauce,

a rich ingredient like foie gras may be appropriate,

salsa, or other pungent sauce, are perennial favorites

as long as you are careful about portioning. However,

in any appetizer category. And as long as you are

when you present hors d’oeuvre as part of a buffet,

confident that your seafood comes from a reliable

you should select dishes that are lower in calories,

source, these simple appetizer foods are fresh, fla-

fat, and sodium whenever possible.

vorful, and healthy. Foods you might ordinarily try to

DEVELOPING HEALTHY RECIPES AND MENUS

175


avoid in other menu categories are appropriate here

Slice, shape, and portion appetizers properly. There

as long as you are very careful about portioning and

should be just enough of any given item to make the

presenting the foods.

appetizer interesting and appealing from start to

finish, but not so much on the plate that the guest is

Smoked fish, meats, or poultry; sausages, pâ-

tés, terrines, and galantines; air-dried hams and beef

overwhelmed.

sliced paper thin—all of these items can be used to

Neatness always counts, but especially with appe-

create appetizer plates, on their own with a few ac-

tizers. Your guests will most likely judge their entire

companiments or garnishes or as a sampler plate.

meal based on the impression the appetizer gives.

Refer to Chapters 6, 7, and 8 for specific recipes and

When offering shared appetizers, consider how they

presentation ideas.

will look when they come to the table. It may be more

Salads are also served as appetizers. You may

effective to split a shared plate in the kitchen, rather

prefer to change the portion size, substitute a different sauce or garnish to give your menu items a spe-

than expecting the guests to divide it up themselves.

cial look, vary it from season to season, or showcase

Color, shape, and “white space” play a role in the

a range of flavors and textures from other cuisines.

overall composition of your plate. Take the time to

Warm and hot appetizers may include small

choose the right size and shape serving pieces and

portions of grains or even breads. Broiled or grilled

to provide the guest with all the items necessary

fish, shellfish, or poultry may be featured. Crêpes,

for the appetizer, including cups for dipping sauces,

blinis, and other similar dishes have been popular in

special utensils, and, if necessary, finger bowls.

many different cuisines. Meatballs and other highly seasoned ground meat appetizers are also found on

SOUPS

today’s menus. Swedish meatballs share space in the garde manger’s repertoire with kefta (spicy kebobs

Soups can range from light but intensely flavored

made from ground lamb).

broths and consommés that are virtually fat free to

Vegetables are more important than ever as

hearty dishes brimming with vegetables and legumes.

appetizers. Sometimes they are presented very sim-

Cream soups, bisques, and chowders can present a

ply: For example, steamed artichokes may be served

challenge, but there are techniques you can use to re-

with a dipping sauce such as a flavored vinaigrette;

duce both fat and calories in cream-style soups.

chilled asparagus may be served drizzled with a fla-

vored oil; or a plate of grilled vegetables may be ac-

What is most appealing and important in any

soup is its flavor and texture. Cream soups have a

companied by a cold tomato sauce.

richer body that remains in your mouth longer than brothy soups. You can take advantage of this by ex-

PRINCIPLES FOR PRESENTING APPETIZERS

ploiting every technique at your disposal. The first step is creating an aromatic base. We think of cream soups as having a light color, so cook the mirepoix only

Keep in mind the following basic principles as you

until it is tender, not until it turns color. This will keep

select, prepare, and plate appetizers:

the soup from turning dark and tasting too sweet.

Serve all appetizers at the proper temperature.

Next, remember that the texture of the soup

depends as much upon the garnish ingredients you

Remember to chill or warm plates.

include as on the soup base. A bit of contrast, in the form of a crunchy crouton or other crisp element,

Season all appetizer items with meticulous care.

makes the soup more interesting. Handle other in-

Appetizers are meant to stimulate the appetite, so

gredients correctly so that you don’t spoil the velvety

seasoning is of the utmost importance.

look and feel of your soup with unintended additions

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top to bottom: Modified Caesar Salad (page 232), Cracked Wheat and Tomato Salad (page 215), Kale, Cashew, and Cranberry Pasta Salad (page 235)

DEVELOPING HEALTHY RECIPES AND MENUS

177


that might feel stringy or hard. Attention to details,

you begin to work with portion sizes for high-calorie

like picking crabmeat to remove shell, is critical.

dishes, this is an important benefit. A simple green

salad served as a first course slows the pace of the

Some classic cream soups are thickened with

roux, then finished with a cream–egg yolk liaison. To

meal.

avoid those added calories, purée the base until it is

very light. You may wish to strain the soup after you

be served alone or combined into a sampler plate.

purée it to be sure that all fibers are removed. Then,

Take care when portioning salads for a sampler.

if you want to finish the soup with a “cream,” consider

Using a reduced-fat vinaigrette instead of the classic

evaporated skim milk. Another alternative is adding a

vinaigrette made with three parts oil and one part

small “puff” or dollop of yogurt, sour cream, or even

vinegar means you can be a bit more generous with

lightly whipped cream. You can add far less cream this

your portions, but other ingredients in the salad may

way than if you were to blend it directly into the soup.

have to be taken into account as well.

SALADS

Vegetable-, grain-, or legume-based salads can

Composed salads can be portioned in such a

way that they work as either an appetizer or a main course. Green salads work well as a bed for other in-

Salads on a healthy menu are a perfect choice, as

gredients. Avoid adding too many ingredients that are

long as basic menu-planning parameters are ob-

high in calories or fat. A chef salad of sliced meats,

served. You can serve a salad as a first course or as an

cheeses, and eggs is a classic, but you may want to

accompaniment to another dish. Adding a small

consider cutting those foods into fine julienne or dice

tossed salad to a plate improves its appearance

so that they are still a strong flavor presence but not

and makes the main item appear more generous. As

the main focus of the salad.

Salad bars can go beyond raw ingredients and include healthy salads of grains, legumes, and vegetables.

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178


top to bottom: Thai Seafood Salad (page 251), Mixed Fruit Salad (page 227), and Spinach Salad (page 223).

DEVELOPING HEALTHY RECIPES AND MENUS

179


KNOWING YOUR CUSTOMERS

Cost can be a critical factor at institutions.

The chef at a private facility may have a much larger The menu you develop will depend in large part on your

budget than the director of food service for a public

market. Are your customers looking to grab a quick

school district who charges two dollars for a meal.

sandwich, to impress a date or a client, or to recover

In addition, school lunch programs serve a customer

from surgery so they can go home? An establishment

base with a broad range of caloric and nutrient re-

that caters to executives on expense accounts has a

quirements. A sixteen-year-old boy needs on aver-

different clientele, with substantially different needs

age about 3,000 calories a day, about 25 percent

and expectations, than a high-school cafeteria.

more than a girl of the same age and almost twice the

Your menu will also depend on logistics. The

amount that a first-grader does. Menus with a vari-

availability and cost of ingredients, the price you are

ety of portion sizes, as well as with options for side

able to charge customers, and your facilities are fac-

dishes, make sense. Appealing choices mean less

tors that affect what you can offer. Chefs who are

waste.

responsible for all of a person’s meals have a greater

obligation to provide healthy options than chefs

some of the responsibility that an institutional chef

whose patrons are infrequent guests.

does, some of the limitations that a caterer does, and

Restaurants run the gamut from fast food to

some of the flexibility that a restaurant chef does.

haute cuisine, from ten-top independently owned

When consumers have no choice but to eat your food,

stores to international chains with vast resources.

particularly for several consecutive meals, you must

Restaurants may well have the most flexibility in de-

offer an array of healthy choices. The menu at a spa

termining a menu. Because a chef really has no con-

will reflect the philosophy and mission of the facil-

trol over the other food choices a customer makes in

ity; meals may offer dishes at specific calorie ranges

a day, he or she doesn’t need to be overly worried with

or with a limited number of fat grams. A cruise ship

providing balanced nutrition. You should, of course,

might be able to replenish supplies in different ports,

offer nutritious dishes, but you have no way of know-

but if this is not an option, menus must be designed

ing how they will fit into a customer’s diet. It is the

that take into account storage facilities as well as

customer’s responsibility to make smart choices. You

keeping properties of foods. Guests whose meals are

know what your facilities can handle and how much

included in their fees expect quality and variety, and

storage you have, and you can plan your purchases,

they will often expect a high level of service and pre-

and your menu, accordingly.

sentation as well.

Chefs who work at institutions have a greater

The chef at a spa, hotel, or on a cruise ship faces

Home-meal replacement is one of the fastest-

responsibility to keep nutrients in mind and may

growing segments of the food industry. People who

face the biggest challenges. The director of food

don’t have time to cook also might not have time to

service at a hospital or school will most likely work

dine in restaurants, where they must wait for their

with a dietician to ensure that menus and recipes fit

food to be prepared, but they might not want to eat

specific parameters to meet patrons’ needs. A sixty-

take-out Chinese or pizza or drive-through fast food

five-year-old quadruple-bypass patient will have

every night. Freshly prepared foods, whether from a

distinctly different nutrition needs and food pref-

favorite restaurant or a local supermarket, that can

erences from a child whose tonsils were removed.

be ordered ahead and eaten at home are finding a

Sick people often have limited appetites, so creating

wide audience. Allowing customers to build their

foods that will tempt them to eat and help them to

meals by choosing from a variety of sides ensures

heal is the primary goal. What is considered “tempt-

that their nutrition needs will be met.

ing,” however, may vary considerably by age as well as

by ethnicity or cultural background.

availability of foods. Thanks to faster shipping, vir-

All chefs should keep in mind seasonality and

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

180


tually every food is available year-round, all over

rated fats and refined carbohydrates, your custom-

the country. But just because you can get tomatoes

ers may be resentful at the lack of healthy choices.

in January or apricots in October or apples in April

doesn’t mean these foods no longer have a “season”

incorporates healthy options that look and taste

or that seasonality doesn’t matter. Perishable pro-

tempting. You cannot control what your customers

duce shipped in from far away may have flavors and

order, and you may not have any idea what other foods

textures you can barely distinguish from those you

they have eaten that day, but you can offer options

buy at the height of the season from a local farmer’s

that will provide a nutritious meal. Emphasizing the

market, or they may be nice-looking but tasteless.

positive—what you do offer—is as important as fo-

Regardless of their flavors, the price these imported

cusing on what you limit. Some people will interpret a

fruits and vegetables command, however, is usually

phrase like low-fat to mean “bland.” Rather than high-

significantly higher.

lighting the lack of fat in your recipes, you may wish

Instead, change your menus to reflect the

to spotlight the ingredients and techniques that indi-

bounty of each season. When local tomatoes are at

cate flavor and nutrition. Instead of positioning foods

their peak, create a BLT that reflects your establish-

as a “healthy” option, simply make them available. Add

ment’s sensibility: arugula, pancetta, and ciabatta for

whole-grain breads to your bread baskets, or allow

an Italian restaurant, perhaps. Soft-shell crabs and

guests to choose white or brown rice as a side dish.

wild salmon are in season just briefly; it may be easier

to add them to your list of specials than to your regu-

usually are able to identify menu items that meet

lar menu.

their needs. Thorough descriptions of each dish, in-

Even minor modifications can reflect seasonal-

cluding words that describe the side dishes and in-

ity. Adding asparagus to sautéed mixed vegetables

gredients in a sauce or coating, will help them spot

or fresh garden peas to a pasta dish can herald spring.

acceptable choices. Cooking terms like grilled or

A spinach and goat cheese salad might use blood or-

broiled let consumers know that a dish is likely to be

anges and olives in the winter, berries and pine nuts

much lower in fat than a deep-fried or crispy food.

in the spring, peaches in the summer, and apples or

Meat eaters will appreciate knowing whether the

pears and walnuts in autumn.

steak entrée features a filet, a sirloin, or a porter-

The challenge for chefs is to build a menu that

People who are interested in healthy eating

Although you might not want to remove sig-

house, and whether the steak is 6 or 16 ounces. Even

nature dishes, consider changing your menu peri-

a dessert menu might highlight a flavorful, nutrient-

odically to keep your staff and your customers from

rich triple-berry sauce rather than caramel, crème

getting complacent or bored.

anglaise, or whipped cream.

KNOWING YOUR CUSTOMERS’ NEEDS

A well-thought-out menu will include a balance

of salads (including entrée salads) and pasta, fish, poultry, and vegetarian entrées as well as meats. Allowing guests to order a half portion or to split an

When asked, most people will say they want to eat

entrée gives those with smaller appetites the op-

more healthfully. They know that whole grains, lean

portunity to limit portions. Including a variety of ap-

meats and poultry, fish, and vegetables are good for

petizers, especially choices that are not fried or high

them, but too often they perceive these foods to be

in refined carbohydrates, enables patrons to order

unappealing. Healthy eating is associated with de-

items from your starter menu as their main course.

privation and food that just doesn’t taste “right.” No

matter what people say, if healthy food doesn’t taste

cates that you are willing to accommodate guests’

good, they won’t eat it. At the same time, if your menu

nutrition needs and preferences. Although excessive

offers only high-calorie foods that are high in satu-

substitutions and special orders can wreak havoc in a

Permitting substitutions of side dishes indi-

DEVELOPING HEALTHY RECIPES AND MENUS

181


busy kitchen and may throw off inventory, ultimately

a breakfast that is heavy in rapidly digested carbo-

this is information a chef needs to succeed.

hydrates, which leaves us feeling hungry a few hours

Developing a menu and the accompanying

later. Cereal and milk, toast with jam, bagels, pancakes

recipes is often a work in progress. As each change

with syrup, and even fresh fruit provide little protein

is introduced, you need to track its reception among

and healthy fats, and might not provide sufficient

your patrons and your staff. If any refinements are

amounts of slowly digested complex carbohydrates.

needed, they can be made based upon feedback.

Lunches are often too skimpy or too large. A cup of soup or a candy bar from the vending machine won’t provide enough nutrients to keep a person going, but a large, heavy lunch can induce lethargy and a

OBJECTIVES IN CREATING A HEALTHY MENU

midafternoon slump. Sugary or salty snacks and sweetened or caffeinated beverages might be chosen to boost energy but fill an empty stomach with equally empty calories. Dinners are usually built around protein, and most of us consider the proper balance to be a piece of meat that covers half the

IT CAN BE CONFUSING to keep nutrients in mind

plate, with the remaining half divided between a

while developing menus, but it is not necessary to

starchy side and vegetables.

focus too narrowly on this. Chefs who need to be

sure that their menus contain adequate amounts of

linary trends, you have the opportunity to influence

nutrients in proper balance often work with a regis-

changes in how people in the United States eat. As a

tered dietitian with expertise in culinary nutrition to

chef, you probably look to other cultures and cuisines

develop menus that are healthful and flavorful.

for inspiration for flavors and dishes, but consider as

If your menu includes recipes with any sort

well how people in other countries eat. In India, for

of a health or nutrient claim, you must ensure that

example, thali is a meal without a main course. Meat,

the recipes meet specific requirements. These are

legumes, vegetables, rice or bread, salads, and rel-

outlined in Chapter 1, page 33, and in the Appendix.

ishes are served in comparable amounts. You may not

Analyzing recipes for their nutrient content will help

want to add Indian foods to your menu, but you can

you to keep on track and to identify where you may

certainly borrow this concept in rethinking the bal-

need to adapt a cooking technique, choose a differ-

ance on a dinner plate.

ent ingredient or two, reduce the portion size, or even

change how the dish is presented.

People in the United States might not be ready

for congee or fish soup for breakfast, but perhaps

Healthy recipes should follow certain guide-

your breakfast or dessert menu might feature blini—

lines. The number of calories and nutrients they

made with buckwheat flour, they are higher in fiber

should contain will vary depending on whether they

than regular pancakes or crêpes. Add kasha to your

are breakfast, lunch, or dinner items, as well as on

menu, either as a side dish or mixed into oats as a

any parameters you have established that define

breakfast food. Rather than high-fat eggs Benedict,

“healthy.”

Because chefs are often at the vanguard of cu-

you might offer huevos rancheros topped with a

In the United States, most people also eat far

zesty salsa or a frittata-like Spanish tortilla.

too many calories in a day: Our diets are too high in

protein, refined carbohydrates, saturated and trans

If you want to have a tuna salad sandwich on

your lunch menu, skip the mayo-heavy version and

fats, and sodium and too low in complex carbohy-

consider a Niçoise-inspired salad (minus the pota-

drates and monounsaturated fats. We typically eat

toes and green beans) or pan bagnat. Consider mak-

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

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MENU DEVELOPMENT FOR SPECIAL NEEDS

ing a whole-grain bread your house bread (but have other options available) for sandwiches and in your bread baskets.

Look for ways to add nuts to your menu. Can

NOT ONLY DO DIETARY AND CULTURAL preferences

you replace a butter- or cream-based sauce with one

come into play with menu development, but different

like skordalia or romesco? Perhaps you could use

segments of the population have different nutrient

finely ground almonds in a cake batter, or crushed

needs as well. Healthy can vary somewhat depending

pecans to crust a fish fillet.

on the ages, gender, and lifestyle of your customers.

If you change your menu often, or if you add

dishes that might be unfamiliar to your customers,

ments change. Chronic health conditions such as

think about taking a cue from the tapas bars of Spain

Type II diabetes or heart disease often appear as

and add a small-plate option to your menu. Guests

people age. Metabolic rates slow down and calorie

will be able to try a variety of dishes and share them

needs decrease. Some older people might have ad-

among a table, or they can build a meal by ordering a

venturesome palates and be willing to try healthy

small plate or two with a salad or soup.

As people grow older, their nutrition require-

dishes that include unusual flavors or textures. Oth-

When developing a healthy menu, keep flavor in

ers will appreciate small portions and healthier ver-

the front of your mind and concentrate on choosing

sions of traditional favorites.

healthy ingredients in appropriate amounts. Focus-

ing on what you can use and what your menu offers

Children are often forgotten when it comes to

providing healthy menu choices. Standard childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

is every bit as important as paying attention to what

menus traditionally offer little more than hot dogs,

you should limit.

grilled cheese sandwiches, fried chicken fingers, and

Vegetarian Diets TYPE OF VEGETARIAN DIET

DIETARY PRACTICE

Flexitarian

Eats meatless meals on occasion but also eats meals that contain meat

Semi-vegetarian

Eats dairy products and eggs, as well as small to moderate amounts of fish, chicken, and beef

Pesco-vegetarian

Eats dairy products, eggs, and fish, but no other animal flesh

Lacto-ovo vegetarian

Eats dairy products and eggs, but no animal flesh

Lacto-vegetarian

Eats dairy products but no eggs or animal flesh

Ovo-vegetarian

Eats eggs but no dairy products or animal flesh

Vegan

Avoids all foods of animal origin

Fruitarian

Eats only raw fruits, nuts, and greens

DEVELOPING HEALTHY RECIPES AND MENUS

183


French fries. Although some children are not known

for their willingness to experiment or their passion

millennium our ancestors survived on plant-based

for bold flavors, familiar foods like pizza, pasta, and

diets, and meat at every meal is a relatively new phe-

sandwiches can be reworked to be kid-friendly and

nomenon that has partly contributed to the obesity

nutrient-rich. Finger foods like grapes, berries, and

epidemic. Plants contain nearly all the essential mi-

apple wedges can be dipped into sweetened yogurt

cro- and macronutrients necessary to sustain life,

sauces for sides or desserts.

and a vegetarian diet can be an excellent choice if ap-

proached using sound nutritional guidelines.

If your customers tend to be a meat-and-

potatoes crowd, offer minor variations on this

Eating plants is nothing new to humans. For

PROTEINS IN THE DIET

theme. Highlight leaner cuts of beef on your menu— or replace the beef with a meaty tuna steak or duck breast. Use sweet potatoes and white potatoes in an

Foods that provide protein are divided into two

au gratin side dish, and modify the sauce to include

groups—complete and incomplete proteins. Com-

low-fat dairy. Keep portion sizes of proteins to a

plete proteins are those foods that provide all of the

moderate size, but serve larger portions of vegeta-

essential amino acids in sufficient quantity to sup-

bles and whole grains.

port growth and maintenance of body tissues. Foods

Lifestyle attributes also affect a customer’s

that contain complete proteins provide a higher

level of interest in nutrition when dining out. When

quality of protein; examples are meat, fish, poultry,

restaurant meals are reserved for celebrations, cus-

cheese, eggs, milk, and isolated soy protein. In short,

tomers are more likely to splurge on rich foods; the

animal and soy products contain complete proteins.

more often people eat out, the more interested they

usually are in healthy menu choices. Businesspeople,

sential amino acids in sufficient quantity to support

families in which both parents work, and senior citi-

growth and maintenance of body tissues. Foods that

zens tend to frequently dine in restaurants. Family-

contain incomplete protein provide a lower quality of

style restaurants and establishments that serve

protein. Examples include grains, legumes, nuts and

a business clientele will want to offer a variety of

seeds, and vegetables. In short, plant products con-

healthy options. Businesspeople, particularly those

tain incomplete proteins.

who travel frequently, tend to eat out often and are

usually well aware of the relationship between diet

mal protein in their diets, it is important to note that

and overall health.

all of the essential amino acids can be obtained by

As people in the United States cook at home

consuming a variety of vegetable foods, each with a

less and less often, it becomes increasingly impor-

different quality and quantity of amino acids. Plant

tant for restaurants and other food-service provid-

sources of protein can meet nutritional needs for

ers to offer nutritious options.

protein if a sufficient variety of foods such as grains,

Incomplete proteins lack one or more of the es-

While most people choose to include some ani-

cereals, legumes, and nuts and seeds are incorpo-

VEGETARIAN MENUS

rated into the diet.

Making incomplete proteins complete is as

Eating a diet high in plant foods is healthy and nutri-

simple as eating a peanut butter and jelly sandwich

tious and appeals to a broad range of people. Some

or baked beans and brown bread. Bread is rich in the

choose not to eat meat for religious or ethical rea-

amino acid methionine, but low in lysine. Legumes

sons, while others hope to reap the health benefits.

(peanuts and beans) are rich in lysine, but poor in

Others still are drawn in by the perception that veg-

methionine. When both are combined, they “comple-

etarian cuisine is healthier than traditional meat-

ment” each other and a complete protein is formed.

based dishes.

Civilizations throughout history have combined

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

184


foods to make complete proteins. Some examples in-

As with side dishes, vegetarian entrĂŠes need to be

clude rice and beans, tofu and rice, pasta and beans,

visualized as a whole to make sure that all of the

corn and lima beans, and hummus and pita bread.

items are integrated and harmonious.

ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS

the savory flavors that meats, poultry, and fish provide. Care should be taken to avoid relying heavily on

The basic building blocks of protein are known as

high-fat dairy products and high-sodium ingredients.

amino acids. The multitude of proteins found in a hu-

Instead, ingredients with complex flavors, such as

man cell are composed of about twenty amino acids,

dried chiles or mushrooms and roasted garlic or pep-

most of which are produced by the body. The eight

pers, can be used. In order to make the dish satisfying

essential amino acids are:

and filling, whole grains and legumes should make up the bulk of the calories.

Isoleucine

Leucine

based foods for creative inspiration. In addition to the classic dishes they offer, their characteristic

Methionine

spice blends and flavor principles can be adapted for

Phenylalanine

use in original recipes. Look also to dishes on your

Threonine

menu that can be modified; a popular pasta dish, for example, could be offered with or without chicken.

Tryptophan

Valine

Plant-based cuisine need not be limited to plant

foods. Many of the diners who order vegetarian dishes are not traditional vegetarians. They may choose a

Normally the body can produce these eight

vegetable-based dish because of the health benefits

amino acids. However, when the eight essential

associated with it or because it sounds delicious. If not

amino acids are not consumed in sufficient amounts,

all of your customers are strict vegetarians who avoid

a dietary source for conditionally essential acids may

animal-based foods for ethical or religious reasons,

become important.

you may have the option of including small amounts of animal foods, such as a bit of bacon in a salad or meat

VEGETARIAN MENU PLANNING

stock in soup, to enhance the flavor profile of a dish.

