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Issue 2/2007

The future of waste management

Neues aus der Sternsiebtechnik MULTISTAR L2/L3

Neuvorstellung MUSTANG S

Neuheiten bei CRAMBO und TERMINATOR


Foreword

Table of Contents

Dear reader,

The term “innovatio“ is Latin and means “producing something new“. The term “innovation“ is currently fashionable and is used in all possible contexts. But innovation for which purpose? For what or for whom? Innovations in commercial enterprises must be specifically targeted so as not to succumb to typical inventor destiny. At Komptech, all innovations strictly serve the purpose of a higher level of customer benefit. Our products and services must provide our customers higher levels of benefit, profit and yield, etc. than those of our competitors. In order to satisfy this demand, a continual and intensive innovation process is needed in terms of technology spanning all company divisions - particularly in waste management where conditions are changing constantly. Innovation must not be limited to the R&D department of a company only – it must also apply to all processes which impact the quality, effectiveness and efficiency of the entire organisation. Innovation is of course particularly important in R&D. With this in mind, Komptech is placing additional focus on the acceleration of the development of brand new products and, in particular, their testing, at the new Research Center in St. Michael near Leoben. Komptech is spending twice as much on Research and Development than the industry average, namely 5 percent of turnover. We are convinced this represents the most important investment to best manage our development potential for the future. This innovation dynamic is currently manifesting itself in an array of new products: - new processing line for the production of refuse derived fuels - new mobile, drum screen machines with diesel-electric drive - new shredding systems for forest wood residue etc.

Contribution of regulated waste management to climate protection 3 Successful innovation management in the economy: Master patterns and case studies

4-5

The latest in waste management

6

Current strategies in the recycling of commercial waste

7

European Union waste strategies prospects for recycling and biological treatment of municipal waste 8-9 Secondary fuels vs. high-calorific fractions - level of technology and quality requirements

10-11

Treatment of high calorific commercial waste

12-14

Think-tank for customer benefit

Throughout our now 15-year existence, innovation has always been the driving force and has escalated Komptech to one of the world’s leading suppliers in this sector. This is the reason we, with you - our customers, await the future with optimism. I trust you enjoy reading this edition.

Yours

Ihr Josef Heissenberger

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INPRINT Publisher: KOMPTECH GmbH; Editorship: Josef Heissenberger, Joachim Hirtenfellner, Martin Wellacher; Layout & Graphic: Alexandra Gaugl;

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Contribution of regulated waste management to climate protection

Source: Office of the Provisional Government of Styria The demands for the sustainable management of waste and substances have long since extended far beyond the removal and disposal of waste and presuppose a holistic approach taking into Josef Pröll account all relevant Environment Minister environmental factors. This objective, part of the Austrian waste management policy strategy, means setting a course towards sustainability, the criteria of which form the basis of all measures and projects. The Federal Government of Austria has repeatedly declared its goal of greenhouse gas reduction in line with the scientific conference in Toronto in 1988 as well as the political conferences in Rio in 1992 and in Kyoto in 1997. With suitable prevention, recycling and treatment processes, waste management is making a considerable contribution to achieving this goal. As a consequence of landfilling huge amounts of untreated waste, methane emissions to 1990 have risen continually to 6.2 million tons CO2 equivalent as a result of chemical reactions at sites. Since the 1990s, the sector has shown marked

reductions in emissions despite continued increases in waste. This positive trend is attributable first and foremost to the endeavours of the measures put into place - the success of which we can justifiably look back on with satisfaction. In order to show the development as a result of treating “residual waste“ (mechanicalbiological or thermal), emission figures for 1990,1996 and 2010 have been compiled. The figures confirm that emissions from residual waste in 1990, 2.03 million tons C02 equivalent, accounted for about 2.7% of total C02 and methane emissions in Austria. Methane gas collection and waste treatment in particular contributed to the sinking of emissions by the equivalent of 930,000 tons CO2 between 1990 and 2000. Increased material recycling and energy recovery of waste by consistent application of the Landfill Directive will provide a further reduction. In 2010, total emissions from residual waste treatment will be lowered by a further 840,000 tons C02 equivalent.

