THE SUBLIME IN NATURE bringing natural moments into everyday life
Design research and proposal for a senior capstone project by Hyekyung Ko email@example.com
A deliverable for IDES 431 Design Theory + Capstone Prep - Fall 2013 coordinated by Jason Lempieri and Jonas Milder
Industrial Design Program http://www.id-uarts.org ÂŠ 2013 School for Design College of Art, Media, and Design University of the Arts 320 South Broad Street Philadelphia PA 19102 http://uarts.edu
THE SUBLIME IN NATURE
bringing natural moments into everyday life
“Design is a fundamental human activity, relevant and useful to everyone. Anything humans create—be it product, communication or system—is a result of the process of making inspiration real. I believe in doing what works as circumstances change: quirky or unusual solutions are often good ones. Nature bends and so should we as appropriate. Nature is always right outside our door as a reference and touch point. We should use it far more than we do.”
By Maggie Macnab, Design by Nature: Using Universal Forms and Principles in Design
We are living in an urban city. We are living in our houses, eating in restaurants, and resting on sofas or beds. The space around us is very modernized and artificial. Everything is measured, planed and ordered to be built in an urban city. What about nature? All creatures and things from nature seem to be not measured and planed by anything. Everything is flexible and organic. However, natural activities are not just occurring in chaotic mess. Nature encourages many beautiful chaotic formations to happen through the law of nature. Not all stones look the same. Not all leaves on tree branches look the same, but they are formed through the same process and create great harmony together. Creating random results from the natural process in harmony are the strong characteristics of nature as a designer.
Observing Diving into nature
During the summer break, I traveled around Korea and
When we think about city life, we usually recall busy
Europe. I visited many different places and saw various
people, work, noise, or fast pace. However, when we
kinds of natural scenes that brought me exhilarating and
think about nature, we are not busy and we do not rush.
calm moments. When I visited the mountains, every
We just feel relaxed. By observing the beautiful colors
ridge and peak looked different and created a sublime
and forms from nature, we feel consolation. The forms
nature creates certainly show extraordinary visuals that we are not able to enjoy in urban life. That is why
Even though we can enjoy the highly developed
people are so attracted by natural scenery. The beauty
civilization in cities, people love to get away from urban
of nature flows into us smoothly and comes out leaving
life and visit nature to experience refreshing moments
pleasantness and inspiration in our minds.
that make their minds comfortable and relaxed. Then, what kinds of elements in nature bring us those moments?
Nature What is going on in nature?
Then, how are all the beautiful and extraordinary forms
processes show similar shapes and forms. However,
and colors in nature created? There are many natural
sometimes we can see similar natural patterns in totally
formations in the world, and each of the different
different locations. One of the great things about natural
activities create different kinds of forms. For example,
formation is that it shows certain kinds of similar patterns
the dripping process creates icicles or stalactites with
even in different cases. When we imagine the veins on
round bumpy and sharp surfaces. Weathering cuts off
leaves and the course of a river, we can realize that the
the particles of the rock or sand surfaces and creates
lines and shapes are really similar.
some curvy lines on canyons and mountains. Natural sublime forms are not only found in the huge sizes, but
Nature seems to be extremely complex and chaotic, but
also in tiny formations. For example, snowflakes show
if we look deeply at natural forms, many kinds of natural
deliberate patterns made from the crystallization of
pattern groups will appear in similar ways with color
water particles in the air, and also growth patterns of
and shape repetition. How do naturally harmonious and
vegetables show certain beautiful geometric patterns.
similar repetitive patterns occur? How can I learn about them and use those characteristics as a design concept
There are many types of natural formations. Nature
for our every day life?
activities can be divided roughly into two parts: subtraction and addition. Canyon and stalactite formation is a good example that shows these two phenomena.
Photo by etyek
The same natural formation processes show similar
Photo by Anusha Saeed
shapes and forms. However, sometimes we can see
Stalactites and stalagmites in Meramec Caverns, Missouri
Paris Canyon Vermillion Cliffs, Arizona
Nature is beautiful just the way it exists and forms. Loose, flexible and even harsh formation of nature give us sublime moment. What if I bring that moment into our living space? Would people be more relaxed and feel calm in their space?
The entry point of the project: How can sublime qualities found in grand natural settings be brought into every day life?
