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STUDIO AIR 2017, SEMESTER 1, TUTOR: ALESSANDRO LIUTI ZIJUN MO, 813475


CONTENTS PART A. CONCEPTUALISATION A.0. INTRODUCTION A.1. DESIGN FUTURING A.2. DESIGN COMPUTATION A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION A.4. CONCLUSION A.5. LEARNING OUTCOME A.6. ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

PART B. CRITERIA DESIGN B.1. RESEARCH FIELD B.2. CASE STUDY 1.0 B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0 B.4 TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES B.6 TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL B.7 LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES

PART C. CONCEPTUALISATION C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT - ASTRAL SHELL C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS & PROTOTYPES C.3 FINAL DETAILED MODEL C.4 LEARNING OBJECTIVE AND OUTCOMES


Hi,

my name is Koey (Zijun Mo). I am a thirdyear architecture student, studying at the University of Melbourne. I was born in China and currently living in Melbourne for university study.

A.0 SELF INTRODUCTION

I learned Rhino in subjects called Visualising Environment and Digital Design Fabrication in the past two years. It is a very helpful digital tool that can generate three-dimensional models for fabrications, including laser cutting and 3D printing. Actually it can do more than I have learned, which can create forms with algorithm by grasshopper. Digital design in architecture is prevailing, as it can produce lightweight structures with advance fabrication technologies, which is both material and labour efficient. Moreover, it introduces new lightweight materials into architecture industries, such as EFTE in Water Cube.

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A.1 DESIGN FUTURING During the last decades, technology and industry developed rapidly, achieving a level higher than ever before. However, the price human pay for it is incredible expensive, that is the natural environment. Resources on the earth is finite, so we cannot continue designing and constructing buildings without considering sustainability, in terms of material, labor and environment. The redirect of design is vital, as it not only aims to slow down the rate of defuturing, but also redirect people towards sustainable modes of life.1

Design is not always problem solving. For those unfixable challenges, it can be solved by changing our belief and value, which means generating more possibilities.2 For example, introduce new materials into building industries to overcome challenge of material shortage.

1. Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg, 2008), p.6. 2. Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press, 2013), p.2. 3. Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice, p.6.

‘Whenever we bring something into being we also destroy something the omelette at the cost of the egg, the table at the cost of the tree, through to fossil fuel generated energy at the cost of the planet’s atmosphere.’3 --- Tony Fry


A.1 Case Study 1 BRITISH MUSEUM COURT CANOPY

Foster+Partners, Buro Happold /2000

T

he British Museum court canopy is a successful example of design futuring, for it introduced lightweight structure and reused space. In this way, canopy integrates the restore of existing building, design of human behaviour and ecological environment to achieve the sustainment.

4. British Museum, Great Court (2018) <http://www. britishmuseum.org/about_us/the_museums_story/architecture/ great_court.aspx> [Accessed 3 March 2018]. 5. British Museum, Great Court. 6. British Museum, Great Court. 7. Dunne and Raby, p.34. 8. British Museum, Great Court.

The design of the canopy contributes to aware people to think about redesigning and reusing old buildings to increase the useful space in the city. The courtyard had been a hidden space since 1857. When it was redesigned, a lightweight steel-and-glass roof was created to provide constantly changing views to visitors, which span two acres, increasing the public space of the museum by forty percent.3 With the aesthetic value and more public space added to the unnoticed courtyard, the space was reused and reoccupied. The canopy sheltered the public space becomes the feature of the library, which allows the sunshine to go through and provide a wonderful walking experience to visitors.

9. ‘British Museum Court Canopy’, <http://www.cntraveller.com/gallery/ most-instagrammable-museums-in-the-world> [Accessed 3 Marth 2018].

The lightweight structure is more for the future. During the decades, space with good building conditions were mostly been used. To design for the future, people have to design lightweight buildings that can be built on poor load-bearing capacity areas. The shell faced with the same problem that was the poor load-bearing capacity of Reading Room. 4 To overcome the problem, new concrete-filled steel columns were built around the Reading Room, which hidden behand elliptical façade, to transfer loads to new foundation.5 Moreover, the roof shell was described mathematically by a computer program to make it self-support. It is a case to inspire people to make space buildable instead of finding more buildable space. Critical design is sustainable, as it highlights the weakness of the existing normality and offer alternative or solution.6 Glass is a lightweight material, however, it increases the load of cooling system for allowing sunline to go through such a large area. To solve the problem, tint and screen-printed dots over the glass panels were applied, which can block 75 percent of the ultraviolet rays and solar heat gain.7 Moreover, for human eyes, they are not perceivable. If the glass panels were not treated, the atrium will be extremely hot even with cooling system, which not only becomes less attractive to people but also wastes energy. Therefore, sustainable design should be critical and consider the feeling of occupants.

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Figure 1. British Museum Court Canopy 9


A.1 Case Study 2 ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2012

ICD/2012 Design as a practice can explore unknown region of architecture and introduce more possibilities into the industries. The research pavilion is representative of design as a research to explore multidisciplinary architecture and new fabrication technologies.

10. Institute for Computational Design and Construction and University of Stuttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012 (2012) <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=8807> [Accessed 4 March 2018].

It is innovative to introduce biological model into architecture industries, which indicates the possibilities of multi-disciplinary architecture design. The inspiration of the pavilion is the exoskeleton of lobster, which consists of a protein matrix with embedded chitin fibrils. The orientation, position and material of fibres depend on distribution of loads.9 In area that carry unidirectional loads, layers formed by fibres and matrix are laminated together and arranged into a spiral pattern, which allows an even load distribution to all directions.10 This theory is applied on the top part of the shell. As for area transfer directional loads, the layer structure is unidirectional to maximize the load carrying capacity.11 It corresponds to the supporting points of the pavilion, in which fibres are directing to the ground and the density gradually increases to optimise the structure. The pavilion exactly shows how architecture works with natural principle, which is an unknown region of architecture industries. There are many species have shell for self-protection, which is lightweight and stiff. It can be further explored and applied to architecture to create lightweight structures.

