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Quriosity

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AUGUST 2013

FROM THE MENTOR’S DESK

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FROM THE EDITOR’S DESK

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MAIN STORYTHE FUTURE IS DEVOPS PRIYATHARSINI V A YEAR OF CURIOSITY ANOOP JANARDANAN

ANALYTICS – ADAN FAIKH QUANT GURU – OMAR AL-KHAYYAM

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ADAN FAKIH QUANTIZ OF THE MONTH: KIRAN KUMAR REDDY

Dear All, The academic year has started with some activity on the Quiz front by Quantinuum. I hope the first year members will keep the activities going through the year. If so, we can look forward to more interesting events in the pipeline. We also want everyone interested in Quantinuum’s activities to lend a helping hand by sending suggestions, improvements, articles for publication etc. Rest of the usual features are in, alongwith a tribute to the great Poet Mathematician, Omar Khayyam.

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Happy Reading 14

HAPPENINGS: QUANTIZ 2013

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AUGUST 2013

From the Mentor’s Desk...

Hope all of you will like it. Let us hear from you through your letters to the editor.

QUANTIZ FUN:

QUANT NEWS DIGEST: SATARUPA BANERJEE

VOLUME4: ISSUE3

Prof N.S.Nilakantan Mentor- QUANTINUUM

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From The Editor’s Desk Greetings to all, We are extremely delighted to come out with yet another captivating and informative issue of “Quriosity” : the quant magazine @ SIMSR for you. This issue covers the main story on “The Future Is Devops” which will facilitate a further understanding in the sphere of Quants Based Software Development integrated with Operations.

The feature article on “Analytics” encapsulates the growing importance of analytics in the Operations of the Business. The Article “ A Year of Curiosity” covers interesting facts and further progress of the Rover’s activities. Quant guru is a tribute to a highly revered mathematician ‘Omar Al Khayyam’.

Further to stimulate the grey matter in your brain; we bring you the wonders of our regular features- quant trivia, quantiz and quant fun. We have also included a short report on “Quantiz – A Flagship Quiz Event” organized by Quantinuum Club of SIMSR. Happy reading!! THE EDITORIAL TEAM

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The Future Is DevOps DevOps is a software development method which integrates software development with operations. The companies which rely on recurrent releases need their process orientation with DevOps. Originally developed by Flickr to enable up to ten code releases every day, it is a continuous deployment methodology that uses high levels of mechanization to bring development closer to modus operandi, the team that creates and manages the servers that release the software to customers. Flickr handles 3 million photos per day by processing around 40000 photos per second. Twitter and Facebook use this application to estimate the user and application counts and it is an innovative way of constructing and publishing web applications at increasingly high speed. DevOps is desired in places where the need of Agile software development and Enterprise systems management are needed. It improvises the requisite for application of data center automation and configuration management. It also insists upon the availability of virtualised and cloud infrastructure to make it viable for self-organising and cross functional teams. A new research revealed that many IT automation providers like Puppet, Chef, et al. uses DevOps for their computerization techniques. The organisations that follow the DevOps technique are found to achieve higher deployment rates, fastest lead change times, lower change failure rates and less time to recover from failures. DevOps in application analytics follows a predefined cycle as: 1. Building better and usable software for stipulated application. 2. Operation cycle includes Quality improvement, Cost maintenance and improvisation of user experience. 3. Alignment of test plans in proper manner, Triage production issues and validation of backlog priorities comprise the Development cycle. The above cycle iterates itself through the process in the application development to provide itself with the feedback to improve the quality and augment the customer satisfaction. This platform leads to dynamic analytic domain whereby applying agile approach to infrastructure allocation via virtualisation. In an attempt to strengthen its Agile software development, IBM has started its new automation in cloud analytics and application monitoring solutions by the application of virtualised mobile testing tools. For this purpose IBM has incorporated SmartCloud Analytics’ Log Analysis tool, the SmartCloud Monitoring Application Insight tool, and expanded SmartCloud Application Services.

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The purpose of Log analysis is to analyse terabytes of data to provide with an insight to the application’s execution and improve the validity of the data available. IBM uses this analysis to mend the PHP language with its Zend server 6. The businesses today have realised the significance of DevOps for accessing their Application Performance Monitoring (APM), which is indispensable to clutch the occasional unforeseen mistakes that slipped through to production releases. This retrieves the distribution of better deliverables. In short, DevOps provides better feedback mechanisms, implementation of measures and metrics and proper communication about the entire cycle of operations for the big data monitoring. It also handles the large scale data distribution with temporary buffers and handles large spikes of data. Many IT services providers like eBay and social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter have been employing the Package based, Declarative based, Imperative based, Process based, Generic and custom based approach in handling the voluminous data by applying the release engineering principles of DevOps.