Room heating and other minor consumers will make up a larger contribution to the reduction, namely 57.83%. It is evident from these figures that higher significance is being attached to waste management in the implementation of the national climate strategy. Hazardous emissions in the handling of waste are broadly under control and modern infrastructure has been created nationwide over recent years – barring some intermediate storage and (still) legal landfilling up to the end of 2008. Hence Waste Management is an important issue in environmental protection and resource management. It makes an enormous contribution to economic resource productivity, not to mention climate protection. Halbenrain, gas torch Source: Office of the Provisional Government of Styria

A total of 2.56 million tons CO2 equivalent is envisaged for waste management, in line with the national climate strategy 2008/2012 and measured against an overall reduction objective of 7.09 million tons CO2 equivalent. This means a reduction of about 41% in the waste management sector.

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Successful innovation management in the economy: Master patterns and case studies Univ.- Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Helmut Jaberg Technical University Graz

To say “we must create jobs“ is nonsensical. We need to create products which sell themselves. Then jobs come automatically. Hartmut Mehdorn, former boss of Heideldruck, now restructuring German railways (DB)

This makes twice as much sense from a corporate perspective because new applications and products not only create jobs, they are also far more profitable than old products – and even product improvements. Against this backdrop, a joint AustroGerman project was initiated to develop successful innovation master patterns in traditional mid-sized businesses. Funding was provided by the FWF (Fund for Scientific Research) and the German BMBF (Federal Ministry of Education and Research). There are most certainly companies out there who are resisting the trend and who can also survive recessions better than other companies. Information on just what these companies are doing differently and how their strengths are passed on to other companies has been compiled in the joint research from the worlds of industrial experience and science. Master patterns were the conclusion. Komptech GmbH is an excellent example.

Management tool Management and employees can easily evaluate their own performance with two questions: • Have we incorporated all master pattern elements? • How have we implemented them?

importance. After all, not every element in every company need be identifiable and each element need not be of equal importance.

Master patterns of innovation Instead of simplifying, master patterns must create clarity on a large-scale and allow individualisation to the requirements of the particular company. The research results led to a total of eleven master pattern elements (see box) which can be enriched with a few action instructions. This represents a feasible management tool, that describes the entire innovation process and allow an effective innovation process. The impressive growth of Komptech GmbH from its creation to today’s prominence is most certainly attributable to the almost perfect form of the master patterns always intuitively the case at Komptech.

Assignment to the phases of the innovation process It is evident that an innovation process comprises of several phases. Schumpeter called innovation the process by which

successful economic applications are made from inventions. An invention is therefore not yet innovation. In its simplest form therefore, it comprises of the idea and the implementation. But more detailed investigation shows that an idea appraisal phase, to be clearly differentiated, needs to be added after the idea generation phase so as to prevent good ideas from being dismissed. In the same manner, the idea generation phase makes its very own demands because idea generation should be a continual process, not intermittent (“when somebody has a bright idea“). The implementation comprises of the internal and external phases. Not until after the latter can it be determined whether the entire innovation process was successful or not. Even the best innovation management cannot predict the future, but it does dramatically increase the probability of success. The obstacle of internal implementation is important because an astonishingly high number of “innovation inhibitors“ stand in the way of anything new, especially at this stage. Source: Jaberg & Partner

INNOVATION PROCESS

Procedure First an initial hypothesis was developed enriched in this early stages by practical experience of participating companies so as not to lose sight of the practical application with all of the scientific foundation. In the many subsequent discussions and analyses in the companies, master patterns were, hypothetically at first, checked for actual presence and

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IDEA

IDEA GENERATION

IDEA APPRAISAL

IMPLEMENTATION

INTERNAL IMPLEMENTATION

EXTERNAL IMPLEMENTATION


We can observe two different types on assigning master patterns to individual phases of the innovation process: The first four master patterns, “soft skills“, appear in equal measure in all four phases of the innovation process and regard people as the

hubs of all innovation management. Secondly we find master patterns which only appear in one or two innovation phases and represent quickly learnable ”tools“: Classic instruments such as external marketing, design methodology, creativity techniques and knowledge

and project management are retained to a certain extent as components in the individual master pattern elements, are used by the master patterns at the right time at the right place and in doing so unfold their collective punch and effectiveness.