13.Institute for Computational Design and Construction and University of Stuttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012.

11.Institute for Computational Design and Construction and University of Stuttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012. 12.Institute for Computational Design and Construction and University of Stuttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012.

14.Institute for Computational Design and Construction and University of Stuttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012. 15.Institute for Computational Design and Construction and University of Stuttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012. 16.â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Texture of Research Pavilionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, Institute For Computational Design And Construction & University of Stuttgart, <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=8807> [Accessed 4 Marth 2018].

The research pavilion is fabricated by robot, which is more labour and material efficient than conventional construction. The robotically fabricated shell structure is designed by digital tools. A robot lays glass and carbon fibres to from a fibre composite system with designed arrangement.12 Recently, Fibre system is not preferable in industries, for it requires complete formwork, which is costly and not available to large buildings. ITKE explored a new fabrication technique for the pavilion that reduced the formwork for fibre composite system by applying temporary steel frame instead of complete positive formwork for tensioning fibres.13 In addition, the first layer is the glass fibre, working as mould for subsequent layers of carbon fibre and glass fibre.14 With this fabrication technique, less material was required, which is environmentally friendly and sustainable. Moreover, the developed fibre placement techniques allow the fibre system to be more available to the industries.

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Figure 2. Texture of the Research Pavilion 16


A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION T

he evolution of lightweight structure design can be distinguished into two periods. During the first period, the structure was designed only by the creativity and rationality of the architecture or engineer, or both. After 1970s, the design of lightweight structure with the computational software was prevailing, which integrated computation with design rather than divested it from design acting as a tool.17

‘Form generation informed by performative, design, tectonic models and digital materiality are emerging as integrated process in digital design.’18 --- Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman

17. Antonio Tomas and Pascual Marti, ‘Optimality of Candela’s Concrete Shells: A Study of His Posthumous Design’, (2010), p.67. <https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Antonio_ Tomas3/publication/279761881_Optimality_of_Candela’s_concrete_shells_A_study_ of_his_posthumous_design/links/55a7d16d08ae1dca686fcdd1/Optimality-of-Candelasconcrete-shells-A-study-of-his-posthumous-design.pdf> [Accessed 10 March 2018]. 18. Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), p.6. 12

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A.2 Case Study 1 Los Manatiales restaurant

FÉLIX CANDELA /1958 Los Manatiales restaurant was designed before the introduction

of computer into the field of architecture design. The lightweight concrete shell consists of eight hyperbolic paraboloid segments laying symmetrically. The edge of the shell is free with the thickness about four centimeters, for V-beams were set for taking groin stiffening and transferring loads to the umbrella beam.18 The structure required a temporary timber formwork for construction, on which the reinforcing steel laid on and concrete was cast.19

18. Nanette South Clark, Felix Candela and Restaurant Los Manatiales (2009), <http://anengineersaspect.blogspot.com.au/2009/06/felixcandela-and-restaurant-los.html> [Accessed 10 March 2018]. 19. Clark, Felix Candela and Restaurant Los Manatiales. 20. Clark, Felix Candela and Restaurant Los Manatiales. 21. Clark, Felix Candela and Restaurant Los Manatiales. 22. ‘Los Manatiales Restaurant’, <https://www.archdaily.com/496202/ ad-classics-los-manantiales-felix-candela> [Accessed 10 Marth 2018].

It was a revolutionary lightweight concrete structure in 1960s, however, limitations and challenging of lightweight structure design without computation can be seen in this structure. Firstly, although it has a curvy and elegance from, which generated from mathematical analysis, it is still presented in straight lines. Moreover, the form was designed as symmetrical as possible for the possibilities of construction. It was because the limitation of technology that Felix had to generate the scale drawing by hand. And considering the formwork, it was easy to build timber formwork for hyperbolic paraboloids, as it is generated from straight lines only.20 Secondly, it was not structural optimized. The concrete shell is thin and lightweight, but it cannot be selfsupported without V beams and the umbrella footings. Thirdly, the construction of the shell requires large number of labors that casing the concrete on the formwork by hand.21 In addition, the construction and removal of temporary timber formwork also relied on labors and it took certain time to finish it.

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Figure 3. Los Manatiales Restaurant22


A.2 Case Study 2 ICD-ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2013-14

ICD-ITKE UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART /2014 Generally, digital design integrates form generation, structural

performance, modelling and materiality evaluation. In addition, the research pavilion shows the trend of researching by digital design.23 The research pavilion with biomimetic investigation was designed and fabricated aiming to develop winding technique for double layered fiber composite structure units. 24

The biomimetic investigation of the pavilion was done with the help of computation. The micro-computed tomography was introduced to extract beetle elytra, which was proved to highly material efficient, and produce high resolution 3D models for analysis.25 Moreover, the SEM scans contributes to display the internal structures of the beetle shell for further investigation.

23. Oxman and Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture, pp.4-6. 24. Institute for Computational Design and Construction and University of Stuttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-2014 (2015), <http:// icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=8807> [Accessed 11 March 2018]. 25. Institute for Computational Design and Construction and University of Stuttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-2014. 26. Institute for Computational Design and Construction and University of Stuttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-2014. 27. Institute for Computational Design and Construction and University of Stuttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-2014. 28. Institute for Computational Design and Construction and University of Stuttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-2014. 29. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Research Pavilion 2013-2014â&#x20AC;&#x2122;, Institute for Computational Design and Construction and University of Stuttgart, <http://icd. uni-stuttgart.de/?p=8807> [Accessed 11 Marth 2018].