PRIYATHARSINI V PGDM(2013-15)

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A year of Curiosity “Seek not to follow in the footsteps of men of old; seek what they sought.” - Matsuo Basho, poet For centuries, the enigma that is Mars has baffled scientists and thinkers alike. The launch and subsequent landing of a robot to investigate the same has therefore been a watershed moment for scientists over the world to really know what Mars holds for science and human life in general. NASA couldn’t have chosen a name more apt than “Curiosity” for the robotic rover. Like the rover and the meaning of “Curiosity” in general, yours truly Quriosity, a homophone but with the same meaning, always strives to sail into uncharted territories to stimulate knowledge of its readers. Last month, Quriosity saluted the Rover for seeing a path where there was none and for its insatiable hunger and search of knowledge. Now Quriosity continues to follow the Rover to find what it is achieving in its journey.

What is Curiosity? Curiosity is a car sized robotic rover which was launched by NASA from Cape Canaveral (Air Force Station in Florida) on November 26, 2011, at 10:02 EST as a part of its Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL). Its primary function is to explore the Gale Crater on Mars. The rover's goals include: investigation of the Martian climate and geology; assessment of whether the selected field site inside Gale Crater has ever offered environmental conditions favorable for microbial 6 for life, including investigation of the role of water; and planetary habitability studies in preparation future human exploration. DEC 2012 AUGUST 2013

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Curiosity's design will serve as the basis for a planned unnamed 2020 Mars rover mission. In December 2012, Curiosity's two-year mission was extended indefinitely. Basic Specification: Curiosity comprised 23% of the mass of the 3,893 kg (8,580 lbs.) MSL spacecraft, which had the sole mission of delivering the rover safely across space from Earth to a soft landing on the surface of Mars. The remaining mass of the MSL craft was discarded in the process of carrying out this task.Curiosity has a mass of 899 kg (1,980 lbs.) including 80 kg (180 lbs.) of scientific instruments. The rover is 2.9 m (9.5 ft.) long by 2.7 m (8.9 ft.) wide by 2.2 m (7.2 ft.) in height. The Landing: When Curiosity was about to land on the Mars surface, the scientists who were behind the vehicle's landing mechanism and who had so far been supremely confident it would work, were worried and later conceded that their hovering "skycrane" looked a little "crazy". Yet it landed like a dream after what is now popularly known as “seven minutes of terror”. It successfully landed on Aeolis Palus Gale Crater near Aeolis Mons ("Mount Sharp"), at the centre of the 154 km (96 mi) wide crater on Mars on August 6, 2012, 05:17 UTC. Curiosity quelled? The first year of operations has seen Curiosity firmly establish the planet's past habitability potential but not at Mount Sharp.Such have been the geological treasures out on the crater floor that the rover has been able to fulfil its main mission objectives before even reaching its primary destination. 

Just in the act of landing, Curiosity was able to uncover remarkable information about Mars' ancient history.Dust blown away by its descent engines revealed conglomerates - rocks made up of small pebbles cemented together by finer material.When the vehicle's survey instruments got a close-up look at these stone jumbles, they were able to confirm that the pebbles were just the sort of gravels you'd find in rivers on Earth.Scientists' calculations indicated the pebbles' edges had been rounded in waters that flowed to depths that were very likely waist-deep at times.

And there was more. Analysis of mudstones drilled just half a kilometre from the landing site pointed to the presence, billions of years ago, of a lake where neutral waters would have collected for extended periods. In fact, the more Curiosity looked, the clearer the evidence became for a wetter past at Gale.

Nonetheless, there is hope that the rover can turn up some interesting organic chemistry at Mt Sharp. But it's going to take a while to get to the mountain. AUGUST 2013

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The wait, however, will certainly be worth it. The tall succession of rocks should open the book on the geological evolution of Mars. In the many layers at the base of the mountain, researchers hope to see the record of different water events come and go, through perhaps hundreds of millions of years. And the pictures - they'll blow your mind, says Prof Dawn Sumner, a mission scientist from the University of California at Davis, US. Curiosity didn’t kill this cat! As things stand now, it’s irrefutable that Curiosity has been an outright success. The only question, and one that has scientists waiting with bated breath, is how far will Curiosity go in shaping/changing/busting our myths about the red planet. What is Curiosity doing now?