Developing a vegetarian menu, or even a few menu

Finally, be sure that any dish billed as vegetar-

ian truly qualifies as such. Some foods that seem

items, means more than finding something to replace

vegetarian may contain ingredients of hidden animal

the meat in a traditional dish or offering a sampler

origin. An obvious example would be a vegetable soup

composed of all the side dishes from meat-based en-

made with chicken stock. More difficult to identify

trĂŠes. Creativity is paramount here, and the options

are ingredients that people often overlook as being

are limitless. Plant-based options can and should be

animal products. A terrine of grilled vegetables held

offered in every menu category, but care should be

together with gelatin cannot be considered vegetar-

taken not to repeat ingredients. A diner who wants to

ian, and anything with honey is off-limits for vegans.

order several courses wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be happy if every menu

Other ingredients to be alert for include eggs in pasta

option available contains wild mushrooms.

When you devise a vegetarian menu, look to

ethnic cuisines that have traditionally relied on plant-

Lysine

One of the biggest challenges in creating this

type of cuisine is in compensating for the loss of

or noodles, and Worcestershire sauce, which includes

When designing plant-based dishes, the con-

anchovies. Any dish identified as vegetarian should

cept of incorporating a variety of foods becomes

be vigilantly reviewed for any hidden animal foods

crucial for both sound nutrition and aesthetic appeal.

used in its preparation.

DEVELOPING HEALTHY RECIPES AND MENUS

185


COMMUNICATING

and yogurt before being cooked over a wood-fired

PROPER STAFF TRAINING and customer communica-

positive flavor attributes of the dish while implying

tion techniques are essential in food-service opera-

that because the chicken is a skinless breast and is

tions. In an establishment where the attempt is made

grilled, it is a healthy choice. Dining room staff should

to provide customers with healthy food prepara-

be aware of the location of more specific information

tions, they become doubly important.

on the nutrition content of menu items, in case a cus-

tomer requests it.

grill. In this way, the server actively emphasizes the

Well-trained servers are more than just a great

sales force; they are also a medium for communicat-

ing information about the ingredients and techniques

cial requests. You should inform your staff about

used in the kitchen. Every server should be educated

which menu items can be modified and what sorts of

about healthy preparation techniques and menu

adjustments can be made. It is advisable to make the

items as well as how to discuss these subjects with

staff aware of which changes are simple to make and

the guest. The kitchen staff should be equally well

which take time. Because it is impossible to antici-

trained on the nutrition goals of the establishment

pate every request, servers should be told to check

and the methods used to achieve them.

with you or the person in charge of the kitchen before

making promises concerning new requests.

Many food-service operations also provide

Servers also need to be trained to handle spe-

nutrition information directly to their customers to

help guide them in their selections. In addition to dis-

allergies, or dietary restrictions, the server should

If a customer has certain food preferences,

cussing staff training, this chapter highlights some of

be taught to gather as much information as possible

the ways in which you can communicate nutrition in-

about what can and canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be eaten. The server should

formation to your customers. (For more information

then describe the ingredients in menu selections that

about nutrient and health claims on the menu, see

may fit the customerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s needs and allow the customer

Chapter 1, page 33.)

to choose. If the server is unsure about whether or not certain ingredients are present in a dish, under

THE SERVICE STAFF

no circumstances should he or she ever guess. Taking the extra time to check with the kitchen is not nearly

Research has shown that describing foods as low-

as inconvenient as a lawsuit. In the case that a special

fat, low-calorie, and healthy often creates a negative

dish needs to be created for a customer, the server

perception and may deter customers from ordering

should be aware that it is just as important to the

such items. This unfavorable association occurs be-

chef to know what a person can eat as it is to know

cause these terms focus attention on the absence

what he or she cannot eat.

of something, and customers may associate this

absence with a lack of flavor as well.

should be taken to keep the communication channel

Because most health-conscious customers are

open between the kitchen and the dining room and to

acquainted with the cooking techniques and ingre-

make it a two-way street. Hold preservice meetings

dients that are likely to be healthy, it is often better

as often as necessary to brief the servers on spe-

to teach the service staff to let the foods speak for

cials and anything else they should know about. Serv-

themselves. For instance, instead of telling a cus-

ers should be encouraged to talk to you about their

tomer who inquires about healthy menu choices that

observations in the dining room, particularly con-

the grilled chicken dish is low in fat and sodium, the

cerning customer feedback on menu items.

Once the initial training is complete, steps

server can describe the dish as a boneless, skinless chicken breast marinated in Indian-inspired spices

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

186


THE KITCHEN STAFF

clientele, no attempt is made here to spell out every option. Instead, what follows is a summary of types

Proper technique in the kitchen is paramount in an

of food-service operations and suggestions for ap-

operation that wants to produce healthy meals. The

propriately communicating health and nutrition in-

kitchen staff should be trained in basic nutrition and

formation to the customer.

healthy cooking principles. They should be provided with standardized recipes, and a system for the care-

FINE DINING ESTABLISHMENTS, BISTROS, AND EXECUTIVE DINING

ful trimming and portioning of all foods should be established to ensure that the customers are getting what they ordered. After all, the intention to cre-

While a restaurantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s clientele is usually receptive to

ate healthy meals means nothing if your line cooks

menu options that are associated with nutrition and

are still using ladles of oil or giant hunks of butter

health claims, using obvious language like low in satu-

to grease their sautĂŠ pans. It should be emphasized

rated fat may not be desirable. The following options

that fat and salt are not the only sources of flavor

may be more appropriate in such a situation.

and that delicious foods can be made easily with con-

SERVER TRAINING: Teach your dining room sales

trolled amounts of these ingredients.

force to communicate the health and nutrition at-

The kitchen staff should also be trained in

tributes of certain items to customers.

proper handling of questions from customers con-

STANDARD MENU LANGUAGE: Many customers are

cerning the presence or absence of an ingredient in

generally aware of nutrition issues. Using descrip-

a particular dish. Although the kitchen staff is aware

tive language like grilled or vegetable coulis is often

of the foods that are used in a dish, they should be

enough to tip them off as to the healthfulness of an

taught to consider whether or not any prepared products are part of the ingredients. Many prepared prod-

item.

ucts, such as Worcestershire sauce and soup bases,

ICONS: Small symbols that indicate a particular

contain ingredients that some customers wish to

ingredient, health, or nutrition attribute are ap-

avoid, but they are often overlooked. If kitchen staff

propriate in some situations. If they are used, their

members are unsure of the ingredients in a prepared

meaning should be clearly explained in the menu. If

product, they should always check the label.

an icon refers to a health or nutrition claim, written

Proper training carries with it an advantage be-

substantiation must be available upon request. A ca-

yond superior service and product. Using time and re-

veat: Icons used to indicate healthy selections may

sources to educate your staff usually has the effect

suggest negative connotations to customers who

of making them feel valuable, resulting in improved

associate healthy foods with a lack of flavor.

productivity and reduced employee turnover.

REFERRALS: A phrase at the bottom of the menu

indicating that nutrition information is available

THE CUSTOMER

on request is a subtle way to infer that the menu

When composing the language of a new menu, every

includes healthy selections.

chef is confronted with the dilemma of how much or

HEALTHY COOKING DEMONSTRATIONS: Cooking

how little information about the healthfulness of the

demonstrations are a great way to encourage people

food to relay to the customer, and what form this

to try your healthy selections and generally promote

communication should take. Because this decision is

the operation.

dependent upon the type of establishment and the

DEVELOPING HEALTHY RECIPES AND MENUS

187


LABELS: On prepackaged foods, Nutrition Facts

FAMILY-STYLE RESTAURANTS

labels work very well. Nutrition software packFamily-style restaurants cater to people who are

ages are available that analyze recipes and create

looking for affordable, wholesome, familiar foods.

nutrition labels in the FDA format according to your

They often offer a wide variety of menu choices, and

specifications. If these are used, care should be

chances are they serve some customers who are in-

taken to ensure that the portion sizes in the package

terested in healthy fare. The informal style of this

match the size given on the label.

type of restaurant suggests a more direct approach to nutrition communication.

SPAS AND HEALTH RESORTS

SPECIAL MENU SECTIONS: Grouping healthy choices

People who patronize spas and health resorts are

into their own menu category makes it easy for

the most likely of all to be interested in the calorie

customers to identify these selections.

and nutrient content of the foods they are eating. In

PLACEMATS: Paper placemats can be used as a

this type of setting, the most obvious approaches are

vehicle for promoting and listing nutrition and health

suitable.

information about certain menu items.

SPECIAL MENUS: Menus designed to provide a set

THE DIRECT APPROACH: Listing nutrition facts and

number of calories and nutrients for each meal

health claims right on the menu may be an appropri-

period provide the guests with an understanding

ate choice in this type of setting.

of healthy ingredients, cooking techniques, and portion sizes. Complete nutrient information can be

PAMPHLETS: Prominently displayed pamphlets are a

included on the menu for each course or item, and

great way to communicate the nutrition information

for the entire meal.

for all or some of the menu items.

DAILY MEAL PLANS: These provide the guests

HOME MEAL REPLACEMENT

with guidelines for making healthy eating choices throughout the day.

Home meal replacement is one of the fastest-grow-

COOKING DEMONSTRATIONS: Most guests are

ing trends in the food-service industry. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a sign of

interested in learning how to cook healthy meals in

the times; people seem to have less leisure time than

their own homes.

ever before. Rather than spend those precious few hours on grocery shopping and preparing meals, they

CAFETERIAS, SCHOOLS, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS

often prefer to purchase carryout home-style meals. Because these meals are meant to replace homecooked foods, they are particularly good candidates

These types of operations serve a diverse clientele in

for nutrition labeling.

a very informal setting. The self-service approach to

PAMPHLETS: As in a family-style operation, pam-

the menu offerings suggests a similar treatment of

phlets make a visible statement that your establish-

nutrition and health communication.

ment cares about providing healthful meals for its

KIOSKS: Although expensive, kiosks containing a

customers.

self-serve computer database of nutrition informa-

SIGNAGE: Menu boards and special posters can be

tion are highly visible and attract the curious.

used to indicate which selections are healthy and why.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

188


SUMMARY

NUTRITION BINDERS: A loose-leaf binder containing

the nutrition information is a much cheaper alternative to a computerized system and is also simple to

DINING ROOM STAFF MEMBERS should be trained

change or update.

to let the foods speak for themselves. Rather than

ICONS: Symbols denoting ingredient, health, or

emphasizing that a food is low in fat or calories, for

nutrition attributes are particularly appropriate

instance, the server should highlight ingredients and

for hospitals and other health-care facilities. Their

cooking methods used in the preparation that are, by

meaning must be clearly explained and the nutrition

definition, healthy.

documentation must be readily available to substan-

Servers should also be trained in how to handle

tiate claims.

special requests.

SIGNAGE: Small signs next to certain dishes on the

Kitchen staff need to understand the basics of nutri-

serving line work well in a cafeteria setting.

tion and the goals of your establishment to provide

COOKING CLASSES AND DEMONSTRATIONS: These

genuinely healthy menu selections. They should be

are a great way to educate patients and staff in

trained to stick to standard recipes and to carefully

hospitals, and they are wonderful for schoolchildren,

portion and trim ingredients.

who love to watch and be involved.

There are dozens of ways to communicate nutrition information to customers. Individual operators

FAST-FOOD RESTAURANTS

need to choose the method that is most appropriate to the establishment they are running and to their

Although fast-food restaurants are not particularly

customer base.

known for their healthful menu selections, many are making an effort to offer more of these options. In the public interest, most fast-food chains make nutrition information on all their menu items available to their customers, which allows them to make informed choices. Many fast-food restaurants are adding healthier alternatives to their menu; however, check the nutritional content for parts of these dishes that may add extra calories, such as salad dressing. POSTERS: This is an inexpensive way to prominently

display nutrition information. PAMPHLETS: These can contain a smaller version of

a nutrition poster for customers to take home with their carryout meals. WEBSITES: Several of the larger fast-food chains

maintain websites that include complete information on nutrition and ingredients.

DEVELOPING HEALTHY RECIPES AND MENUS

189


5 First-course dishes, even when they are served as the main event, are a good place to start when you want to introduce healthier options on your menu. Soups can be brothy and light, perfect

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS as the first course for a multicourse meal. Salads can incorporate grains, legumes, and pastaâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and other filling ingredients can be incorporated into salads so that they can be served as appetizers or an entrĂŠe.


Carefully chosen and measured amounts of ingredi-

3. Bring the mixture to 145°F/63°C, stirring frequently until the raft just begins to form, 8 to 10 minutes. Look for the proteins to start to float and form small quarter-size clumps with lighter, unclarified broth between them. Once the raft forms, create a small hole in part of the raft. If using, add the oignons brûlés to the stock near the hole.

ents that are typically high in fat, sodium, or calories can give these smaller dishes a significant boost in flavor. Olives and capers add a punch of salty savor and let you cut back on the salt you might otherwise feel compelled to add. A bit of cheese, or even bacon, piques the appetite without tempting your guests to

4. Simmer slowly at approximately 180°F/82°C until the appropriate flavor and clarity is achieved, 1 to 11⁄2 hours. Baste the raft occasionally through the opening. Always taste to make sure the consommé has developed full flavor before straining.

overindulge.

Appetizers, whether you serve them as a plated

first course or miniaturize them to serve on a buffet or passed on a tray, give the chef freedom to experiment with less familiar cuisines and open up a whole

5. Strain the consommé through a damp paper filter or rinsed doubled cheesecloth. Use a ladle to push down on the raft carefully at the hole and allow the broth to flow into the ladle before pouring through the filter. Repeat until the raft hits the bottom of the pot. Carefully tilt the broth into the ladle and do not break the raft. Adjust seasoning with salt as needed. The consommé is now ready to finish, or it may be rapidly cooled and refrigerated for later service.

new avenue for broadening your repertoire.

BEEF CONSOMMÉ BATCH YIELD: 1 gal/3.84 L SERVINGS: 20

6. To finish the soup for service, return it to a boil. Degrease the hot consommé by skimming or blotting with paper towels, or lift the fat from the surface of the refrigerated consommé.

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL consommé NUTRITION PER SERVING: 131 calories, 2 g fat, 10 g total carbohydrate, 12 g protein, 396 mg sodium, 61 mg cholesterol

7. Taste the consommé and adjust seasoning with salt. Serve in heated bowls or cups and garnish as desired.

CLARIFICATION

1 lb/454 g minced or ground Mirepoix (page 455)

The aromatics can be added as a sachet (which will better control the flavor of the finished product) or as loose ingredients. NOTES

3 lb/1.36 kg lean ground beef 12 egg whites, beaten 1 oz/28 g salt, plus as needed

If the first clarification was less than successful, clarify a second time by combining 1 gal/3.84 L cold consommé with no more than 12 beaten egg whites, a small amount of mirepoix, and 1 tbsp/15 mL chopped tomatoes. Bring the consommé slowly to a boil. As the egg whites coagulate, the impurities will be trapped. This emergency measure, however, tends to remove not only the impurities but some flavor as well.

10 oz/284 g fresh or canned tomatoes, chopped 1 Sachet d’Épices (page 455), plus 1 clove and 2 allspice berries (see Notes) 6 qt/5.76 L White Beef Stock, cold 2 oignons brûlés

CHICKEN CONSOMMÉ Replace the lean ground beef with an equal amount of ground chicken and replace the white beef stock with an equal amount of chicken stock. VARIATIONS

1. Blend the mirepoix, beef, egg whites, salt, tomatoes, and the sachet ingredients. Allow to macerate for 1 to 2 hours if time permits. 2. Heat the stock to approximately 100°F/38°C in a stockpot sized to accommodate all the ingredients. Add the clarification mixture to the stock. Stir to combine thoroughly.

GAME HEN CONSOMMÉ Replace the lean ground beef

with an equal amount of ground game hen meat and replace the white beef stock with an equal amount of chicken stock.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

192


MUSHROOM CONSOMMÉ WITH SHIITAKE, BOK CHOY, AND CARROT CURLS

2. Combine the clarification ingredients and the reserved chopped mushrooms in a large stockpot. Add the infused stock to the mixture and blend well. 3. Slowly simmer, stirring frequently until the clarification begins to form a mass, or raft. Break a small hole in the raft, to help you monitor the cooking speed. Baste the raft occasionally with the stock. Simmer gently until the stock is clear and flavorful, about 45 minutes.

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL consommé,

1 oz/28 g vegetables

4. Drain the consommé through a cheesecloth-lined sieve. Do not disturb the raft if possible. Degrease the consommé by skimming the surface with paper towels or cool and remove the solidified fat layer.

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 44 calories, 0 g fat, 3 g total

carbohydrate, 8 g protein, 180 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

5. Sweat the garnish ingredients in a small amount of the consommé.

MUSHROOM-INFUSED STOCK

2 qt/1.92 L Vegetable Stock (page 454)

6. Heat the consommé just before serving.

2 oz/57 g dried Chinese mushrooms

7. To serve, ladle out 6 fl oz/180 mL of hot consommé and garnish with 1 oz/28 g tender vegetables.

CLARIFICATION MIXTURE

1 lb 2 oz/510 g ground chicken 2½ oz/71 g tomato concassé 1½ oz/43 g sliced onion 1 oz/28 g sliced carrots 1 oz/28 g sliced celery 1 oz/28 g leeks, split lengthwise, thinly sliced 5 egg whites, lightly beaten 1 thyme sprig 1 bay leaf 1 clove GARNISH

4½ oz/128 g sliced shiitake mushrooms 3 oz/85 g carrot, cut into curls or julienne 3 oz/85 g baby bok choy, cut into julienne 1. To make the mushroom-infused stock, combine the stock with the mushrooms in a large stockpot. Bring to a simmer over medium heat. Remove from the heat, cover, and steep for 30 minutes. Strain the stock and reserve the mushrooms. Squeeze the mushrooms to extract any excess liquid. Return the liquid to the strained stock and cool completely. Chop the mushrooms and reserve.

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

193


GAME HEN CONSOMMÉ WITH ROASTED GARLIC CUSTARDS

WONTON SOUP BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL consommé, 2 wontons,

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L

1 oz/28 g vegetables

SERVINGS: 10

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 172 calories, 2 g fat, 20 g total carbohydrate, 17 g protein, 747 mg sodium, 18 mg cholesterol

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL consommé, 1 garlic

custard, 2 tsp/10 mL wild rice, 1 tsp/5 g each game hen and prosciutto

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 310 calories, 14 g fat, 19 g total carbohydrate, 27 g protein, 610 mg sodium, 125 mg cholesterol

CHICKEN WONTONS

14 oz/397 g cooked chicken, finely shredded 7 oz/199 g soft tofu

ROASTED GARLIC CUSTARD

3½ oz/99 g minced garlic

10 fl oz/300 mL skim milk

3½ fl oz/105 mL hoisin sauce

4 fl oz/120 mL evaporated skim milk

2 oz/57 g minced ginger

2 eggs

2 oz/57 g chopped green onion

2 egg whites, lightly beaten

1 tbsp/15 mL tamari

1 head garlic, roasted

Twenty 3-in/7.5-cm wonton wrappers

¼ tsp/0.50 g ground white pepper

2 qt/1.92 L Chicken Consommé (page 192)

Vegetable oil spray, as needed

GARNISH

2 qt/1.92 L Game Hen Consommé (page 192)

2½ oz/71 g julienned bok choy

GARNISH

2½ oz/71 g black mushrooms

1¾ oz/50 g game hen breast, poached, diced

2½ oz/71 g julienned leek

1¾ oz/50 g diced prosciutto

2 ½ oz/71 g julienned carrot

3½ oz/99 g cooked wild rice

¼ oz/7 g chervil pluches

1. Purée the custard ingredients in a blender. Strain through a fine-mesh sieve.

1. Mash the chicken, tofu, garlic, hoisin sauce, ginger, green onion, and tamari together with a fork.

2. Use vegetable oil spray to lightly grease ten 2-fl-oz/60-mL timbales. Fill with the custard and bake in a 170°F/77°C water bath in a 300°F/149°C oven until just barely set. Keep the custards warm.

2. Place a small amount of the filling in the center of each wonton wrapper. Brush the edges of the wrappers with water and fold into triangles. Press to release any trapped air and to seal the edges. Twist and press the 2 triangle points together to form wontons.

3. Heat the consommé just before serving.

3. Cook the wontons in a large pot of simmering water until they rise to the surface and the wonton wrappers are tender and cooked through. Drain and reserve.

4. To serve, arrange the garnish (1 tsp/5 g each game hen and prosciutto, 2 tsp/10 mL wild rice) and 1 garlic custard in a warm bowl. Cover with 6 fl oz/180 mL hot consommé.

4. Heat the consommé and the wontons just before serving. 5. To serve, arrange 1⁄4 oz/7 g garnish and 2 wontons into a warm bowl. Cover with 6 fl oz/180 mL hot consommé.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

194


Wonton Soup

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

195


MICHIGAN WHITE BEAN SOUP

CANNELLINI BEAN AND GARLIC SOUP

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L

SERVINGS: 10

SERVINGS: 10

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 147 calories, 2 g fat, 22 g total carbohydrate, 11 g protein, 233 mg sodium, 7 mg cholesterol

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 272 calories, 5 g fat, 43 g total carbohydrate, 11 g protein, 646 mg sodium, 4 mg cholesterol

12 oz/340 g dried Great Northern white beans, soaked overnight

6 oz/170 g dried cannellini beans, soaked overnight

1½ qt/1.44 L Chicken Stock (page 454)

2 tbsp/30 mL extra-virgin olive oil

1½ oz/43 g minced bacon

4 oz/113 g sliced shallot

2½ oz/71 g diced leek

2 sage leaves

2½ oz/71 g diced onion

2 bay leaves

1 tsp/3 g minced garlic

40 fl oz/1.20 L Vegetable Stock (page 454)

1 thyme sprig

2 tsp/6.50 g salt

2 bay leaves

½ tsp/2.50 mL lemon juice

½ tsp/1.50 g salt

Pinch cayenne

1 oz/28 g butter

¼ tsp/0.50 g ground black pepper

10 slices baguette, grilled 1¼ tsp/6 mL extra-virgin olive oil

1. Drain the beans and simmer in the stock until the beans are almost tender, about 30 minutes.

1. Drain and rinse the beans. Cover with cold water by at least 2 inches and bring to a boil over high heat. Reduce heat to a simmer and cook until completely tender, about 40 minutes.

2. Render the bacon in a large skillet over medium heat to release its fat. Add the leek, onion, and garlic and sweat until translucent. Add the sautéed onion mixture, thyme, and bay leaves to the beans and simmer until the beans are completely tender. Remove and discard the thyme and bay leaves.

2. In a medium soup pot, add the butter, oil, shallots, and garlic; cook over medium-low heat until the shallots have softened, about 10 minutes.

3. Heat the soup just before serving. Season the soup with the salt and pepper and serve.

3. Add the sage leaves, bay leaves, and cooked beans and stir to combine. Add the stock and bring the mixture to a simmer, cook gently for 15 minutes. Remove the sage and bay leaves; allow to cool slightly.

To reduce the length of soaking time, bring the beans and stock to a boil, remove from the heat, and allow to soak for 1 hour. Continue with the recipe. NOTE

4. Place the soup in a blender and purée, in batches if necessary. Add the salt, lemon juice, and cayenne. Stir to combine and keep warm over very low heat. 5. Serve 6 fl oz/180 mL soup with 1 slice bread and a drizzle of oil.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

196


CHICKPEA SOUP WITH GREENS

SUMMER-STYLE LENTIL SOUP

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L

SERVINGS: 10

SERVINGS: 10

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL soup, 1⁄2 tsp/0.5 g herbs

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 270 calories, 13 g fat, 31 g total carbohydrate, 10 g protein, 330 mg sodium, 10 mg cholesterol

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 200 calories, 4.5 g fat, 28 g total carbohydrate, 13 g protein, 610 mg sodium, 10 mg cholesterol

14 oz/397 g dried chickpeas, soaked overnight

1 oz/28 g minced bacon

12 oz/340 g diced onion

3 oz/85 g diced onion

4 oz/113 g pancetta

¼ oz/7 g minced garlic

Salt, as needed

2½ oz/71 g diced leek

2 fl oz/60 mL extra-virgin olive oil

2 oz/57 g sliced carrot

3 garlic cloves, minced

1¾ oz/50 g sliced celery

4¼ oz/120 g coarsely chopped escarole or Swiss chard

1 oz/28 g tomato paste

4 oz/113 g farro, cooked

2 qt/1.92 L Chicken or Vegetable Stock (page 454) 10 oz/284 g French lentils, sorted, rinsed

1. Drain and rinse the chickpeas. Place them in a saucepan with half of the onion and the pancetta. Make sure that you have enough water to cover all of the ingredients, 10 to 12 cups.