The eleven master pattern elements 1. SOFT SKILLS • The trio of customer, competition and own organisation: More a mentality: Staff and management correlate; always customer, competition, own organisation • Drive: An innovation driver at the highest echelons of the company identifies himself with the project and creates the corporate freedom for the team • Leadership: Vision-based, conveyed strategy, goal-orientation, coaching, learning organisation • Company structure: Openness, employees are intrapreneurs, correct communication (not more than necessary), coaching, learning organisation 2. TOOLS • Nearness to customer: Actual ascertainment of customer requirement beyond customer’s own knowledge • Innovation team: As a radar station, uses all idea generation potential, exhausts internal and external sources • Value Innovation: How can we possibly come up with something new in our industry: ”Everything’s possible – everything can be done.“ • Opportunities - Risks Portfolio: Objective valuation of market and technology as well as of own position in these two criteria, strategic setting of priorities, resource concentration • Core Competence Management: How can we build up our expertise in a targeted manner and deploy it as customer benefit in as many market segments as possible? • Process Organisation: Multi-disciplined team with full decision and implementation expertise, identical to the innovation team in some circumstances • Internal Marketing: Early integration and convincing of key positions and personnel not involved in the innovation project from the outset.

“Soft skills“ are crucial Whether we like it or not, the first group of master patterns requires for its introduction some considerable

time for training and implementation within the company: Staying power is required for the development of these master patterns. Without these Quelle: Jaberg & Partner

master patterns, however, every step in the innovation process is a lottery. Even if all elements are represented systematically in subsequent innovation phases (certainly the case in successful companies in our view), the effect of the “spanner in the works” is such that the success of the innovation is seriously endangered, as are the considerable resources usually deployed for it.

Practical meaning All companies studied operate in the manufacturing industry, i.e. machinery and plant manufacturing. Using master patterns, every innovation phase can be assigned handling elements which, in their own right, already represent a change of the innovation culture widespread today, but given the right preparation in the innovation pre-phase, do not reveal their entire breadth of virtues until the interaction phase. Komptech GmbH is proof.

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The latest in waste management

Departmental Head Dr. Leopold Zahrer Ministry of Life, Vienna Recent years in Austrian waste management have been characterised by the implementation of the ban on landfilling waste with high organic fractions. Only a few federal states were able to implement this landfill ban (in accordance with the Landfill Directive 1996) in full by the target date of January 1st 2004. In some cases, advantage was taken of the exemption ruling extending this time to January 1st 2009 at the latest. The accompanying steering measure, the graduated contaminated landfill site charge, has contributed to the necessary investments being made speedily. Given the plants currently under construction and in the planning stage, sufficient treatment capacity will be available soon in Austria. In the meantime, it was necessary to put some waste into immediate storage. Several fires have led to critical incidences. Also of importance here is the sporadic illegal intermediate storage of waste carried out for speculative reasons. Mechanical-biological treatment plants have been constructed alongside the creation of incineration plants. Fractions high in calorific value

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MBT delivery area and pre-shredding Source: Komptech GmbH are separated off to form a secondary energy source which is used as solid recovered fuel in different industrial plants. Separation of biogenous waste has been stepped up, and composing intensified, with the introduction of mandatory pre-treatment in 2004. Waste management has been able to make a considerable contribution to the protection of the climate through the measures for material recycling, the use of the energy content of waste and the prevention of landfill gas. The potential of energy from waste will be exploited to an even greater extent and the landfilling of waste will be reduced further.

modern technologies and electronic data management as part of waste management and beyond has become increasingly more important. This allows cost reductions and an increase in efficiency in the economy and in public authorities. European standards pertaining to the demands made for the quality of waste landfilled require an adaptation of the Landfill Directive which in turn will lead to improved characterisation of waste. With all of these measures, we in Austria are closing in on the goal of maintenance-free landfilling, improved protection of the environment and a heightened use of resources in terms of sustainable waste management.