Curiosity rover captures video of Martian solar eclipse. Solar eclipses on Mars are a little different than they are here on Earth. Here, we can make an event of it, as the moon can take over two hours to complete its track across the disk of the Sun. On Mars, because Phobos makes one orbit of the planet in just 7 hours and 39 minutes, it transits across the sun so quickly that if you look away for 30 seconds or so, you can completely miss out. Curiosity was ready on August 20th, though, and it trained its cameras onto the Sun to watch Mars' larger moon, Phobos, form a 'ring of fire' or 'annular' solar eclipse:

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What powers Curiosity? Nuclear generator powers Curiosity Mars mission Solar panels, used in the past Mars missions, were passed up in favor of a space battery for powering the car-size Curiosity robot. Previous Mars missions have relied on solar panels to power the rovers, but exploration was slowed down by dust build-up on the solar panels or short winters days with little sunlight. The Curiosity Rover, which is as big as a large car, is also significantly larger and ten times heavier than previous Martian rovers. Enter the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, or MMRTP, an energy source that relies on the heat generated by decaying plutonium dioxide to run Curiosity. It’s designed to run at least one Martian year, which is almost two Earth years. One-way ticket More than 200,000 people from 140 countries have applied to be the first human settlers on Mars, the group behind the project to colonize the red planet, said on Monday. Bas Lansdorp, a Dutch entrepreneur, plans to establish a permanent base on Mars in a mission he hopes will take off in 2022 if he can find the necessary $6 billion. United States tops the list of applicants- it has about 47,000 applicants. India is second with 20,000 takers and China has 13,000. Incidentally, curiosity is also the name of a game, which was later renamed as ‘curiosity- what is inside the cube?’ in order to avoid confusion with the Mars Rover. ‘Curiosity – What's Inside the Cube?’ was an experiment by Peter Molyneux's studio 22Cans. The experiment ended on 26 May 2013 and was won by Bryan Henderson from Edinburgh, Scotland. ANOOP JANARDANAN PGDM (2013-15)

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Analytics-Changing the World of Operations Analytics is the study of descriptive and predictive models to gain valuable knowledge from data and uses this insight to recommend action or to guide in the decision making process. Analytics integrates data science, operations and business applications into three areas of data analysis: predictive (forecasting), descriptive (business intelligence and data mining) and prescriptive (simulation and optimization). Optimization is the perfect technology in operations for sourcing since it deals with selecting the best element that meets specified criteria from some set of available alternatives, i.e., “finding the best deal.” Its use is becoming more widespread in industry as data handling, processing power and solvers have improved to the extent that there is no other way to handle the levels of data and complexity in sourcing projects that are run today. Handling Complexity in operations: The ability to handle large amounts of data has also seen sourcing change from a one-way process where suppliers are asked to make offers for individual items based on the sourcing companies’ criteria to a process of collecting an array of information from suppliers and analyzing the information collected in order to find the best solution. This combinatorial approach allows suppliers to express their strengths by creating their own groups of items so they can make their most competitive offers. Moving Beyond Sourcing in operations: Companies that have become familiar using the technology for bid collection and analysis now realize that the software can be configured to solve any constraint-driven challenge. This customer has numerous manufacturing sites and even more assets at its disposal. In this case assets are manufacturing equipment that are owned and operated by external suppliers. Each asset has been qualified by the company to perform a certain operation for each product, so the challenge is to optimize the manufacturing process to ensure that each product goes through the correct number of processes required to produce the finished product using only qualified assets while taking into account the various costs – raw material, production, transport, warehousing, inventory etc. Data Science: An Emerging Field in operations Data science is an interdisciplinary field combining mathematics, statistics and computer science to create products based on data. The delivery of data products is the key idea. Data science tends to focus on data as a product. For example, Amazon records your searches, correlates them with other users and offers you suggestions on what you might like to buy. Those suggestions are data products that personalize the world’s biggest market, which drives sales. Google Now presents the results of your search before you even think to search for the information. Google Now is a data product that increases use of Google services. AUGUST 2013 2013 2013

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Data Scientist: The Next Big Job in operations A data scientist represents an evolution from the business or data analyst role. The formal training is similar, with a solid foundation typically in computer science and applications, modelling, statistics, analytics and math. What sets the data scientist apart is strong business acumen, coupled with the ability to communicate findings to both business and IT leaders in a way that can influence how an organization approaches a business challenge. The data scientist will sift through all incoming data with the goal of discovering a previously hidden insight, which in turn can provide a competitive advantage or address a pressing business problem. Thus we can conclude that analytics is completely going to alter the scenario of operations in the upcoming future.