The biological model determines a double layered modular structure with a column-like doubly curved connection. 26 The form was finally generated through the development of computational design and simulation tools, which also considered the material and structural performance. Digital deign enables the robotic fabrication, which is material and labour efficient and create new tectonic system for architecture industries. In the past, buildings were built on site with reinforced concrete system. This system separates the structural system and architecture design. The fabrication technologies allows to design the structure and the form at the same time, such as the research pavilion. Conventional fabrication technologies are not suitable for this case, which transferring natural principles into architecture applications. Since it requires a large number of formworks for these unique elements.27 Instead of pacing fibres on formwork, the fibre was winded by industrial robots within two steel frames to form the doubly curved surface.28 The geometry was defined by the intersection of fibres. To conclude, computational design tools, including micro-computed tomography, SEM and robots defines the material, geometry, structure and fabrication of the pavilion, which was developed as a research design.

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Figure 4. Research Pavilion 2013-2014 29


A.3 COMPOSITION/ GENERATION Form-finding is an approach to define an optimal structure shape by using experimental tools and strategy, to simulate a specific mechanical behaviour. In the past, physical model for generating structural form was popular, which included reverse hanging method, minimal surface, pneumatic method. As Alberto said, with the development of computation, free form optimised by genetic algorithm gradually replaces the classical form-finding method.30 In this part, form defined by physical model and optimization will be discuss and compare.

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC; Numerical calculation techniques are replacing entirely experimental structural design and analysis method- the way now is to use mathematical optimization which, on the basis of one or more chosen criteria, take advantage of the computation power of the computer to interactively search for optimal solutions to a problem from among a serious of possible candidate.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;31 --- Alberto Pugnale

30. Alberto Pugnale, (Digital) From-finding, (2014), p.358. <www. researchgate.net/publication/271522160> [Accessed 14 March 2018]. 31. Pugnale, (Digital) From-finding, p.358.

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A.3 Case Study 1 BINISHELL

DANTE BINI / 1960S Binishell is a reinforced concrete

shell generated by pneumatic method. Concrete reinforced with steel meshes was lifted and shaped by the air pressure within membrane below. It is a low cost and quickly construction method for building reinforced concrete dome. There are two main difference between pneumatic method and other form-finding methods which use physical model to simulate form. Unlike other form-finding methods, pneumatic method does not direct toward structural optimum. The circular shape of Binishell is for maximizing the span with minimal material, and the height is decided by the expected strength, which allows more flexibilities of the form than others. As for reverse-hanging method, curves have to be catenary for structural optimum. The second difference is that sometimes the physical model of pneumatic method can be the actual structure on the site, which means this is not only a form-finding method, but also a construction technique. The Binishell is a good example of it, the form of which was defined and adjusted during the construction process. Other methods, such as minimal surface method requires scaled physical models for simulation before construction.

32. Krishnagnr, Pneumatic structures (2015) <https://www.slideshare.net/ Krishnagnr/pneumatic-structures-55250260> [Accessed 14 March 2018]. 33. Krishnagnr, Pneumatic structures. 34. Brady Peters, Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought, (Architectural Design, 2013), p.14 < https://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/ pid-6607447-dt-content-rid-31767182_2/courses/ABPL30048_2018_ SM1/ABPL30048_2017_SM2_ImportedContent_20170705121450/ ABPL30048_2014_SM2_ImportedContent_20140709012321/Peters%20 -%20Computation%20Works_The%20Building%20of%20Algorithmic%20 Thought%2C%20pp%208-13.pdf> [Accessed 14 March 2018]. 35. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Construction of Binishellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, <http://www.artwort. com/2016/01/19/architettura/sfere-e-cupole-nellarchitetturada-borromini-a-jean-nouvel/> [Accessed 11 Marth 2018].

Pneumatic method generates forms which consists of an envelope and anchor. The structure can be built on the envelop with stiff material to avoid continuous maintenance of air pressure within the envelop, as Binishell does.32 On the other hand, the inflated envelope can be the structure itself, with continuous air pressure for inflation, such as Minnesota Metrodome.33 Comparing with free-form, the main difference is that the pneumatic method produces only a structure, without considering concept and other building performance of the structure. As for Binishell, it was built as school libraries, residential houses, tourist villages, with no distinct difference on forms. That is, the form is generated through modelling rather than considering some details. Probably, they can be distinguished by the sizes and the openings on the reinforced concrete dome. When defining free-form, architects intend to express some idea through the form of shape, so details will be taken into account for the final performance of the structure/ building.34 It makes the free-form buildings to be distinctive.

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Figure 5. Construction of Binishell35


A.3 Case Study 2 MEISO NO MORI MUNICIPAL FUNERAL HALL

TOYO ITO / 2006 The design of Crematorium in Kakamigahara merges evocative

symbolism with structural optimisation.36 The floating roof of white concrete is the simulation of cloud gently resting on grass alongside the reflective late, which reminds people of the smoke that rise form the crematorium furnace.37 The concept of the funeral is poetic. The architect Toyo Ito composited the shape of roof, and indicated the fixed plan boundary, fixed column-shell joint and domain of the roof height in architectural drawings.38 The shape was optimized by the structural engineer Mutsuro Sasaki by sensitivity analysis to minimize the strain energy.39 The criteria proposed by the architect were assumed to be the fixed input data for optimal shape generation.40 The shell and column-shell joints can be described as NURB surface and fixed points respectively for calculating the satisfied function.41 In this case, the algorithm acted as a tool to aid the structural design.