In addition, standards developed on a European level for the collection and recycling of waste products such as old cars, electrical/electronic devices and batteries have been implemented accordingly. Packaging waste has been collected separately for over 15 years with more and more being recycled. All of the steps require appropriate data acquisition and documentation measures – the reason the use of

Source: Komptech GmbH


Dr. Wolfgang Staber Montan University Leoben

Current strategies in the recycling of commercial waste

Waste management is being governed by many factors (EU law, consumer behaviour, topography of a region, company sectors, etc.) in such a way that its system is subject to continual change. Herein lie the opportunities, but also the risks, of the players in the waste management sector when breaking new ground in the treatment and recycling of waste. Waste is classified into municipal waste and commercial/industrial waste. Responsibility for municipal waste lies with local authorities, and is regulated by the private sector for commercial and industrial waste. A total of about 54 millions tons of waste is produced annually in Austria (see Fig. 1). Excavated earth accounts for the largest share, about 22 million tons, followed by building rubble, about 6.6 million tons. The figure for municipal waste (waste from households and similar institutions) is around 3.5 million tons.

Fig. 2: Commercial waste Source: Institute for Sustainable Waste Management and Disposal Methods, 2006 collection. A great deal of waste which was previously landfilled untreated is now being recycled materially or thermally in a more ecological and economic sensible manner. Intensive research and development work has been necessary for this, as has investment in plants. When treating commercial and industrial waste, a differentiation must be made between genuine production waste and mixed waste. Genuine production waste can be utilised time

In Austria, the concept of recycling has established itself over recent decades independently of the private sector/ local authority responsibility for waste

Waste generated in Austria, 2004 (100% = 54 million tons) Municipal waste 6%

Municipal sewage sludge and faecal sludge 2%

Other waste 20%

Potential recyclabes from commercial and industry waste 4% Waste from the construction industry 12%

Wood waste without wood packaging 9%

Excavated materials 41%

Green waste, street sweepings, market waste 3%

Waste generated in Austria, 2004 (100% = 54 million tons) Fig. 1: Waste generated in Austria 2006, Page 18

Ash, slag from thermal waste treatment and from incineration plants 3%

and again in-house or inter-company without complex treatment stages. On the other hand, mixed commercial and industrial waste whose composition is not similar to household waste is more problematic (see Fig. 2). In this case, automatic sorting systems, for example, would contribute significantly to the generation of usable fractions. The trend towards material and thermal recycling of waste will continue. Legal framework conditions, in particular the ban on landfilling untreated waste from January 1st 2004, are in place and provide material and thermal recycling an additional boost. The production of solid recovered fuels from commercial and municipal waste for the substitution of primary energy sources in thermal plants will gain further significance. More and more substances in waste, especially those which are CO2-neutral, will gain in interest. This against a backdrop of an anticipated increase in energy prices and exposure to cost charges through emission trading. Being able to provide solutions for this scenario will be a future remit for waste management.

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DI Josef Barth European Composting Network ECN/ORBIT e.V.

European Union waste strategies – Prospects for recycling and biological treatment of municipal waste

Meeting the prevention goals for organic waste in landfills in the EU Landfill Directive and the requirements of the EU soil protection strategy for an improvement of the humus content in European soils are currently the only judicial incentives for the recycling of organic garden and kitchen waste. Both have only an indirect impact on the bio-waste sector. What would really be necessary to boost biological waste treatment is an autonomous EU directive for bio-waste. This directive could, especially for new EU Member States, provide the necessary framework for national strategies and concepts and help to avoid mistakes such as collective waste composting. During its plenary ballot on February 13th 2007 (first reading on the review of the Waste Framework Directive), the EU parliament agreed a change request (Article 18) which calls for Member States to “give priority to material recycling (including bio-waste)“ and to “develop systems for the separate collection of bio-waste“. The ballot also obligated the EU commission to turn its thoughts towards an EU-wide ruling for bio-waste and compost. Bio-waste here is understood to be biodegradable waste and therefore includes organic components in residue waste and treatment using mechanicalbiological pre-treatment. The current proposal from the environment directorate of the EU commission simply plans to define waste standards for compost in the reworked Waste Framework Directive. In addition, the broadening of the Directive for “integrated prevention and reduction of environmental pollution (IVU/IPPC)“ should limit potential environmental effects.