ADAN FAKIH PGDM (2013-15)

AUGUST 2013

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QUANT GURU of the MONTH Omar Al-Khayyam was an outstanding mathematician and astronomer. He was also well known as a poet, philosopher, and physician. In the "History of Western Philosophy", Bertrand Russell remarks that Omar Khayyam was the only man known to him who was both a poet and a mathematician. Omar Khayyam reformed the solar calendar in 1079 C.E. His work on Algebra was highly valued throughout Europe in the Middle Ages. In the West, he is best known for his poetic work Rubaiyat (quatrains) which was translated by Edward Fitzgerald in 1859. His full name was Ghiyath al-Din Abul Fateh Omar Ibn Ibrahim al-Khayyam. Omar Khayyam was born in 1044 C.E. at Nishapur, the provincial capital of Khurasan. He also travelled to several reputed institutions of learning, including those at Bukhara, Balkh, Samarqand and Isphahan. Omar Khayyam was a contemporary of Nizam al-Mulk Tusi. He died in 1123 C.E. in Nishapur. Al-Khayyam made major contributions in Mathematics, particularly in Algebra. His book “Maqalat fi al-Jabr wa al-Muqabila� on Algebra provided great advancement in the field. He classified many algebraic equations based on their complexity and recognized thirteen different forms of cubic equation. Omar Khayyam developed a geometrical approach to solving equations, which involved an ingenious selection of proper conics. He solved cubic equations by intersecting a parabola with a circle. Omar Khayyam was the first to develop the binomial theorem and determine binomial coefficients. He developed the binomial expansion for the case when the exponent is a positive integer. Omar Khayyam refers in his Algebra book to another work on what we now know as Pascal's triangle. This work is now lost. He extended Euclid's work giving a new definition of ratios and included the multiplication of ratios. He contributed to the theory of parallel lines. Omar Al-Khayyam is famous for his work which he contributed when he worked for Saljuq Sultan, Malikshah Jalal al-Din. He was asked to develop an accurate solar calendar to be used for revenue collections and various administrative matters. To accomplish this task, Omar Khayyam began his work at the new observatory at Ray in 1074 C.E. His calendar Al-Tarikh-al-Jalali is superior to the Georgian calendar and is accurate to within one day in 3770 years. Specifically, he measured the length of the year as 365.24219858156 days. It shows that he recognized the importance of accuracy by giving his result to eleven decimal places. As a comparison, the length of the year in our time is 365.242190 days. He made great contributions in the development of mathematics and analytical geometry, which benefitted Europe several centuries later. ADAN FAKIH PGDM (2013-15) AUGUST 2013

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QUANTIZ of the MONTH 1) I have a machine which has four sequential cog wheels in constant mesh. The largest cog has 81 teeth and the others have 52, 36 and 20 respectively. What is the fewest number of revolutions the largest cog must make so that all of the cogs are back in their starting position? 2) How many squares have been placed in the drawing below?

3) In the following sum the digits 0 to 9 have all been used, O = Odd, E = Even, zero is even and the top row's digits add to 9. Can you determine each digit? EEO + EOO = OEOE 4) Starting with any number on the top row, make your way to the bottom, adding the numbers as you go. Each time you go to the next row, you can move straight down or one place to the left or right. What is the highest total you can make? What is the lowest?

Please send us the answers at simsr.quantinuum@gmail.com. Answers and Name of the winner (first all correct /most correct entry) will be published in the next issue. Answers of the Last Month Issue: 1) X=4 , y=6 2) 9376 3) 90

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5) Girls to Boys -9 , Boys to Girls -1 KIRAN KUMAR REDDY PGDM - FS (2013-2015)

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QUANT FUN Sudoku of the Month

QUANT TRIVIA What Comes After A Million ?

