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ก ก  ก  ' 10: ,("-,ก $   ก  1. -$% . / '0$ก 2. ก ก12  / '0$ก 3. (ก

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/ '0$ก


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ก  105-128 2 " 2 :  ,  ,0 (2547) 9ก

ก  131-148 2 " 3 :  ,  ,0 (2547) 9ก

ก  151-172


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12(30 3 :#: C  7/ภ 9/191-192 3. #   6 4= 0 ภ9E 10220 . 0-2971-6299 GภC=. 0-2971-6696 = : masa_lab@hotmail.com


1. -$% . / '0$ภ(()  14ภ$ ภ>/ภ :  -$% .!<5::,2ภ (industrial product)  -$% .!<5ภ ' 0% (consumer product)  -$% .,/ "ภQ5 (convenience product)  -$% .!B 3'!3'Q5 (shopping product)  -$% .! / Q5 (specialty product)  -$% .?(4,"Q5 (unsought product)


1. -$% . / '0$ภ(()  14ภ$1 ' ภ !,=($ / '0$ภ -$% . / 'B /!# (national product)  -$% . /2"(B /!# (international product) (3: 2 B /!#)  -$% .2$3B /!# (multinational product) (3:B /!#ภภ"( 2 B /!#)  -$% . / '0$ภ(global product)


1. -$% . / '0$ภ(() 1.3. ภ ' % .  ภ ' % . (packaging)  3 B /!%  ' % .!'5 (primary package)  ' % .  (secondary package)  ' % .,( (shipping package)

 B /03  BYภ (protection)  ,(!, ภ 3 (promotion) 3(? ??  ภ 4/1 (presentation)


1. -$% . / '0$ภ(() 1.4. [$ภ(label)  %>:  ภ\'  '

1.5.  -$% . (brands)  "23   -$% . (brands)  ! 523ภ  (trademarks) ,,4ภ(ภ3(? ??

   ] !B^ = ภ, , "4ภ( ] "% ภ, ภ$3 ภ ภ12

  !,3 ] ,=`, ;=ภ!$34''? 


1. -$% . / '0$ภ(() 1.6. ภ 'B /ภ (warranty) 4$/ภ :2' ภ 2$ ภ 3 (after-sales services) 1!B^ภ,12 ',4'': ?? 1.7. ภ$3 ภ "4--$% . / '0$ภภ$3  1 -$% .!  ภ ,5, !  (product and communication extension: dual extension) ภ$3  2 -$% .!  B 'ภ ,5, (product extension/communication adaptation) ภ$3  3 B '-$% . ภ ,5, !  (product adaptation/communication extension) ภ$3  4 B '-$% . B 'ภ ,5, (product and communication adaptation: dual adaptation) ภ$3  5 ภ$3 B / >fภ:2( (product invention)


ก$3 ก "4--$% . / '0$ก 0ก0! ก 6 6  ก

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(%#0>@T=0! B0!ก กV:@  ก)

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1. -$% . / '0$ภ(() 1.8. ' ? 3   -= 1!  ภ :$ 0$ภ -=[ '?" / '0$ภ(globally sensitive)  -=:(B /,'ภ  (naive nationalist)  ";1 (cave dweller)


2. ภ ภ12  / '0$ภ2.1. "23  ภ ภ12  (pricing) 5ภ ภ12 =$(!B^/?(!B^ "! ,/' ภ -$`!<5 12(3

2.2. Bg

3  <$(ภ ภ12 :$ 0$ภ Bg

3%3:     

ภ1? (profit) ] , (cost factors) (,( (transportation costs) %> (taxes and tariffs) ภ -$:B /!# (local production cost) (ภ

12(3 (channel cost)


2. ภ ภ12  / '0$ภ(()  Bg

3 ภ $

 / ' 3?  (income level)  ,%<ภ 4(  (competition) ] ภ ภ12 1 (market penetration), ภ12 $ (market holding), ภ12

,=!B^<!#>:$ (market skimming)

 Bg

3 ,4" $    4$ภ!B$3 (exchange rate fluctuation)    !!hY (inflation rate)  ภ "' / ภ  2 ภ% f (governmental control and subsidy)


2. ภ ภ12  / '0$ภ(() 2.3. ภ$3 ภ ภ12 :$ 0$ภ 03'3 ! 3"4'' f (extension/standardized)  03'3B ' $ (adaptation/localized)  03'3 4'''= ภ (invention/geocentric)

2.4. ,;ภ !ภ3"ภ'ภ ภ12 :$ 0$ภ $ !ภPภ1? (gray market)  ภ ($ (dumping)  ภ ภ12 0 (transfer pricing)


2. ภ ภ12  / '0$ภ(() ภ !B 3'!3'" ภ  ภ12 0 "    !,3 -  43ภ'lm3-$ 1. ภ ภ12 00 31`;`ภ - 1 - ? !B 3' ภ 4(  -$ (#=3ภ1? ) ( Transfer at Manufacturing Cost ) 2. ภ ภ12 0!(ภ' :$ - (34$/,/ "ภ:ภ   - ,= - !,3!B 3' ภ 4( 0$ภ ( Transfer at Market - based )   - ภ :21 3 3. ภ ภ12 00 3ภ '"ภ!< - 3  ภ'ภlm3 - !B^ 3 4< (2$3 4ภ(

