Page 1

ภ ภภ The Evolution of Management Theory


   ภภ Economic Forces

Social Forces

MANAGEMENT THEORY

Technological Forces

Political Forces


ภ ภภ 1.

2.

3.

  ภ  ภ   ภ(Early Thought)( – 1880)  ภภ (The Classical Theory) (1880 – 1930)  ภภ! ภ (The Behavioral Theory)(1930 – 1950)

Management

Management

Management


ภ ภภ( ) 4.

 ภภ

(The

Management

Management Theory)(1940 5.

- 1990)  ภภ&' (The Management Theory)(1950 - )

Science

Contemporary


ภภภ(  -1880) 1. 2.

3.

John Kay ภ !"#$%& 1733 James Hargreaves (()*+!,$-./0 0*1 23$!$ภ- 40)5- %& 1765 $ภ ภ70ภ*/$ ",$%.$.ภ7"#$800ภ9)8$:/ ภ$#*%*ภ;<00$<!<00$$0-./07(0$=>0 5,000 (


ภภภ(  -1880) 4. ภ$AB$)(C+0ภ4,$ <! James Watt ((8>4 %& 1765 -/)C+0$ภD.$$ภ$)0%ภ$AB$- >00%E) *$=>0 11 & <!& 1776 5. Adam Smith -* James Watt #:F>+0ภ/%.)ภภ$ )*+!-*0"$0$.ภ7-*ภ$($%)"G0ภ9 <! Adam Smith ภ/%.)ภภ$H ( $7($)Gภ /  James Watt ภ/%.)ภภ$H $ภ$%EA*00$ 4,$


Adam Smith

 



%.0C The Wealth of Nations & 1776 Adam Smith E4%.).I /$ภ$-/00$ภ",$ (Division of Labor) ภ/%.)ภ#*% $/$0J (C ( $7)E+! E$D)KA$"$0 (specialization) .!) *$$ภภ$)*+!0$!/!0$.>+0:/0$!/!ภ0$.>+0 )A$=$-/*(",$0$%"ภ84%*ภ;E/$02&7C-* E/ 080 ภ$)*+!0$!/!$ภ0$.>+0ภ0$.>+0",$%.0:D)!) *$ $7$=$0)(C+0ภ.*$!E7$E/ !)7ภ$#*!/$0 ภ8>4 -*",$%..!-00$


Robert Owen (&, 1771-1858)

%& 1799 Owen )5#:ภ$-*./ <00$"#$ .*$!-./0"+ New Lanark % Scotland %E/ 04)8$)8! ภ$;  /$ â&#x20AC;&#x153;8$A)$)C+A ภ./ ).*C)ภ"+ภ$ 7$)A!0)AC+FC4=:ภ8$!-A0 $EA!/$04",$%.)C+7)!-*",$*$!( $7 0$7-*( $7$7$=)KA$!/ $ 080()$ $ภภ$;   !$ $"+8$A)$#/$ภ$($ $.ภ7-*A$;E!ภ7)584J 8$A)$)EC+<!* /$7/7ภ$$0!"+ภ/$L$!%"+).I -ภ/ !/$04)E0â&#x20AC;?4


Robert Owen (&, 1771-1858)

Owen ./0ภ1ภ2 New Lanark   ภ31 4 3ภ34 1/5647  !2ภ34 8ภ94 ภ  1/2 1 !! 9ภ:1/ภ    

4 1/   &ภ;   <ภ  4 2564795<&= 6 4  47 /  4  Owen 9. &=!/ภ16 2.&  Owen ภ8>?  &=ภ 51ภ51/18>7ภ ! 