Please send us the answers at simsr.quantinuum@gmail.com. Answer and name of the winner will be published in the next issue. Solution of the Last Month Sudoku:

“Billionthe , Trillion , Keeping Grey Quadrillion , Quintillion , matter Alive! Sextillion , Septillion , Octillion , Nonilliion , Decillion , Undecillion” 13

FEB 2013 AUGUST 2013

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Happenings - Quantiz 2013 Quantiz, the Quant Quiz from the Quantinuum club was held in three rounds: first round on the web, a semifinal round and the final round, which was conducted on the evening of 4th September. The event attracted registration of around 120 teams out of which around 80 teams took part in the first round on the web. Twenty teams were shortlisted for the semifinal round, from which five teams were selected for the final round. The final round saw lot of participation from the competitors and the audience. Four rounds for the finalists and one round for audience were conducted during the finals. First round was about recognizing the mathematicians followed by the second round which was a number game. The third round consisted of logical puzzles. The fourth round was a buzzer round and a game changer. The competition was tough among the teams as each team was pitching hard to win. All the rounds tested the overall knowledge of teams about mathematics. Audience too participated ardently in answering the questions. The winning teams of Messrs. Gaurav Datta & Pronoy Ganguly , winners and Messrs. Shivek Dhar & Pulkit Giria, runners-up were rewarded with cash prizes and certificates. All the teams which qualified for the semi finals were also felicitated with certifications. Faculty Mentor, Prof. Nilakantan, felicitated the winners and qualifying teams. Audience was rewarded with goodies for answering correctly. The event concluded with the address of Prof. Nilakantan to students to share their ideas and suggest for improvements.

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Quants News Digest Japan gets to know a quadrillion Japan believes that billions are for amateurs. It has a public debt of more than 200 percent of its GDP. The country’s gigantic national debt has for the first time is over ¥1,000 trillion—in other words, more than one quadrillion. It has increased by 1.7 percent in the second quarter of 2013 as announced by Japan’s Ministry of Finance with the figure being recorded as ¥1,008.6 trillion ($10.46 trillion). The debt figure is given as: There are two systems in use for naming numbers larger than a million given as:

American System: The Latin prefix - quad refers to the number of groups of three zeros, not including the last group of three, which represents a thousand. Thus in the USA, a billion is 1,000,000,000 (109) and a quadrillion is a mere 1,000,000,000,000,000. (1015).

British System: The Latin prefix – quad represents the power of a million, thus a British billion is 1,000,000,000,000 (1012) and a British quadrillion is 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (1024).

Current Usage: When determining what the words billion, trillion, and quadrillion mean, it was necessary to consider both when and where they were used. Now, in most English-speaking countries, including Britain, the American system has been adopted, which means it is now a thousand times easier to become a British billionaire. This change started taking place slowly around the end of the twentieth and beginning of the twenty-first century. This has made interpretation of current sizes of national budgets very convenient.

Pseudonyms can’t be hidden – J. K. Rowling case overview Robert Galbraith, the first-time author of a new crime novel called The Cuckoo’s Calling, is none-other than J.K. Rowling, the superstar author of the Harry Potter series as reveled by UK’s Sunday Times. The editor of the paper, Mr. Richard Brooks, received a tweet that revealed the secret of the famous author. The editor started on a mission to prove the anonymous tweet. Big Data analytics finally cracked Rowling’s coded secret.      

Authors using a pseudonym may end up getting caught by Big Data if they don’t take care of the following: Word pairings or sets of adjacent words in each write-up or book. Character n-grams, better explained as sequences of adjacent characters. 100 most common words used in each book and occurrence of small differences in frequency. If separating a word from its meaning, by sorting words simply by their length can be tested completely If Principal Component Analysis can be done. This means if comparison of all of the books can be done on six features: word length, sentence length, paragraph length, letter frequency, punctuation frequency and word usage.

SATARUPA BANERJEE PGDM-FS (2012-14) AUGUST 2013

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QuantConnect Quantinuum, the Quant's forum of KJ Somaiya Institute of Management Studies and Research is formed with two objectives. Firstly to remove the common myth from the students mind that mathematics is difficult. Secondly to give students an exposure on how to make decisions in real life business problems using quantitative techniques. This helps to bridge the gap between theory and the practical application. For any further queries and feedback, please contact the following address KJ Somaiya Institute of Management Studies and Research Vidya Nagar, VidyaVihar, Ghatkopar East Mumbai -400077 Mentor Prof. N.S.Nilakantan (9820680741) – email – nilakantan@.somaiya.edu Team Leaders Manish Murthy (9167679676) Varun S (9819104859) Aditi Paliwal (9819116068) Abhishek Kumar (9819099671) Editorial Team Aditi Paliwal (9819116068) Abhishek Kumar (9819099671) For any queries, drop us a mail at simsr.quantinuum@gmail.com For more details: http://quantinuum.weebly.com/

Like our newsletter? Want to contribute and see your name in print? Rush your articles, concepts, trivia, facts and news about the Wonderful World of Numbers to us by email to simsr.quantinuum@gmail.com Wonderful World of Numbers to us by email to simsr.quantinuum@gmail.com.

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