1 Sachet d’Épices (page 455) 3 strips lemon peel 1 tbsp/15 mL dry white wine 1 tbsp/15 mL sherry vinegar

2. Bring to a boil over high heat, skim the foam, add a bit of salt, then reduce heat to low and cook until tender, about 1 hour. Remove about 10 oz/284 g chickpeas and set them aside. Continue to cook the rest until they are quite soft. When the beans are very, very soft (about 11⁄2 hours), purée in a blender along with their liquids. You may purée the pancetta or prosciutto along with the beans.

1 tsp/3 g salt ¼ tsp/0.50 g ground black pepper HERB GARNISH

1 tbsp/3 g chopped chives 1 tbsp/3 g chopped parsley

3. In a large saucepan, heat the oil over medium heat. Add the remaining onions and sauté over low heat for about 10 minutes. Add the garlic and cook for a minute or two. Add the escarole or chard. Stir until the greens wilt and are somewhat tender, 10 to 15 minutes.

1. Render the bacon in a large sauté pan to release its fat. Add the onion and garlic and sweat until translucent. 2. Add the leek, carrot, and celery to the pan. Cover and sweat until the vegetables are tender. Add the tomato paste and sauté until brown. Add the stock, lentils, sachet, and lemon peel. Simmer until the lentils are tender, about 20 minutes.

4. Combine the cooked greens, the reserved chickpeas, and the puréed soup base. Add water to thin if necessary. Adjust seasoning. The soup should be pretty peppery. You may not need much salt because of the pancetta. Stir in the farro. Serve warm.

3. Remove and discard the sachet and lemon peel strips. Add the wine, vinegar, salt, and pepper. 4. Garnish each portion of soup with the chives and parsley.

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

197


LOUISIANA CHICKEN AND SHRIMP GUMBO

3. Place the browned flour in a large bowl. Slowly whisk some of the soup liquid into the flour until smooth. Add the flour mixture to the pot and simmer until thickened, about 10 minutes. Add the shrimp and simmer until cooked, about 5 minutes. Discard the bay leaf.

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L

4. To serve, portion the hot soup into heated bowls.

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL NUTRITION PER SERVING: 140 calories, 3 g fat, 18 g total carbohydrate, 9 g protein, 440 mg sodium, 47 mg cholesterol

POTATO AND VEGETABLE SOUP

2½ oz/71 g bread flour 1 oz/28 g diced andouille sausage

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L

2½ oz/71 g chopped chicken

SERVINGS: 10

2½ oz/71 g diced bell peppers

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL

2½ oz/71 g diced celery

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 120 calories, 3.5 g fat, 17 g total

carbohydrate, 7 g protein, 580 mg sodium, 10 mg cholesterol

2 tbsp/18 g diced jalapeño 2 oz/57 g green onions, split lengthwise, thinly sliced 1 tsp/3 g minced garlic

5 oz/142 g sliced Spanish-style chorizo

1 ½ qt/1.44 L Chicken Stock (page 454)

1 tbsp/15 mL olive oil

2½ oz/71 g brown rice

3 oz/85 g diced onion

1¼ tsp/2.50 g filé powder

2 tsp/6 g minced garlic

1 bay leaf

1 oz/28 g diced celery

1 tsp/1 g chopped oregano

1½ tsp/3 g cumin seeds

1 tsp/1 g chopped thyme

40 fl oz/1.20 L Chicken Stock (page 454)

1 tsp/1 g chopped basil

12 oz/340 g tomato concassé

1 tsp/2 g ground black pepper

5 oz/142 g potato, peeled and diced

½ tsp/1 g onion powder

4 oz/113 g diced red pepper

1 tsp/3 g salt

4 oz/113 g diced green pepper

2½ oz/71 g okra

1½ oz/43 g tomato paste

3½ oz/99 g tomato concassé

1 bay leaf

1¾ oz/50 g peeled and deveined shrimp, chopped

½ tsp/0.50 g chopped oregano 2 tbsp/6 g chopped parsley

1. Toast the flour in a 325°F/163°C oven until it turns dark brown.

1 tsp/3 g salt 8 oz/227 g corn kernels, fresh or frozen

2. Render the sausage in a large soup pot over medium heat to release its fat. Add the chicken and sauté until browned. Add the peppers, celery, jalapeño, green onions, and garlic and sauté until aromatic. Add the stock and bring to a boil. Add the rice, filé powder, bay leaf, oregano, thyme, basil, black pepper, onion powder, and salt. Simmer until the rice is almost cooked, about 30 minutes. Add the okra and tomatoes.

¼ tsp/0.50 g ground black pepper 2 tbsp/6 g chopped cilantro, for garnish 1. Dry sauté the chorizo in a soup pot over medium heat until browned. Transfer to paper towels to drain.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

198


2. Heat the oil in the same pot over medium heat. Add the onions, garlic, celery, and cumin seeds, and sweat until the onions are translucent. Add the cooked chorizo, stock, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, tomato paste, bay leaf, oregano, half the parsley, and the salt. Bring to a boil, reduce heat, and simmer until the potatoes are tender. Stir in the corn and black pepper and simmer until thoroughly heated. Discard the bay leaf.

1. Drain and rinse the beans and simmer in fresh water until almost tender. Drain and reserve. 2. Steam the mussels in the wine. Remove the mussels, strain the steaming liquid, and add to the fish fumet. Remove the mussels from the shells; roughly chop and reserve. 3. Render the bacon in the oil in a large soup pot over medium heat to release its fat. Add the onion, leeks, celery, and garlic. Sweat until the onions are translucent. Add the tomato paste and sauté until brown. Add the tomato concassé, salt, rosemary, thyme, pepper, bay leaf, lemon, and cooked beans. Simmer until the beans are tender.

3. Garnish each portion with the remaining parsley and the cilantro and serve.

SEAFOOD MINESTRONE

4. Add the rice, shrimp, and reserved mussels. Continue to simmer until the shrimp are cooked, about 10 minutes.

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L

5. To serve, portion the hot soup into a heated bowl.

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL

To reduce the length of soaking time, bring the beans and stock to a boil, remove from the heat, and allow to soak for 1 hour. Continue with the recipe. NOTE

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 190 calories, 4 g fat, 20 g total carbohydrate, 19 g protein, 290 mg sodium, 15 mg cholesterol

4 oz/113 g dried red kidney beans, soaked overnight 16 mussels, scrubbed, debearded 5 tbsp/75 mL dry white wine 1 ½ qt/1.44 L Fish Fumet (page 455) ½ oz/14 g slivered bacon 1 tbsp/15 mL olive oil 4 oz/113 g sliced onion 5 oz/142 g leeks, split lengthwise, thinly sliced 1 oz/28 g sliced celery ½ oz/14 g minced garlic 1¾ oz/50 g tomato paste 10 oz/284 g tomato concassé 1 tsp/3 g salt 1 tsp/1 g chopped rosemary 1 tsp/1 g chopped thyme Pinch ground black pepper 1 bay leaf 1 lemon slice, sliced ½ in/1 cm thick 2½ oz/71 g cooked Arborio rice 1¾ oz/50 g peeled deveined shrimp, chopped

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

199


PARAGUAYAN DUMPLING SOUP (BORI-BORI)

2. Add the stock and simmer until the beef is tender, 45 to 60 minutes. Remove the shanks and set aside to cool. Strain the broth through a fine sieve. There should be at least 11⁄2 qt/1.44 L broth remaining. If not, add enough stock to make up the difference.

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L

3. In a large stockpot, sweat the onion, carrot, celery, and garlic in about 1 tsp/5 mL additional bacon fat. Add the reserved 11⁄2 qt/1.44 L broth, clove, bay leaf, and saffron and simmer for 30 minutes.

SERVINGS: 8 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 8 fl oz/240 mL NUTRITION PER SERVING: 360 calories, 20 g fat, 23 g total carbohydrate, 20 g protein, 800 mg sodium, 55 mg cholesterol

4. Remove the twine from the shanks and cut the cooked meat into medium dice. Add to the soup and keep warm.

1 lb/454 g boneless beef shank, tied

5. Meanwhile, prepare the dumplings. Heat the oil in a large soup pot, and sweat the onion until tender, 4 to 5 minutes. Set aside.

1 tsp/3 g salt ½ tsp/1 g ground black pepper ½ oz/14 g bacon fat, plus 1 tsp/5 mL

6. In a large bowl, combine the cooled onion with the cornmeal, flour, cheese, baking powder, salt, and pepper. Mix until well blended. Whisk the egg, add to the mixture, and mix well to blend.

2 qt/1.92 L Chicken Stock (page 454) 8 oz/227 g minced onion 4 oz/113 g small-dice carrot

7. Form the dough into a ball and knead for 3 to 4 minutes. Cover with plastic wrap and let rest for 45 minutes. Form the dough into portions the size of a small marble.

4 oz/113 g small-dice celery 2 garlic cloves, minced 1 clove 1 bay leaf

8. Test by cooking 1 dumpling for 10 minutes in the simmering soup. Evaluate the quality and flavor and adjust seasoning.

Pinch saffron threads DUMPLINGS

9. Add the dumplings to the soup and simmer gently for 10 to 15 minutes, or until the dumplings are cooked through.

3 tbsp/45 mL olive oil ½ oz/14 g finely minced onion 3 oz/85 g cornmeal

10. Garnish each portion with the parsley and a sprinkling of cheese and serve.

2¼ oz/64 g all-purpose flour 1½ oz/43 g Parmesan 1 tbsp/9 g baking powder 1 tsp/3 g salt ½ tsp/1 g ground black pepper 1 egg GARNISH

1 tbsp/3 g chopped parsley 2 oz/57 g grated Parmesan 1. Season the beef with the salt and pepper. Heat 1⁄2 oz/14 g bacon fat in a rondeau over medium heat, and sear the meat until it is well browned on all sides.

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TORTILLA SOUP

6. Return the heat to medium. Working in small batches, fry the tortilla strips in the chile-infused oil until golden and crisp. Remove with a slotted spoon and drain on paper towels.

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L SERVINGS: 10

7. Remove the epazote sprigs from the soup prior to serving. Garnish each serving with fried tortillas, pasilla chiles, avocado, and queso fresco.

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL NUTRITION PER SERVING: 120 calories, 3.5 g fat, 17 g total carbohydrate, 7 g protein, 580 mg sodium, 10 mg cholesterol

½ white onion (about 10 oz/284 g), halved, peeled 2 garlic cloves, unpeeled 1 lb 8 oz/680 g plum tomatoes, cored 4 fl oz/120 mL canola oil 2 qt/1.92 L Chicken Stock (page 454) 6 epazote sprigs, tied with a string Salt, as needed 2 pasilla chiles GARNISH

Twelve 6-inch corn tortillas, cut into julienne 1 medium avocado, cut into medium dice 8 oz/227 g crumbled queso fresco 1. Dry roast the onion, garlic, and tomatoes each separately on a comal or in a cast-iron skillet over medium-high heat until the tomatoes begin to soften and their edges char. Once the garlic skin begins to brown, remove it from the heat and peel. 2. Purée the roasted tomatoes, onion, and garlic in a blender. 3. Heat 1 fl oz/30mL of the oil in a stockpot over medium-high heat and fry the puréed mixture, stirring frequently, until it deepens in color, about 5 minutes. Add the stock and epazote. Season with salt and bring the soup to a simmer. Simmer for 45 minutes. 4. Meanwhile, slice the pasilla chiles crosswise into 1 ⁄2-in/1-cm rings. Shake the rings to remove the seeds. Discard the stems and seeds. 5. Heat the remaining 3 fl oz/90 mL oil in a medium sauteuse over medium-high heat until very hot but not smoking. Add the chile slices and immediately turn off the heat; transfer the slices at once with a slotted spoon to a paper towel–lined plate. This step needs to be done very fast to prevent the chiles from burning.

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TRADITIONAL BLACK BEAN SOUP

CUBAN BLACK BEAN SOUP When simmering the beans in step 2, add a sachet of 2 cloves, pinch each allspice berries and toasted cumin seeds, and cracked black peppercorns. Remove the sachet when the beans have cooked. Combine 2 tbsp/30 mL Vinaigrette-Style Dressing (page 470), 3 oz/85 g cooked white rice, 1 oz/28 g thinly sliced green onions, and ¾ oz/21 g wilted spinach chiffonade. Divide this evenly to garnish each portion. VARIATION

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL NUTRITION PER SERVING: 161 calories, 3 g fat, 23 g total carbohydrate, 10 g protein, 434 mg sodium, 6 mg cholesterol

BEET-FENNEL-GINGER SOUP

12 oz/340 g dried black beans 2 qt/1.92 L Chicken or Vegetable Stock (page 454) ½ oz/14 g minced bacon

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L

4 oz/113 g diced onion

SERVINGS: 10

½ oz/14 g minced garlic

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL soup,

1 tsp/15 mL yogurt

Pinch ground cumin

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 110 calories, 1 g fat, 21 g total carbohydrate, 15 g protein, 180 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

1 lemon, thickly sliced ½ oz/14 g toasted, chopped ancho chile 1 tsp/3 g minced jalapeño 1 oz/28 g chopped sun-dried tomatoes

1 lb 12 oz/795 g chopped beets

1 tsp/1 g dried oregano

1 lb/454 g chopped savoy cabbage

1 tsp/3 g salt

1 lb/454 g chopped fennel

1 tbsp/15 mL sherry vinegar

2 tsp/6 g chopped garlic 1½ oz/43 g chopped ginger

1. Soak the beans for 8 to 12 hours in enough cold water to cover by 3 in/8 cm (see Note). Rinse and drain the beans and simmer in the stock in a large soup pot until the beans are tender.

2 qt/1.92 L Vegetable Stock (page 454)

2. Render the bacon in a sauté pan over medium heat to release its fat. Add the onion, garlic, and cumin. Sweat until the onions are translucent. Add the sautéed onion mixture, the lemon, chile, jalapeño, tomatoes, oregano, and salt to the beans and simmer until all ingredients are very hot and the soup is flavorful, about 15 minutes.

GARNISH

1 tsp/3 g salt ¼ tsp/0.50 g ground black pepper

5 oz/150 mL drained nonfat yogurt 2 tbsp/6 g fennel sprigs 1. Combine the beets, cabbage, fennel, garlic, ginger, and stock in a large soup pot. Bring to a boil, cover, and simmer until the vegetables are tender.

3. Remove and discard the lemon slices. Purée onethird of the beans and add the purée back to the soup. Finish the soup by adding the vinegar.

2. Strain the soup through a large-holed sieve. Purée the vegetables and a small amount of stock in a blender. Use the remaining stock to adjust the consistency of the soup. Season the soup with salt and pepper. Chill the soup. The soup is ready to serve once it is completely cooled.

4. To serve, portion the hot soup into a heated bowl.

To reduce the length of soaking time, bring the beans and stock to a boil, remove from the heat, and allow to soak for 1 hour. Continue with the recipe. NOTE

3. To serve, ladle the cold soup into a chilled bowl or cup. Garnish each portion with 1 tbsp/15 mL yogurt and a few fennel sprigs.

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Cold Asparagus Soup (page 206), Beet-Fennel-Ginger Soup (page 202), and Curried Apple-Squash Soup (page 208) served in 2-fl oz/ 60-mL portions as part of a chilled soup sampler

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

203


CHICKEN AND RICE STEW

5. Return the chicken to the pan and coat with tomato mixture. Cover and simmer until chicken is tender, about 30 minutes. Transfer to a plate and remove the meat from the bones. Cut into large dice.

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L SERVINGS: 10

6. Stir the stock, rice, and black pepper into the remaining tomato mixture. Bring to a boil. Cover and simmer until done, about 20 minutes. The mixture will still be soupy when the rice is done.

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL NUTRITION PER SERVING: 300 calories, 19 g fat, 18 g total carbohydrate, 13 g protein, 192 mg sodium, 152 mg cholesterol

7. Add the peas, cheese, olives, and capers. Mix well, then add the cooked chicken, arranging pimiento strips on top. Cover and simmer for a few minutes to heat peas and chicken. The final consistency should be that of a thick soup. Adjust seasoning as needed and serve.

1 tsp/3 g coarsely chopped garlic 1 tsp/3 g salt ½ tsp/1 g dried oregano One 3-lb/1.36-kg chicken, cut into 8 pieces, skin removed 3 tbsp/45 mL olive oil 4 oz/113 g finely chopped green pepper 2 oz/57 g finely chopped onion 4 oz/113 g small-dice ham 12 oz/340 g tomato concassé 2 qt/1.92 L Chicken Stock (page 454) 13 oz/369 g long-grain white rice ½ tsp/1 g ground black pepper 10 oz/284 g green peas 1½ oz/43 g grated Parmesan 2 oz/57 green olives stuffed with pimiento 1 tbsp/9 g capers, rinsed 2½ oz/71 g pimiento, drained and cut into ½-in/2-cm strips 1. Combine the garlic, salt, and oregano to form a paste. Rub the chicken well with the paste. 2. In a heavy pan, heat the oil over high heat. Brown the chicken, skin side down, a few pieces at a time. Turn and brown evenly on the other side, removing each piece when done. 3. Reduce the heat to medium-low, add the green pepper and onion, and sweat in the remaining oil. Stir in the ham. 4. Add the tomatoes and cook until most of the liquid evaporates and the mixture thickens.

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204


SWEET POTATO SOUP

BUTTERNUT SQUASH SOUP

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L

SERVINGS: 10

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz soup/180 mL

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL soup, 1 tsp/5 mL

whipped cream, 1 tsp/2 g almonds, and 1⁄2 tsp/1 g currants

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 93 calories, 2.5 g fat, 16 g total

carbohydrate, 3 g protein, 330 mg sodium, 8 mg cholesterol

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 160 calories, 4 g fat, 26 g total carbohydrate, 6 g protein, 350 mg sodium, 8 mg cholesterol

2 tbsp/30 mL white wine

3 oz/85 g diced onion

2½ tsp/7.50 g minced ginger

2½ oz/71 g diced celery

1¾ oz/50 g diced onion

1½ oz/43 g diced leek

1¾ oz/50 g diced celery

1 tsp/3 g minced garlic

1 tsp/3 g minced garlic

2 qt/1.92 L Chicken Stock (page 454)

20 fl oz/600 mL Chicken Stock (page 454)

1 lb 8 oz/680 g sweet potatoes, peeled, diced

2 lb/907 g butternut squash, peeled, cubed

1 cinnamon stick

2½ fl oz/75 mL nonfat yogurt

¼ tsp/0.50 g ground nutmeg

3 tbsp/45 mL heavy cream

1 tbsp/15 mL maple syrup

3 fl oz/90 mL sparkling mineral water

1 tsp/3 g salt

1 tsp/3 g salt

4 fl oz/120 mL evaporated skim milk

¼ tsp/0.50 g ground white pepper 2 tbsp/6 g chopped chives, for garnish

GARNISH

10 tsp/50 mL whipped cream 5 tsp/10 g dried currants

1. Heat the wine in a small saucepan and add the ginger. Cover and allow to steep for 30 minutes. Strain and discard the ginger.

1. In a soup pot, sweat the onions, celery, leek, and garlic in a small amount of the stock until translucent. Add the remaining stock, potatoes, cinnamon, and nutmeg. Simmer until the potatoes are tender. Discard the cinnamon stick, purée the soup in a blender, and strain through a fine-mesh sieve.

2. In a soup pot, sweat the onion, celery, and garlic in a small amount of stock until translucent. Add the remaining stock and the squash. Simmer until the squash is tender. Purée the soup using a food processor, blender, or immersion blender. Chill the soup. The soup is ready to finish and serve once it is completely cooled.

10 tsp/20 g slivered almonds, toasted

2. Chill for 8 to 12 hours, allowing the flavor to develop. Add the syrup, salt, and milk to the cold soup.

3. Stir the ginger infusion, yogurt, cream, mineral water, salt, and pepper into the cold soup.

3. To serve, ladle the cold soup into a chilled bowl or cup. Garnish with 1 tsp/5 mL whipped cream, 1 tsp/2 g almonds, and 1⁄2 tsp/1 g currants.

4. To serve, portion the cold soup into a chilled bowl and garnish with the chives.

A small dollop of whipped cream and toasted pumpkin seeds may also be used to garnish the soup. SERVING SUGGESTION

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

205


COLD ASPARAGUS SOUP

CHOWDER OF CORN AND MAINE LOBSTER

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L SERVINGS: 10

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL soup,

SERVINGS: 10

1 tsp whipped cream, 2 asparagus tips

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL soup, 1⁄2 oz/14 g lobster

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 114 calories, 4 g fat, 14 g total carbohydrate, 7 g protein, 392 mg sodium, 12 mg cholesterol

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 130 calories, 2.5 g fat, 19 g total carbohydrate, 9 g protein, 230 mg sodium, 15 mg cholesterol

½ oz/14 g butter

½ oz/14 g butter

2 oz/57 g diced onion

3 oz/85 g green onions, split lengthwise, thinly sliced

2 tsp/6 g minced garlic

20 fl oz/600 mL skim milk

2 tsp/6 g minced shallot

20 fl oz/600 mL Chicken Stock, fortified (page 454)

1 oz/28 g flour

10 oz/284 g Smoked Roasted Corn (page 346)

2 lb 4 oz/1 kg asparagus stems, trimmed, peeled, sliced on the diagonal

8 oz/227 g Idaho potato, peeled, diced

24 fl oz/720 mL Chicken Stock (page 454)

1 thyme sprig

1 tsp/3 g grated lemon zest

½ tsp/2.50 mL Worcestershire sauce

½ tsp/1.50 g salt

½ tsp/1.50 g salt

4 fl oz/120 mL evaporated skim milk

LIAISON

6 fl oz/180 mL evaporated skim milk

GARNISH

½ oz/14 g arrowroot

Whipped cream, as needed 20 asparagus tips, blanched

LOBSTER GARNISH

5 oz/142 g sliced lobster tail 1. In a large soup pot, melt the butter over medium heat. Add the onions, garlic, and shallots and sweat until tender.

1 tbsp/3 g chopped chives 1 tbsp/3 g chopped parsley

2. Add the flour, stirring frequently; cook until thick and pasty, about 5 minutes. Add the asparagus stems, stock, and lemon zest. Simmer until the asparagus stems are tender. Purée the soup in a food processor or blender. Strain the soup through a fine-mesh sieve to remove the asparagus fibers.

1. Melt the butter in a large soup pot over medium heat. Sweat the green onions in the butter until tender. Add the milk, stock, corn, potatoes, thyme, Worcestershire sauce, and salt. Simmer until the potatoes are tender. 2. Whisk together the ingredients for the liaison. Add to the soup and simmer until thickened, about 2 minutes.

3. Stir in the salt and milk. Chill the soup. The soup is ready to serve once it is completely cooled. 4. To serve, ladle the cold soup into a chilled bowl or cup. Garnish each portion with approximately 1 tsp/ 5 mL whipped cream and 2 asparagus tips.

3. To serve, ladle the hot soup into a heated bowl. Garnish each with 1⁄2 oz/14 g lobster and the chives and parsley before serving.

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CHILLED GAZPACHO

VARIATION

CHILLED GAZPACHO WITH SPICY CRAYFISH

Prepare the soup as directed in step 1 above. Toss 10 cooked and peeled crayfish tails in 2 fl oz/60 mL Balsamic Vinaigrette (page 470) and chill for 8 to 12 hours. Drain all excess vinaigrette from the crayfish. Serve the cold soup in chilled bowls and garnish with 1 marinated crayfish, 2½ oz/71 g peeled and diced cucumber, and 2 tbsp/30 mL chopped fennel tops. (For nutrition information, see Recipe Analysis, page 482.)