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The EU compost market needs a legitimate framework and quality products Source: Humus & Erdenkontor, Witzenhausen A BREF (”best available technique reference document“) is being used to extend BAT (“best available technique“) to include ”compost and fermentation plants for the treatment of separately collected bio-waste“ for the purposes of IPPC. These elements should suffice in initiating the required recycling of our organic waste in the whole of Europe. However, waste standards can on no account assume the incentive function, much needed on a European level, for the development of the biowaste sector. They do not contain any objectives and neither promote the transition to separate collection nor offer any incentive to construct plants. These waste standards are only required once the compost has already been produced. Even the IPPC/IVU

Directive, with its technical requirements of emission, only takes hold once the decision to construct plants has already been made. The Directive could even have a counter-productive effect on the development of composting and fermentation. A high technical standard favours centralised large-scale plants and discriminates against de-centralised small-scale plants, especially in rural areas. High associated treatment costs can, given low incomes and cost of living, mean a heavy financial burden for the introduction of composting in other regions of new Member States. Experience in advanced states in central Europe shows that sustainable and efficient strategies for the recycling of organic waste definitely require both statutory pressure AND market demand. National policies in these countries, along


with resulting legislation, are driving on the recycling of organic waste with separate collections and composting. Only they, with the guarantee of the judicial system, yield the necessary incentive and the trust of the industry and investors. In addition, high quality standards and quality control have generated the necessary demand and have made quality compost a success story on seller's markets. The end of June 2007 saw members of the EU Environment Council, under German presidentship, agree upon an amendment to the Waste Framework Directive. The compromise formula agreed seems less than mandatory for the development of the bio-waste sector. In this regard, Article 18a of the amendment recommends that Member States, where appropriate, should promote separate collection and treatment of bio-waste and environmental-friendly recycling of any resulting products. Furthermore, the EU Commission should conduct a review of the management of bio-waste and, if required, submit a proposal for regulation. None the less, the agreement in the environment council was the precondition for bio-waste being discussed at all in the second reading in 2008. The new five-stage waste hierarchy may already have been rubber-stamped on an EU level. Through a stricter definition of the five options, waste prevention (e.g. own composting) and recycling – and hence also biological treatment – are gaining in significance and finding support through the material definition of the term recycling mentioned. This defines more clearly the distinction between utilisation and disposal. However, the German solution of material and thermal recycling will have no future here. Current global economic developments have nevertheless led to a broadening of the term recycling. Given the increased scarcity of resources and higher energy prices, we would be well advised to make maximum possible use of waste both materially and thermally (keyword “waste to energy“). The term energy efficiency was introduced as a demarcation to pure waste incineration.

Source: Compost Sales, INFORMA, Oelde Only waste incineration plants which recover over 60-65 percent of the used energy fulfill this recycling criteria. Appropriate effects on the market for solid recovered fuels from MSWs can be expected. All EU institutions currently agree in principle that Europe must shift towards a “recycling society“ with more effort channelled into recycling and prevention, especially in times of climate change and resource protection.

Hopefully these efforts are intense enough for the considerable commitment of the EU parliament for recycling, including bio-waste, to keep the upper hand (over the reduced versions of the EU environment directorate and the environment council of the commission) in the second reading of the Waste Framework Directive at the beginning of 2008. The prospects for an EU bio-waste directive in its own right are currently difficult to assess. But our country representatives in the EU parliament can certainly do something about it. We should speak to them.