Based on experiences in nature, I wondered how nature moves, changes, grows and forms. All activities and phenomena in natureâ€™s designs and the forms from the rock, sand, every natural elements. What encourages nature to create those beautiful forms and colors? Why is it created into those forms? Is it only a coincidence or related to some kind of law? We might see and feel nature without reason, but there must be a reason for the nature to be formed that way. I started to look up for natural phenomenon and forming activities to understand the fundamental of nature itself.
brainstormings and concepts
General study Earth from above 365 days
Nature is so wide and broad. It contains everything
Also, natural formations create pattern self-repetition,
around us. It also moves and grows every time
which is known as a fractal. In fractal patterns, nature
sometimes slowly and sometimes quickly. Giant natural
organizes its formations and creates random, but also
environments such as mountains or rivers and small
quite regular pattens.
natural forms such as snowflakes and leaves on trees are the fruit of the natural movements. Those kinds of movement create many chaotic phenomena that show beautiful patterns in natural environment. Layered lines and colors from canyon, wavy and flow shape on a sand dune, and angular stones near sea shore, look almost the same, but with slight differences of each forms, they create a sublime beauty.
Earth from above 365 days by Yann Arthus-Bertrand, Photographer. This book shows various kinds of patterns that happen on the earth
A lot of natural formation is created very slowly with tiny additive and subtractive processes. These tiny, but lots of little changes from natural activities finaly build a form, and bring us giant sublime moment, whenever we observe the natural environments.
Photos from Earth from Above 365 Days
Research keywords Entry points for the research
First, I wrote down what aspects of nature I am interested in, and chose some words that I want to learn more deeply. I am interested in patterns of natural activity and how and why the sublime is formed during that activity. I am also particularly interested in the erosion and weathering process and random fractals in nature. Those are what I try to investigate and learn from the research.
Research Understanding natural formation: stalactite
Stalactites are formed by the deposition of calcium
The chemical formula for this is
carbonate and other minerals, which is precipitated from
CaO(s) + H2O(l) = Ca(OH)2(aq)
mineralized water solutions.
When it comes in contact with air
Every stalactite begins with a single mineral drop of
Ca(OH)2(aq) + CO2(g)
water. When the drop falls, it leaves behind the thinnest
= CaCO3(s) + H2O(l)
ring of calcite. Stalactite can also form on concrete, and
When this solution forms the Stalactites. They are
on plumbing where there is a slow leak and limestone
normally a few centimeters long with a diameter of
is in the water supply. Although they form much more
approximately half a centimeter.
rapidly there than in the natural cave environment. The
Generally, stalactiteâ€™s growth speed is 0.0051inches per
way stalactites form on concrete is the result of the
year. Therefore, to create a long stalactite, it takes over
presence of calcium oxide in concrete. It reacts with
thousands of years.
any rainwater that penetrates the concrete and forms a solution of calcium hydroxide.
Photo by Janine White
Stalactites and stalagmites in Meramec Caverns, Missouri
A stalactite at Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico,
Understanding natural formation: canyon
The general scientific consensus holds that the Colorado River carved the Grand Canyon beginning 5 million to 6 million years ago. Sediments from water, mud, sand, and gravel, formed and cemented together by mineral pressure and turned into a solid rock formation. To build a foot-deep, it takes 65 years. After the rock is formed, wind carries dirt and sand, grinding the surface of the rock like sand paper. Mechanical weathering is the physical breakup of rock into smaller pieces. It begins with the process of unloading and jointing. Once cracks form in rock, these cracks can be widened and extended by several processes, and the rocks are broken. Frost or ice wedging, heat spalling, and temperature changes on surfaces cause the weathering.
Photo from NPS
Understanding natural formation: sand dune
Big and small sand dunes are created on deserts and beaches because of the wind blowing. In the process of during, subtractive actions and additive actions occur almost at the same time and create a shape on the surface of a sand field. Defending on the wind direction changes, speed, and varying amounts of dirt the wind carries, many different shapes of dunes are created. Usually, when dunes are formed the ridge part becomes unstable, and slide to the side or bottom. That is why a dune can not have a steep slope.
Photo from National Geographic Photo from CYE
Dunes have many different forms such as transverse
Photo from TrekNature
dunes, star dunes, reversing dunes, and linear dunes.
Photo from Geomorph
The arrows show the wind directions.