ภ ( Transfer at Cost ] plus based )


3. (ภ

12(34$/ภ ,(!, ภ $ / '0$ภ3.1. ภ 0n> / '0$ภ ภ 0n> (advertising) 5ภ/'"ภ ,5, "$Q` !ภ `!<5 =: :2!ภ "ภ Q5,   1ภภ 0n> / '0$ภ(constraints on global advertising) 

   

%> (local language differences) "!" % f (governmental policy restriction) !( 0n>'2  !2$:?3 ''ภ :,5 (local media differences) B /ภ' !# >fภ (economic element differences) %< "40n> (local agency quality)


3. (ภ

12(34$/ภ ,(!, ภ $ / '0$ภ(()

 ภ$3 ภ 0n> (advertising strategies)  ภ$3 ภ 0n> / '0$ภ(global advertising strategy) â&#x2020;&#x2019;  f / '! 3"ภ (standardization) (e.g. 1 $)    

%<$ ภ> , / '0$ภ(global image) !;`ภ$(!BY23! 3"ภ "0$ภ(global target groups) B /23 (: (3 (economy of scale) "':2!B^?B4- (strict control)

 ภ$3 ภ 0n> / '; (local advertising strategy)


3. (ภ

12(34$/ภ ,(!, ภ $ / '0$ภ(()  ภ !$5ภ:,5 (selecting the media) ] ,5 / '0$ภ(global media)  3, / '0$ภ(global magazine) ] Reader's digest, Forbes, The Fortune, The Economist, Business Week, Cosmopolitan, Vogue, Cleo  2 ,5<< / '0$ภ(the global newspapers) ] The Wall Street Journal, The Age, Asahi, China Daily, Time of India, Le Monde  "3 (radio) - FM 105.0  0  # (television) ] NHK, CNN, BBC, MTV, TV5 The Global Network, Survivor  ,5; (local media) ] BY3,

23,,5!$5  Bg

' ,5 / '0$ภ/? ภ??


3. (ภ

12(34$/ภ ,(!, ภ $ / '0$ภ(()

 ภ  'B /0n> / '0$ภ(global advertising budget)    

 !B !QP ภ3 3 (percentage of sales) !3'!3ภ'=(4( (competitive parity) ภ12 4$/" ;B /, (objective-and-task) "! /2!B 3'!3' (comparative analysis)


3. (ภ

12(34$/ภ ,(!, ภ $ / '0$ภ(() 3.2. ภ ,(!, ภ 3 / '0$ภ ภ ,(!, ภ 3 (sales promotion) 5ภ ภภ ,(!, ภ $

 2 3ภ!"ภ 0n>, B /, <  , ภ 30 3:< ภ3 !<5ภ/-=' 0%

 ภ ,(!, ภ 3,12 '-=' 0% â&#x2122;  , "3( (sample) â&#x2122;  =B(coupons) â&#x2122;  ,("$ !, (rebate) â&#x2122;   B /23 (price packs) â&#x2122;  4;(premium) â&#x2122;  ภ B /ภ" 4(   " $ (contest & sweeps tasks) â&#x2122;  ภ  $:h (free trials) â&#x2122;  ภ 'B /ภ,(product warranty) â&#x2122;  ภ :2, <!#> (privileged)


3. (ภ

12(34$/ภ ,(!, ภ $ / '0$ภ(()  ภ ,(!, ภ 3,12 'ภ$ (3BgÂ&#x201A;" QBgÂ&#x201A;" Â&#x192;$Â&#x192;)     

,("$ (price-off) ('4 (allowance) ,:2!B$( (free goods) ภ 4( 3 3 (sales contests) ภ :2! " $ (push money)

 ภ 30 3:< ภ3:$ 0$ภ(personal selling in global market)  ภ ' 2 ภ 34$/ภ :2-$'4!ภ(< ภ3  ภ ภ4''3 (designing the sales force)  ภ ' 2 3 (managing the sales force)


3. (ภ

12(34$/ภ ,(!, ภ $ / '0$ภ(() 3.3. ภ B /, <  / '0$ภภ B /, <  (public relation) 5"<33,  ", <    (!5;5 %<$ ภ>4$/ # (ภ$(-=,(" ? !,3ภ'ภ ! 55,1 Â&#x201E;::ภ B /, <  (major tools in public relation)

       

ภ !-34< ((", (publications) ภ !2ภ  (events) ภ !3(" (news) , <  (speeches) ภ ภภ ภ#$ (public-service activities) ,54, ,;%< (identity media) =B4''5Â&#x2026;???


3. (ภ

12(34$/ภ ,(!, ภ $ / '0$ภ(()

 ภ$(' > :2",: (interest groups)  $=ภ (customer)  ,   (public)  ,5"$ (press)  2("3% f (government)  < ภ (employee)  ภ, /?(2" -$ภ1? (NGO)


3. (ภ

12(34$/ภ ,(!, ภ $ / '0$ภ(()

 4ภ( /2"(ภ B /, <  ภ'ภ 0n>  (: (3 (cost)  B /!%,5 (type)  ภ$(!BY23 (target groups)  " ;B /, (objective) (ภ3(? ??  '! (boundary)  $ ภ>/ภ (organization)


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