5


Charles Babbage

(&,

1792-1871) )5G$$$!$(;G$"+ Cambridge 800ภ9 %.0C"+ Babbage )8!8>4)C+0 On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures %& 1832 4 Babbage )"+ภN)ภ;O%ภ$-ภD.$"$0ภ$ภ$ <! Babbage )EC+  / $ ภ  ภ$( ", $ภ$  ) ($. 0$<!(, $> 0=> 0 L$A%-*/$0ภ$!80(0$-*( 7.7$!0$%.).7$7 ภ  " ภ80(0$ A  7ภ  %. 8  -, $ / $ (0$"+ ", $ ภ$ 0"PL$A( / -/0$ภ#*ภ,$ Charles

Babbage


Henry Towne

(&,

1844 - 1924) )5 G ภ)(C+0ภ*E$ )7ภ-*)5P$ " Yale and Towne Manufacturing !:/=>0 48 & <! Towne )EC+ /$)"((ภ$ภ$( ,$7$!ภ%E!/$0)5 %<00$ -*!C! /$ภ$ภ$)5 "!$G$ 04( $7: / $ 0J "+  77$$ภ#:  H   0 $( "+  , $ 7$G> ภ$-*=/ $ !" %.-ภ/ภ-*ภ Henry Towne


 ภภ (1880-1930) %"9Nภ$ภ$-)7 (Classical Management Theory)7 ,$ภ("+,$(D 2 ,$ภ(C  ภ$ภ$- "!$G$ (Scientific Management)  "9N0(ภ$-)7 (Classical Organization Theory)


 ภภ ภภ:5 D

  Dภ

____________ ____________

Classical Classical Organization Organization Theory Theory ____________ ____________

The Themanagement management Of Ofwork work

The Themanagement management Of OfOrganization Organization

Scientific Scientific Management Management


ภภ:5 D 

ภ$ภ$- "!$G$ (Scientific Management) ) G>ภ$ภ$",$0$- "!$G$)AC+0"PL$Aภ$",$0$ 80(0$ #: , $ ( $7(  ภ$  ภ$-  " !$G$   - ภ/ Frederick W. Taylor, Lillian Gibreth , Henry Gantt -* Harrington Emerson



ภ$ภ$- "!$G$ (Scientific )!ภâ&#x20AC;&#x153;Efficiency Engineeringâ&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x153;Taylorismâ&#x20AC;?

Management)

$0"$

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Rationalismâ&#x20AC;?

or


Frederrick W.Taylor

9 Scientific Management (&, 1856 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1915) Taylor )EC+ /$ â&#x20AC;&#x153;=$,$ 80) *$-*( $7A!$!$7"+(0$-/*(%E% ภ$  # *  # * # *  . >+ 0 . / !  $ 7 $  = *  * 0   <  ! ภ$  ) A+ 7 ( $ 7 E, $  $ D (specialization) -*ภ$-/00$ภ",$ (division of labor) -* Taylor AB$.*ภภ$ 4 ภ ภ$#*7"PL$A7$ภ8>4â&#x20AC;? ภ$%ภ$)A+7"PL$A%"+",$0$ -ภ/ 1ภ4/  1 G>ภ$=>0 Pภ$"+(0$H0$%L$0$/$0J *  7 ( $7:%0$"40.7"+(0$7!:/-/7/,$7$%E!/$0)5"$0ภ$ -*"*0 Pภ$ภ$/$0J )AC+0 Pภ$H0$ 1ภ4/  2 ภ$  7 Pภ$H0$%.7/<!)8!)5ภN-*)!84"+ )57$$%ภ$H0$


1ก4/  3 ()*Cก(0$!/$0()AC+%.(0$"+)8$7$7 "ก-*( $7$7$=0ก( $7,$)580L$0$-*7 (0$%.  H   L $0$$7กN-*) ! 84  "+ ) 5  7$$%ก$H0$ 1ก4/  4 ก,$.80#*0$"+!P7.C"+!7-* AB$ก$/$!)AC+%.$0 *ก(0$"+7#*0$).Cก /$ "+!7


The Gilbreths 9 Time â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Motion Studies

 

- (  80 Gilbreth )  ภ$ภ, $   ( $74  )*C  0 -*( $7 7/7"PL$A%ภ$",$0$ <!ภ$.$ Pภ$",$0$"+"+!/$0 .>+0 (the one best way to do work) <! Gilbreth  ",$ภ$G>ภ$"+,$(D(C *ภ;ภ$)(*C+. 80/$0ภ$!%ภ$",$0$ (Motion Study) #0ภ ภ$",$0$ (Work Flow Process Chart)