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL NUTRITION PER SERVING: 90 calories, 5 g fat, 9 g total

carbohydrate, 3 g protein, 300 mg sodium, 5 mg cholesterol

1 qt/960 mL Chicken or Vegetable Stock (page 454) 14 oz/397 g tomato concassé 5 oz/142 g diced green pepper 2½ oz/71 g green onions, split lengthwise, thinly sliced 1¾ oz/50 g peeled, seeded, diced cucumber 1¾ oz/50 g diced celery 1 oz/28 g diced jalapeño 3 tbsp/9 g chopped basil 1 tbsp/3 g chopped tarragon 1 tbsp/15 mL extra-virgin olive oil 1 tbsp/15 mL balsamic vinegar 1 tsp/3 g salt ¼ tsp/0.50 g ground white pepper ½ tsp/2.50 mL hot sauce 2 tsp/10 mL Worcestershire sauce GARNISH

1 garlic clove, peeled 2 tsp/10 mL extra-virgin olive oil 1 oz/28 g toasted croutons 1. Combine all the ingredients except the garnish. Purée with an immersion blender or in batches in a food processor until smooth. Chill for 8 to 12 hours, allowing the flavor to develop. 2. To make the garnish, sauté the garlic clove in the olive oil until aromatic. Add the croutons and sauté until crisp and lightly browned. Cool and reserve. 3. To serve, ladle the cold soup into a chilled bowl or cup. Garnish each portion with a few garlic croutons.

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

207


CHILLED MELON SOUP WITH CALIFORNIA CHAMPAGNE

CURRIED APPLE-SQUASH SOUP BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L SERVINGS: 10

BATCH YIELD: 2 qt/1.92 L

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL soup, 2/3 oz/

SERVINGS: 10

19 g apples

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 fl oz/180 mL soup, 3 tbsp/45 mL

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 138 calories, 2 g fat, 27 g total

cantaloupe purée, 3 raspberries

carbohydrate, 4 g protein, 419 mg sodium, 5 mg cholesterol

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 114 calories, 1 g fat, 20 g total

carbohydrate, 2 g protein, 269 mg sodium, 3 mg cholesterol

1 oz/28 g minced garlic 3 lb 8 oz/1.59 kg honeydew flesh

9½ oz/270 g diced celery

2½ fl oz/75 mL half-and-half

1¾ oz/50 g diced onion

2 tsp/6.50 g salt

5½ oz/156 g diced leek

¼ tsp/0.50 g ground white pepper

3 qt/2.88 L Chicken Stock (page 454)

4 oz/113 g cantaloupe flesh

2 tbsp/12 g curry powder

3 oz/85 g papaya flesh

½ tsp/1 g freshly grated nutmeg

12 fl oz/360 mL dry California Champagne

1 tbsp/6 g ground cinnamon 2 lb 4 oz/1 kg chopped butternut squash

GARNISH

4 lb 8 oz/2.04 kg chopped, peeled Jonagold apple

10 mint leaves

½ tsp/1.50 g salt

30 raspberries

12 fl oz/360 mL buttermilk

1. Purée the honeydew flesh in a blender. Add the half-and-half and season with the salt and pepper. Chill the honeydew purée for at least 4 and up to 24 hours before serving.

GARNISH

6 oz/170 g peeled, diced apple ½ oz/14 g chopped chives

2. Purée the cantaloupe and papaya together. Reserve.

1. In a large soup pot, sweat the garlic, celery, onions, and leeks in a small amount of the stock over medium heat until the onions are translucent. Add the remaining stock, curry powder, nutmeg, and cinnamon and bring to a boil. Add the squash and simmer until tender, about 8 minutes. Add the apples and continue to simmer until all the ingredients are tender, about 5 minutes more.

3. Stir the Champagne into the cold honeydew purée just before serving. 4. To serve, ladle the cold soup into a chilled bowl or cup. Garnish each portion with 3 tbsp/45 mL cantaloupe purée, a mint leaf, and 3 raspberries.

2. Purée the soup using a food mill or an immersion blender and add the salt and buttermilk. Chill the soup for at least 4 and up to 24 hours before serving. 3. To serve, ladle the cold soup into a chilled bowl or cup. Garnish each portion with 2⁄3 oz/19 g apples and some chives.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

208


CARPACCIO OF BEEF WITH FRESH ARTICHOKES AND TOMATO SALAD

WILD RICE SALAD BATCH YIELD: 2 lb 12 oz/1.25 kg SERVINGS: 15 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 oz/85 g

SERVINGS: 10

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 100 calories, 3 g fat, 15 g total

3

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 11⁄4 oz/35 g beef, ⁄4 oz/21 g mixed

carbohydrate, 4 g protein, 80 mg sodium, 2 mg cholesterol

greens, 3 ⁄2 oz/99 g artichoke-tomato salad, 1 tbsp/15 mL dressing 1

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 218 calories, 11 g fat,16 g total carbohydrate, 11 g protein, 414 mg sodium, 23 mg cholesterol

1 lb/454 g wild rice 1½ qt/1.44 L Chicken Stock (page 454)

12 oz/340 g beef tenderloin, trimmed 1 lb 12 oz/795 g cooked artichoke hearts, quartered

5 fl oz/150 mL Vinaigrette-Style Dressing (page 470; see Note)

10 oz/284 g small-dice, peeled, seeded plum tomatoes

5 oz/140 g julienned Granny Smith apple

1¾ oz/50 g minced shallot

5 oz/140 g julienned red pepper

½ oz/14 g chopped basil

1 tsp/1 g chopped sage

5 fl oz/150 mL Balsamic Vinaigrette (page 470)

¾ oz/21 g minced garlic

7½ oz/213 g mixed salad greens

½ oz/14 g minced shallot

Cracked black peppercorns, as needed

3 tbsp/45 mL apple cider

5 fl oz/150 mL Anchovy-Caper Dressing (page 476)

2 oz/57 g chopped walnuts, toasted

1. Chill the beef thoroughly so that it becomes firm enough to slice easily. Slice it very thinly on a slicing machine or with a sharp slicing knife. Lay the slices out on parchment paper as they come off the blade. Do not stack them on top of one another. Cover and refrigerate.

1. Bring the rice and stock to a boil in a medium sauce pot. Cover the pot tightly and cook in a 350°F/177°C oven until the rice is tender, about 45 minutes. Drain any excess liquid. While the rice is still hot, add the vinaigrette and toss well. Gently fold the apples, pepper, and sage into the rice.

2. Place the artichoke hearts, tomatoes, shallots, and basil in a large bowl. Add the vinaigrette and toss to coat evenly. Remove vegetables with a slotted spoon, allowing the excess vinaigrette to drain back into the bowl. Reserve the vinaigrette to dress the greens.

2. Sweat the garlic and shallots in the cider in a small saucepan over medium heat until the shallots are translucent. Add the shallot-garlic mixture to the rice. 3. Serve at room temperature, garnished with a sprinkle of the toasted walnuts.

3

3. To serve, toss ⁄4 oz/21 g mixed greens with 1 tbsp/15 mL of the reserved vinaigrette to coat the leaves lightly. Arrange the dressed greens on a chilled plate and top with 31⁄2 oz/99 g of the artichoke-tomato mixture. Place 11⁄4 oz/35 g sliced beef on the plate and season with a generous amount of cracked peppercorns. Drizzle 1 tbsp/15 mL dressing over the beef and serve immediately.

Use walnut oil and cider vinegar in the VinaigretteStyle Dressing recipe on page 470. NOTE

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

209


TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

210


GRILLED GARLIC SHRIMP AND RADISH SALAD

1. Toss the shrimp with the garlic and lime juice. Thread 4 shrimp (approximately 2 oz/57 g total) onto a presoaked bamboo skewer. Repeat with the remaining shrimp and refrigerate until needed. 2. To make the vinaigrette, heat the olive oil in a medium saucepan over medium heat. Add the shrimp shells and sauté until opaque. Add the garlic and shallots and sweat until the shallots are translucent. Add the tomato paste and sauté until rust colored. Deglaze the pan with the brandy and allow to reduce until almost dry. Add the stock and simmer until reduced by half. Strain through a fine-mesh sieve. If necessary, add water or reduce further to yield about 6 fl oz/180 mL. Return to a clean pan and bring to a boil. Whisk in the arrowroot. Bring to a simmer.

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 1 oz/28 g noodles, 2 oz/57 g shrimp,

2 oz/57 g radish salad, 1 tbsp/15 mL vinaigrette

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 270 calories, 9 g fat, 19 g total carbohydrate, 24 g protein, 320 mg sodium, 98 mg cholesterol

2 lb/907 g peeled, deveined shrimp (21/25 count), shells reserved ½ oz/14 g minced garlic 2 limes, juiced

3. Remove the stock from the heat, add the vinegars, and cool completely. Stir the tahini, soy sauce, and jalapeño into the stock. Whisk in the sesame and peanut oils.

VINAIGRETTE

1 tbsp/15 mL olive oil 8 oz/227 g reserved shrimp shells

4. Combine the daikon, radish, carrots, and celery and 3 toss with 2 ⁄4 fl oz/83 mL of the vinaigrette.

½ oz/14 g minced garlic ¾ oz/21 g diced shallot

5. Cook the noodles in boiling water until al dente. Drain and cool. Gently toss the noodles with 6 fl oz/180 mL of the vinaigrette.

2 oz/57 g tomato paste 2 fl oz/60 mL brandy

6. Preheat the grill. Grill a shrimp skewer until the shrimp are cooked, for 3 minutes on each side.

14 fl oz/420 mL Chicken Stock (page 454) 2 tsp/6 g arrowroot

7. To serve, arrange a bed of 1 oz/28 g noodles on a room-temperature plate and place approximately 2 oz/57 g radish salad on top of the noodles. Remove the shrimp from the skewer if desired and arrange over the radish salad. Garnish with cilantro leaves and a pinch each of black and white sesame seeds. Drizzle the plate with 1 tbsp/15 mL of the remaining vinaigrette and serve.

3 tbsp/45 mL apple cider vinegar 3 tbsp/45 mL rice vinegar 1 oz/28 g tahini 2 tbsp/30 mL reduced-sodium soy sauce 2 tbsp/18 g minced jalapeño 1 tbsp/15 mL sesame oil 1 tbsp/15 mL peanut oil RADISH SALAD

5½ oz/156 g finely julienned daikon 5½ oz/156 g finely julienned radish 5½ oz/156 g finely julienned carrot ½ oz/14 g finely julienned celery 10 oz/284 g soba noodles GARNISH

2 oz/57 g cilantro leaves ¼ tsp/0.50 g black sesame seeds ¼ tsp/0.50 g white sesame seeds SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

211


RED LENTIL SALAD

SMOKED DUCK WITH RED LENTIL SALAD AND GOLDEN BEETS

BATCH YIELD: 2 lb/907 g SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄4 oz/92 g

SERVINGS: 10

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 103 calories, 6 g fat, 9 g total carbohydrate, 3 g protein, 3 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 11⁄4 oz/35 g duck,

11⁄2 oz/43 g lentil salad, 11⁄2 oz/43 g beets

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 293 calories, 11 g fat, 30 g total carbohydrate, 18 g protein, 643 mg sodium, 35 mg cholesterol

1½ oz/43 g diced red pepper 1 tsp/3 g minced jalapeño

1 lb/454 g boneless, skinless duck breast

2 oz/57 g diced red onion

½ oz/14 g salt

2 tbsp/18 g minced garlic

1 tbsp/15 mL cracked black peppercorns

2 tbsp/30 mL olive oil

2 oz/57 g grated orange zest

12 oz/340 g red lentils, cooked, cooled

2 oz/57 g chopped basil

1½ oz/43 g tomato concassé

1 lb/454 g baby golden beets

1½ oz/43 g diced orange flesh (membranes removed) 2 tbsp/30 mL extra-virgin olive oil

VINAIGRETTE

2 tbsp/30 mL balsamic vinegar

4 fl oz/120 mL balsamic vinegar

2 tbsp/6 g basil chiffonade

1 oz/28 g each chopped basil, chives, parsley, and thyme 1 tbsp/15 mL whole-grain mustard

1. In a large sauté pan, sweat the pepper, jalapeño, onion, and garlic in the oil over medium heat until the onions are translucent. Cool to room temperature.

4 fl oz/120 mL olive oil 8 oz/227 g sliced Maui or other sweet onion 1 lb/454 g Red Lentil Salad (at right)

2. Combine with all of the remaining ingredients and refrigerate for at least 4 and up to 24 hours before serving.

1. Place the duck in a medium bowl. Rub with the salt, peppercorns, orange zest, and basil. Cover tightly with plastic wrap and refrigerate for about 8 hours. 2. Cold smoke the duck breast for 11⁄2 to 2 hours. 3. Sear the duck breast in a skillet over medium heat and roast in a 275°F/135°C oven to an internal temperature of 165°F/74°C. Remove from the oven, place on a wire rack, cool, cover, and refrigerate. 4. Cook the beets in simmering acidulated water until tender. Shock the beets in an ice water bath, remove their skins, and quarter. 5. Make the vinaigrette by combining the vinegar, herbs, and mustard. Gradually whisk in the oil, or use an immersion blender. Toss the beets and onion with the vinaigrette. 6. To serve, arrange about 11⁄4 oz/35 g thinly sliced duck breast on a plate. Serve with 11⁄2 oz/43 g Red Lentil Salad and 11⁄2 oz/43 g beets.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

212


Smoked Duck with Red Lentil Salad and Golden Beets

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

213


Cracked Wheat and Tomato Salad

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

214


CRACKED WHEAT AND TOMATO SALAD

CURRIED RICE SALAD BATCH YIELD: 3 lb 8 oz/1.59 kg SERVINGS: 18

BATCH YIELD: 4 lb/1.82 kg

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 oz/85 g

SERVINGS: 10

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 130 calories, 3 g fat, 22 g total

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 oz/170 g

carbohydrate, 3 g protein, 83 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 360 calories, 23 g fat, 32 g total

carbohydrate, 10 g protein, 310 mg sodium, 10 mg cholesterol

½ oz/14 g curry powder 12 oz/340 g cracked wheat

6 oz/180 mL Vinaigrette-Style Dressing (page 470)

2 lb/907 g tomatoes, peeled, seeded, cut into medium dice

2 oz/57 g golden raisins 2 lb/907 g cooked long-grain brown rice

8 oz/227 g medium-dice red onion

8 oz/227 g cooked green peas

3 oz/85 g medium-dice fresh mozzarella

4 oz/113 g diced onion

3 tbsp/45 mL red wine vinegar

4 oz/113 g diced Granny Smith apple

7 fl oz/210 mL extra-virgin olive oil

2 oz/57 g pumpkin seeds, lightly toasted

2 tbsp/6 g chopped oregano

1 tsp/3 g salt

½ oz/14 g chopped basil

½ tsp/1 g ground black pepper

2 tsp/4 g red pepper flakes 1 tsp/3 g salt

1. Lightly toast the curry powder in a small sauté pan over low heat. Remove the pan from the heat and add the vinaigrette and raisins. Allow the mixture to cool to room temperature.

¼ tsp/0.50 g ground black pepper 1½ oz/43 g finely grated Parmesan (optional)

2. Combine all of the remaining ingredients and toss with the vinaigrette. Serve chilled or at room temperature.

1. Place the cracked wheat in a medium pot, cover with salted water, and simmer until tender, 30 to 35 minutes. Remove from the heat and drain, pressing to release any excess moisture. Let cool to room temperature. 2. Toss the tomatoes, onion, and mozzarella in a large bowl to combine. 3. Whisk together the vinegar, oil, oregano, basil, and pepper flakes in a small bowl. Season with the salt and black pepper. Add to the tomato mixture and toss to coat. Add the cooked wheat and toss well. 4. Serve at room temperature or chill until needed for service. If desired, garnish with the Parmesan.

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

215


BLACK BEAN SALAD

BARLEY SALAD WITH CUCUMBER AND MINT

BATCH YIELD: 2 lb 4 oz/1 kg SERVINGS: 12

BATCH YIELD: 3 lb 12 oz/1.70 kg

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 oz/85 g

SERVINGS: 10

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 178 calories, 4 g fat, 27g total

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 oz/170 g

carbohydrate, 8 g protein, 55 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 230 calories, 7 g fat, 25 g total carbohydrate, 4 g protein, 48 mg sodium, 2 mg cholesterol

12 oz/340 g dried black beans (see Note) 7 oz/198 g diced bell pepper, assorted colors

9½ oz/270 g pearl barley

1½ oz/43 g diced red onion

8 oz/227 g tomatoes, peeled, seeded, cut into small dice

¾ oz/21 g minced jalapeño ¾ oz/21 g minced garlic

7½ oz/213 g cucumber, peeled, seeded, cut into small dice

2 tbsp/6 g chopped cilantro

7 oz/199 g eggplant, roasted, peeled, cut into small dice

4 fl oz/120 mL Lime-Cilantro Vinaigrette (page 471)

3 oz/85 g chopped parsley ¾ oz/21 g chopped mint 1¼ oz/35 g thinly sliced green onion

1. Soak the beans for 8 to 12 hours in enough water to cover by 3 in/8 cm. Rinse and drain the beans and rinse with cold water.

10 fl oz/300 mL extra-virgin olive oil 4½ fl oz/135 mL lemon juice

2. Combine the soaked beans with enough fresh water to cover in a large stockpot. Simmer until the beans are tender, about 11⁄2 hours, adding more water as necessary to keep the beans covered. Drain.

1 tbsp/9 g grated lemon zest 1 tsp/3 g salt ¼ tsp/0.50 g ground black pepper

3. Combine the beans with all of the remaining ingredients for the salad and toss with the vinaigrette.

1. Put the barley in a bowl and cover with cold water. Soak for 30 minutes.

4. Refrigerate for at least 4 and up to 24 hours before serving.

2. Drain the barley well. Transfer it to a medium pot, cover with salted water, and bring to a boil over high heat. Reduce the heat to low and simmer until tender, 40 to 50 minutes.

To reduce the length of soaking time, bring the beans and water to a boil, remove from the heat, and soak for 1 hour. Continue with the recipe. NOTE

3. Drain the barley and rinse with cold water. Drain well and cool completely. 4. Toss together the cooked barley, tomatoes, cucumber, eggplant, parsley, mint, and green onion in a large bowl to combine. 5. Whisk together the oil, lemon juice, lemon zest, salt, and pepper in a small bowl. 6. Pour the dressing over the barley mixture and toss to coat. Serve immediately or chill until needed for service.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

216


Barley Salad with Cucumber and Mint

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

217


Tunisian Chickpea Salad TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

218


TUNISIAN CHICKPEA SALAD

SOBA NOODLE SALAD BATCH YIELD: 2 lb/907 g SERVINGS: 10

BATCH YIELD: 3 lb 12 oz/1.7 kg

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄4 oz/92 g

SERVINGS: 20

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 261 calories, 6 g fat, 47 g total carbohydrate, 9 g protein, 579 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 oz/85 g NUTRITION PER SERVING: 245 calories, 19 g fat, 13 g total carbohydrate, 6 g protein, 365 mg sodium, 55 mg cholesterol

1 lb 4 oz/567 g soba noodles 9½ oz/269 g chickpeas, soaked overnight

2¾ oz/83 mL lime juice

3½ oz/99 g roughly chopped onion

2 fl oz/60 mL rice wine vinegar

2 bay leaves

2 tbsp/30 mL reduced-sodium soy sauce

2 garlic cloves

¾ oz/21 g minced ginger

1 tsp/3 g salt

¾ oz/21 g lime zest 2 tsp/6 g minced garlic

SALAD

2 tbsp/30 mL sesame oil

2 fl oz/60 mL extra-virgin olive oil

½ oz/14 g chopped cilantro

1 lb 11 oz/766 g red peppers, roasted, peeled, seeded, diced

2 tbsp/30 mL vegetable oil

1¾ oz/50 g capers, rinsed

4 oz/113 g julienned shiitake mushroom

8 fl oz/240 mL Harissa Vinaigrette (page 473)

4 oz/113 g snow peas, strings removed, blanched

1½ oz/43 g pitted, sliced olives 1. Cook the soba noodles in boiling water until al dente. Drain and cool the noodles to room temperature.

6½ oz/184 g quartered hard-boiled egg ½ oz/14 g chopped cilantro

2. Combine the lime juice, vinegar, soy sauce, ginger, lime zest, and garlic. Whisk in the thickened stock and the sesame oil and the cilantro.

1. Drain and rinse the chickpeas, place in a medium saucepan, and cover with fresh cold water. Place the onion, bay leaves, and garlic in cheesecloth to make a sachet; add to the chickpeas, and bring the mixture to a boil over high heat.

3. Heat the vegetable oil in a small sauté pan over medium heat. Add the mushrooms and sauté until almost cooked. Add the snow peas and continue to sauté until the peas are bright green.

2. Reduce heat to simmer, cover, and cook until the chickpeas are tender, 11⁄2 to 2 hours.

4. Toss together the cooked noodles, snow peas, mushroom, and vinaigrette. Serve the salad at room temperature.

3. Drain the chickpeas and remove the sachet. Transfer the chickpeas to a bowl and cool slightly. 4. In a medium bowl, whisk the oil, peppers, capers, and vinaigrette. Add to the chickpeas and toss well to coat. 5. Add the olives, eggs, and cilantro, and toss to combine. Serve immediately or chill until needed for service.

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

219


ROASTED RED PEPPER SALAD

GREEN ONION SALAD BATCH YIELD: 1 lb 4 oz/567 g SERVINGS: 10

BATCH YIELD: 2 lb/907 g

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 2 oz/57 g

SERVINGS: 10

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 28 calories, 2 g fat, 3 g total

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄4 oz/92 g

carbohydrate, 1 g protein, 10 mg sodium, 3 mg cholesterol

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 102 calories, 7 g fat, 10 g total

carbohydrate, 1 g protein, 206 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

1 tsp/3 g sugar 12 oz/340 g red peppers, halved

2 tsp/10 mL sake

2 oz/57 g golden raisins

2 tsp/4 g sesame seeds, toasted, smashed

6 fl oz/180 mL Balsamic Vinaigrette (page 470)

1½ tsp/3 g Korean red pepper powder

7 oz/199 g tomato concassé

¾ tsp/2.50 g salt

2 oz/57 g julienned red onion

2¼ tsp/11 mL dark sesame oil

2 oz/57 g quartered black olives

2 tbsp/30 mL roasted peanut oil

¾ oz/21 g pine nuts, toasted

2 bunches green onions, thinly sliced on the bias into 2-in/5-cm lengths

½ oz/14 g minced garlic ½ oz/14 g minced jalapeño

1. Combine the sugar, sake, sesame seeds, red pepper powder, and salt in a mixing bowl; whisk well to combine.

¹⁄8 tsp/0.25 g cayenne 1. Place the peppers cut side down on a roasting rack and broil or bake in a 500°F/260°C oven until the skins turn black and blister.

2. Slowly drizzle the sesame and peanut oils into the mixture, whisking constantly to emulsify. 3. Reserve the dressing at room temperature until service. Hold the green onion strips separately in a cool and moist container.

2. Remove the peppers from the oven and cover with plastic wrap, or place in a paper bag to allow the skins to loosen. When the peppers are cool enough to handle, peel, scraping off any remaining char, and cut into strips.

4. When ready to serve, toss small batches of green onions with enough dressing to coat. 5. Serve immediately so the green onions do not wilt.

3. Cover the raisins with warm water and soak until plump, about 15 minutes. Drain. 4. Combine the roasted peppers, raisins, and remaining ingredients in a large bowl. Refrigerate for at least 2 and up to 24 hours before serving.