Table: The version from the EU parliament is giving the right incentive for bio-waste management

Proposal from the EU parliament for recycling of bio-waste in the Waste Framework Directive (February 2007) - material recycling takes priority - targets of 50% recycling quota for municipal waste, 70% for commercial waste - requirement for introduction of separate collection within 3 years - quality standards including quality assurance for compost - EU commission to submit bio-waste Directive by 06/2008 - EU parliament agrees with many Member States (Germany, Austria, Spain, etc.) Seite 9


Secondary fuels vs. high calorific fractions – level of technology and quality requirements Prof. Dr.Ing. Sabine Flamme

Prof. Sabine Flamme (Federal Quality Association for Secondary Fuels and Recycling Wood) Fachbereich 6, Corrensstr. 25, 48149 Münster, Germany

1 Introduction The use of solid recovered fuels is part and parcel of today's regulated waste disposal. This fuel usage is supported by a starkly increase in energy costs. Against a backdrop of a reduction in the emission of gases harmful to the climate, CO2 emissions from replenishable raw materials are not factored into the calculation of the greenhouse effect. The use of solid recovered fuels containing biogenous fraction (CO2-neutral) is contributing to the reduction of CO2 emissions in industrial incineration plants. Solid recovered fuels are generally split into secondary fuels and fractions rich in calorific value:

Secondary fuel • Ready-to-use fuel from production specific waste or municipal waste following an extensive treatment process for co-incineration with a quality e.g. in line with RAL-GZ 724 [1].

High calorific Fraction • Fractions separated off from waste which have markedly higher calorific values than waste mixtures by virtue of their composition and properties

Fig. 1: Example Sampling; source: INFA GmbH, 2004

2 Requirements and qualities of secondary fuels and high calorific fractions Demands are made of the physical/ chemical composition of solid recovered fuels in energy recovery. Depending on the application, the tailored, reliable and stable quality is a condition for fuel utilisation. Some of the conditions which must be met, irrespective of whether the fuels are used for mono or coincineration: • defined calorific value - low chlorine content • defined particle size and bulk density • small contrary fraction

• Low treatment depth, e.g. particle size more coarse • e.g. high calorific fraction from mechanical-biological treatment plants or commercial waste sorting plants

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• low heavy metal content (on co-incineration) • available in sufficient quantities in consistent quality

Compliance to these conditions requires selective fuel production and tailored quality assurance. The demands made of secondary fuels are higher than those made of high calorific fractions.

2.1 Secondary fuels The use of secondary fuels for coincineration in power stations and cement works has established itself in recent years. The quality criteria of the Gütegemeinschaft Sekundärbrennstoffe und Recyclingholz e. V. (BGS e. V.) in RAL-GZ 724 have been accredited and have been channelled into the guideline on energy recovery in North-Rhine Westphalia (2nd edition) [6].


The quality and test regulations of RAL-GZ 724 apply for secondary fuels produced from production-specific and from municipal waste fractions high in calorific value. The producer of the secondary fuel is to undergo an acceptance procedure in which fundamental fuel production and fuel quality attained is tested (with regulated sample taking under in-house and third-party monitoring). The quality mark is awarded on successful outcome. The producer then has to undergo appropriate testing in a continual monitoring process. A quality assured quantity of 400,000 mg is expected for 2007.

Fig. 2: Secondary fuel (example) Source: INFA GmbH, 2004

2.2 High calorific Fractions High calorific fractions are either passed onto secondary fuel production as part-fractions or used in mono generating stations (grate firing or fluidised bed firing). Tender documents and contract drafts define a wide range of fuel requirements for both utilisation approaches. These requirements are parameters such as particle size, calorific value, chlorine, aluminium, other contrary content and particular heavy metals. A BGS worksheet should define general specifications for procedures relating to quality assurance, sample taking/preparation and verification processes for various parameters. The regulations currently being developed and validated in the European standardisation for solid recovered fuels in ”CEN TC 343: solid recovered fuels“ are being taken into account.

Fig. 3: Fraction > 100 mm rich in calorific value (from household waste) Source: INFA GmbH, 2003

3 Determination of the biogenous fraction in solid recovered fuels Within the framework of emissions trading, only the fossil carbon content is taken into consideration for the calculation of the emission factor for fuels with biogenous fraction. If no generally recognised standard factors are used fur fuels, or these are not available, specific emission factors should be inferred [2]. With a high organic carbon fraction and a favourable C/H ratio, energyefficient solid recovered fuel usage represents an important contribution to CO2 reduction. Clear-cut regulations to determine the biogenous fraction in solid recovered fuels are required as a result of the conditions laid down in emission allowance trading. BGS e.V. has developed a quality mark for the determination of the biogenous fraction in solid recovered fuels which has been accredited as RAL-GZ 727 [3].