The Gilbreths 9 Time â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Motion Studies $ภ#*ภ$G> ภ$ 0 ภ*/ $ ", $ %. Gilbreth $7$=   0 "PL$A%ภ$",$0$"+0%Eภ,$*0ภ$!)(*C+. -* *( $7 ).C+!*$$ภภ$",$0$80(0$ <!7.*ภภ$04 1. (.$-*,$-ภPภ $H0$"+"+ 2. A!$!$7*ภN)ภ;Oภ$",$0$%.!*0 3. ! ภ ภN)ภ;O % . ) 8 $ ภ  7$$80  P  H   0 $)AC+  )A+ 7 #*#*-**E+ <70ภ$",$0$


Henry L.Gantt 9 Pay Incentives (&, 1861 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1919) )5#:ภ)ภ"$0$ G $.ภ$-*ภ$ภ$<!)5 G ภ "+>ภ$ - (80 Gantt )"+ภ$%.+0:0% (Incentives) %.ภ (0$"+",$0$<!7.*ภภ$04 1. /$!(/$$0%.ภ (0$"40.7$7(/$-084AC4$"+ภ$, . 2. =$(0$",$0$,$)I$7) *$"+ภ,$.   Bonus A)G 3. = $ (0$H   0 $  ภ).C  $ภ"+ ( $.  0       $0  * (rewards) +  (C %. ) 5  . . $0$ (supervisors) -*)  %. ",$. $"+ )5#:2Qภ (coach) 7$ภภ/$%.)5#:( (70$ Gantt


  Dก


Henri Fayol 9 Administrative Management (&, 1841 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1925)

Fayol !1/18  6/ภ956 / 1/53Fภภภ0ภ 6 ภภ./ภ ภภ (Technical activities) - ภ 

!2! G,? (Production) - ภ  !2 (Manufacturing)  ภภภ/ (Commercial activities) - ภH? (Buying) - ภ4 (Selling) - ภภ& (Exchanging)


Henri Fayol 9 Administrative Management (&, 1841 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1925)

 ภภภ (Financial activities) - ภ$.$)0"-*)EC+ (Searching for capital & credit) - ภ$%E)0"!/$0).7$7 (Using them optimally)  ภภ/& < (Security activities) - ภ$30ภ((*-*"A! (Protecting property & persons)


Henri Fayol 9 Administrative Management (&, 1841 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1925)

 ภภF! (Accounting activities) - ภ$",$S( (Taking stock) - ภ$",$0* (Keeping balance sheet) - ภ$">ภ" (Tracking costs)  ภภภภ (Managerial activities) - ภ$ $0-# (Planning) - ภ$0(ภ$ (Organizing) - ภ$+0ภ$ (Commanding) - ภ$$0$ (Coordinating) - ภ$( (7 (Controlling)


ภN 14 8 80 Fayol

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ภ$ภ4 Fayol !0AB$8 "+E/ !%.#:ภ$ภ$ 0(ภ$!/$07"PL$A7$ภ!+08>4-ภ/ ภ$-/00$ภ",$ (Division of work) ,$$.$"+-*( $7#E (Authority & responsibility) )ภL$Aภ$+0ภ$ (Unity of command) $!80,$$.$"+ (Line of authority) ภ$ ,$$ภ$% (Centralization)


กN 14 8 80 Fayol 6. )กL$A80"G"$0 (Unity of direction) 7. ( $7)"/$)"!7 (Equity) 8. *,$ (Order) 9. ( $7)+7 (Initiative) 10. ! (Discipline)


ภN 14 8 80 Fayol 11. ภ$-"(*$ภ (Remuneration of personnel) 12. ( $77+(0%ภ$",$0$ (Stability of tenure of personnel) 13. #*<!E80#:%0(DE$-/*(08>4!:/ภ#*<!E 80/  7 (Subordination of individual interests to the common interest)

14. ( $7$7((

(Esprit de cords)


Max Weber 9 Bureaucracy (&, 1864 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1920) Weber  A B $"9N  $Eภ$ (bureaucracy) .C"9N /$ !,$$.$"+ (theory of authority)  AC4$80.*ภT ภ$(C 1ภ4/  I %$Eภ$ ,$$.$"+"+)5"$0ภ$80#:ภ$7$$ภ,$-./0"+)8$,$0!:/%0(ภ$ 1 ภ4/  J %$Eภ$  ( *$ภ( )8 $ ((0, $ -./ 0 )A$#*0$ 7/%E/)A$!C"$00(7.CDD$/ ((*