This salad is an excellent accompaniment to grilled and roasted meat and fish, crusty hearth bread and flatbreads, and pasta salads. NOTE

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

220


top to bottom: Spinach Salad (page 223), Daikon Salad (page 222), Green Onion Salad (page 220) SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

221


JÍCAMA SALAD

DAIKON SALAD (MU CHAE)

BATCH YIELD: 2 lb/907 g

BATCH YIELD: 1 lb 4 oz/567 g

SERVINGS: 10

SERVINGS: 10

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 ⁄4 oz/92 g

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 2 oz/57 g

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 89 calories, 5 g fat, 11 g total

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 35 calories, 0 g fat, 6 g total

1

carbohydrate, 1 g protein, 238 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

carbohydrate, 0 g protein, 8 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

15 oz/426 g julienned jícama

1 lb/454 g julienned daikon

6 oz/170 g Smoked Roasted Corn (page 346)

1 julienned seedless cucumber

3 oz/85 g sliced red onion

1 carrot, cut into julienne

3 oz/85 g julienned red pepper

½ tsp/1.50 g sea or kosher salt

3 oz/85 g julienned yellow pepper

2 oz/60 mL rice vinegar

3 oz/85 g julienned green pepper

2 tbsp/20 g sugar

1 jalapeño, minced

1 tsp/2 g Korean red pepper powder

VINAIGRETTE

1. In a colander, toss the daikon, cucumber, and carrot with the salt, and set aside to drain until the daikon is pliable, about 45 minutes. Squeeze firmly to remove any excess water, and transfer to another bowl.

2 tbsp/30 mL red wine vinegar 2 tbsp/30 mL vegetable oil 2 tbsp/30 mL water

2. Add the remaining ingredients and mix well to combine. Cover the salad, and refrigerate until well chilled. If necessary, adjust the seasoning before serving.

1 tbsp/15 mL peanut oil 1 tsp/2 g dry mustard 1 tsp/3 g salt 1 tsp/3 g minced garlic ½ tsp/1 g cracked black peppercorns 1. Combine the jícama, corn, onion, peppers, and jalapeño in a large bowl. 2. In a separate bowl, whisk together all of the vinaigrette ingredients. Pour the vinaigrette over the vegetables to coat evenly. The salad is ready to serve, or it may be chilled for up to 24 hours before serving.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

222


SPINACH SALAD (NAMUL)

SOUTHWESTERN CORN SALAD

BATCH YIELD: 1 lb 4 oz/567 g SERVINGS: 10

BATCH YIELD: 2 lb/907 g

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 2 oz/57 g

SERVINGS: 10

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 70 calories, 6 g fat, 4 g total

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄4 oz/91 g

carbohydrate, 2 g protein, 100 mg sodium, 10 mg cholesterol

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 90 calories, 2 g fat, 19 g total carbohydrate, 3 g protein, 70 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

1 lb/454 g spinach 2 tsp/10 mL olive oil

DRESSING

1 tsp/3 g minced garlic

1½ tsp/4.50 g minced garlic, sweated in a small amount of oil

½ oz/14 g minced shallot

7½ oz/213 g sesame seeds, toasted

½ tsp/1.50 g minced jalapeño

4 fl oz/120 mL sesame oil

1 lb 6 oz/625 g corn kernels, fresh or frozen

6 tbsp/90 mL soy sauce

3½ oz/99 g diced roasted red pepper

2 tbsp/20 g sugar

3½ oz/99 g small-dice jícama

1 tbsp/10 g salt

3½ oz/99 g small-dice tomatillo 4 oz/113 g tomato concassé

1. Blanch the spinach in boiling water until just wilted, then shock in an ice water bath. Drain the spinach, and squeeze out any excess water.

1 tbsp/3 g chopped cilantro ¼ tsp/1 g salt

2. Combine the dressing ingredients in a bowl. Add the spinach and toss to coat well.

1. Heat the oil in a large sauté pan over medium heat. Add the garlic, shallots, and jalapeño. Sauté until the shallots are translucent. Add the corn, red pepper, jícama, tomatillo, and tomatoes. 2. Toss over high heat until the mixture is hot. Season with the cilantro and salt. The salad is ready to serve, or it may be chilled for up to 24 hours before serving.

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

223


WARM CABBAGE SALAD

MARINATED CHANTERELLES

BATCH YIELD: 2 lb/907 g SERVINGS: 10

BATCH YIELD: 1 lb/454 g

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄4 oz/92 g

SERVINGS: 10

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 58 calories, 2 g fat, 8 g total

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 11⁄2 oz/45 g

carbohydrate, 2 g protein, 55 mg sodium, 3 mg cholesterol

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 42 calories, 1 g fat, 7 g total carbohydrate, 2 g protein, 151 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

1½ oz/43 g minced bacon 3 oz/85 g diced red onion

2 tsp/10 mL olive oil

1 garlic clove, minced

1 tsp/3 g minced garlic

2¾ fl oz/83 mL Chicken Stock (page 454) 3 tbsp/45 mL tarragon vinegar

12 oz/340 g chanterelles, trimmed, sliced if the caps are large

3 tbsp/45 mL dry white wine

8 oz/227 g julienned carrot

4 tsp/12 g sugar

6 oz/170 g julienned fennel

2 lb/907 g savoy cabbage chiffonade

6 oz/170 g pearl onions, blanched, peeled

¾ tsp/2 g caraway seeds

2¾ fl oz/83 mL Vegetable Stock (page 454)

1 tbsp/3 g chopped parsley

2 tsp/10 mL dry white wine 2 tsp/10 mL sherry vinegar 2 tsp/10 mL white wine vinegar

1. Render the bacon in a large skillet until crisp. Remove from the pan, drain, and reserve. Add the onion and garlic to the pan and sauté until the onions are translucent.

2 tsp/2 g basil chiffonade 2 tbsp/6 g chopped parsley ½ tsp/1.50 g salt

2. Combine the stock, vinegar, wine, and sugar in a small bowl. Stir to dissolve the sugar and add to the pan along with the cabbage and caraway seeds. Cook until the cabbage is limp and tender. Remove from the heat and stir in the parsley and reserved bacon.

¼ tsp/0.50 g ground white pepper 1. In a large sauté pan, heat the oil over medium heat. Add the garlic and sauté until aromatic.

3. The salad is ready to serve warm or at room temperature.

2. Add the chanterelles, carrot, fennel, and onions. Sauté until the mushrooms begin to release their juices. Add the stock, wine, and both vinegars. Simmer until the mushrooms are completely cooked. Season with the basil, parsley, salt, and pepper. 3. Allow the mushrooms to cool in their cooking liquid for at least 2 and up to 24 hours before serving. Drain before serving.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

224


FRUIT SALAD WITH ORANGE BLOSSOM SYRUP

STONE FRUITS WITH MINT SYRUP

BATCH YIELD: 1 lb 14 oz/851 g

BATCH YIELD: 1 lb 14 oz/851 g

SERVINGS: 10

SERVINGS: 10

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 21⁄2 oz/71 g salad, 1 tbsp/15 mL syrup,

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 oz/85 g salad, 2 fl oz/60 mL syrup,

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 64 calories, 0 g fat, 15 g total

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 136 calories, 0 g fat, 33 g total

1 tsp/5 mL yogurt

1 tbsp/15 mL yogurt

carbohydrate, 2 g protein, 27 mg sodium, 1 mg cholesterol

carbohydrate, 2 g protein, 18 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

5 fl oz/150 mL orange blossom water (see Note)

40 fl oz/1.20 L white grape juice

1 oz/28 g sugar

1½ oz/43 g raw sugar (Demerara or turbinado)

Zest of 1 orange, cut into julienne

½ bunch mint

7 oz/199 g medium-dice cantaloupe flesh

6 oz/170 g sliced nectarine

6 oz/170 g medium-dice honeydew melon flesh

6 oz/170 g sliced peach

6 oz/170 g medium-dice kiwi

6 oz/170 g sliced plum

5 oz/142 g quartered strawberries

6 oz/170 g sliced apricot

5 oz/142 g blueberries

6 oz/170 g pitted sweet cherries

5 fl oz/150 mL nonfat yogurt, drained

GARNISH

3 tbsp/9 g spearmint chiffonade

5 fl oz/150 mL drained nonfat yogurt

1. To make the syrup, combine the orange blossom water and the sugar in a small saucepan over medium heat. Stir occasionally until the sugar has completely dissolved. Set aside until needed.

1. To make the syrup, combine the grape juice and the sugar in a large saucepan. Bring to a boil over high heat, stirring occasionally. Continue to boil until the syrup has reduced by half. Remove from the heat.

2. Place the zest in a small saucepan and cover with cold water. Bring the water to a boil over high heat. Drain and repeat the blanching process twice, beginning with cold water each time. Reserve the blanched zest until needed.

2. Reserve several of the nicest mint leaves for a garnish and immerse the remaining mint in the hot syrup. Steep for 2 hours, or until the flavor is well developed. Strain the syrup and set aside until needed. 3. Combine all of the fruits in a large bowl. The salad is ready to serve immediately, or it may be refrigerated for up to 8 hours.

3. Combine all of the fruits in a large bowl. Serve immediately or refrigerate until needed. 4. To serve, place 21⁄2 oz/71 g fruit salad in a glass or serving dish. Top with 1 tbsp/15 mL of the syrup and about 1 tbsp/15 mL of the yogurt. Garnish with the blanched orange zest and spearmint chiffonade.

4. To serve, place 3 oz/85 g of the mixed fruits in a chilled dish. Pour 2 fl oz/60 mL of the syrup over the fruits. Garnish with 1 tbsp/15 mL of the yogurt and a few of the reserved mint leaves.

Orange blossom water is generally available from health food stores and wholesalers. NOTE

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

225


Mixed Fruit Salad TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

226


MIXED FRUIT SALAD

WINTER GREENS WITH WARM VEGETABLE VINAIGRETTE

BATCH YIELD: 1 lb 14 oz/852 g SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 oz/85 g

SERVINGS: 10

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 40 calories, 0 g fat, 10 g total

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 oz/85 g salad,

carbohydrate, .5 g protein, 4 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

2 tbsp/30 mL vinaigrette

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 153 calories, 11 g fat, 9 g total

carbohydrate, 6 g protein, 259 mg sodium, 11 mg cholesterol

5 oz/142 g medium-dice papaya 5 oz/142 g medium-dice mango 5 oz/142 g medium-dice honeydew melon flesh

10 fl oz/300 mL Roasted Vegetable Vinaigrette (page 472)

5 oz/142 g medium-dice strawberries

30 Belgian endive spears

1 fl oz/30 mL passion fruit juice

5 oz/142 g trimmed fresh frisée, torn

1 tbsp/3 g finely chopped mint

5 oz/142 g trimmed fresh radicchio, torn

3 fl oz/90 mL Amaretto liqueur (optional)

5 oz/142 g trimmed fresh arugula, torn

8 fl oz/240 mL orange juice

5 oz/142 g trimmed fresh spinach, torn

Sugar, as needed

20 slices grilled red onion 5 oz/142 g blue cheese

1. Combine all of the fruits, passion fruit juice, and mint in a large bowl. Set aside to macerate for a minimum of 30 minutes.

1¾ oz/50 g pine nuts, toasted 1. Heat the vinaigrette in a small saucepan over medium heat. Keep warm.

2. Combine the Amaretto, if using, orange juice, and sugar, as needed, and bring to a boil. Boil until reduced to 7 fl oz/210 mL. Cool to room temperature.

2. To serve, arrange 3 endive spears and 1⁄2 oz/14 g each frisée, radicchio, arugula, and spinach on a plate. Garnish with 2 onion slices, 1⁄2 oz/14 g blue cheese, and a small amount of the pine nuts. Drizzle 2 tbsp/30 mL of the warm dressing over the salad.

3. Gently blend the reduced liquid into the macerated fruit. Refrigerate until needed for service.

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

227


CHINESE LONG BEAN SALAD WITH TANGERINES AND SHERRY-MUSTARD VINAIGRETTE

3. Combine the beans, tangerine segments, onion, and sunflower seeds in a large bowl. Season with the salt and pepper. 4. To make the vinaigrette, combine the cornstarch with the water to form a slurry. Bring the stock to a boil. Add the slurry and stir until the stock has thickened, about 2 minutes. Cool to room temperature. Combine the remaining vinaigrette ingredients and whisk into the thickened stock.

BATCH YIELD: 1 lb 8 oz/680 g SERVINGS: 8

5. Toss the bean mixture with the vinaigrette. The salad is ready to serve now at room temperature, or it may be chilled for up to 24 hours before serving.

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 oz/85 g NUTRITION PER SERVING: 155 calories, 11 g fat, 13 g total carbohydrate, 4 g protein, 331 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

Chinese long beans are also known as yard-long beans, though they are seldom left to grow to this length. They are part of the same plant family as the black-eyed pea. Green beans may be substituted if Chinese long beans are unavailable. NOTE

8 oz/227 g Chinese long beans (see Note) 4 tangerines 3 oz/85 g sliced Vidalia onion 3 oz/85 g sunflower seeds, toasted ½ tsp/1.50 g salt ¼ tsp/0.50 g ground black pepper SHERRY-MUSTARD VINAIGRETTE

1 tsp/3 g cornstarch 1 tsp/5 mL water 4 fl oz/120 mL Vegetable Stock (page 454) 3 tbsp/45 mL olive oil 2 tbsp/30 mL sherry vinegar 2 tbsp/30 mL tangerine juice 1 tbsp/15 mL Dijon mustard ½ oz/14 g light brown sugar 2 tsp/6 g minced shallot 1 tsp/3 g minced garlic ½ tsp/1.50 g salt ¼ tsp/0.50 g ground black pepper 1. Trim the beans, cut into 11⁄2-in/4-cm lengths, and cook in boiling water until barely tender. Drain and cool. 2. Trim the peels from the tangerines. Working over a bowl to catch the juices, cut the segments out from between the membranes, removing seeds, if any. Squeeze the juice from the leftover membranes and reserve for the vinaigrette.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

228


SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

229


SPINACH SALAD WITH MARINATED SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS AND RED ONION

3. To serve, toss 1 oz/28 g spinach and 1⁄2 oz/ 14 g radicchio with 2 tbsp/30 mL vinaigrette. Place on a chilled plate and top with 1 oz/28 g of the mari3 nated mushrooms. Garnish with ⁄4 oz/21 g of the corn mixture. NOTE

Substitute diced yellow pepper if corn is not in season.

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 21⁄2 oz/71 g salad,

WARM SALAD OF WILD MUSHROOMS AND FENNEL

3

2 tbsp/30 mL vinaigrette, ⁄4 oz/21 g garnish

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 122 calories, 9 g fat, 9 g total

carbohydrate, 2 g protein, 173 mg sodium, 2 mg cholesterol

SERVINGS: 10

MARINATED MUSHROOMS

3

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 ⁄4 oz/106 g

2 tsp/10 mL walnut oil

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 58 calories, 8 g fat, 19 g total carbohydrate, 7 g protein, 439 mg sodium, 2 mg cholesterol

10 oz/284 g sliced shiitake mushrooms 4 tsp/20 mL Vegetable Stock (page 454) 2 tsp/10 mL reduced-sodium soy sauce

3 oz/85 g minced garlic cloves

4 tsp/20 mL cider vinegar

2 fl oz/60 mL extra-virgin olive oil

Pinch salt

1 lb 5 oz/596 g sliced or quartered trimmed wild mushrooms

Pinch ground black pepper Dash of hot sauce

24 fl oz/720 mL Chicken Stock (page 454)

1 oz/28 g diced bacon

1¾ oz/50 g capers, drained

4 oz/113 g fresh corn kernels (see Note)

1¾ oz/50 g Kalamata olives, pitted, slivered

4 oz/113 g diced red onion

2 oz/57 g chopped sun-dried tomatoes

10 oz/284 g trimmed fresh spinach, torn

½ oz/14 g minced sage

5 oz/142 g radicchio chiffonade

1 lb/454 g sliced fennel

10 fl oz/300 mL Balsamic Vinaigrette (page 470)

8 oz/227 g radicchio chiffonade 3 fl oz/90 mL lemon juice

1. To prepare the marinated mushrooms, heat the oil in a large sauté pan. Add the mushrooms and sauté for 2 minutes. Add the stock and soy sauce and cook until dry. Remove from the heat and add the vinegar, salt, pepper, and hot sauce. Cool completely.

½ oz/14 g cracked black peppercorns 3½ oz/99 g julienned red pepper 1. Heat the oil in a large sauté pan over medium heat. Add the garlic and sauté until golden brown. Add the mushrooms and sauté until tender. Deglaze the pan with the stock and cook until almost dry. Transfer the mushrooms to a bowl and cool to room temperature. Stir in the capers, olives, tomatoes, and sage.

2. Render the bacon in a small sauté pan over medium heat until the bacon is crisp. Drain the bacon on paper towels, reserving 1 tsp/5 mL of the fat. Sweat the corn and onion in the bacon fat over medium heat until the onion is translucent and the corn is cooked. Remove from the heat and toss together the bacon, onion, and corn in a large bowl.

2. Cook the fennel in boiling water until barely tender. Drain and hold at room temperature.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

230


ROMAINE AND GRAPEFRUIT SALAD WITH WALNUTS AND STILTON

3. To serve, reheat 11⁄2 oz/43 g of the mushroom mixture in a sauté pan. Place on a bed of 11⁄2 oz/43 g fennel 3 tossed with ⁄4 oz/21 g radicchio. Drizzle the salad with a little lemon juice. Sprinkle with the cracked peppercorns and garnish with the red pepper.

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄2 oz/99 g salad,

MIXED GREEN SALAD WITH PEARS, WALNUTS, AND BLUE CHEESE

1 tbsp/15 mL vinaigrette

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 153 calories, 11 g fat, 9 g total

carbohydrate, 5 g protein, 148 mg sodium, 7 mg cholesterol

¾ tsp/2 g arrowroot

SERVINGS: 10

2 fl oz/60 mL ruby port

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄2 oz/99 g salad,

3 tbsp/45 mL Vegetable Stock (page 454)

1 tbsp/15 mL vinaigrette

2 tbsp/30 mL red wine vinegar

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 112 calories, 7 g fat, 9 g total carbohydrate, 2 g protein, 95 mg sodium, 3 mg cholesterol

2 tbsp/30 mL grapefruit juice 4 tsp/20 mL olive oil 1 lb 4 oz/567 g romaine chiffonade, or bite-size pieces

1 lb 4 oz/567 g red oak leaf lettuce 5 fl oz/150 mL Port Wine Vinaigrette (page 470)

GARNISH

15 oz/426 g quartered ripe Seckel pears (see Note)

1 lb/454 g white and pink grapefruit sections

1½ oz/43 g whole walnuts, toasted

3½ oz/99 g Stilton

1½ oz/43 g blue cheese, crumbled

3½ oz/99 g walnuts, chopped

To serve, toss 2 oz/55 g lettuce with 1 tbsp/15 mL of the vinaigrette and place on a chilled plate. Top with 11/2 oz/45 g pears and 1 tsp/5 mL each of the walnuts and blue cheese.

1. Combine the arrowroot with the port to form a slurry. Bring the stock to a boil in a small saucepan over high heat. Add the slurry and stir until the stock has thickened, about 2 minutes. Remove from the heat; stir in the vinegar and grapefruit juice. Cool completely before slowly whisking in the oil.

Other pears may be used, depending upon seasonal availability. NOTE

2. To serve, toss 2 oz/55 g romaine with 1 tbsp/15 mL of the dressing and place in the center of a chilled plate. Garnish with 11⁄2 oz/45 g of the grapefruit sections and 2 tsp/10 mL each of the cheese and walnuts.

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

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MEDITERRANEAN SALAD

MODIFIED CAESAR SALAD

SERVINGS: 10

SERVINGS: 10

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 11⁄2 oz/43 g mixed greens,

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 oz/170 g

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 204 calories, 17 g fat, 9 g total

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 380 calories, 13 g fat, 53 g total carbohydrate, 12 g protein, 580 mg sodium, 5 mg cholesterol

11⁄2 oz/43 g artichoke salad, 2 tbsp/30 mL vinaigrette

carbohydrate, 6 g protein, 592 mg sodium, 13 mg cholesterol

DRESSING

1½ oz/43 g minced anchovy fillets

8 fl oz/240 mL white bean purée (see Note)

14 fl oz/420 mL Vinaigrette-Style Dressing (page 470)

1 tbsp/9 g minced anchovy

5 oz/142 g cooked and quartered artichoke hearts

2 fl oz/60 mL lemon juice

5 oz/142 g green peas

2 tsp/6 g minced garlic

3½ oz/99 g julienned carrot

1 oz/28 g grated Parmesan

2 oz/57 g pitted picholine olives

4 fl oz/120 mL extra-virgin olive oil

2 oz/57 g pitted Niçoise olives

2 fl oz/60 mL water, cold

3½ oz/99 g grated Asiago

½ tsp/1 g ground black pepper

2 oz/57 g chopped parsley, plus as needed CROUTONS

1 lb/454 g baby mixed greens

Ten ½-inch/1-cm slices baguette Garlic oil, as needed

1. Stir the anchovies into the vinaigrette in a large bowl. Add the artichoke hearts, peas, carrot, olives, cheese, and parsley. Toss to coat evenly.

5 romaine hearts 1. To make the dressing, combine the white bean purée, anchovies, lemon juice, garlic, Parmesan, oil, water, and pepper in a food processor or blender. Process until the mixture is thick and smooth, 4 to 6 minutes.

2. To serve, place a bed of 11⁄2 oz/43 g mixed greens in the center of a chilled plate. Top with 11⁄2 oz/43 g of the artichoke salad (use a slotted spoon to lift the salad so the dressing can drain away). Garnish with a sprinkling of parsley.

2. To make the croutons, brush the baguette slices with the garlic oil and bake in a 350°F/177°C oven until crisp and golden, 5 to 7 minutes. 3. Toss the romaine with the prepared dressing to coat. Serve each portion of salad with 1 crouton.

To make the white bean purée: Soak 3¾ oz/106 g dried white beans in cold water overnight. Drain and place in a saucepan and cover with fresh water. Bring to a boil over high heat and reduce heat to a simmer. Cook until tender, about 30 minutes. Store the beans in their cooking liquid. Cool completely, then purée beans in a food processor or blender. NOTE

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

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Modified Caesar Salad SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

233


Kale, Cashew, and Cranberry Pasta Salad TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

234


KALE, CASHEW, AND CRANBERRY PASTA SALAD

WARM SALAD OF HEARTY GREENS, BLOOD ORANGES, AND POMEGRANATE VINAIGRETTE

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 oz/85 g NUTRITION PER SERVING: 196 calories, 3 g fat, 12 g total

SERVINGS: 10

carbohydrate, 6 g protein, 26 mg sodium, 4 mg cholesterol

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 21⁄2 oz/71 g salad,

2 tbsp/30 mL vinaigrette

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 103 calories, 7 g fat, 8 g total carbohydrate, 2 g protein, 36 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

12 oz/340 g whole wheat pasta 2 fl oz/60 mL olive oil 6 oz/170 g small-dice red onion 1 tsp/3 g lemon zest

POMEGRANATE VINAIGRETTE

4 tsp/20 mL balsamic vinegar

½ oz/14 g minced red onion

1 tsp/3 g salt, or as needed

2 fl oz/60 mL red wine vinegar

½ tsp/1 g ground black pepper

2 fl oz/60 mL pomegranate juice

2 oz/57 g dried cranberries

2 fl oz/60 mL walnut oil

4 oz/113 g chopped salted roasted cashews

5 oz/142 g trimmed fresh frisée, torn

1 lb 2 oz/511 g kale, stems removed, cut into 1-inch/2-cm pieces

5 oz/142 g trimmed fresh radicchio, torn

4 fl oz/120 mL dry white wine

2 oz/57 g trimmed fresh beet greens, torn

3½ oz/99 g trimmed fresh arugula, torn 2 oz/57 g trimmed fresh spinach, torn

1. Cook the pasta in boiling lightly salted water until al dente. The cooking time will vary depending on the shape of the pasta. Drain the pasta and spread it on a sheet tray to cool to room temperature.

7 oz/198 g blood orange sections 1¾ oz/50 g slivered almonds, toasted 1. To prepare the vinaigrette, combine all of the ingredients and whisk to combine.

2. Heat the oil in a sauté pan over medium heat. Add the onion and cook until soft, about 10 minutes. Add the cooked pasta and toss with the lemon zest, vinegar, salt, pepper, cranberries, and cashews.