36. Paul Keskeys, Architectural Details: Toyo Ito’s Flowing Concrete Canopy, <https://architizer.com/blog/inspiration/stories/ architectural-details-toyo-ito/> [Accessed 14 March 2018]. 37. Keskeys, Architectural Details: Toyo Ito’s Flowing Concrete Canopy. 38. Alberto Pugnale and Mario Sassone, Morphogenesis and Structural Optimization of Shell Structures with The Aid of A Genetic Algorithm (2007), p.163. <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285732528_Gridshell_in_ composite_materials_Towards_wide_span_shelters> [Accessed 14 March 2018]. 39. Keskeys, Architectural Details: Toyo Ito’s Flowing Concrete Canopy. 40. Pugnale and Sassone, Morphogenesis and Structural Optimization of Shell Structures with The Aid of A Genetic Algorithm, p.163. 41. Pugnale and Sassone, Morphogenesis and Structural Optimization of Shell Structures with The Aid of A Genetic Algorithm, p.163. 42. ‘Meiso no Mori Municipal Funeral Hall’, <https://www.pinterest.com. au/pin/502925483361434609/?lp=true> [Accessed 15 Marth 2018].

There are three main differences between optimization of free form and classical form-finding method. Firstly, with fixed criteria, optimization is able to provides a serious of solutions, while classical form-find method often direct to only one solution. Genetic algorithm produced numerous solutions, the optimal solution was chosen for it better fit to the expected building performance. However, sometimes the classical form-finding method produce only one solution on the basis of certain criteria. For example, there is only one solution of minimal surface within a frame. Secondly, the free-form is not necessarily to be structural optimized, while the classical ones are often structural optimized. Thirdly, the free-form design is always starting from composite forms to express ideas and then optimized the form to a buildable structure, while the classical form-finding method is experimenting on physical models to directly generate a structure form. Optimization also allows the classical form-finding principles. Forms generated by physical modelling can be scan by digital tools to synthesis 3D model, which can be optimized by genetic algorithm to improve the form.

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Figure 6. Meiso no Mori Municipal Funeral Hall 42

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A.4 CONCLUSION As

the resources on the earth is limits, design should be redirect to a sustainable way. Digital design is sustainable for it integrates performative, design, tectonic models and digital materiality, which defines lightweight structures that are material and labor efficient. With the help of digital tools, other subjects, such as biology and fabrication, are introduced into architecture industries to explore more possibilities of architecture. Form-finding methods can be assist by genetic algorithm to explore optimized forms with certain fixed conditions. My intended design approach is reverse-hanging method with the aid of genetic algorithm for optimization. Reverse-hanging method generates structural optimized form. Catenary curves can be well arranged to create non-grid nets. In the past, it will be difficult to capture the data. With the digital tools, it can be capture much easier, or it can be directly simulated in digital design software such as kangaroo 2. The form can be adjusted and improve its certain performance by the genetic algorithm. Once the form is defined, relevant disciplinary models can be introduced for the design of material systems and fabrication. Therefore, the design can also act an experiment on certain technique or material for further development in the future.

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A.5 LEARNING OUTCOME After the study, I realized that digital design is different from digital aided design. Digital design is not simply use digital tools to present the design but participate in the design process to generate form or provide solutions. In the past, I only use Rhino for making models from plans and section. Now I know how to use grasshopper to generate forms by parametric system, Grasshopper. I understood that digital design and fabrication are sustainable for the future. Design can be research tool for developing technologies from other discipline, just as those research pavilions which introduce biological models into architecture. Perhaps, in the future, architecture not only presents the creative of the architect, but also follows the natural principle, which makes architecture better fit in the natural environment. Lightweight structure is suitable for city future, as it is material efficient. Since it is lightweight, it can be built on somewhere with poor load-bearing soil to reuse some â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;lostâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; space. Lightweight structure can be designed by digital tools and fabricated instead of construction. In the past, form and structural system were designed by architects and engineers respectively. Nowadays, with digital tools, the form and the structural design can be integrated. I am quite interested in two field. The first one is to introduce biological model to simulate the material system or structural system of a shell. The second one is optimization of form. I am curious about how it achieve and how to translate the fixed criteria into algorithm language.

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A.6 Algorithmic Sketches

Generation of mesh from point, curves and surface

Project gradient colour on mesh

Cross reference data matching

Practice on dividing curves to generate points and exploring different effects of data matching.

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B.0 CRITERIA DESIGN - FUNCTION: INFORMAL STUDY SPACE

(SHELTERING ABOUT 30 PEOPLE)

- GENERATIVE APPROACH: SHELL STRUCTURE - TECTONIC SYSTEM: CONCRETE VOUSSOIR SYSTEM

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B.1 RESEARCH FIELD - SHELL A

‘ shell is a structure defined by a curved surface. It is thin in the direction perpendicular to the surface, but there is no absolute rule as to how thin it has to be. It might be curved in two directions, like a dome or a cooling tower, or it may be cylindrical and curve only in one direction.’ --- Chris J K Williams Membrane action (compression) and Relaxation. The compression membrane action allows the shell structure to be compression only, which means there is no bending. The shell structure can be found by relaxation horizontally and vertically to form a thrust. Isler shell is a compression only lightweight structure defined by reverse hanging fabric. With the development of form finding method, Isler creates a serious of concrete shells during 1960s, which defined new shapes of concrete shell in that period.

43. Chris J K Williams, Shell structures, <http://people.bath.ac.uk/abscjkw/ LectureNotes/what-is-a-shell.pdf> [Accessed 25 March 2018]. 44. ‘Isler shell’, <http://docplayer.org/50979175-V-hochbau-ibaukonstruktionen-std.html> [Accessed 25 March 2018].