Max Weber 9 Bureaucracy (&, 1864 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1920) 1ภ4/  K 8)880,$$.$"+"+)5"$0ภ$%-/*,$-./0-* ( $7  #  E%L$0$-*( $7 7 A  P ภ  , $ -./ 0 C+  J % 0(ภ$( ภ,$.%.-/E) 1ภ4/  L 04,$$.$"+$7$==:ภ,$%E!/$07"P#* %0( ภ$ , $ -./ 0 / $ 0J ( =: ภ  $7*, $   E4  (hierarchy) 04(*$ภ>0: /$)8$0$!0$%(-*%(0$!0$)8$ 1ภ4/  M #:ภ$0$080ภN (rules) 84ภ$H0$ "+)57$$ (standard operating procedures : SOPs) -* "$ (norms) "+E)


Chester Barnard

9 Administrative Systems(&, 1886 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1961)

%.0C The Functions of the Executive %& 1938 Barnard ).I /$#:.$( ,$)"$""+,$(D%0(ภ$)A$)5 #: "+ , $  !<!E % ภ$  /  C+  $   .$" A !$ภ ภ, $ . )3$.7$!-*:0%(0$%.7/ / 7%)3$.7$!-*,$)ภ$)AC+%. ( $7,$)I ภ$ภ4  Barnard ! 0 !7  "9N / $  !, $ $. $ "+ 8 0 Weber -/ ) EC+  / $ , $ $. $ "+ ( )ภ  8>4  $ภภ$!7  80(0$ 7$ภภ/$8>4!:/ภ,$-./0


Lyndall Urwick & Luther Gulick 9 The Science of Administration %"( $7)C+0 Papers on the Science of Administration %& 1937 4 Gulick )=>0( $7#E80 CEO %ภ$",$.$"+ ภ$ภ$( )5$7 POSDCORB P O S D CO R B

-

Plannin Organizing Staffing Directing Coordinating Reporting Budgeting


 กก! ก 94ก50D (&, 1930-1950)


Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933)  <  - ! 0 / $ (0$(C  #: "+ :  "+   )ก+ ! ก  0$  0 4  (0$( ",$ก$ )($.0$-*#:ก$( D$%.(0$ )8$7$7/ / 7%ก ก$AB$0$ Follett  % . ( $7%ก  " 7   ก$ )0 (self-managed teams) -*ก$%."P% (empowerment) Follett +0"+ )0)!ก /$ “8$7.$"+0$” (cross-functioning) Fayol 7"G/,$$-*,$$.$"+%-  Follett








The Hawthorne Study ภ$G>ภ$E.>+0,$)7$40-/& VWXY-VWZX "+)7C0 Hawthorne 7*E($<ภ80 " Western Electric F>+00$ !4)5"+:ภภ%$7 â&#x20AC;&#x153;Hawthorne Studyâ&#x20AC;? F>+0)+7%& 1924 <! National Academy of Sciences 

F.J.Roethlisberger William J. Dickson



Elton Mayo



1. 2.

3.

Room Studies (1924 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1927) Interviewing Studies .C  Relay Experiments (1927 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1932) Observational Studies (1931 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1932)

Assembly

Test


Abraham Maslow 9 The Hierarchy of Needs (&, 1908 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1970)

    

Physiological needs Safety needs Social needs Esteem needs Self-actualization needs


Douglas McGregor 9 Theory X and Theory Y (1906 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1964) Theory X : Theory Y : Some traditional assumptions about Some modern assumptions about people people 1. Most people dislike work, and they will avoid it when they can. 2. Most people must be coerced and threatened with punishment before they will work. They require close direction. 3. Most people prefer to be directed. They avoid responsibility and have little ambition. They are interested only in security.