2. Combine all of the greens and refrigerate until needed. 3

3. Steam the kale in the white wine over medium heat, covered, until wilted and the wine is almost evaporated. Cool and toss with the pasta.

3. To serve, toss 1 ⁄4 oz/50 g mixed greens with 2 tbsp/30 mL warm vinaigrette and place in the center of 3 a warm plate. Garnish with ⁄4 oz/21 g blood orange sections and a sprinkling of the almonds.

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

235


GRILLED CHICKEN AND PECAN SALAD

GRILLED TUNA WITH SPRING HERB SALAD AND MARINATED TOMATOES

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 2 oz/57 g chicken, 2 oz/57 g salad

SERVINGS: 10

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 291 calories, 16 g fat, 15 g total

3

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄2 oz/99 g tuna, 2 ⁄4 oz/78 g salad

carbohydrate, 23 g protein, 90 mg sodium, 56 mg cholesterol

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 204 calories, 9 g fat, 4 g total carbohydrate, 25 g protein, 338 mg sodium, 46 mg cholesterol

1 lb 4 oz/567 kg boneless, skinless chicken breast 5 oz/142 g unsalted pecan halves

MARINATED TOMATOES

12 fl oz/360 mL apple cider

6 oz/170 g tomato concassé

2 tbsp/30 mL cider vinegar

2½ fl oz/75 mL Balsamic Vinaigrette (page 470)

1 tbsp/15 mL Worcestershire sauce

2 tbsp/30 mL chopped basil

1 tbsp/15 mL hot sauce

½ tsp/1.50 g salt

1 tbsp/3 g chopped thyme

¼ tsp/0.50 g coarsely ground black pepper

2 tbsp/30 mL walnut oil

2 lb 4 oz/1 kg trimmed yellowfin tuna fillet

9 oz/255 g arugula

1 oz/28 g chervil leaves

6 oz/170 g mixed salad greens

½ oz/14 g parsley leaves

5 oz/142 g julienned endive

1 oz/28 g chives, cut into ½-in/1-cm lengths

1 lb 4 oz/567 g sliced Granny Smith apple

5 oz/142 g baby arugula 5 oz/142 g mizuna lettuce

1. Preheat the grill. Grill the chicken breast until thoroughly cooked. Cool and slice thinly.

5 oz/142 g chiffonade radicchio ½ tsp/1.50 g salt

2. Toast the pecans in a 300°F/149°C oven until golden brown.

¼ tsp/0.50 g coarsely ground black pepper 8 fl oz/240 mL Balsamic Vinaigrette (page 470)

3. Reduce the apple cider by two-thirds in a medium saucepan over high heat. Combine the reduced cider, the vinegar, Worcestershire sauce, hot sauce, and thyme. Slowly whisk in the oil away from the heat.

1. To prepare the marinated tomatoes, toss together the tomatoes, vinaigrette, basil, salt, and pepper and marinate for 1 hour.

4. Combine the arugula, mixed greens, and endive. Refrigerate until needed.

2. Cut the tuna into Refrigerate until needed.

5. To serve, toss 2 oz/57 g each of the greens and apples with 1 tbsp/15 mL of the vinaigrette. Place on a room-temperature plate and top with 2 oz/57 g chicken and 1⁄2 oz/14 g pecans. Drizzle with 1⁄2 tsp/2.50 mL vinaigrette.

31⁄2-oz/99-g

portions.

3. Combine the herbs and lettuces. Refrigerate until needed. Preheat the grill. 4. Season the tuna with the salt and pepper. Grill to the desired doneness. Toss the herb salad with the 1 tbsp/15 mL vinaigrette. 5. To serve, place 1 portion of the grilled tuna on a 3 bed of 1 ⁄4 oz/50 g of the herb salad, and top with 1 oz/28 g of marinated tomatoes.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

236


Grilled Tuna with Spring Herb Salad and Marinated Tomatoes

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

237


Peruvian-Style Tuna Seviche

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

238


GRILLED TUNA NIÇOISE

PERUVIAN-STYLE TUNA SEVICHE

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 2 oz/55 g tuna, 6 oz/170 g salad

SERVINGS: 15

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 382 calories, 20 g fat, 31 g total

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 2 oz/57 g, 1⁄2 oz/14 g salad

carbohydrate, 20 g protein, 539 mg sodium, 83 mg cholesterol

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 130 calories, 6 g fat, 3 g total carbohydrate, 15 g protein, 310 mg sodium, 25 mg cholesterol

1 lb 4 oz/567 g trimmed tuna fillet 1 lb 4 oz/567 g small red potatoes

MARINADE

1 pt/480 mL Red Wine Vinaigrette (page 470)

2 tbsp/30 mL ají amarillo paste

1 lb/454 g mixed salad greens

¼ oz/7 g peeled, grated ginger

1 lb/454 g haricots verts, cooked

1 tbsp/15 mL oyster sauce

3½ oz/99 g Salsa Verde (page 448)

6 juiced Mexican limes

1 lb/454 g cherry tomatoes, halved

2 tbsp/30 mL soy sauce

30 Niçoise olives

1 tbsp/15 mL sesame oil

3 hard-boiled eggs, quartered

1 tbsp/15 mL togarashi ASIAN SALAD

1. Cut the tuna into 2-oz/57-g portions. Refrigerate until needed.

2 oz/57 g carrot, cut into brunoise 2 oz/57 g red pepper, cut into brunoise

2. Roast the potatoes. Toss the roasted potatoes with 6 fl oz/180 mL of the vinaigrette.

2 oz/57 g, blanched, julienned snow peas 2 oz/57 g peanuts, toasted, finely chopped

3. To serve, grill 1 portion of tuna to the desired doneness. Toss 11⁄2 oz/45 g greens and 11⁄2 oz/45 g haricots verts with 2 tbsp/30 mL vinaigrette. Mound the greens and beans on a plate and top with the tuna. Garnish with 3 tbsp/45 mL of salsa. Arrange 2 oz/57 g potato wedges, 11⁄2 oz/43 g cherry tomatoes, 3 olives, and 1 egg quarter around the tuna.

Salt, as needed Extra-virgin olive oil, as needed 2 lb/907 g tuna, sushi grade #1 2 tsp/6 g salt 1. For the marinade, whisk together the ají amarillo paste, ginger, and oyster sauce in a medium bowl. Add the lime juice and soy sauce. Immediately before serving, add the sesame oil and togarashi. 2. For the Asian salad, combine the salad ingredients. Immediately before serving, season to taste with the salt and olive oil. 3. For the seviche, cut the tuna diagonally into thin slices and spread them on the plate without leaving any spaces. Season each slice with the salt. Spoon several tablespoons of the marinade over the tuna and garnish the plate with the Asian salad.

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

239


SEVICHE PLATE

1. Combine the salted water with the green onions and bring to a boil. Drop the scallop halves into the cooking liquid for 20 seconds. Remove and cool. Add the shrimp to the same boiling cooking liquid and cook for 20 seconds. Remove and cool.

SERVINGS: 15 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 8 oz/227 g

2. Slice the squid into 1â &#x201E;8-in/3-mm rings, and split the tentacles. Drop into the same cooking liquid for 20 seconds. Remove and cool.

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 180 calories, 6 g fat, 9 g total carbohydrate, 23 g protein, 250 mg sodium, 145 mg cholesterol

3. Using the remaining cooking liquid, steam open the clams and mussels in a small rondeau. Allow the shellfish to cool.

1 qt/960 mL salted water 3 green onions, chopped 1 lb/454 g sea scallops, muscle tabs removed, cut in half (to create disk-shaped slices)

4. To make the basic seviche marinade, combine the lime, lemon, and orange juices, oil, mustard, Worcestershire sauce, hot sauce, and sugar. Adjust the seasoning with salt and pepper. Add the seafood to the marinade, toss to coat well, and refrigerate for 2 hours.

1 lb/454 g shrimp, peeled, deveined, cut in half lengthwise 1 lb/454 g squid tubes and tentacles

5. Before serving, add the cilantro, parsley, tomatoes, green pepper, and onion, and mix well to combine. If necessary, adjust the seasoning with salt and black pepper.

50 small clams, scrubbed 50 mussels, scrubbed, debearded BASIC SEVICHE MARINADE

4 fl oz/120 mL lime juice 4 fl oz/120 mL lemon juice 4 fl oz/120 mL orange juice 2 fl oz/60 mL extra-virgin olive oil 2 tsp/10 mL Dijon mustard 1 tsp/5 mL Worcestershire sauce 2 tsp/10 mL hot sauce 1 tsp/5 g sugar Salt, as needed Ground black pepper, as needed SEVICHE GARNISH

3 tbsp/9 g chopped cilantro 2 tbsp/6 g chopped parsley 6 medium plum tomatoes, peeled, minced 1 small green pepper, minced 8 oz/227 g minced onion

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

240


SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

241


SCALLOP SEVICHE IN CUCUMBER CUPS

SEVICHE ESTILO ACAPULCO

SERVINGS: 30

SERVINGS: 10

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 1 ⁄2 oz/43 g

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 5 oz/142 g

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 48 calories, 4 g fat, 2 g total

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 238 calories, 6 g fat, 4 g total

1

carbohydrate, 0 g protein, 134 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

carbohydrate, 14 g protein, 134 mg sodium, 9 mg cholesterol

6 oz/170 g sea scallops, muscle tabs removed, cut into brunoise

2 lb 8 oz/1.14 kg skin-on wild striped bass fillets

1 tomato, peeled, seeded, cut into brunoise

2 tsp/6.50 g salt, or as needed

1 tsp/1 g minced chives

8 fl oz/240 g tomato juice

1 tbsp/3 g chopped cilantro

3 tbsp/45 mL extra-virgin olive oil

½ minced jalapeño

1 tsp/2 g dried oregano

¼ medium green pepper, cut into brunoise

Sugar, as needed (optional)

1 tbsp/15 mL olive oil

3 oz/85 g small-dice white onion

5 drops hot sauce

6 oz/170 g small-dice Roma tomatoes

1 or 2 limes, juiced, as needed

1 oz/28 g chopped serrano

2 tsp/6.50 g salt

3¼ oz/92 g chopped, pitted green manzanilla olives

Ground black pepper, as needed

2 tbsp/6 g chopped cilantro

30 cucumber slices, ½ in/1 cm thick

7 oz/199 g diced avocado

8 fl oz/240 mL lime juice

Tortilla chips, as needed

GARNISH

1½ oz/43 g sour cream (optional) 1. Cut the fish into small cubes, against the grain of the flesh, and place in a nonreactive bowl. Add the lime juice and salt and toss until well incorporated. Cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate until the fish is “cooked,” about 2 hours.

2 tsp/2 g cilantro leaves (optional) 1. To make the seviche, combine the scallops, tomato, chives, cilantro, jalapeño, green pepper, oil, and hot sauce. Add enough lime juice to coat the scallops. Season with the salt and black pepper. Marinate for at least 8 hours, stirring occasionally.

2. Mix together the tomato juice, oil, oregano, and salt to taste. (Depending on the brand of tomato juice, you may need to add a small amount of sugar to cut the acidity.)

2. Trim the cucumber slices with a round cutter to remove the rind. Scoop a pocket out of the middle of the cucumber slices. Do not cut all the way through the slice.

3. Before service, drain the fish and reserve the juices. Mix in the onion, tomatoes, chile, olives, cilantro, and the prepared tomato juice. Add the reserved juices to taste. Adjust seasoning with salt.

3. Fill the cucumber cups with the seviche. Garnish each seviche cup with a small dot of sour cream and a cilantro leaf, if desired.

4. Immediately before service, mix in the avocados. 5. Serve each 5-oz/142-g portion of the seviche in a wide-mouthed glass with the tortilla chips.

Any medium-activity saltwater fish will work in this recipe. It is best to use the freshest fish possible. NOTE

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

242


SALMON CAKES WITH CUCUMBER RELISH

3. To prepare the cucumber relish, toss the relish ingredients together. Drain any excess liquid from the relish and reserve it to toss with mixed greens. 4. Cook the cakes in a seasoned skillet until golden brown on each side, about 8 minutes.

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 2 cakes (2 oz/57 g), 1⁄2 oz/14 g

5. Serve 2 salmon cakes on a bed of approximately 11⁄2 oz/43 g of cucumber relish.

cucumber relish

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 179 calories, 7 g fat, 20 g total carbohydrate, 9 g protein, 278 mg sodium, 16 mg cholesterol

SALMON CAKES

14 oz/397 g peeled halved Idaho potatoes 6½ oz/184 g salmon, poached, cooled, flaked 5 oz/142 g fresh bread crumbs 5 fl oz/150 mL skim milk 1¾ oz/50 g whole-grain mustard 1½ oz/43 g mayonnaise ¾ oz/21 g minced smoked salmon ½ oz/14 g chopped capers 5 tsp/5 g chopped chives 5 tsp/5 g chopped dill 1 tsp/2 g coarsely ground black pepper CUCUMBER RELISH

5½ oz/156 g diced seedless cucumber 5½ oz/156 g tomato concassé 2¾ oz/78 g diced red onion 1 tbsp/9 g minced jalapeño 4 tsp/20 mL balsamic vinegar 1 tbsp/3 g chopped cilantro 2 tsp/10 mL olive oil 1. Boil the potatoes in water until tender. Drain and place the potatoes on a sheet pan in a warm oven to steam dry, about 5 minutes. 2. Purée the hot potatoes using a ricer or food mill. Allow the potatoes to cool to room temperature and combine with the remaining salmon cake ingredients. Form into 20 cakes weighing approximately 11⁄3 oz/ 37 g each.

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

243


BLACK BEAN CAKES WITH MANGO SALSA

3. Place cooked beans in a large bowl and mash until they stick together. Combine with the egg whites, cilantro, onion, garlic, cumin, allspice, and cayenne. Mix until well blended. 4. Divide the bean mixture into 16 equal parts and refrigerate. Shape into 1⁄2-inch/1-cm–thick patties and evenly coat with the bread crumbs.

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 2 cakes (2 oz/57 g), ⁄2 oz/14 g mango 1

salsa

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 156 calories, 3 g fat, 18 g total carbohydrate, 9 g protein, 256 mg sodium, 4 mg cholesterol

5. Heat the oil in a sauté pan over medium-high heat. Add the bean cakes and fry until golden brown on both sides. 6. Serve 2 cakes warm with 3 oz/85 g salsa, the lime wedges, and cilantro.

BLACK BEAN CAKES

13 oz/369 g dried black beans, soaked overnight 2 egg whites, slightly beaten 3 tbsp/9 g chopped cilantro 2 oz/57 g finely chopped red onion 1½ tsp/4.50 g minced garlic 1½ tsp/3 g ground cumin ¾ tsp/1.50 g ground allspice Pinch cayenne 2 oz/57 g dried bread crumbs 2 tbsp/30 mL olive oil MANGO SALSA

1 lb 2 oz/510 g diced mango 1½ seeded and minced serrano chiles 3½ oz/99 g finely chopped red pepper 2 oz/57 g finely chopped red onion 3 tbsp/9 g coarsely chopped cilantro 2 tbsp/30 mL lime juice 1 tbsp/9 g minced ginger GARNISH

2 limes, cut into wedges Coarsely chopped cilantro 1. Cover beans with enough water to cover by 1 in/2.50 cm in a large pot. Bring to a boil for 15 minutes, reduce heat, and cover. Simmer until water is absorbed and beans are tender, about 11⁄2 hours. 2. While the beans cook, combine the salsa ingredients in a large bowl. Toss well to combine, then set aside.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

244


PORTOBELLO WITH TUSCAN BEAN SALAD AND CELERY JUICE

To make Champagne Vinaigrette, substitute champagne vinegar for red wine vinegar in the Vinaigrette-Style Dressing (page 470). NOTE

ASPARAGUS WITH MORELS

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 2 oz/57 g mushroom, 3 oz/85 g bean

salad

SERVINGS: 10

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 103 calories, 6 g fat, 10 g total

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 oz/85 g

carbohydrate, 3 g protein, 290 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 69 calories, 2 g fat, 11 g total

carbohydrate, 4 g protein, 162 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol TUSCAN BEAN SALAD

4 oz/113 g dried white beans, soaked and cooked

1 tbsp/15 mL extra-virgin olive oil

5 oz/142 g small-dice carrot

1 oz/28 g diced shallot

3 oz/85 g small-dice celery

²⁄³ oz/19 g minced garlic 10 oz/284 g fresh morels

1½ oz/43 g small-dice red pepper 1½ oz/43 g small-dice yellow pepper

3 lb/1.36 kg asparagus, peeled, trimmed, blanched

1½ oz/43 g small-dice green onion

2 tsp/10 mL lemon juice

2 tbsp/6 g chopped chives

1 tbsp/3 g chopped parsley

2 tbsp/6 g chopped parsley

1 tbsp/3 g chopped chives

1 tsp/3 g salt

1 tsp/3 g salt

½ tsp/1 g ground black pepper

¼ tsp/0.50 g ground black pepper

8 fl oz/240 mL Champagne Vinaigrette (see Note) 10 large portobello mushroom caps, trimmed

1. Heat 1⁄4 tsp/1 mL oil in a skillet. Add 1 tsp/3 g shallots and 1⁄2 tsp/1.50 g garlic. Sweat until translucent.

1 tbsp/15 mL olive oil

2. Add approximately 1 oz/28 g morels and sauté until tender. Add approximately 3 oz/85 g asparagus and heat thoroughly. Remove the asparagus and arrange in a large heated soup bowl. Season the mushrooms with a dash of the lemon juice and a pinch each of the parsley, chives, salt, and pepper. Pour over the asparagus and serve immediately.

10 fl oz/300 mL celery juice 2 oz/57 g radicchio chiffonade 2 tbsp/6 g chopped cilantro 1. To prepare the bean salad, cool the beans and combine with the remaining salad ingredients. Marinate at room temperature for 2 hours.

This recipe may be prepared in larger batches, but it should be served quickly, as prolonged exposure to lemon will discolor the asparagus. NOTE

2. Place the mushrooms on a baking sheet and brush with the oil. Cover with foil and bake in a 350°F/177°C oven until tender, 15 to 20 minutes. Remove from the oven and grill for about 2 minutes on each side if desired. 3. To serve, slice 1 mushroom on the bias. Spoon approximately 3 oz/85 g room-temperature bean salad in the center of the plate. Arrange the mushroom slices around the beans and garnish with 2 tbsp/30 mL celery juice, 11⁄2 tbsp/5 g radicchio, and 1⁄2 tsp/0.50 g cilantro.

SOUPS, SALADS, AND APPETIZERS

245


STUFFED GRAPE LEAVES

1. Sauté the onion and garlic in the oil in a sauté pan over medium heat until golden brown. 2. Add the green onions, parsley, dill, and mint and sauté briefly until the green onions wilt. Cool to room temperature.

SERVINGS: 30 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 1 oz/28 g NUTRITION PER SERVING: 140 calories, 6 g fat, 18 g total carbohydrate, 3 g protein, 160 mg sodium, 15 mg cholesterol

3. Mix the lemon juice, turmeric, oregano, cumin, coriander, fennel seeds, pine nuts, ginger, currants, and cinnamon with the onion and garlic mixture. Reserve. 4. Bring 20 fl oz/600 mL stock to a boil over high heat in a large saucepan and stir in the rice. Bring the mixture to a simmer, cover, and place the pan in a 350°F/176°C oven. Cook until the rice grains are fluffy and fully cooked, 18 to 20 minutes.

FILLING

1 medium onion, cut into small dice 1 tsp/3 g minced garlic 2 fl oz/60 mL olive oil

5. Spread the rice out on a sheet pan to cool to room temperature.

4 oz/113 g green onions, thinly sliced on the bias 4 oz/113 g coarsely chopped parsley

6. Combine the cooled rice with the onion-spice mixture and season with the salt and pepper. Add the eggs and stir until fully combined.

4 oz/113 g coarsely chopped dill 2 tsp/2 g coarsely chopped mint 1½ fl oz/45 mL lemon juice

7. Soak the grape leaves in water. Remove from water and drain. Place 11⁄2 tsp/7.50 mL filling toward the bottom edge of one of the leaves. Roll the bottom of the grape leaf over the filling to encase it and fold the sides in toward the middle. Continue rolling the grape leaf until you reach the end. Repeat with the remaining leaves and filling. The rolls should be about 2 in/5 cm long and 1⁄2 in/1 cm thick.

1½ tsp/3 g turmeric ½ tsp/1 g dried oregano 1 tbsp/6 g ground cumin 1 tsp/2 g ground coriander 1 tsp/2 g fennel seeds 2½ oz/71 g pine nuts

8. Pack the rolls tightly in a 2-in/5-cm-deep perforated pan and cover with aluminum foil. Place the remaining vegetable stock in a 4-in/10-cm-deep pan of the same size. Place the perforated pan inside the deeper hotel pan. Steam until the filling ingredients are thoroughly heated through, about 20 minutes.

2½ oz/71 g minced ginger 2½ oz/71 g dried currants Pinch ground cinnamon 72 fl oz/2.16 L Vegetable Stock (page 454) 8 oz/227 g long-grain rice

9. Meanwhile, prepare the dressing: Combine the olive oil, mint, oregano, lemon juice, and lemon zest.

1 tsp/3 g salt ½ tsp/1 g ground black pepper

10. After the rolls have cooled for a few minutes, brush with the dressing.

2 eggs, lightly beaten 36 grape leaves, rinsed DRESSING

2 fl oz/60 mL olive oil 2 tsp/2 g coarsely chopped mint 1 tsp/1 g coarsely chopped oregano 1 fl oz/30 mL lemon juice 1 tbsp/9 g grated lemon zest

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

246


PROSCIUTTO WITH GRILLED VEGETABLES

GRILLED VEGETABLES WITH ROMESCO SAUCE

SERVINGS: 10

SERVINGS: 10

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 4 ⁄2 oz/128 g grilled vegetables,

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 oz/170 g

1

3

⁄4 oz/21 g prosciutto, 2 tsp/10 mL vinaigrette

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 126 calories, 6 g fat, 18 g total

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 143 calories, 7 g fat, 14 g total carbohydrate, 8 g protein, 376 mg sodium, 14 mg cholesterol

carbohydrate, 4 g protein, 334 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

6 new potatoes

7 oz/198 g prosciutto

1½ medium bulbs fennel, trimmed and quartered

7½ oz/213 g arugula

8 baby carrots

1 lb 12 oz/795 g Grilled Vegetables (at right)

2 fl oz/60 mL extra-virgin olive oil

5 oz/142 g roasted green peppers, cut into pieces ½ by 3 in/1.50 by 8 cm

½ oz/14 g minced garlic ½ tsp/1.50 g salt

5 oz/142 g roasted red peppers, cut into pieces ½ by 3 in/1.50 by 8 cm

½ tsp/1 g ground black pepper 8 asparagus spears, peeled, trimmed

5 oz/142 g roasted yellow peppers, cut into pieces ½ by 3 in/1.50 by 8 cm

1½ zucchini, trimmed, halved lengthwise

1 lb/454 g asparagus, peeled, trimmed, blanched

1 red onion, quartered

6 fl oz/180 mL Balsamic Vinaigrette (page 470)

8 white mushrooms

2 oz/57 g shaved dry Jack cheese

1 red pepper, quartered 1 yellow pepper, quartered

1. Slice the prosciutto into 20 thin strips.

1 tbsp/15 mL lemon juice

3

2. To serve, place ⁄4 oz/21 g arugula on a plate. Scatter 21⁄2 oz/71 g grilled vegetables, 1 oz/28 g each roasted green, red, and yellow peppers, and 11⁄2 oz/43 g asparagus over the arugula. Arrange 2 slices of prosciutto on top of each portion and drizzle the salad with 2 tsp/10 mL vinaigrette. Garnish with a small amount of shaved cheese and serve.

