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Deepening Knowledge Module on

Water a resource in danger Authors of the module: Cervellera Loreta Evangelista Ascensina Maria Properzi Mariangela

Project No. 2016-1-IT01-KA202-005387

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The Ancient Romans learnt from the Etruscans, who were the most skilled in water engineering and architecture among Italic populations, the domain of water and the arch building system. This system developed along the centuries in a supreme way, produced the most solid and functional architecture Western civilization ever knew. Water engineering was the most surprising example:

the ACQUEDUCTS The Claudio acqueduct

In the Imperial Rome there were eleven aqueducts, built between 312 and 206 B.e. They solved the problem of water supply, in a city Rome, which measured its greatness with water accessibility. Water was a public property which feeded the fountains, latrines, the thermae, but also the magnificent patrician palaces.

Project No. 2016-1-IT01-KA202-005387

Relationship between fresh and salt water

On the earth fresh water represents only the 2.5% of the total Most of the water on the earth is salt water The 2/3 of fresh water is placed in mountain glaciers and in polar ice. Ice melting causes the reduction and the loss of this water supply, because during the melting fresh water and salt water mix together.

The relationship between salt water and fresh water on the planet

Project No. 2016-1-IT01-KA202-005387

Use of fresh water The world withdraw of water is divided as follows: 70% for the agricolture; 18% for the industry; 12% for the home use.

Graph drawn up on the basis of data from the Pacific Institute

Project No. 2016-1-IT01-KA202-005387

Groundwater The waters which fall on the earth surface can penetrate in the underground and they form the groundwater, hidden underground waters called aquifers. They can come back to the surface through artificial wells drilled by men ( phreatic pits, artesian wells), or spontaneously through springs. They are those mainly used for drinking

Water circulation scheme

The quality and quantity of groundwater in the aquifer is monitored through chemical controls. Groundwater chemical status in Italy and in the European Union (elaboration from EEA data, report No 8/2012)

Project No. 2016-1-IT01-KA202-005387

Rainwater They are waters coming from atmospheric deposition. This is the water with the lowest salt content, it contains dissolved or in suspension only those substances that it receives during the passage in the atmosphere. The use of rainwaters is included in those strategies aimed to rationalize the use of such a . precious resource as water is, avoiding unuseful waste. In many countries, especially with a rural economy, some projects aimed to improve the collection of rainwater are being used, this is called “water harvesting�.

This is an example of an automatic plant to collect and reuse rainwater for irrigation and domestic use.

Project No. 2016-1-IT01-KA202-005387

Water footprint

Water footprint of some foodstuff realized by some experts of Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition.

An upside down pyramid is what they obtained: infact on the top of the food pyramid we find the red meat. We need 15 thousand litres of water to produce a kilo of meat. At the basis of the food pyramid we find fruit and vegetables; we need less than one thousand litres of water to produce them, that’s the reason why they are on the top of the water pyramid.

Project No. 2016-1-IT01-KA202-005387

A goal: the recycle of the waste water . The recycle of the purified waste water can be considered an innovative purified expedient in view of a rational use of the water resource. The economic advantage lies in providing water supply to the community , at low prices at least for some adhibitions such as irrigation, heating supply, street washing etc, which don’t need an elevated quality.

According to AQUAREC estimates in 2006, Spain uses about a third of the total volume of the water in EU (347 mm3/year) while as reguards Italy, the use was of 233 mm3/year. In both countries, water is mainly used in agriculture.

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Module 2.2 - Didactic presentation - Preview  

Module 2.2 - Didactic presentation - Preview