Understanding natural formation: crystallizing, freezing
The formation of snowflakes occur when water vapor meets microscopic dust in the air. Snowflakes rise during the formation process and then when it gets heavy enough to fall, it falls to the ground. While the snowflake is rising the shape of the snowflake grows
Growth of snowflake Photo from Math198
into a hexagon, and every corner of the hexagon gets big enough to grow new branches, it reaches the branch out of the corner and grow another hexagonal shape. After that, the flake gets heavy and falls. While it is falling, the branches of the snowflakes melt down, and create sharp and elaborate patterns. The patterns of snowflakes are created differently through changes in the falling angle, speed, and other kinds of conditions.
Photo from Nyewall
Understanding natural formation: animal effects
Sometimes, nature disasters create some beautiful patterns. For example, pine beetles, termites, and woodpeckers are known for wood feeding and destroying. They might seem to be negative, but after they feed on the trees, they leave amazing patterns on the surface or even inside of the tree trunks. One of the reasons why their works look sublime is because a lot of tiny insects and birds are creating the patterns. Pine beetles are living under the tree bark, so they create patterns on the bark, but termites attack all over the tree to create their
Photo from MFC
hive and feed, so their feeding patterns are more three
Photo from Knotinvein
Photo from ACCA
Pine beetle attacks pattern
Termites attack pattern
CHAOS : Making a New Science by James Gleick “The shapes of classical geometry are lines and planes, circles and spheres, triangles and cones.... Clouds are not sphere Mandelbrot is fond of saying. Mountains are not cones. Lightening does not travel in a straight line. The new geometry mirrors a universe that is rough, not rounded. Scabrous, not smooth. It is a geometry of the pitted, pocked, and broken up, the twisted, tangled, and intertwined. The understanding of nature’s complexity awaited a suspicion that the complexity was not just random, not just accident. It required a faith that the interesting feature of a lightning bolt’s path, for example, was not its direction, but rather the distribution of zigs and zags.” “The fractal approach embraces the whole structure in terms of the branching that produces it, branching that behaves consistently from large scales to small”
After researching the process of natural formation. I started looked through patterns from the same formation process. Even though the process is the same, the result from the formation are always differently, and the combination of the similar patterns’ repetition creates beautiful patterns. Then, How can we define or organize the chaos in nature? In Chaos: Making a New Science, Gleick describes the random phenomena occurring in the world, and he explains that how the fractals are used to organize and define the chaos of the world.
What are fractals?
A fractal is a geometric object that is similar to itself on
natural pattern, we will realize that every form is not just
all scales. If you zoom in on a fractal object it will look
chaos. Everything from small particles to huge mountains
similar or exactly like the original shape. This is called
are formed following the law of natural fractals.
self-similarity. Even though the term â€˜fractalâ€™ was developed by mathematicians, it can be a useful tool to categorize chaos forming patterns of nature phenomenon. We can easily find the fractal patterns in the nature like the photos on the right. Unlike fractals from a mathematical point of view, fractals in nature are not created by inputting certain numbers or formulas. They are created more flexibly and randomly, but still have self-similarity. Fractals in nature occur by natural movement, growing, and all natural activity. If we look deeply into the
Photo from Leah Oripaypay
Cross-sectioned shells Sandbars, Australia
Giant lobelia Antelope canyon
Snowflakes Sandstone patterns in cave
Paris Canyon Vermillion cliffs, Arizona Rock formation
Strange Attractor : Chaotic flow Chaos, fluid, movement, change, reaction, nature
Photo from Wikipedia
Photo from Peak Collatera
Photo from University of Wisconsin
From a mathematical view, Lorenz Attractor was
However, this fractal pattern turns out to be a very useful
invented to look for complex behavior in an even
tool for studying natural chaotic movement such as
simpler set of equations, and led to the phenomenon
flowing and blowing, where we look at the ways things
of rolling fluid convection. If one plots the results in
like population, weather, and chemical reactions change.
three dimensions, the following figure, called the Lorenz
In fact, Strange Attractors like the Rossler Attractor and
Attractor, is obtained.
the Lorenz Attractor were discovered and developed while studying natural phenomena,
Synthesis of the research
After I have researched the natural formation processes
I could also find the quick type of natural formation such
and fractals, I wondered if I could create a form of natural as tracing waves on mud flats or sand dunes, which fractals using natural forces such as wind movement and reveal the pattern of movement, flowing, and blowing. water.