8 oz/226 g Romesco Sauce (page 467) 1. Boil the potatoes in lightly salted water until they are tender. Drain and cut each potato in half. Reserve. 2. Working in batches, blanch the fennel and carrots briefly in boiling water, 20 to 30 seconds. Remove and shock in an ice water bath, then drain. Reserve. 3. Combine the oil, garlic, salt, and black pepper in a large bowl. Working in batches, add the remaining vegetables, the blanched fennel and carrots, and cooked potatoes and toss to coat. 4. Preheat the grill. 5. Grill the vegetables until cooked through but not mushy. 6. Arrange the grilled vegetables on a platter and drizzle with the lemon juice. Serve accompanied with the romesco sauce.

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WILD MUSHROOM AND GOAT CHEESE STRUDEL

7. To prepare the sauce, heat the fond de veau lié in a small saucepan. Add the wine and simmer until the alcohol dissipates, about 5 minutes. Remove from the heat and stir in the herbs. 8. To plate, serve 5 oz/142 g strudel on a pool of approximately 3 tbsp/45 mL heated sauce.

SERVINGS: 8 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 5 oz/142 g strudel, 3 tbsp/45 mL sauce NUTRITION PER SERVING: 200 calories, 9 g fat, 20 g total carbohydrate, 7 g protein, 170 mg sodium, 15 mg cholesterol

MUSSELS IN SAFFRON AND WHITE WINE SAUCE

2 fl oz/60 mL Vegetable Stock (page 454) 4 oz/113 g minced shallot 1½ oz/43 g minced garlic

SERVINGS: 10

2 lb/907 g wild mushrooms, quartered

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 12 mussels, 2 fl oz/60 mL sauce

7 fl oz/210 mL dry white wine

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 183 calories, 6 g fat, 10 g total carbohydrate, 17 g protein, 435 mg sodium, 46 mg cholesterol

4 oz/113 g goat cheese Six 11 by 16-in/28 by 41-cm phyllo dough sheets 1 tbsp/15 mL melted butter

½ oz/14 g butter

SAUCE

½ oz/14 g chopped garlic

14 fl oz/420 mL Fond de Veau Lié (page 457)

7 fl oz/210 mL dry white wine

2 tbsp/30 mL Madeira, port, Marsala, or sherry wine

3 tbsp/45 mL heavy cream

2 tbsp/30 mL chopped sage, tarragon, chives, or marjoram

2 tsp/4 g saffron threads 1¾ oz/50 g thinly sliced green onion 5½ oz/156 g tomato concassé

1. Heat the stock in a large sauté pan over medium heat. Add the shallots and garlic and sweat until the shallots are translucent.

2 tbsp/30 mL lemon juice 16 fl oz/480 mL Fish Velouté (page 462) 10 dozen mussels, cleaned, debearded

2. Add the mushrooms and sauté until cooked and the juices are reduced.

2 tbsp/6 g chopped chives

3. Deglaze the pan with the white wine and reduce until almost dry (au sec). Remove the pan from the heat and spread the mixture on a sheet pan to cool completely.

1. Heat the butter in a large soup pot over medium heat. Add the garlic and sauté until aromatic. Add the wine, cream, and saffron and simmer for 5 minutes.

4. Combine the cheese with the cooled mushroom mixture.

2. Add the green onions, tomatoes, lemon juice, and velouté. Simmer for 5 minutes, cool, and reserve until needed.

5. To prepare 1 strudel, stack 3 sheets of phyllo. Brush the top sheet with 11⁄2 tsp/7.50 mL butter. Mound half of the mushroom mixture along the long edge of the dough. Roll the strudel tightly, completely enclosing the mushroom mixture. Brush the top of the strudel with 11⁄2 tsp/7.50 mL melted butter.

3. To serve, bring 2 fl oz/60 mL of the velouté mixture to a simmer in a medium pot. Add 12 mussels and cover the pot. Steam the mussels until their shells open, about 4 minutes. Place the mussels in a heated serving bowl. Stir approximately 1⁄2 tsp/0.50 g chives into the sauce and pour over the mussels.

6. Repeat step 5 to assemble the second strudel. Place the strudels on a sheet pan and score to indicate 4 even portions. Bake the strudels in a 350°F/176°C oven until golden brown, about 15 minutes.

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STEAMED PORK DUMPLINGS

5. To assemble the dumplings, place 2 tbsp/30 mL filling in the middle of each dumpling wrapper. Gather the outer edges of the wrapper to form a cylinder around the filling, so that the filling is exposed at the top.

SERVINGS: 10

6. Wrap the pointer finger and thumb around the center “waist.” Dip your thumb from the other hand in water and gently push down to compact the filling. Tap the entire dumpling on the table to flatten the base.

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 oz/85 g NUTRITION PER SERVING: 240 calories, 13 g fat, 16 g total carbohydrate, 15 g protein, 840 mg sodium, 60 mg cholesterol

7. Prepare a pan of simmering water that will accommodate an 8-inch/20-cm bamboo steamer.

DIPPING SAUCE

8. Place each dumpling on a carrot slice and place inside the steamer. Transfer the steamer to the pan, cover, and steam until the filling is cooked through, 5 to 7 minutes. Serve the finished dumplings with the dipping sauce.

3 tbsp/27 g minced ginger 4 fl oz/120 mL rice vinegar 2 fl oz/60 mL soy sauce 2 fl oz/60 mL water 1 tbsp/15 mL sesame oil 2 tbsp/20 g sugar

CLAMS STEAMED IN BEER

FILLING

8 oz/227 g peeled, deveined, finely diced shrimp

SERVINGS: 10

8 oz/227 g trimmed and finely diced pork loin

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 9 clams, 11⁄2 oz/43 g salsa,

2 tsp/6.50 g salt

1 slice bread, 1 tsp/5 mL olivada

1 tbsp/9 g potato starch

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 224 calories, 3 g fat, 30 g total carbohydrate, 15 g protein, 606 mg sodium, 28 mg cholesterol

2 tsp/6.50 g sugar 1½ tsp/7.50 mL soy sauce 1½ tsp/7.50 mL sesame oil

16 fl oz/480 mL water

1 tsp/2 g ground black pepper

22 fl oz/660 mL amber beer

4 oz/113 g finely diced fatty pork

90 littleneck clams, scrubbed

4 oz/113 g dried shiitake mushrooms, rehydrated in warm water, finely diced

1 lb/454 g Tomato Salsa (page 447) 5 oz/140 g diced lime flesh, membranes removed

30 siu mai skins

1 oz/28 g cilantro leaves

4 medium carrots, sliced ¼ inch/6 mm thick

Ten ½-in/1-cm slices French bread, toasted 10 tsp/50 mL Olivada (page 446)

1. To make the dipping sauce, whisk all of the ingredients together in a medium bowl and refrigerate. 2. To make the filling, toss the shrimp and pork loin cubes together in a large bowl. Add the salt and potato starch and toss to combine.

1. To serve, bring 3 tbsp/45 mL water and 2 fl oz/60 mL beer to a simmer in a small pot. Add 9 clams and cover the pot. Steam until the clams open, about 5 minutes.

3. Add the sugar, soy sauce, oil, and pepper and mix well to combine.

2. Arrange the clams and 2 fl oz/60 mL of the cooking liquid in a large heated soup bowl.

4. Add the fatty pork and mushrooms and toss to combine.

3. Garnish with 11⁄2 oz/43 g tomato salsa, 1⁄2 oz/14 g lime, a few cilantro leaves, and 1 slice of bread spread with 1 tsp/5 mL olivada.

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Thai Seafood Salad TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

250


THAI SEAFOOD SALAD

GRILLED PORK SKEWERS

SERVINGS: 10

SERVINGS: 10

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 4 oz/113 g

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 oz/85 g

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 256 calories, 5 g fat, 5 g total carbohydrate, 15 g protein, 487 mg sodium, 28 mg cholesterol

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 78 calories, 0 g fat, 6 g total carbohydrate, 12 g protein, 153 mg sodium, 26 mg cholesterol

DRESSING

MARINADE

2 tsp/10 mL nam prik pao

8 fl oz/240 mL water

2 fl oz/60 mL fish sauce

4 oz/113 g chopped onion

2 fl oz/60 mL lime juice

4 garlic cloves, minced

1 tbsp/10 g sugar

1 chipotle chile, minced

2 Thai chiles, minced

2 oz/57 g sugar

2 lemongrass stalks, very finely minced

2 tbsp/30 mL soy sauce

2 shallots, halved lengthwise, cut into ¹⁄8-in/3-mm slices against the grain

2 tsp/10 mL chipotle in adobo sauce

1 lb/454 g peeled, deveined, shrimp cut in half lengthwise

1 oz/28 g chopped cilantro

1 lb/454 g squid, cleaned, cut into bite-size pieces

2 lb/907 g pork loin, cut into strips 1 by 2 in/3 by 5 cm

1 tsp/5 mL achiote paste

4 red Fresno chiles, cut into julienne 1. Combine all of the marinade ingredients in a blender and purée.

1 red bell peppers, cut into julienne 2 oz/57 g very coarsely chopped cilantro Salt, as needed

2. Transfer the pork to a shallow hotel pan, and pour the marinade over it. Allow the meat to marinate for 30 minutes. Thread the pork onto presoaked bamboo skewers. Preheat the grill.

1. Whisk together the nam prik pao, fish sauce, lime juice, sugar, chiles, and lemongrass until the sugar is dissolved. Stir in the shallots.

3. Grill pork for 3 minutes on one side, then turn and grill 3 minutes more. If necessary, transfer to a 350°F/177°C oven to finish cooking.

2 oz/57 g very coarsely chopped mint leaves

2. Steam shrimp and squid separately, being very careful not to overcook. Add each to the dressing and toss while they are still warm. Allow the mixture to slightly cool. Add the Fresno chiles and peppers and toss to coat with the dressing. Add the cilantro and mint. If necessary, adjust the seasoning with fish sauce, sugar, and/or salt. Serve cold.

Chopped bell peppers may be added to the skewers for color. NOTE

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VIETNAMESE SUMMER ROLLS

4. Toss the carrots with the salt and marinate for 10 minutes. Rinse thoroughly and blot any excess moisture from the carrots. Combine the cooked noodles, carrots, lettuce, sugar, and lemon juice. 5. To assemble the summer rolls: Combine the sugar and warm water in a large bowl. Moisten 1 wrapper in the sugar water and place on a clean, flat-weave cloth. Place 21⁄2 oz/71 g of the noodle mixture, 2 shrimp halves, and a few cilantro leaves in the center of each wrapper. Fold in each end of the wrapper and roll to completely encase the filling. Refrigerate until needed.

SERVINGS: 14 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 1 summer roll,

1 tbsp/15 mL dipping sauce

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 152 calories, 0 g fat, 30 g total carbohydrate, 6 g protein, 603 mg sodium, 25 mg cholesterol

6. Serve 1 cold summer roll with approximately 1 tbsp/15 mL dipping sauce.

DIPPING SAUCE

2 oz/55 g sugar 2 fl oz/60 mL fish sauce 3 tbsp/45 mL lemon juice 3 tbsp/45 mL rice wine vinegar 2 tbsp/30 mL water 1 tbsp/6 g minced garlic 2 tsp/10 mL chili sauce FILLING

6 oz/170 g rice noodles 8 oz/225 g shrimp (26/30 count) 6 oz/170 g finely julienned carrots ½ tsp/1.50 g salt 4 oz/113 g chiffonade iceberg lettuce 1½ tsp/5 g sugar 2 fl oz/60 mL lemon juice 1 oz/28 g sugar 8 fl oz/240 mL water, warm Fourteen 8-in/20-cm rice paper wrappers ½ oz/14 g cilantro leaves 1. Whisk together the dipping sauce ingredients and refrigerate. 2. Cook the rice noodles in boiling water until al dente. Shock the noodles in cold water and drain. 3. Blanch the shrimp in boiling water until cooked, about 3 minutes. Shock in an ice water bath, then peel and clean the shrimp. Slice the shrimp in half lengthwise.

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MOUSSELINE-STYLE FORCEMEAT

Choose a stock to complement the meat or fish you are using. NOTES

Seasoning choices include herbs, spices, or 2 tbsp/30 mL of liquor or flavored liquid.

BATCH YIELD: 2 lb 12 oz/1.25 kg

Garnish choices include diced meat or fish that has been patted dry; vegetables, dried fruit, or nuts (used sparingly).

SERVINGS: 22 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 2 oz/57 g

4 oz/113 g long-grain white rice

This basic recipe lists the standard ingredient amounts needed to properly prepare a mousseline-style forcemeat. This type of forcemeat can be used in a variety of applications, from pasta filling to terrines. Countless combinations of main ingredients, seasonings, and garnishes (up to 65 percent of a terrine may be garnish) may be used to customize the forcemeat in order to fit your needs.

2 lb/907 g lean poultry, fish, or shellfish, cubed

TO MAKE A TERRINE: Lightly oil the inside of a covered

1 tsp/3 g salt

mold, or spray with cooking spray. Line with plastic wrap, leaving a 2-in/5-cm overhang, and pack with the forcemeat. Fold the overhang over the forcemeat and cover. Place in a 170°F/77°C water bath and bake in a 325°F/165°C oven to an internal temperature of 145°F/63°C for fish or 165°F/74°C for poultry. Cool the terrine to 120°F/49°C and cover with foil-wrapped cardboard cut to fit inside the mold. Press with a brick or other heavy object and refrigerate for 8 to 10 hours before serving.

VARIATIONS

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 78 calories, 0 g fat, 6 g total

carbohydrate, 12 g protein, 153 mg sodium, 26 mg cholesterol

12 fl oz/360 mL stock (pages 454 to 455; see Notes)

½ tsp/1 g ground white pepper Seasonings, as needed (see Notes) 8 fl oz/240 mL evaporated skim milk, cold GARNISH

Garnish ingredients, as needed (see Notes) 1. Bring the stock to a boil in a medium saucepan. Add the rice and simmer gently until the liquid has been absorbed, about 18 minutes. Spread the rice on a sheet pan and refrigerate until thoroughly chilled. 2. Toss the poultry, fish, or shellfish with the salt, pepper, and seasonings. Refrigerate until well chilled. 3. Combine the meat mixture with the chilled rice and grind through a medium-hole die. 4. Put the ground mixture and half the milk into a chilled food processor bowl. Process to form a smooth paste, scraping the sides of the bowl as necessary. Add the remaining milk and pulse just until incorporated. For a very fine texture, push the forcemeat through a drum sieve. Transfer the forcemeat to a metal bowl placed over an ice bath. 5. Poach a small amount of the forcemeat in simmering water to test the consistency and seasoning. Make any necessary adjustments. Add more milk or stock if the forcemeat is too dry, or grind more meat and add if the forcemeat is too loose. 6. Fold the garnish ingredients into the forcemeat. Refrigerate until needed.

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MEDITERRANEAN-STYLE SEAFOOD TERRINE

oven to an internal temperature of 145°F/63°C. Cool the terrine to 120°F/49°C and cover with foil-wrapped cardboard cut to fit inside the mold. Press with a brick or other heavy object and refrigerate for 8 to 10 hours before slicing and serving.

BATCH YIELD: 2 lb/880 g SERVINGS: 16 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 2 oz/57 g NUTRITION PER SERVING: 86 calories, 4 g fat, 1 g total carbohydrate, 11 g protein, 470 mg sodium, 83 mg cholesterol

5 fl oz/150 mL heavy cream ½ tsp/1 g saffron threads 1 lb 2 oz/511 g scallops, muscle tabs removed, quartered ½ tsp/1.50 g salt 2 egg whites ¼ tsp/0.50 g ground black pepper 1 lb/454 g diced shrimp, peeled, deveined 1 tbsp/3 g chopped parsley 2 tsp/2 g chopped basil Vegetable oil spray, as needed 1. Heat the cream to a simmer in a small saucepan. Add the saffron, remove from the heat, and allow to steep for 30 minutes. Chill thoroughly. 2. Place half the scallops and the salt in a chilled food processor bowl. Process to form a smooth paste, scraping the sides of the bowl as necessary. Combine the chilled saffron cream, egg whites, and pepper. Add the mixture to the puréed scallops in thirds, pulsing the processor to incorporate. Transfer the forcemeat to a metal bowl placed over an ice bath. 3. Poach a small amount of the forcemeat in simmering water to test the consistency and seasoning. Make any necessary adjustments. 4. Pat dry the remaining scallops and the shrimp with paper towels. Fold the scallops, shrimp, parsley, and basil into the forcemeat. 5. Lightly spray the inside of a 2-lb/907-g terrine mold with vegetable oil. Line with plastic wrap, leaving a 2-in/5-cm overhang, and pack with the forcemeat. Fold the overhang over the forcemeat and cover. Place in a 170°F/77°C water bath and bake in a 325°F/163°C

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DUCK TERRINE

6. Add the vegetables, reduced braising liquid and reduced raspberry vinegar, red wine vinegar, chives, parsley, rosemary, and pepper to the shredded duck meat. Mix to combine.

BATCH YIELD: 4 lb/1.80 kg SERVINGS: 32

7. Lightly spray the inside of two 2-lb/907-g terrine molds with vegetable oil. Line with plastic wrap, leaving a 2-in/5-cm overhang. Fill each terrine with half the warm duck mixture and cover with the plastic wrap.

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 2 oz/57 g NUTRITION PER SERVING: 83 calories, 2 g fat, 4 g total carbohydrate, 9 g protein, 59 mg sodium, 31 mg cholesterol

8. Cover each terrine with a piece of foil-wrapped cardboard that will fit just inside the lip of the terrine molds. Press each terrine with at least 5 lb/2.27 kg of weight and refrigerate for 8 to 10 hours before slicing.

12 skinless duck legs 1½ qt/1.44 L Chicken Stock (page 454) 1 qt/960 mL dry red wine 1 Bouquet Garni (page 455) 6 oz/170 g small-dice carrot 6 oz/170 g small-dice parsnip 6 oz/170 g small-dice celeriac 6 oz/170 g small-dice leek 12 fl oz/360 mL raspberry vinegar 2 tbsp/30 mL red wine vinegar 1 oz/28 g chopped chives ¾ oz/21 g chopped parsley ½ oz/14 g chopped rosemary 2½ tsp/6 g ground black pepper Vegetable oil spray, as needed 1. Preheat the grill. Grill the duck legs just until marked. 2. Place the grilled duck legs, stock, wine, and bouquet garni in a braising pan. Bring to a simmer over medium heat, then braise in a 325°F/163°C oven until fork tender, about 21⁄2 hours. Discard the bouquet garni. Remove the legs from the braising liquid and reserve. 3. Add the vegetables to the liquid and simmer until tender. Remove the vegetables from the liquid and reserve. Reduce the liquid to 8 fl oz/240 mL, or the consistency of syrup. 4. Reduce the raspberry vinegar by half over high heat in a small saucepan. 5. When the grilled duck is cool enough to handle, remove the meat from the bones and shred by hand into a large bowl.

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GRILLED BELL PEPPER AND EGGPLANT TERRINE

CUCUMBER GRANITÉ BATCH YIELD: 2 lb 4 oz/1 kg SERVINGS: 10

BATCH YIELD: 2 lb/907 g

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄2 oz/99 g

SERVINGS: 16

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 30 calories, 0 g fat, 6 g total carbohydrate, 1 g protein, 8 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 2 oz/57 g NUTRITION PER SERVING: 126 calories, 6 g fat, 18 g total carbohydrate, 4 g protein, 334 mg sodium, 0 mg cholesterol

2 lb 4 oz/1 kg chopped, peeled, seeded cucumber 1 lb/454 g eggplant, sliced ¼ in/6 mm thick

3 tbsp/45 mL champagne vinegar

3 lb/1.36 kg red pepper

3 tbsp/30 g sugar

3 lb/1.36 kg yellow pepper

1 egg white, lightly beaten

3 lb/1.36 kg green pepper Purée all of the ingredients in a blender. Pour the purée into a half hotel pan and place in the freezer. Stir frequently as the mixture freezes to form large crystals.

Vegetable oil spray, as needed ½ oz/14 g powdered or sheet gelatin 12 fl oz/360 mL Vinaigrette-Style Dressing (page 470)

Serve as an intermezzo course or as a garnish for Chilled Gazpacho (page 207).

2 tsp/6.50 g salt

SERVING SUGGESTION

½ tsp/1 g ground black pepper 1. Grill the eggplant and peppers until the eggplant is tender and the peppers are blackened. Peel and seed the peppers. 2. Lightly spray the inside of a 3-lb/1.36-kg terrine mold with vegetable oil. Line with plastic wrap, leaving a 2-in/5-cm overhang. Trim the vegetables to fit the mold. 3. Dissolve the gelatin in the vinaigrette. 4. Layer the peppers and eggplant alternately with the dressing to fill the mold. Sprinkle each layer with the salt and pepper. Cover with plastic wrap. 5. Cover the terrine with a piece of foil-wrapped that will fit just inside the lip of the terrine mold. Press the terrine with at least 5 lb/2.27 kg of weight and refrigerate for 8 to 10 hours before slicing. The terrine can be properly wrapped and refrigerated for up to 7 days.

Serve each portion with 2 small slices French bread, grated Parmesan, and a small green salad. SERVING SUGGESTION

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6 The big lesson we all seem to need to learn again and again is that calories count. The chefâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s challenge is to make them all count for something good. Building

MAIN DISHES

FOR LUNCHES AND DINNERS an entrĂŠe around a big steak is a bad idea from a nutritional standpoint. It is also far from the standards being set in restaurants around the country and around the world.


Even when a piece of fish or lean beef or poultry is

2. To serve, brown 1 piece of cod on both sides in a sauté pan. Transfer the cod to a 450°F/232°C oven and bake until thoroughly cooked, about 5 minutes. Heat 4 fl oz/120 mL of the consommé in a sauce pot. Add 1 ⁄2 oz/14 g each of the carrots and turnips, 11⁄2 oz/ 43 g of the haricots verts, and 2 oz/57 g pasta in the consommé and cook at a bare simmer until the vegetables are tender and the pasta is cooked through and tender.

the showpiece of the plate, you can create healthier menu options by introducing vegetable-laden sauces, whole-grain or legume-based side dishes or stuffings, and a selection of fresh, colorful, seasonal vegetables.

3. Place a piece of cod on a heated soup plate and spoon the consommé, vegetables, and pasta around the cod. Top with the enoki, chives, and a thin slice (1⁄2 tsp/2.50 mL) of ginger–green onion butter.

SEARED COD IN A RICH BROTH WITH FALL VEGETABLES, CHIVE PASTA, AND GINGER–GREEN ONION BUTTER

There is a chive pasta variation in the Basic Pasta Dough recipe on page 377. NOTE

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄2 oz/99 g cod, 4 fl oz/120 mL

consommé, 3 oz/85 g vegetables, 2 oz/57 g pasta

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 312 calories, 1 g fat, 47 g total carbohydrate, 27 g protein, 325 mg sodium, 44 mg cholesterol

2 lb 4 oz/1 kg cod fillets 1 tsp/3 g salt ½ tsp/0.50 g ground white pepper 4 oz/113 g dried shiitake mushrooms, ground to a powder 40 fl oz/1.20 L Mushroom-Infused Stock (page 193) 5 oz/142 g julienned carrots 5 oz/142 g julienned yellow turnip 5 oz/142 g julienned white turnip 1 lb/454 g haricots verts, cut into 1-in/3-cm lengths 1 lb 4 oz/567 g Chive Pasta (page 377; see Note) 3 oz/85 g enoki mushrooms, cut into 1½-in/4-cm lengths 1 tbsp/3 g chives, cut into ½-in/1-cm lengths 5 tsp/25 mL Ginger–Green Onion Butter (page 478) 1. Portion the cod into 31⁄2-oz/99-g pieces. Season with the salt and pepper. Dredge the cod in the mushroom powder. Reserve.

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SAUTÉED SQUID AND STEAMED MUSSELS WITH CANNELLINI BEANS, SPINACH, AND PANCETTA

In a separate pan, reheat 3 oz/85 g of the bean mixture. Add 1 fl oz/30 mL wine. Add 4 mussels, cover the pan, and steam until the mussels open, about 3 minutes.

4. Spoon 3 oz/85 g bean mixture in the center of a soup plate. Lay 31⁄2 oz/99 g squid on the beans and arrange 4 mussels around the perimeter of the bowl. Garnish with 1 tsp/1 g each cheese and parsley.