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Figure 7. Isler shell

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B.2 Case Study 1

HIGHWAY SERVICE AREA DEITINGEN

ISLER / 1968 T

he concrete cupola roof at highway service area in Deitingen south is a lightweight structure shell designed by Heinz Isler by reverse hanging cloth method. This method creates compression only lightweight structure, which defined new shapes of shell in 1960s that get rid of thick edge beams. As a designer, Isler determined the shape and size of a rubber membrane with isotropic properties. Moreover, he designed the anchors for the shell. After these constrains were set, the form was defined by gravity and the properties of the membrane. The membrane was hang and froze. Isler selected the satisfied outcome from a serious of forms, considering the function, shapes, artistic expression, statics, construction and cost.

45. Department of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Nottingham, UK, Form-finding and fabric forming in the work of Heinz Isler, <http://www.fabwiki.fabric-formedconcrete.com/lib/exe/ fetch.php?media=nottingham:form-finding_and_fabric_forming_ in_the_work_of_heinz_isler.pdf> [Accessed 26 March 2018]. au/pin/502925483361434609/?lp=true> [Accessed 15 Marth 2018]. 46. Department of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Nottingham, UK, Form-finding and fabric forming in the work of Heinz Isler, <http://www.fabwiki.fabric-formedconcrete.com/lib/exe/ fetch.php?media=nottingham:form-finding_and_fabric_forming_ in_the_work_of_heinz_isler.pdf> [Accessed 26 March 2018]. au/pin/502925483361434609/?lp=true> [Accessed 15 Marth 2018]. 47. Department of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Nottingham, UK, Form-finding and fabric forming in the work of Heinz Isler, <http://www.fabwiki.fabric-formedconcrete.com/lib/exe/ fetch.php?media=nottingham:form-finding_and_fabric_forming_ in_the_work_of_heinz_isler.pdf> [Accessed 26 March 2018]. au/pin/502925483361434609/?lp=true> [Accessed 15 Marth 2018]. 48. ‘Highway service area Deitingen south, triangle concrete cupola roof’, <https://www.tumblr.com/search/heinz%20isler.> [Accessed 26 Marth 2018].

The definition of the Isler shell simulates the form finding method. The adjustable parameter of the definition is the number of anchor, types of anchor (point or edge), placement of the anchors, the stiffness of the membrane and the gravity. It is a more time efficient way to produce catenary surface than the original one, which does need to change materials constantly and wait for the frozen. In the recent time, physical form finding can also be applied to our project with the help of lazer scanner and digital fabrication, which is easier and more precise then Isler’ s measurement jig. One of the shortage of the definition is that there is no opening on the shell. The reasons might be limitation of construction techniques and requirement of massive formwork. Isler shells were built with casting reinforce concrete in situ, therefore, it required large formwork for the casting and skilful labors. For now, openings can be designed for the structure with structural analysis, such as Karamba and kangaroo2. With the digital design tools, like grasshopper, and fabrication techniques, the reinforce concrete shell structure can be designed as a voussoir system. The formwork of each pieces can be prefabricated by cnc milling or 3d printing. The units can be assembled in situ. This is a more labour efficient and faster way to build a compression-only shell.

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Figure 8. Highway service area Deitingen south, triangle concrete cupola roof.47

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B.2 Iterations THREE SUPPORTING POINTS Trim opening from form finding form (not structural optimised)

Stiff rod for opening

Gravity factor = 0.122 Openning radus = 1.2

Gravity factor = 0.122 Openning radus = 0

Gravity factor = 0.122 Openning radus = 2.5

Gravity factor = 0.122 Openning radus = 1.2

Gravity factor = 0.122 Openning radus = 2.5

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Adjust the gravity value and location of anchor points

Gravity factor = 0.1 Openning radus = 0

Gravity factor = 0.2 Openning radus = 0

Gravity factor = 0.3 Openning radus = 0

FOUR SUPPORTING POINTS

EDGE SUPPORT

Adjust the gravity value and location of anchor points

Adjust the gravity value.

Gravity factor = 0.1 Openning radus = 2.5

Gravity factor = 0.1 Openning radus = 0

Gravity factor = 0.1 Openning radus = 2.5

Gravity factor = 0.1 Openning radus = 0

Gravity factor = 0.2 Openning radus = 2.5

Gravity factor = 0.2 Openning radus = 0

Gravity factor = 0.2 Openning radus = 2.5

Gravity factor = 0.2 Openning radus = 0

Gravity factor = 0.3 Openning radus = 2.5

Gravity factor = 0.3 Openning radus = 0

Gravity factor = 0.3 Openning radus = 2.5

Gravity factor = 0.3 Openning radus = 0

Gravity factor = 0.1 Openning radus = 2.5

Gravity factor = 0.2 Openning radus = 2.5

Gravity factor = 0.3 Openning radus = 2.5

CRITERIA DESIGN

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B.2 Successful Outcomes

Gravity factor = 0.122 Openning radus = 0

SELECITON CRITERIA

T

he first critic is function, which considering the light permeability and shading level. As the function of the shell is informal study place, the shell is designed to allow enough sunlight to go in and provide sufficient shading for students. The second critic is the shape. It is the shape of the original flat surface. The shape defines the anchor points or supporting edges and area for the shell. Besides, it defines the plan (top) view of the shell. The point anchors can better adapt to the topography than edge supports. The third critic is the aesthetic value. The aesthetic value is mainly determined by the gravity factor, the stiffness of the membrane and the shape of the membrane. The shell is expected to be simply and elegance.

Gravity factor = 0.1 Openning radus = 0.25

Function Shapes Aesthetic Structure

Function Shapes Aesthetic Structure

The shell does not have opening, so it can achieve the structural optimised, and requires relatively simply formwork than shells with openings. Without opening, the sunlight permeability is quite low.

With an opening, the shell has better lighting performance and aesthetic value. However, it requires more complex formwork and relatively poor structural performance.