Fig. 4: Fraction < 150 mm rich in calorific value (from commercial waste) Source: INFA GmbH, 2003 Considerable quality demands are made of secondary fuels and high calorific fractions. The German standard RAL-GZ 724 can be used for secondary fuels. Suitable quality requirements need to be defined for high calorific fractions. Against a backdrop of emission allowance trading, particular significance has also been attached to the definition of the biogenous fraction in both fractions

5 Literature [1] BGS (2001): Gütegemeinschaft Sekundärbrennstoffe und Recyclingholz e.V., quality assessments and test procedures for secondary fuels, RAL-GZ 724, July 2001

4 Conclusion

[2]

German emissions trading office within the Federal Environment Agency (2005) Determination of specific emission factors in the deployment of fuels with biogenous fractions, discussions in February 2005

The use of solid recovered fuels can generally not be overlooked for the creation/retention of reliable waste disposal. It contributes significantly to CO2 reduction and, in addition, means for industrial companies a greater independency from rising energy costs.

[3]

BGS (2006): Gütegemeinschaft Sekundärbrennstoffe und Recyclingholz e.V., quality assessments and test procedures for the determination of the biogenous fraction in secondary fuels in accordance with RAL-GZ 724 and other solid recovered fuels, RAL-GZ 727, January 2006

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Dipl.-Biol. Dr. Martin Wellacher Komptech Research Center

Treatment of high-calorific commercial waste

In 2005, the EU-15 produced 12 million tons of solid recovered fuel. Solid recovered fuel can be recovered from different kinds of waste, but particularly from commercial waste. Some EU Member States have already banned the landfilling of untreated waste. Waste from which solid recovered fuel is produced can be classified into three categories based on the calorific value: low-calorific SRFs with 3 to 11.5 MJ/kg, medium-calorific with 11.5 to 17.5 MJ/kg and high-calorific with 17.5 to 28 MJ/kg. Medium-calorific SRFs are usually incinerated in fluidised bed furnaces and need to be pre-treated beforehand. High-calorific SRFs are commonly incinerated in cement furnaces and require complex pre-treatment. The following should address in more detail the pre-treatment of waste for the generation of SRFs. Komptech builds machinery and plants for this treatment. Treatment plants in Austria became active in this business segment at the end of the 90s. Waste was only shredded and screened in the first plants. The aim was to generate a fraction for biological stabilisation (MBT) prior to landfilling. At the same time, initial incineration trials took place with the residual fraction, the oversized high calorific particles, in fluidised bed plants. In 2002, two years before the Landfill Directive came into force, treatment plants came on line which had integrated shredders, screens, drum separators (wind sifters), eddy current separators for non-ferrous metals and fine shredding units.

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Source: Komptech GmbH Fig. 1: Sankey diagram of mass flows of a state-of-the-art plant for the treatment of commercial waste to SRFs.


Source: Komptech GmbH Pre-shredder

This enabled high-calorific SRFs to be produced for cement furnaces for the first time. In 2004, with the landfill ban for untreated waste in place in some federal states, a level of technology established itself for these treatment plants, the goal of which was to attain maximum output quantities of mediumcalorific and high-calorific SRFs. Fig. 1 shows a Sankey diagram of mass progression through the plant for an example treatment plant. The high overhead for the ejection of the relatively small quantity of contraries is quite apparent. Using this technology, the metal, stone and specific heavy fraction contraries were able to be separated off from the SRFs. Treatment costs for this technology alone are 28 Euro per ton (including investment). Improvements in efficiency of treatment techniques and quality of waste products produced over the last ten years have been achieved primarily through waste legislation. This is why a commercial waste to SRF treatment plant is today able to generate suitable products for an existing market.

Ballistic separation

Post-shredder

Fig. 2: Proposal for a new level of technology in the treatment of commercial waste to SRFs: Coarse shredder (TERMINATOR XF), ballistic separator (BRINI MK), inductive sorting for metal separation (IST) and circulation for rolling oversized particles, and fine shredder (RASOR) for flat oversized particles.