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 oz/85 g bean mixture,

2 oz/57 g squid, 4 mussels, 1 tsp/1 g cheese

GRILLED SALMON WITH SAVOY CABBAGE AND HEIRLOOM BEAN SAUCE

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 320 calories, 10 g fat, 21 g total carbohydrate, 29 g protein, 830 mg sodium, 170 mg cholesterol

1 lb 4 oz/567 g squid 2 oz/57 g sliced pancetta

SERVINGS: 10

16 fl oz/480 mL white wine

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄2 oz/99 g salmon,

4½ oz/128 g sliced red onion

31⁄4 oz/92 g cabbage, 2 oz/57 g bean sauce

½ oz/14 g thinly sliced garlic

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 423 calories, 15 g fat, 36 g total carbohydrate, 36 g protein, 700 mg sodium, 78 mg cholesterol

4 oz/113 g sliced fennel 14 oz/397 g cooked cannellini beans 10½ oz/298 g spinach

2 lb 4 oz/1 kg salmon fillets

13 oz/369 g tomato concassé

1 tsp/3 g salt

1 tbsp/3 g basil chiffonade

¼ tsp/0.50 g ground black pepper

1 tbsp/3 g chopped oregano

2 lb/907 g Warm Cabbage Salad (page 224)

1 tsp/3 g salt

1 lb 4 oz/567 g Heirloom Bean Sauce (page 465)

¼ tsp/0.50 g ground black pepper 1. Portion the salmon into 31⁄2-oz/99-g tranches. Season with the salt and pepper.

1 tbsp/15 mL olive oil 40 mussels, scrubbed, debearded

2. Preheat the grill to medium-high heat. Clean and oil the grates.

10 tsp/10 g coarsely grated Parmesan 10 tsp/10 g chopped parsley

3. Lightly grill the salmon on both sides. Finish cooking in a 375°F/191°C oven until medium doneness.

1. Cut the bodies of the squid into thin rings. Leave the tentacles whole. Divide into 2-oz/57-g portions. Refrigerate.

4. To serve, spoon 31⁄4 oz/92 g heated cabbage in the middle of a plate. Ladle 2 oz/57 g bean sauce around the cabbage and lay a piece of salmon on top of the cabbage.

2. In a large sauté pan, render the pancetta over medium heat until crisp, about 5 minutes. Deglaze the pan with some of the wine. Add the onion, garlic, and fennel and sauté, stirring frequently, until the fennel is tender. Add the beans, spinach, tomatoes, basil, and oregano. Season with the salt and pepper. Reserve.

Heirloom beans are from a nonhybridized plant. An alternative to mass-market plants, heirlooms are thought to have better flavor than hybrids. NOTE

3. To serve: Heat a pan over high heat. Add just enough oil to barely film the pan. Add one portion of the squid and sauté the squid until opaque, 1 to 2 minutes. MAIN DISHES FOR LUNCHES AND DINNERS

261


SEARED ATLANTIC SALMON WITH CORN, POTATO, AND ARUGULA SALAD

2. Portion the salmon into 31⁄2-oz/99-g tranches. Season with the salt and pepper. 3. Heat a large sauté pan over medium heat. Sear the salmon on 1 side, flip, and finish in a 325°F/163°C oven until medium doneness. 4. To serve, place 41⁄2 oz/128 g salad in the middle of a warm plate. Sprinkle the chopped herbs on the salad and place 1 portion of cooked salmon on top of the salad. Pour 1 fl oz/30 mL coulis around the salmon and garnish with cherry tomatoes.

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 41⁄2 oz/128 g salad, 31⁄2 oz/99 g

salmon, 1 fl oz/30 mL coulis, 1⁄2 oz/14 g cherry tomatoes

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 411 calories, 20 g fat, 32 g total carbohydrate, 26 g protein, 509 mg sodium, 60 mg cholesterol

CORN, POTATO, AND ARUGULA SALAD

1 tbsp/15 mL Dijon mustard 1½ fl oz/45 mL lemon juice 1 fl oz/30 mL lime juice ¾ oz/20 g sugar 2 fl oz/60 mL peanut oil 1 fl oz/30 mL extra-virgin olive oil 1 lb 4 oz/567 g corn kernels 1 lb 4 oz/567 g Bliss potatoes, cooked, sliced 5 oz/142 g arugula 2 tbsp/6 g chopped cilantro ½ tsp/1.50 g salt ¼ tsp/0.50 g ground black pepper ¼ tsp/1.25 mL hot sauce 2 lb 4 oz/1 kg salmon fillets 1 tsp/3 g salt ½ tsp/1 g ground black pepper 1 tbsp/3 g chopped chives 10 tsp/10 g chopped parsley 10 tsp/10 g chopped chervil 10 fl oz/300 mL Yellow Tomato Coulis (page 464) 4 oz/113 g halved cherry tomatoes 1. To prepare the salad, combine the mustard, lemon and lime juices, and sugar. Slowly whisk in the peanut and olive oils. Then toss together with the corn, potatoes, arugula, and cilantro. Season with the salt, pepper, and hot sauce.

TECHNIQUES OF HEALTHY COOKING

262


LOBSTER WRAPPED IN RICE PAPER WITH ASIAN SALAD

2. Bring the water to a boil in a large stockpot. Add the lobsters. Boil for 3 minutes, just long enough to release the meat from the shell. Shock in ice water and drain. Remove all the meat from the tails, claws, and knuckles and cut into medium dice. 3. Heat the butter in a large sauté pan over medium heat. Add the leek and sweat until tender. Add the lobster meat, brandy, salt, and pepper. Continue to cook for another 5 minutes, or until the lobster is cooked.

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 21⁄2 oz/71 g Asian salad,

2 lobster rolls, 1 fl oz/30 mL vinaigrette

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 302 calories, 11 g fat, 30 g total

4. Remove the solids from the pan and reduce any excess liquid to a syrup, about 5 minutes. Add the reduced liquid to the lobster meat and chill thoroughly.

carbohydrate, 17 g protein, 728 mg sodium, 45 mg cholesterol

5. Soften the rice paper wrappers in warm water for a few minutes; drain. Place 11⁄2 oz/43 g of the lobster mixture in each rice paper and roll to completely encase the mixture.

ASIAN SALAD

1 tsp/5 mL peanut oil 3 oz/85 g julienned shiitake mushrooms 1½ tbsp/23 mL reduced-sodium soy sauce

6. Heat the oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Sauté the lobster rolls until golden brown on 2 sides.

4 oz/113 g julienned carrot 6 oz/170 g bean sprouts

7. To serve, mound 21⁄2 oz/71 g of the Asian salad in the middle of a plate. Arrange 2 rolls over the greens. Dress the salad with 1 fl oz/30 mL vinaigrette.

6 oz/170 g julienned snow peas 5 oz/142 g julienned daikon 2 oz/57 g chopped pickled ginger 2 oz/57 g thinly sliced green onion 5 oz/142 g mixed greens 10 fl oz/300 mL Lime-Cilantro Vinaigrette (page 471) 3 gal/11.52 L water 5 live 1-lb/454-g lobsters ½ oz/14 g butter 4 oz/113 g julienned leek 1½ fl oz/45 mL brandy 2 tsp/6 g salt ½ tsp/1 g ground black pepper Twenty 8-in/20-cm rice paper sheets 1 fl oz/30 mL peanut oil 1. To make the Asian salad, heat the oil in a large sauté pan over medium heat. Add the mushrooms and sweat until tender. Add the soy sauce and reduce all the liquid. Chill completely. Combine the mushrooms with the remaining vegetables. Toss with the vinaigrette. Reserve.

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STIR-FRIED SCALLOPS

5. Combine the fumet, bean pastes, cornstarch, and oyster sauce. Add to the vegetables and bring to a boil while stirring constantly until the liquid has thickened.

SERVINGS: 10

6. Return the scallops to the pan and toss to evenly distribute.

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 6 oz/170 g stir fry, 31⁄4 oz/92 g rice NUTRITION PER SERVING: 292 calories, 9 g fat, 30 g total carbohydrate, 22 g protein, 238 mg sodium, 34 mg cholesterol

7. Serve 6 oz/170 g stir fry on 31⁄4 oz/92 g rice and garnish with the green onions and sesame seeds.

2 lb 4 oz/1 kg bay scallops, muscle tabs removed

SEARED COD WITH SHELLFISH, TOMATOFENNEL BROTH, SAFFRON PASTA, AND CHORIZO

2 fl oz/60 mL peanut oil ½ oz/14 g minced ginger ½ oz/14 g minced garlic 5 oz/142 g julienned celery 2 oz/57 g julienned red pepper 2 oz/57 g julienned yellow pepper 2 oz/57 g julienned green pepper

SERVINGS: 10

4 oz/113 g snow peas

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 2 oz/57 g pasta, 2 oz/57 g cooked cod,

2 littleneck clams, 71⁄2 oz/205 g vegetables and chorizo

2 oz/57 g sliced white mushrooms

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 590 calories, 14 g fat, 70 g total carbohydrate, 41 g protein, 1280 mg sodium, 75 mg cholesterol

4 oz/113 g julienned zucchini 12 fl oz/360 mL Fish Fumet (page 455) 1½ tsp/7.50 mL hot bean paste

5 oz/142 g dried chorizo sausage

1 tbsp/15 mL red bean paste

20 littleneck clams, scrubbed

½ oz/14 g cornstarch

1 lb 4 oz/567 g cubed cod fillets

1 tbsp/15 mL oyster sauce

1 tsp/3 g salt

2 lb/907 g cooked brown rice, warm

¼ tsp/0.50 g ground black pepper

GARNISH

8 oz/227 g all-purpose flour

3½ oz/99 g thinly sliced green onions

1 fl oz/30 mL clarified butter

1 oz/28 g black sesame seeds, toasted

1 tbsp/15 mL olive oil 2 oz/57 g minced shallot

1. Blot excess moisture from the scallops with a paper towel.

1½ qt/1.44 L Chicken Stock (page 454) 20 mussels, scrubbed, debearded

2. Heat half of the oil in a wok or large sauté pan over medium heat. Sear the scallops in the oil. Remove from the pan and reserve.

8 oz/227 g wedge-cut fennel, cooked 8 oz/227 g tomato concassé 6 oz/170 g roasted red peppers

3. Heat the remaining oil in the same pan. Add the ginger and garlic and stir-fry until aromatic.

6 oz/170 g roasted yellow peppers 2 lb 8 oz/1.13 kg spinach

4. Add the celery, peppers, snow peas, mushrooms, and zucchini. Stir-fry until the zucchini is almost cooked.

1 lb 4 oz/567 g Saffron Pasta (page 379), cooked

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HAKE IN GREEN SAUCE

1. Blanch the chorizo in salted water for 1 minute. Cut each sausage in half lengthwise and cut each half into 1⁄8-in/3-mm half-moon shapes.

SERVINGS: 8

2. Steam the clams in water until they have opened. Drain the clams and reserve.

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄2 oz/99 g hake,

2 oz/57 g green sauce

3. Season the cod with the salt and pepper and dredge in the flour. Heat the butter in a large sauté pan over medium heat. Brown the cod in the butter until thoroughly cooked.

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 423 calories, 15 g fat, 36 g total

carbohydrate, 36 g protein, 700 mg sodium, 78 mg cholesterol

4. Heat the oil in a large saucepan over medium heat. Add the shallots and sliced blanched chorizo and sweat until the shallots are translucent.

Eight 5-oz/142-g hake tranches Salt, as needed 3 tbsp/27 g all-purpose flour

5. Add the stock and the mussels. Cover and steam for 1 minute, until the mussels have opened. Add the steamed clams.

3 fl oz/90 mL extra-virgin olive oil 5 garlic cloves, minced

6. Add the fennel, tomatoes, peppers, and spinach. Heat until the spinach is wilted and the other vegetables are hot.

½ tsp/1 g red pepper flakes

7. To serve, place 2 oz/57 g pasta in the middle of a large soup plate. Place 2 oz/57 g cooked cod on top of the pasta and spoon 71⁄2 oz/205 g shellfish and vegetables around the cod.

1½ fl oz/45 mL Fish Fumet (page 455)

3 fl oz/90 mL white wine 12 clams, scrubbed 2 lb/907 g white asparagus or green beans, blanched 1 bunch parsley, finely chopped 3 hard-boiled eggs, quartered 1. Season the hake with salt and dust in the flour. Shake off excess. 2. Heat the oil in a sautoir over medium heat until warm. Add the garlic and red pepper flakes, and cook until the garlic is lightly golden, about 1 minute. 3. Add the hake tranches skin side up and cook for 2 minutes. Flip the tranches and cook another 2 minutes. 4. Add the wine and cook until reduced by half. 5. Add the clams. Pour in the fumet, cover, and cook until the clams open, about 5 minutes. Add the asparagus or green beans and parsley. 6. Serve garnished with hard-boiled eggs.

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GRILLED HERBED SALMON WITH SOUTHWEST WHITE BEAN STEW

SALMON CAKES WITH GREEN GODDESS DRESSING

SERVINGS: 10

SERVINGS: 20

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄2 oz/99 g salmon,

PORTIONING INFORMATION: Two 31⁄2 oz/99 g salmon cakes,

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 268 calories, 9 g fat, 16 g total

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 268 calories, 9 g fat, 16 g total

3 oz/85 g bean stew

1 fl oz/30 mL dressing

carbohydrate, 29 g protein, 133 mg sodium, 67 mg cholesterol

carbohydrate, 29 g protein, 133 mg sodium, 67 mg cholesterol

2 lb 4 oz/1 kg salmon fillets

SALMON CAKES

3 lb 8 oz/1.59 kg diced salmon SALMON MARINADE

2 lb 12 oz/1.25 kg very finely chopped salmon

1 fl oz/30 mL lime juice

1 lb 4 oz/567 g peeled, deveined shrimp, diced

1 tbsp/3 g chopped parsley

2 lb 3 oz/992 g red pepper, blanched, minced

1 tbsp/3 g chopped chives

5 oz/142 g finely chopped green onions

1 tbsp/3 g chopped thyme

2 tbsp/18 g lemon zest

2 tsp/4 g ground black pepper

4 tsp/12 g seeded, minced jalapeño 8 egg whites

1 lb 14 oz/850 g Southwest White Bean Stew (page 370), warm

2 fl oz/60 mL mayonnaise 1 tbsp/10 g salt 1 tsp/2 g ground black pepper

1. Cut the salmon into 31⁄2-oz/99-g portions. 2. Combine the marinade ingredients and evenly spread them on the salmon. Refrigerate for 30 minutes.

6 oz/170 g panko bread crumbs 8 fl oz/240 mL extra-virgin olive oil

3. Preheat the grill to medium-high heat. Clean and oil the grates.

20 fl oz/600 mL Green Goddess Dressing (page 474)

4. Grill the salmon until thoroughly cooked. Serve each portion with 3 oz/85 g warm bean stew.

1. In a medium bowl, combine all of the ingredients for the salmon cakes. It should just hold together and not be too dense and heavy. Add some bread crumbs or mayonnaise, if needed.

A mixture of jícama cut into julienne and haricots verts tossed with 1 tsp/5 mL of Lime-Cilantro Vinaigrette (page 471) is a good accompaniment for the salmon. Spoon up to 1 tbsp/15 mL vinaigrette over the fish if desired for an additional 30 calories per serving. NOTE

2. Divide the mixture and pat into 40 cakes no thicker than 1 in/2.5 cm. The salmon cakes may be prepared in advance to this point. Store them uncovered in the refrigerator for up to 4 hours. 3. Dredge the salmon cakes in 1 oz/28 g bread crumbs seasoned with salt and pepper. In a large sauté pan over moderate heat, add the oil to just cover the bottom. Sauté the cakes until golden brown, 3 to 5 minutes per side. Serve two of the cakes immediately with 1 oz/30 mL of the dressing.

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Salmon Cakes with Green Goddess Dressing, Oven-Roasted Sweet Potatoes (page 384), and a green salad

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GRILLED YELLOWFIN TUNA WITH CITRUS SALAD

SHRIMP WITH TOMATOES, OREGANO, AND FETA CHEESE

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄2 oz/99 g tuna,

SERVINGS: 10

5 oz/142 g citrus salad

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄2 oz/99 g shrimp,

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 233 calories, 8 g fat, 16 g total carbohydrate, 25 g protein, 299 mg sodium, 46 mg cholesterol

2 oz/57 g sauce, 1 oz/28 g cheese

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 200 calories, 9 g fat, 8 g total carbohydrate, 18 g protein, 320 mg sodium, 151 mg cholesterol

2 lb 4 oz/1 kg yellowfin tuna 3 lb/1.36 kg peeled, deveined shrimp

1 tbsp/15 mL olive oil

1 tsp/3 g salt

CITRUS SALAD

½ tsp/1 g ground black pepper, as needed

1 lb 5 oz/600 g blanched fennel, cut into julienne

2 fl oz/60 mL olive oil

14 oz/397 g pink grapefruit sections

2 oz/57 g chopped green onion

14 oz/397 g white grapefruit sections

4 garlic cloves, minced

9 oz/257 g orange sections

2 tbsp/6 g dried oregano

1 ¾ oz/50 g blood orange sections

¼ tsp/0.50 g cayenne

2½ oz/71 g lime sections

8 oz/227 g crushed tomatoes or Tomato Sauce (page 463)

¾ oz/21 g lemon sections

8 oz/227 g crumbled feta

2½ oz/71 g diced red onion

4 tbsp/12 g chopped parsley

1 oz/28 g minced roasted jalapeño ½ tsp/1 g ground black pepper

1. Season the shrimp with the salt and pepper. Heat 2 tbsp/30 mL of the oil in a sauté pan over medium heat. Quickly sauté the shrimp until pink, 2 to 3 minutes.

1. Cut the tuna into 31⁄2-oz/99-g steaks. Brush the tuna with the oil.

2. Transfer the shrimp into small gratin dishes or hotel pans.

2. Preheat the grill to medium-high heat. Clean and oil the grates. Grill the tuna for about 3 minutes on each side.

3. Heat the remaining oil in the same sauté pan and cook the green onion over moderate heat until tender. Add the garlic, oregano, and cayenne; sauté for 2 minutes. Add the tomatoes or tomato sauce and simmer for a few minutes; season with pepper. Pour the sauce over the shrimp.

3. Combine the citrus salad ingredients in a large sauté pan and heat just until warmed. 4. Serve 5 oz/142 g of the citrus salad with a grilled tuna steak.

4. Sprinkle the cheese over the sauce. Broil or bake until the cheese melts, 2 to 3 minutes. Sprinkle with the parsley and serve.

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GRILLED SOFT-SHELL CRABS

SWORDFISH IN SAVORY SAUCE

SERVINGS: 10

SERVINGS: 10

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 3 ⁄2 oz/99 g crabs, 2 oz/57 g salsa,

PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄2 oz/99 g swordfish,

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 74 calories, 3 g fat, 1 g total carbohydrate, 8 g protein, 124 mg sodium, 33 mg cholesterol

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 167 calories, 5 g fat, 8 g total carbohydrate, 22 g protein, 165 mg sodium, 40 mg cholesterol

CRAB MARINADE

Ten 8-oz/227-g swordfish fillets

14 fl oz/420 mL red wine vinegar

1 tsp/3 g salt, plus as needed

14 fl oz/420 mL dry white wine

¼ tsp/0.50 g ground black pepper, plus as needed

4 fl oz/120 mL lemon juice

12 oz/340 g all-purpose flour

3 fl oz/90 mL extra-virgin olive oil

4 fl oz/120 mL olive oil

2 oz/57 g minced red pepper

1 medium onion, chopped

2 oz/57 g minced green onion

12 oz/340 g peeled, seeded and chopped plum tomatoes

2 jalapeños, roasted and minced

3 garlic cloves, minced

1 tbsp/3 g chopped basil

3 oz/85 g pitted and coarsely chopped green olives

1 tbsp/3 g chopped fennel top

2 stalks celery, chopped

1 tbsp/3 g chopped tarragon

1 tbsp/3 g chopped basil

1 tbsp/3 g chopped thyme

1½ oz/43 g pine nuts

½ oz/14 g minced garlic

1½ oz/43 g raisins

1

2 oz/57 g black bean sauce

3 fl oz/90 mL sauce

1½ oz/43 g capers, rinsed

10 soft-shell crabs (about 2 lb 4 oz/1 kg), cleaned

8 fl oz/240 mL Fish Fumet (page 455)

1 lb 4 oz/567 g Green Papaya Salsa (page 450) 1 lb 4 oz/567 g Barley and Wheat Berry Pilaf (page 358)

1. Sprinkle the fish with the salt and pepper and dredge in the flour.

1. Combine the ingredients for the crab marinade in a shallow pan. Add the crabs, cover, and marinate for at least 2 hours in the refrigerator.

2. Heat the oil in the sauté pan over medium heat. Sauté the fish until lightly colored on both sides. Transfer the fish to a baking dish and reserve the pan.

2. Preheat the grill to medium-high heat. Clean and oil the grates.

3. Add the onion to the pan and cook over medium heat until tender. Add the tomatoes and simmer for 5 minutes. Add the garlic, olives, celery, basil, pine nuts, raisins, capers, and fumet; simmer for 5 minutes. Adjust seasoning.

3. To serve, grill 1 crab until thoroughly cooked, about 2 minutes on each side. Serve with 2 oz/57 g salsa and 2 oz/57 g warm pilaf.

4. Ladle the sauce over the fish. Bake in a 400°F/ 204°C oven for about 10 minutes.

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SEARED SCALLOPS WITH AVOCADO, GRAPEFRUIT, GREENS, AND CITRUS DRESSING

presentation. After cutting the avocados, drizzle with about 2 fl oz/60 mL of the dressing. (Make sure that cutting the avocado is the last thing to be done prior to cooking the scallops.)

4. Toss the greens with the remaining dressing and divide among 10 cold plates. Top with the avocado and the grapefruit segments and drizzle with the remaining dressing. Prior to cooking the scallops, make sure all the plates are set up so that the salad can be served immediately after searing the scallops.

SERVINGS: 10 PORTIONING INFORMATION: 31⁄2 oz/99 g scallops,

1 oz/28 g greens, 11⁄2 fl oz/45 mL dressing

NUTRITION PER SERVING: 248 calories, 10 g fat, 12 g total carbohydrate, 27 g protein, 257 mg sodium, 69 mg cholesterol

5. Pat the scallops dry. Season the scallops with salt and pepper. Heat a large pan over medium-high heat and add the oil. Once the oil begins to shimmer, gently add the scallops, making sure they are not touching each other; sear for about 1 minute on each side. The scallops should have a nice brown crust on each side while still being translucent in the center. Sear for roughly 1 minute on each side or until you can see that the scallop is golden brown on the edges. Using a fish spatula, flip the scallop and repeat the step. Only the top and bottom of the scallop need to be seared. The scallops can be served whole or sliced into thirds and fanned out on the plates.

DRESSING

8 fl oz/240 mL extra-virgin olive oil 4 fl oz/120 mL Meyer lemon juice 2 tsp/6.50 g salt ½ tsp/1 g ground black pepper 6 lb/2.72 kg grapefruit 2 lb/907 g avocados

6. Place the cooked scallops on the salads, sprinkle with a little sea salt and grapefruit juice, and serve.

10 oz/284 g leafy greens 40 large scallops, muscle tabs removed Salt, as needed Ground black pepper, as needed 6 tbsp/90 mL olive oil Sea salt, as needed 1. To make the dressing, combine all of the dressing ingredients and mix until thick and emulsified. Set aside. 2. Working with 1 grapefruit at a time, cut a thin slice off the top and bottom to reveal the flesh. Stand the grapefruit upright and remove the peel with a sharp knife in wide strips, cutting downward and following the contour of the fruit. Holding the grapefruit over a bowl, cut along both sides of the segment, releasing the segments from the membrane and allowing them to drop into the bowl. Squeeze the remaining juice from the fruit; you should have about 4 fl oz/120 mL juice. 3. Slit each avocado in half and remove the pit. Using a butter knife, make thin slices of avocado inside the peel. Scoop out the slices gently with a spoon. This will help keep the shape of the slices for a better

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