1. Work is a natural activity, like play or rest. 2. People are capable of selfdirection and self-control if they are committed to objectives. 3. People will become committed to organizational objectives if they are rewarded for doing so. 4. The average person can learn to both accept and seek responsibility. 5. Many people in the general population have imagination, ingenuity, and creativity


 ภภ (&, 1940-1990)    

ภภ!&O (quantitative management) ภภภ  (operations management) ภภO<2 (total quality management) 955:? ภภ (management information system)


 กก&' (&, 1950 >7&')


 !9 &'34/ (Inputs)    

"A!$ภ"$0ภ$!L$A (physical resources) "A!$ภ"$0ภ$)0 (financial resources) "A!$ภ7! (human resources) "A!$ภ$$)"G (information resources)


 !9 ( ) ภ9ภ&5< (Transformation process)   

.$"+ภ$ภ$ (management functions) )"(<<*!ภ$#* (technological operations) ภภ7ภ$#* (production activities)


 !9 ( )   (Outputs)   

($-*ภ$ (goods & services) ภ,$-*8$" (profits & losses) A9ภ780(*$ภ (employee behaviors)

4/ 6/ ภ (Feedback)


Inputs

Process

Outputs

Environmental feedback


  5>ภOD (Contingency Theory)


UNIVERSALIST VS. SITUATIONALISTTHEORIES

Universalist Theories ‘One best way’ exists to perform management functions.

Situationalist Theories No ‘One best way’ Exists. Rather, First evaluate the situation & Then decide which Action to take.


Trial & Error Approach + Scientific Management + Behavioral Management + Management Science + System Theory

=

Contingency Theory


William G. Ouchi 9 Theory Z

&, 1981 ภO9ภภ4  ภ       

Short-term employment Individual decision making Individual responsibility Rapid evaluation and Promotion Explicit , formalized control Specialized career path Segmented concern


William G. Ouchi 9 Theory Z

&, 1981 ( ) ภO9ภภ4 F&P       

Lifetime employment Consensual decision making Collective responsibility Slow evaluation and Promotion Implicit , informal control Nonspecialized career path Holistic concern


THEORY

    

 

Z

ORGANIZATIONS

Long-term employment Collective decision making Individual responsibility Slow evaluation & promotion Implicit, informal control with explicit, formalize measures Moderately specialized career paths Holistic concern, including family


Thomas J. Peters 9 Robert H. Waterman, Jr.  In Search of Excellence (1982)

& 1977 " McKinsey #*ภ$G>ภ$=>0 ( $7 7A  P "+ (* 0ภ  80 -"+ =C  / $ )5  ภ D --./ 0 ( $7,$)I (keys success factors) .C"+)!ภ/$ McKinsey 7-S Framework


McKinsey 7-S Framework Systems

Structure

Style

Shared Value

Strategy

Skills

Staff


ภภ:7 ภ  ภ  ./ >6 ภ3      D  1  5? !?

In Search of Excellence &, IRSJ  5&./  Structure  :-)!0/$!P7$ Aภ0$,$ !ภ$7,$ภ (simple form & lean staff) Strategy  7( $7%ภ*Eภ*:ภ($ (close to the customer)  ",$Pภ"+7( $7)E+! E$D-*)ภ+! )C+0 (stick to the knitting) Staff  7 %ภ$",$0$-*( $7:>ภ)5)$80 (autonomy & entrepreneurship)  )A+7#*L$A<!Aภ0$ (productivity through people)


Style  7#ภ0$!/$0%ภ*E (hands-on) Shared value  ( $7)EC+7+%(/$!7)5-0#*ภ (value driven) System  7/0)"+ภ$H Skill  )870 -*#/%) *$ )! ภ (simultaneous loose-tight properties)


Michael Hammer 9 James Champy

&, 1993

Reengineering the corporation â&#x20AC;&#x153; ( $7(%.7/)ภ+! ภ .* ภภ$AC4$-*ภ$ภ-ภ ภ$"$0 Pภ%.7/!/$0=$ภ=<()AC+0ภ$,$)0$!/$0KA* "40%$" (;L$A ภ$-*( $7 )I â&#x20AC;? <!%.0C 0ภ*/$ %.( $7,$(Dภ    

Fundamantal Radical Dramatic Process


Michael Hammer 9 James Champy

ภ? &9 Rethink  Redesign  Retools  Rehumaneering 

&, 1993

B2-Mng  

ก ก ก The Evolution of Management Theory Economic Forces Technological Forces Social Forces Political Forces Thought )( –1880) 2. กก (...

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