The forth criteria is the difficulty of fabrication. The material of the shell is concrete, which requires formwork for casting. Shell with openings requires more complex formwork. All iterations generated by the can be constructed with reinforced casting concrete in-situ, or reinforce concrete voussoir system, which precast off-site and assemble on site. Gravity factor = 0.3 Openning radus = 2.5

The forth critic is the structure performance, which depends on the thickness of the shell, the opening sizes and the anchors. The openings on the shell are the weakness of the shell, which may cause collapse. The material of the shell is concrete, which requires formwork for casting. Shell with openings requires more complex formwork. All iterations generated by the can be constructed with reinforced casting concrete in-situ, or reinforce concrete voussoir system, which precast off-site and assemble on site. The casting reinforced concrete require less works on structural design, but more times and labours on construction. While the voussoir system requires more complex structural design, and less labour and shorter construction time.

36

CRITERIA DESIGN

Gravity factor = 0.3 Openning radus = 0

Function Shapes Aesthetic

Function Shapes Aesthetic

Structure

Structure

The shell has the highest aesthetic value and best functional performance. It can well adapted to the topography of the site with four points support and create better study experience. The weakness is the poor structural performance and the difficulty of the fabrication.

The dome is poor in functional performance and adaptability to topography. But it has the best structural performance.

CRITERIA DESIGN

37


B.3 Case Study 2

ARMADILLO VAULT

ETH ZURICH RESEARCHERS / 2016 T

he Armadillo Vault is a breakthrough of stone engineering that supports itself without any glue. It consists of 399 slabs of limestone, with some pieces only as thick as five centimetres. The span of the structure is up to 16 meters. It is supported entirely through compression rather than any use of adhesive or fixings. 49 The canopy shows how compression forces affects the architectural structure, which proposes a new structural/ architectural language, which integrates the form-finding, tessellation design, voussoir geometry design and construction techniques to achieve the lightness. Moreover, the structural is renewable, which means that it can be moved to a new site without compromising the integrity of the structure. 50

49. Amy Frearson, Armadillo Vault is a pioneering stone structure that supports itself without any glue, <https://www.dezeen.com/2016/05/31/armadillo-vaultblock-research-group-eth-zurich-beyond-the-bending-limestone-structurewithout-glue-venice-architecture-biennale-2016/> [Accessed 30 March 2018]. 50. Amy Frearson, Armadillo Vault is a pioneering stone structure that supports itself without any glue, <https://www.dezeen.com/2016/05/31/armadillo-vaultblock-research-group-eth-zurich-beyond-the-bending-limestone-structurewithout-glue-venice-architecture-biennale-2016/> [Accessed 30 March 2018]. 51. Amy Frearson, Armadillo Vault is a pioneering stone structure that supports itself without any glue, <https://www.dezeen.com/2016/05/31/armadillo-vaultblock-research-group-eth-zurich-beyond-the-bending-limestone-structurewithout-glue-venice-architecture-biennale-2016/> [Accessed 30 March 2018]. 52. RhinoVault, Quick Reference for rhinoVAULT Beta Version 0.2 (2015), p.3. 53. RhinoVault, Quick Reference for rhinoVAULT Beta Version 0.2, p.3. 54. RhinoVault, Quick Reference for rhinoVAULT Beta Version 0.2, p.3. 55. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Armadillo Vault.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;, <https://inspiration.detail.de/technologyarmadillo-vault-a-complex-shell-structure-consisting-of-399-stoneblocks-113515.html?lang=en> [Accessed 30 Marth 2018].

Inspired by this case study, I realised that compression not only affects the form of a structure, but also the tectonic system and fabrication method. In case study 1, the form finding methods create compression only structure, and considering the compression on the form of the structure only, which came up with casting concrete system. As for Armadillio Vault, the compression is taken into consider for both forming finding, tessellation design and voussoir geometry design. It creates a higher material efficient and flexible structure than the case study 1. And these processes were finished with the help of digital tools, including RhinoVault and grasshopper. The RhinoVault is a form finding tool to design compression only vaulted structures, simulating the reverse hanging chain model, but developed to be the more controllable, flexible and comprehensible digital Threust Network It generates form diagram and force Apporoach.51 diagram based one the designed shape. The form and force diagram can be adjusted to achieve the horizontal equilibrium, which means that corresponding edges in both diagrams are parallel and in proper position.52 The vertical equilibrium produces three-dimensional thrust work, which demonstrate the shape of the compression-only structure. 53

38

CRITERIA DESIGN

CRITERIA DESIGN

Figure 9. Armadillo Vault.55

39


B.3 Reverse-engineering Process STAGE 1: BOUNDARY CONDITION

Initial boundary setting

Initial opening setting

STAGE 2: FORM FINDING

Initial form with grid setting up

Refine boundary and openings. Supporting setup

Horizontal equilibrium by Force100 (change the force diagram only). And the form achieves the horizontal equilibrium. Force diagram before (left), force diagram fter (right)

40

CRITERIA DESIGN

Ajust the weight of nodes and maximum of relax value to achieve expected smooth effect.

Generating dual diagram : form diagram (left) and force diagram (right)

Smooth the form diagram

Vertical equilibrium with color analysis. Top view (left), Isometric view (right)

Decide the height of the structure and toggle internal supporting to get the final form.

CRITERIA DESIGN

41


B.3 Reverse-engineering Process

REVERSE-ENGINEERING VS ORIGINAL The difference of the original structure and the reverse-engineering one is the tessellation process. The way we design the tessellation is to remesh the form finding mesh into a half edge mesh. The main constrain is that the sizes of each pieces can only be defined by the grid setting in the formfinding stage. As for the Armadillo Vault, they analysed the force flow and generate contours on the mesh. The remesh the form finding mesh based on the contour and force flow. Therefore, the reverse-engineering structure may not have the expected structural performance as the original one.