The current objective of an operator of such a plant is the minimisation of costs for the transfer of generated waste products by raising the fraction quota for MBT, and the minimisation of the quota of low and medium-calorific fractions for waste incineration.

The recommendation here is the integration of a ballistic separator, such as the BRINI MK, and the replacement of drum separators and screens. Fig. 2 shows the process. The ballistic separator (Fig. 3) produces four fractions: flat, rolling as well as two screen fractions, e.g. with holes of 0-30 and 30-80mm.

Fig. 3: Preparation of commercial waste in 4 fractions with the ballistic separator Source: Komptech GmbH

Rolling Fraction

Screen fraction 0-30 mm

Screen fraction 30-80 mm

Flat Fraction

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Fig. 4 shows the mass ratio of the waste products from such a treatment process for commercial waste. Operating costs correspond roughly to the level of technology (27 Euro per ton) but marked reductions in disposal costs arise through the shift of masses to more cost-effective fractions – MBT and high-calorific SRFs. The TERMINATOR XF pre-shredder, which reliably shreds the material down to a particle size <300 mm, and the RASOR fine shredder, which brings the high-calorific fraction to a size ready for the furnace, are integrative components of such a plant. Current average prices for products from cold treatment are 80 Euro per ton for medium-calorific fluidised bed fraction, 60 Euro per ton for fractions (0-30 mm) to be treated biologically and fluidised bed incineration plants still in the planning stage, and 40 Euro per ton for high-calorific “cement works fraction“. This pricing will drop towards zero depending on crude oil prices and could generate revenue in the future.

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Fig. 4: Mass ratio of waste products in the treatment of commercial waste with a ballistic separator. Source: Komptech GmbH


Think-tank for customer benefit Dipl.-Biol. Dr. Martin Wellacher Komptech Research Center

Komptech Research Center - St. Michael Source: Komptech GmbH

The “Komptech Research Center“ stands as a milestone in the coherent strategy of two people: Rudi Pretzler and Josef Heissenberger. “A growing company needs room to brainstorm, argue and experiment“ – words at the fore and at the beginning of a new era. A background attitude one can seek out. The Komptech Research Center is the result of the search. How do they manage it? Every year, new technologies are introduced, existing technologies are evolved and the main thread is always in sight. 16 new engineers have been taken on in the development department over the last few months. Create space, training on “OneSpace-Designer“, conference rooms give way to workstations, a new management level created – management personnel also need a family life – and finally the construction of a research center – the Komptech Research Center. An analogy – a beehive in springtime.

Innovation. The word maybe modern, but slimlining down to one word can be misguiding. The solution is right before our eyes. This creates pressure. Pressure can create counterpressure – that’s unproductive. But have we actually asked the right questions? Where is the place we can contemplate this? Where is the place we can argue about the question, about our ideas? Where is the place we can try something out – with big machines? Absorb the pressure, pass it on and use it as an energy source. The right place for the vision of the Komptech Research Center is St. Michael near Leoben. Development engineers are different: quiet, deliberate, steady, accurate. A new and outstanding machine is to be the fruit of their labour. Only a few need peace and quiet to recharge. In the short term, talking has a greater impact than listening. How can we motivate our

development engineers to develop the best machines of our time? Komptech needs these kinds of motivated people in the Komptech Research Center. St. Michael near Leoben (in Upper Styria) comprises of asizable motorway intersection, a roundabout, a small town and surrounding mountains. And now the Komptech Research Center alongside a waste treatment plant. From here, solutions are developed and implemented by a distributed team of developers. Solutions for the best machines and plants for the waste management of tomorrow. Prototypes are built and tested and machine concepts are prepared for the competence centers. All of this in close and fruitful cooperation with the competence centers in Frohnleiten, Oelde and Lauterbach. Something for the Komptech parent company to look forward to.

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Komptech GmbH

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• Mobile technology • Stationary technology • Plant construction for the

- treatment of solid waste - treatment of woody biomass 16 Seite

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