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RBV & Positioning School Presented to you by Study Group A

HQWalls.com.ua (n.a.)


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


The Resource Based View Strengths • Understanding

the importance of ‘firm resources’ (Barney, 1991, p. 101) • Internal audit for resource value: VRIN (Carter et al, 2010, p. 56)/ VRIO and value chain (Barney and Hesterly, 2005) • Resource allocation and reallocation


The Resource Based View Strengths • Sources

of competitive advantage and ways to sustain them • T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f k n ow l e d g e management (Carter et al, 2010, p. 61)


The Resource Based View Weaknesses According to Dierickx and Cool (1989): • time compression diseconomies • asset mass efficiencies • interconnectedness of asset stocks • asset erosion • causal ambiguity


The Resource Based View Weaknesses • tautological (Priem and Butler, 2001 a,b) • difficulty in finding resources for satisfying VRIN criteria


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


The Resource Based View Application to Apple Inc. 

Fernandes (2011), Oldcomputers (no date), Loeb (2011), AppleMuseum (no date), Moore (2008), Kochmanski (2011), Atkins (2010), JoBrad (2010).


The Resource Based View Application to Apple Inc. 

Steve Jobs

Fernandes (2011), Oldcomputers (no date), Loeb (2011), AppleMuseum (no date), Moore (2008), Kochmanski (2011), Atkins (2010), JoBrad (2010).


The Resource Based View Application to Apple Inc. 

• •

Steve Jobs Product line consolidation

Fernandes (2011), Oldcomputers (no date), Loeb (2011), AppleMuseum (no date), Moore (2008), Kochmanski (2011), Atkins (2010), JoBrad (2010).


The Resource Based View Application to Apple Inc. 

• • •

Steve Jobs Product line consolidation Redesign and Reposition

Fernandes (2011), Oldcomputers (no date), Loeb (2011), AppleMuseum (no date), Moore (2008), Kochmanski (2011), Atkins (2010), JoBrad (2010).


The Resource Based View Application to Apple Inc. 

• • • •

Steve Jobs Product line consolidation Redesign and Reposition Retain on earnings and Investment Fernandes (2011), Oldcomputers (no date), Loeb (2011), AppleMuseum (no date), Moore (2008), Kochmanski (2011), Atkins (2010), JoBrad (2010).


The Resource Based View Application to Apple Inc. 

• • • • •

Steve Jobs Product line consolidation Redesign and Reposition Retain on earnings and Investment Creation of New Market

Fernandes (2011), Oldcomputers (no date), Loeb (2011), AppleMuseum (no date), Moore (2008), Kochmanski (2011), Atkins (2010), JoBrad (2010).


The Resource Based View Application to Apple Inc. 

• • • • • •

Steve Jobs Product line consolidation Redesign and Reposition Retain on earnings and Investment Creation of New Market Product Differentiation

Fernandes (2011), Oldcomputers (no date), Loeb (2011), AppleMuseum (no date), Moore (2008), Kochmanski (2011), Atkins (2010), JoBrad (2010).


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


The Positioning School • An outside–in model • Porter (1998) explains the model with his 5 forces framework together with generic strategies. • He also uses factors to understand the industry such as: – industry growth rate – technology and innovation – government – complementary products/services (Porter, 1987), (Porter, 1998)


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


The Positioning School Strengths • •

Considers the macro environment with all its indicators

Applicable to all industries and helps investors to predict shifting’s in the industry structure (Porter, 1980)

Understanding customer needs and implementing them on strategy (Ketels, 2005)

‘A framework for anticipating and influencing competition (and profitability) over time.’ (Porter, 2008)


The Positioning School Weaknesses • Can end up being too broad of a view • May lead to not analysing the most important force deeply enough

• Not considering the company’s inner strengths • Only analyses the macro environment


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  PC Market

Rivalry among existing competitors

15wkc-italy (no date), MobileFone (no date), Dell (no date), Selasa (2011), Gohring (2010), Price (2011).


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  PC Market

Rivalry among existing competitors

•

Main rivals: HP, Dell, Acer, Lenovo

15wkc-italy (no date), MobileFone (no date), Dell (no date), Selasa (2011), Gohring (2010), Price (2011).


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  PC Market

Rivalry among existing competitors

• •

Main rivals: HP, Dell, Acer, Lenovo Market is fragmented – No leader

LEADER 15wkc-italy (no date), MobileFone (no date), Dell (no date), Selasa (2011), Gohring (2010), Price (2011).


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  PC Market

Rivalry among existing competitors

• • •

Main rivals: HP, Dell, Acer, Lenovo Market is fragmented – No leader Consolidation (Compaq ➠ HP, IBM ➠ Lenovo)

15wkc-italy (no date), MobileFone (no date), Dell (no date), Selasa (2011), Gohring (2010), Price (2011).