With these kinds of natural movements, the fractal
The biggest challenge to mimic nature was time. Most
patterns of chaotic flow, Strange Attractor, will appear
of the natural processes are occurred very slowly and
on the form without a personâ€™s touch. I set the condition
steadily, so I had to find ways to make the process
and environment for the test, and let the natural forces
quicken to get the forms at the right time.
do their job. Therefore, the product will show the natural
Controlled physical and chemical reactions for the base
forms and also will not loose the natural formation
of the formations were required to quicken the process.
characteristics that shows randomly regular patterns.
NATURAL FORCES CREATE THE FORMS
Through the research, I could understand how natural
To create natural organic forms, some people are
forms are created. An amazing part of natural formations
focusing on mimicking the shape of nature, but what I
is even though the formation process looks chaotic,
try to achieve is the experiences of the natural formation
the results always showed great harmony with color
processes, drag natural forms out from the process and
combinations, shape compositions, and texture. When
applying them to our every day life products to present
I mimic the natural formation process, I do no want to
the ephemeral sense of nature.
loose or interrupt that natural force, so I set little studio or mold to provide best condition for natural formation, but during the forming process, I do not interfere
Various concepts from nature
Many designers already get many ideas and concepts from nature, They get ideas from different natural characteristics such as animal effects and imperfections from natural formation (Wabisabi), and capture natural phenomena such as dripping or freezing. The overall ideas from them is the diverse formation occurring during the same process. The molds or capturing tools for the base might be created by human forces, but the formation process is totally left to the natural force. Therefore, the final result of design will be diverse
Designersâ€™ works inspired by nature activity
VENUS - Natural crystal chair by Tokujin Yoshioka
This chair is made of sugar. The chair is crystallized over time on a polyester elastomer skeleton. Yoshioka only built the frame but, the crystallization of sugar created the shape (crystallizing).
INSECT TABLE by FRONT Design Group
In the FRONT groupâ€™ project, many tiny insects sculpt the table leg and leave beautiful pattern. The Venus designers just made a basic table, but the insects create the patterns (insect attack).
Designers’ works of imperfection
B-SET by Hella Jongerius
The final pieces shapes are controlled by temperature differences on oven when they were baked. The imperfect set of tableware is an important theme in Jongerius’ work.
KOSHINO HOUSE by Tadao Ando
He creates spaces that produce what he has called “a maximum effect of equilibrium.” With concrete that has slightly controlled pressure creating wavy shadows on the surface.
Designersâ€™ works of natural phenomena
FINLANDIA VODKA BOTTLE by Tapio Wirkkala To design this vodka bottle, Wirkkala formed and casted the ice and made this bottle, It shows his fascination with ice. (natural shape casting)
FLUID GLACIER by Zaha Hadid
The piece is an example of Hadidâ€™s exploration of liquid forms. Pouring acyclic creates the glacier form. (material alteration, dripping)
Meeting with material professionals
Before I started to test natural materials and forms. First,
design technique because molding is for mass
I visited and contacted material professionals to get
some general ideas about form making in their field and
That gave me an idea about using molding as an
learn about materials. At the beginning, I tried to cover
industrial technique and using casting to captured the
the general formation technique and ideas of wood and
ceramic. Then, I met Larry Donahue who is a professional for First, I contacted Sarah Matins to ask about the pattern
molding and casting, and talked about my project. He
and natural grains of the wood. Was there a way
advised me using many materials not just plaster, but
to predict or control the grain patterns on wood, and
also hydrocal and silicon to cast natural shapes from the
are there is any chemicals to reveal the wood forms
tests. Also, he recommended using different ways to
or patterns clearly. There were some oil staining and
create wind such as a fan, heat gun, and hair dryer.
burning techniques for wood, but I could not get positive
After I interviewed those people I had a better idea about
ideas of natural forming because basically wood forming
testing the mimicking of natural formation processes.
is related to cutting and sanding that is done by humans hands.