STAGE 3. TESSELLATION DESIGN

RHINOVAULT VS ISLER DEFINITION By comparing B.2 and B.3 project, I analysis three differences between these two form-finding methods.

Extract the vertices of the mseh and setting these as the fixed vertices when remeshing

Extract the boundary of the mesh and set it as the fixed curve for remeshing

Remesh the form finding mesh into a planktonmesh. The remesh done by MeshMachine creates the tessellation for voussoir geometry design.

STAGE 4. VOUSSOIR GEOMETRY DESIGN

The first difference is that than Isler definition. The with ‘Form Relax’ and boundary and the opening

it is more difficult to set boundary and openings for RhinoVault boundary of structure in RhinoVault is constantly changing ‘Horizontal equilibrium’. Sometimes after several stages, the sizes change, so the expected outcome can not be achieved.

The second difference it that the RhinoVault is a tool based on the Thrust Network Approach, which analysis and shows the stress lines of the structure. As for kangaroo2, it generate a compression-only without the force line on structure. The third difference is that the RhinoVault is not a parametric tool. Therefore, it need to be undo many times until finally get the satisfied outcome. However, it is because of it, the RhinoVault is more precise and flexible than the Isler definition.

ITERATIONS Different ways to create the starting plane results in different sizes of the grid. (the isocurve of the strating plane defines the initial Find weak dual of the mesh

42

CRITERIA DESIGN

Tile the mesh faces based on fillstrategy.

and tendency gird tendency)

Decide the thickness of the structure

Create an untrimmed plane by loft a curve and a point

Curves are gathering at one point

Create an untrimmed plane by three separate planes

Connect points on the edge of each plane by hand to create the grid

Final outcome

Final outcome (flat top)

CRITERIA DESIGN

43


B.4 Iterations I

nspired by the case study 2, I decide to further develop the material system and tectonic system in this section. The selected material for the structure is concrete. Casting concrete system The design of this system is relatively easy, because it does not have so many factors need to be consider, such as the connection of units. But it is difficult for construction, as it requires huge formworks for casting. It cannot be prefabricated. Another problem is that the structural performance can only be tested when it is build on site. Concrete flat panel system with adhesive or connections The panels can be casted off-site and assemble in situ. It requires formwork for casting and falsework for assembling. If the panels are designed to be connected by adhesive or certain connections, the structure may be tested in-situ, because once panels are fixed, they cannot be separated. Otherwise, flexible connections will be required for connecting pieces in order to allow it to be tested off-site. It allows more complex pattern or geometry design than the tessellation design. Tessellation system with dry connection Pieces of this system can be prefabricated and assemble on site. As there is no fixation, it can be assembled for structure testing before it setup on site. Timber falsework is required for assembling. The system relies on complex structural design for the compression-only form, considering the form finding, tessellation deign, voussoir geometry design structurally. Therefore, the geometry design is limited by the structural requirement. After comparing the tectonic system of iterations, I think the best one is the tessellation system.

Reinforcing Concrete Casting system 44

CRITERIA DESIGN

Reinforcing Concrete Casting system with pattern (more complex formwork)

Flat planel system with connections

Tessellation Voussoir system with dry connection (denseer grid)

Tessellation Voussoir system with dry connection(less dense grid) CRITERIA DESIGN

45


B.5 Technique: Prototypes

PRECEDENT: LITRACON XPL

T

he precedent for material system is the Litracon pXL, a light transmitting concrete. The concrete panel are reinforced and can be up to storey-high.57 It is a combination of fine concrete and plastic units, which is different from Litracon Classic that formed by concrete and optical fibre.58 I choose Litracon xPL rather than Litracon Classic because light spots pattern can be designed and arranged on the panel by this method. The light spot on the concrete panel looks like pixels on an LED screen. Refers to the introduction of Litracon pXL, the theory of light transmitting concrete is to apply transparent material to go through the concrete, which transmit light though solid concrete. To simulate it, I use transparent fishing strings acting as the light conductor, which is about 1.5mm thick. As the panel is supposed to be transparent, the steel reinforcement will limit the pattern of the light spots. Fibreglass is added to the concrete mix for reinforcement. Testing in this section mainly focuses on the lighting effect and the workability of the concrete. Figure 10. Litracon xPL56

56. ‘Litracon xPL’, Litracon, <http://www.litracon.hu/en/about-us> [Accessed 10 April 2018]. 57. Litracon, Litracon pXL®, <http://www.litracon.hu/en/about-us> [Accessed 10 April 2018]. 58. Litracon, Litracon pXL®, <http://www.litracon.hu/en/about-us> [Accessed 10 April 2018].

46

CRITERIA DESIGN

CRITERIA DESIGN

47


B.5 Technique: Prototypes PROTOTYPE 1 Analysis 1 - Timber formwork is not suitable for final fabrication of our project, as it requires relatively more labours and longer working time. It needs to be assembled disassembled. Our group decide to use cnc milling for the project, for pieces of voussoir system are not planer and joined in different angles, which are difficult to measure for timber formwork making. - The fibreglass should be chopped into smaller piece, as long fibres reduce the workability of the concrete. It ties together, so the concrete can not be evenly pour between plastic strings. For the next prototypes, I will cut the fibreglass into smaller piece for testing. - The theory works. Therefore, the light spot pattern can be designed by digital tool and fabricated the formwork with certain patterns on it.

48

Drill holes on a polystyrene board and let plastic strings go through it.

Make a timber formwork that fits the polystyrene board.

Spare concrete into the formwork and try to keep strings in position.

Slightly shake it to smooth the surface.

CRITERIA DESIGN

Mix cement, sand, water and fibreglass. (ratio = 5 : 4 : 2 and 1% fibreglass)

Light testing.