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  PC Market

⇪ Sales Volume

Rivalry among existing competitors

• • • •

Main rivals: HP, Dell, Acer, Lenovo Market is fragmented – No leader Consolidation (Compaq ➠ HP, IBM ➠ Lenovo) Growth in sales volume driven by lower prices (economies of scale) 15wkc-italy (no date), MobileFone (no date), Dell (no date), Selasa (2011), Gohring (2010), Price (2011).


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  PC Market

Threat of substitutes

• • •

Tablets, netbooks, smar tphones, sony playstation Apple offers a variety of products that often have overlapping utilisation ‘Easier product accessibility’ (Porter, 2008) Apple (2011b)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  PC Market

Threat of new entrants

• •

Easter n Countr ies – new entr ants competing on price New entrants are not a significant threat for Apple since it is a ‘Premium Brand’

Apple (2011b)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  PC Market

Bargaining power of suppliers

• • •

Low bargaining power of suppliers against Apple Apple is being their own supplier for almost every part of their products Intel is the only supplier that Apple depends on Apple (2011b)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  PC Market

Bargaining power of buyers

• •

‘The digital hub strategy’ – Apple is creating products that supports the new technology lifestyle ‘Brand image’ – Apple minimises the bargaining power of buyers. They believe customers will pay certain amount for ‘perceived value’ (exhibit 1-c) Apple (2011b)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  MP3 Market

Rivalry among existing competitors

• • •

SanDisk, Creative and Samsung – cheaper products Apple gets the competitive advantage with iTunes Apple differentiates iPod with cool design Apple (2011d), Apple (2011e)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  MP3 Market

Threat of substitutes

• •

This is the biggest threat for iPod from Porter’s five forces Smartphones

Apple (2011d), Apple (2011e)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  MP3 Market

Threat of new entrants

Very low

Apple (2011d), Apple (2011e)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  MP3 Market

Bargaining power of suppliers

•

Apple decreased the power of suppliers by up-front deal with Intel and Micron, Apple insured the best price for their main cost component (flash memory)

Apple (2011d), Apple (2011e)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  MP3 Market

Bargaining power of buyers

•

Lowers the bargaining power of buyers by creating an eco-system around their products (iTunes, dockstations, cases etc.)

Apple (2011d), Apple (2011e)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  Smartphone Market

Rivalry among existing competitors

• • •

Samsung, HTC, LG Electronics – Android RIM, Nokia Apple differentiates iPhone with first fingertips touch screen together with its sleek design Apple (2011a)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  Smartphone Market

Threat of substitutes

Very low threat of substitutes (cell phones, tablets)

Apple (2011a)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  Smartphone Market

Threat of new entrants

•

The market is no easy to enter because of the established brands and high technology level

Apple (2011a)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  Smartphone Market

Bargaining power of suppliers

•

There is low bargaining power of suppliers against Apple

Apple (2011a)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  Smartphone Market

Bargaining power of buyers

Eco-system (App Store)

Apple (2011a)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  Tablet Market

Rivalry among existing competitors

New market – no existing rivalry

Apple (2011c)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  Tablet Market

Threat of substitutes

Kindle, e-book, netbook

Apple (2011c)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  Tablet Market

Threat of new entrants

Future penetration of rivals (HP, Dell)

Apple (2011c)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  Tablet Market

Bargaining power of suppliers

Apple replaced its microprocessor supplier – Intel by producing their own improved microprocessor A4

Apple (2011c)


The Positioning School Application to Apple Inc.  Tablet Market

Bargaining power of buyers

•

Currently there is low bargaining power of buyer because there is no existing competition

Apple (2011c)


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


The Position school is the most appropriate strategy perspective for marketing!


The Position school is the most appropriate strategy perspective for marketing!

is it?


• In

the light of the current market situation and the five forces explained above, the ‘positioning school’ is applicable to Apple in the way that it uses Porter’s suggestions to position themselves in the market as differentiators On the other hand, the strategy does not fit ver y well with Apple in terms of core competencies (innovation) ➠ RBV


Implications Application of of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

Conclusion References


Implications Application of of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

Conclusion References


Conclusion • Steve • •

Jobs responded to the outside factors (positioning school) and restructured the company using internal resources (RBV) Brand is bigger than its products – symbols, logo. It is no longer a computer company. It is a lifestyle company Apple found a good balance between the two strategies and it is taking the most applicable parts of both to create its own strong, successful strategy


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


Application of Strengths & the RBV on Introduction Weaknesses of Apple Inc. the RBV  Application of Strengths & the Positioning the PS on Weaknesses of School Apple Inc. the PS 

Discussion

Conclusion

References


References 15wkc-italy (no date) ‘Acer-New logo’, 15wkc-italy [Online], Available at: http://liten.be//Gjt7T (Accessed 23 October 2011). Apple (2011a) ‘Compare iPhone models.’, Apple [Online], Available at: http://liten.be//Vf1IA (Accessed 24 October 2011). Apple (2011b) ‘iMac’, Apple [Online], Available at: http://liten.be//Lfj7T (Accessed 24 October 2011). Apple (2011c) ‘iPad’, Apple [Online], Available at: http://liten.be//vaEbf (Accessed 24 October 2011). Apple (2011d) ‘iPod classic’, Apple [Online], Available at: http://liten.be//2E7vE (Accessed 24 October 2011). Apple (2011e) ‘iPod touch’, Apple [Online], Available at: http://liten.be//U79Tu (Accessed 24 October 2011). AppleMuseum (no date) ‘Macintosh PowerBook 100’, AppleMuseum [Online]. Available at: http://liten.be//rTxU7 (Accessed 23 October 2011).