After I made some test pieces, I kept meeting with Larry Donahue and Michael Grothusen to share my
After that, I visited the ceramic department and met
test processes and get more advice from them about
James Makins to talk about the general ceramic forming
appropriate techniques for better forming.
techniques and material use. In the ceramic field, plaster, porcelain and clay are used a lot, He explained about the forming process such as throwing, molding and casting. Molding and casting ideas came to me as an industrial
Wood Sarah Matins Senior Lecturer, Craft & Material Studies
Ceramics James Makins Professor, Craft & Material Studies
Molding and Casting Larry Donahue Adjunct Professor
Sculpture Michael Grothusen Sculpture Coordinator
Brainstormings Natural phenomena
Synthesizing the information from the research and
natural force, but with that experience, I also started to
talking with material professionals, I narrowed down
think about how to apply the idea of natural forming into
the material selections: earth, sand, clay and ceramic,
and planned to test the fractal forms that occurred from different kinds of movement.
Also, I got a group brainstorming session during the studio class. From the brainstorming, I started to think about different ways and concepts of forming with
Concepts How to apply the natural formation idea into our life
Therefore, after consideration of refined concepts, I focused on the how the forms got from natural activities such as blowing or flowing is going to be applied into our life. The purpose of using natural formation process is to reveal the natural patterns: beauty in chaos. Then, how and where can I apply the natural beauty into our life, for what? At this moment, I planned to apply the natural chaotic sublime formation process to present the various senses of nature such as wind and water.
Concepts Pecha kucha rough concepts
Prototyping and testing the materials were very crucial for this project, because I could not tell what is going to happen with this natural force unless I test and mimic it on the materials to create natural chaotic formation. After the pecha kucha concept presentation, I tested recommended process ideas and concepts to see if the results that I expected are coming out or not. The main thing was getting a proper studio space to test the materials, after I got the space in craft department, I started to building and tested dropping, blowing, spinning and flowing action on the materials. Also, while working with people in craft department, I could learned about some unique ideas about forming and develop techniques.
Test Water drop and salt on the ice
For the first step of the testing material and natural formation, I used ice blocks and test two different way of subtraction action. I used a water drop for the first ice block and salt reaction for the second one. The purpose of the subtraction was creating a hole on the ice block, so I dropped the water and salt on a same spot on the surface of the ice blocks and observed them. I checked the form changes regularly(30 minutes). Because the ice block melt differently reacting to water and salt. Those reaction created different melting pattern on the ice blocks.
20 minutes later
40 minutes later 80 minutes later
Waves by whirl
Water with whirl also shows chaotic flow with spinning
However, from this test I could get another ideas to use
action. To mimic that activity, I set flexible mold for wet
whirl with melted wax in the future.
plaster. In this case, the balloons were used,
I used two balloons and put different amount of wet plaster and blow air differently, and the patterns occurred differently with the thickness of the plaster and spinning speed.
For this test, It was hard to measure the difference of spinning speed, so the results were not as good as I expected.
Spin them until the plaster gets
Put little amount of plaster into the balloon
Wavy surface was created.
Acid drop on sand and marble powder
Acid reacts on marble(calcium carbonate) positively,
However, the shape of the form shows what I wanted
so I set container to observing acid reaction on marble
to make. The top part of the piece is flat and has little
with sand. I mixed 3 cups of sand and 3 cups of marble
bobbles on it, and on the bottom of the piece shows a lot
powder, and dropped acid for two hour and observed the of bumpy surface. changes. I expected that bobbles from the reaction of acid and calcium carbonate will create bumpy forms and the resolution from the reaction will hold the sand and be solidified together. The result was not that bad. The solidification of the form did not go well as I expected. It kept the form, but as soon as I touched it, it crumbled easily.
Mix of sand and marble powder Acid dropping
Dropping for two hour After 5 hours
After 24 hours, top
After 24 hours, bottom
Chaotic flow Sand dune by wind
To create forms to show the movement and flowing, I
I removed the sprayed surface carefully, but it was no
used fine powder such as sand.
completely dried, so it created cracks on the surface.
I built 2 foot by 2.5 foot capturing box, and poured 30
However still I was be able to capture the crescent
cups of sand. Firs I set a fan in front of the box and blow
shape of sand dune
the wind, and let the wind form the sand. After 3 hours, I changed the angle and direction of the wind and blow the sand again. Then, the wind finally create crescent sand dune in the box. I spray adhesive on to the sand to keep the sand dune surface solid. After one layer of the adhesive roughly dried, spray it on them again and repeated the process to get solid surface.