References Atkins, M. E. (2010) ‘Today’s R&D Charter: New Markets, Differentiated Products’, InventionMachine [Online], Available at: http://liten.be//VEa63 (Accessed 23 October 2011). Barney, J. (1991) ‘Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage’, Journal of Management, 17 (1), pp.99-120 ProQuest [Online]. Available at: http://proquest.umi.com/ (Accessed: 20 October 2011). Barney, J.B. and Hesterly, W. (2005) Strategic management and competitive advantage: concepts, Pearson Education. Carter, C., Clegg, S.R. and Kornberger, M. (2010) A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying strategy. London: SAGE. Dell (no date) Logostage [Online], Available at: http://liten.be//0CX2d (Accessed 23 October 2011). Dierickx, I. and Cool, K. (1989) ‘Asset stock accumulation and sustainability of competitive advantage’, Management Science, 35, pp.1504-1511.


References Fahy, J. (2000) ‘The resource-based view of the firm: some stumbling-blocks on the road to understanding sustainable competitive advantage’, Journal of European Industrial Training, 24 (2/3/4), pp.94-103 Fernandes, J. (2011) ‘Steve Jobs – Timeline of One of the Greatest Entrepreneur in the World’, theTechLabs [Online]. Available at: http://liten.be//hmlt4 (Accessed 23 October 2011). Gohring, N. (2010) ‘IBM to help telcos become cloud suppliers’, ComputerWorldUK [Online], Available at: http://liten.be//RN7Xk (Accessed 23 October 2011). Graham, H., Gordon, G. (2005) ‘The resource underpinnings of competitive positions’, Journal of Strategic Marketing 13 (2), pp.93-116. HQWalls.com.ua (no date) HQ WALLPAPERS [Online]. Available at: http://liten.be//WFhOf (Accessed 23 October 2011). JoBrad (2010) ‘Three Circular Interlocking Arrows’, OpenClipart [Online], Available at: http:// liten.be//0w8xG (Accessed 23 October 2011). Journal of Strategic Marketing, 13 (2), pp.93-116 ProQuest [Online]. Available at: http:// proquest.umi.com/ (Accessed: 19 October 2011). Ketels, C. H. M. (2005), ‘Michael Porter’s Competitiveness Framework-Recent Learnings and New Research Priorities’, J Ind Compet Trade 2006, 6, pp.115-136.


References Kochmanski, D. (2011) ‘Child of the Nineties, pt. 2’, DougKochmanski [Online], Available at: http://liten.be//mA224 (Accessed 23 October 2011). Loeb, P. (2011) ‘My First Apple Product’, Paulloebmusic [Online]. Available at: http://liten.be// rZ0eL (Accessed 23 October 2011). MobileFone (no date) ‘COMPAQ PRESSARIO ** 320GB Hard Drive, 2GB Ram, Windows 7 **’, bidorbuy [Online], Available at: http://liten.be//0JfPN (Accessed 27 October 2011). Moore, C. (2008) ‘$19,800 Bentley Ego Laptop Remarkably Similar to 1990 Clamshell iBook’, Lowendmac [Online], Available at: http://liten.be//8ABXk (Accessed 23 October 2011). Oldcomputers (no date) ‘Apple II’, OldComputers [Online]. Available at: http://liten.be//iN3w8 (Accessed 23 October 2011). Porter, M. E. (1980). ‘Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors’, New York: Free Press. Porter, M. E. (1987), ‘From competitive advantage to corporate strategy’, Harvard Business Review, 65 (3), pp.45-59.


References Porter, M. E. (1998), ‘The competitive advantage of nations’, New York: Free Press. Porter, M. E. (2008). ‘The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy’, Harvard Business Review, January [Online]. Available at: http://liten.be//52eVZ (Accessed 19.10.2011). Price, E. (2011) ‘Lenovo’s 23-Inch Tablet: Useful or Useless? (UPDATED)’, TechnoBuffalo [Online], Available at: http://liten.be//u3nLp (Accessed 23 October 2011). Priem, R. L. and Butler, J. E. (2001a) ‘Is the Resource-Based Theory a Useful Perspective for Strategic Management Research?’, Academy of Management Review, 26 (1), pp.22-40. Priem, R. L., and Butler, J. E. (2001b) ‘Tautology in the Resource-Based View and Implications of Externally Determined Resource Value: Further Comments’, Academy of Management Review, 26 (1), pp.57-66. Selasa (2011) ‘Hp Logo’, HP-logo-info [Online], Available at: http://liten.be//08dJs (Accessed 23 October 2011).


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