30 cups of sand
Blown for 3 hours
Keep spraying every 15 minutes for 20 times
Take the surface carefully after 24 hours
It was not completely dried so created cracks
Sand dune by wind
Capturing sand surface was the critical point to get the form. After I use adhesive to fix the surface of sand, I talked about it with people in craft area, and learned about flicking wet plaster idea if I flick wet plaster on the sand, the plaster will not ruin the surface of sand.
For this test, I tried to create star dunes by blowing wind in different directions. After pouring 30 cups of sand in the box, I blowed wind on the top of the sand dune, changed the direction of the wind to little bit and little bit.
After the star dune is formed I flicked wet plaster and captured the dune shape.
Put 30 cups of sand
And blow wind again in other directions Take off plaster mold after it completely dry
Blow wind on the top of the dune
Flick wet plaster to capture the surface Blow out remained sand on the mold carefully
Struggle moment Challenges
When I tested the concept of formation process. I
I can use industrial techniques such as 3D scanner for the
realized that there are two critical moments: capturing
scale issue. If the form is made from natural process, but
instantly the flexible natural forms occurred by flowing or
it is too small I can use industrial technique to make the
blowing movements, and scale problem.
form bigger or smaller for appropriate usages.
Through the material test, I am getting more and more
To overcome these problems, I have to experience a lot,
ideas because I failed to make some kinds of form, then
and need to keep contact with material professionals
I know that way is wrong and change my direction. That
and craft artist to get advice and ideas and also visit their
was actually a lot helpful to me to get rid of worse ideas
studio to see how they work and build forms.
and proceed to better way to test natural formation process. Some of natural activities create fragile form that is hard to cast. I need to research and experience various material reactions to find the way to cast the form out of the process.
Final decision How can I take the sublime qualities occurring in systems of natural chaos into every day life to represent the ephemeral sense of nature?
After I gathered all information and test my concept, I felt I still have to work on forming process to get an idea from natural chaos. Through the experiences of testing natural forces, the movement of wind and water attracted me a lot. Their movements create little changes on sand or earth and build forms showing the ephemeral moments of the natural forces such as flow.
Find what I am Interested in. Swimming
Research: Patterns in nature. Material for nature What is fractal? Geometric in nature. Structures in nature
Web research& Library: Look what is going on in the world. Swimming
Research: Natural formation(erosion..) Patterns from the formation. Design groups and products research. Physical and chemical activities during the formation.
Research: Fractal patterns in nature. Categorize them w/ similar shape. Two books for reading
Research: Synthesis researches Contact some experts. Look for makers and products. Patterns on materials.
Research: Process of natural formation(How it is formed, why it is formed) from small things to big things. Formation with history(human). Patina How to quicken it. Chemical effects
Synthesis all materials. Build clear concept. Choose main material
Keep material research. Visit craft places, meet and talk with someone. Go deep with the concept
Creating concept Testing materials Talk with professional Getting studio place. Nature coincidental movement
Learn about main material Getting some idea from the forming
Testing Counsel with professional
Prototyping from the ideas, Getting turning point
Prepare for the presentation.
NEXT STEPS During the spring break
DEC 19 Meeting with Michele Oka Doner (set appointment first)
I am going to keep testing the natural formation process with various materials, visit local artists and craftsmenâ€™s studio, and interview them about the forming processes in their field. The important thing is to test many materials and techniques to reveal forms with ephemeral and sublime form through simulated natural processes.
During the spring semester
Based on the researches and tests during the break, create refined forms from chaotic actions of flow, then with the forms create a set of pakages or containers that represent different forms and textures.
Macnab, Maggie. Design by Nature: Using Universal Forms and Principles in Design. Berkeley, CA: New Riders, 2012. Print.
Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Penguin, 1988. Print.
Arthus-Bertrand, Yann. The New Earth from Above: 365 Days. New York: Abrams, 2007. Print.
Water%20Resource%20Engg/pdf/m2l09.pdf> HKSS <http://hkss.cedd.gov.hk/hkss/eng/
Chaos & Fractals<http://www.stsci.
PURDUE University <https://engineering.purdue.
PURDUE University <https://engineering.purdue.
EPA <http://water.epa.gov/scitech/datait/tools/ warsss/streamero.cfm
Greetje van Helmond<http://www.
The Naked Scientist http://www.
Colorado State University<http://www.ext.
science-of-snowflakes/> Electric Universe Geology<http://www.eu-