Knots of fibreglass

CRITERIA DESIGN

49


B.5 Technique: Prototypes

PROTOTYPE 3 - DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE 1 AND 2

PROTOTYPE 2 - THINNER STRINGS

Chop the fibreglass into smaller pieces.

Mix cement, water and fibreglass.

Light testing ( very weak)

Chop the fibreglass into smaller pieces.

Light testing

(ratio = 2 :1 and 3 % fibreglass)

(ratio = 5 : 2 and 1% fibreglass)

50

Mix cement, water and fibreglass.

Analysis 2

Analysis 3

The chopped fibreglass increases the workability of the mix. - The thinner strings do not work well as the thicker one. The thin strings are soft, so some of them twists in the concrete, which are not able to transmit the direct light. And some others are biased, which can only transmit light with certain angle. Although the workability of the concrete is developed, it still can not hold all thin strings in position. Therefore, stiff plastic bar or harder plastic strings will be preferred. Without sand, the mix is much lighter and smoother than the first one. The strength of the concrete should be tested in the future process.

- The workability of the concrete mix is improved by adding more water, however, the strength of the concrete was reduced. To make it stronger, more fibreglass is added. The strength of the concrete needs to be tested in the future process. - The thick plastic rods work better than the thin one. Find thicker plastic rods for testing or combines different thickness plastic rods in the next section for various lighting effect. Perspex sticks will be preferable. - The fibreglass reinforced should be tested to know if the sizes of fibres affects its structural performance. Maybe break one of the prototype to figure out the distribution of fibreglass in the pieces. It needs to be further developed to make it distribute uniformly in concrete mix and voussoir pieces. - Without sand, the mixture is lighter and has higher strength, but it is costly.

CRITERIA DESIGN

CRITERIA DESIGN

51


B.6 Technique: Proposal

SITE ANALYSIS DESIGN PROPOSAL

Outdoor spaces

Preserved trees

Circulation

Proposed area

There is barely outdoor study space, so we want to design an informal outdoor study space. We decided to locate the project in 188 gardens, because it is relatively quiet, in terms of the flow of people. There are some factors that will influent the design. Firstly, the existing trees. In our design, we want to preserve the trees on site. Secondly, the solar analysis determine the opening and porosity of the shell. Thirdly, the opening of the shell should be designed in response to the flow.

FUNCTION The function of the shell is informal study space, which can shelter about 30 people. Half of them are seated for study and the others are settle in open space for meeting. The compression only form is generated from RhinoVault. Material for the shell is light-admitting concrete. Combining with voussoir system, light-admitting concrete pieces can be precast and designed with certain porosity based on solar analysis. Pieces will be transported to the site and assembled on timber falsework.

52

CRITERIA DESIGN

CRITERIA DESIGN

53


B.6 Technique: Proposal FABRICATION

BILL OF QUANTITES

3 axis cnc milling for voussoir formwork.

Robot arm for placing plastic rods.

Casting.

ASSEMBLY IN-SITU

Number of workers needed (refer to Armadillo Vault) - Formwork making 4 people (surface treated and machine control) - 9 builders mix the transparent concrete - 2 structural engineers and 9 builders set up falsework - 9 builders place voussoirs on the falsework - 9 builders polish the concrete - 1 driver Fabrication cost analysis - Formwork: 200 pieces of foam for formwork (0.75 x 0.75 x 0.2m). Each piece of formwork takes three hours for cnc milling (3axis). The total cost of formwork is $18,000. - The cost of mixture still unknown, because the recipe of the concrete is still developing.

Timber falsework setup.

54

CRITERIA DESIGN

Place voussoirs.

Remove falsework.

CRITERIA DESIGN

55


HERO IMAGE

56

CRITERIA DESIGN

CRITERIA DESIGN

57


B.7 LEARNING OBJECTIVES

FEEDBACK AND FUTURE ADJUSTMENT

In this part, I used grasshopper and RhinoVault to generate matrices.

- In this stage, there is no design on the porosity of the shell. The design for light transmitting was mainly on the opening of the shell. In next stage, the porosity pattern of the shell can be designed based on the ladybug solar analysis.

AND OUTCOMES

The RhinoVault defined the form of the structure, while the grasshopper developed the material system of the structure. Integrated these two digital tools, I was able to generate a series of design possibilities in response to the brief. I compared the iterations by specific criteria to select the most successful iterations for the brief. The digital design was not only for the form, but also included material system, fabrication difficulties, structural performance and shading capacity. By case studies, I had better understand of grasshopper and RhinoVault. I analysed the advantages and disadvantages of each program. Then applied them for different design regions. In addition, the fabrication of the project also relies on digital tools. Our group tried to make cnc milling formwork. We used grasshopper to label each pieces of the shell and distributed it on a grid for fabrication. By using these digital tools to generate a variety of iterations and fabrication, I am now able to create, fabricate and design using parametric tools. When making the physical prototype, I tried to simulate the patent transparent concrete form LitraCon. It developed my ability of research and hypothesis. I used fishing rods to substitute the patent plastic units to test the theory of light admitting concrete. And use suggested fibreglass as reinforcement for the concrete. The prototypes are quite successful, and meet the light admitting requirement of brief.

58

CRITERIA DESIGN

- The shell structure is too thick. Karamba should be introduced to analysis the structural performance and make the shell into right thickness. - The surfaces of voussoir pieces are not planar, so the formwork cnc milling will take much longer time than expect, so it requires to be developed to be planar. - Trees on the site can be designed as part of the project, which means to create openings for trees on the shell. Integrate the landscape and the context with the design. - he edges of the shell should be further developed. Triangle pieces at the edges are not stable. - The supporting edges on the ground should be refined. - Strength of the light admitting concrete should be tested. Higher transparency materials, like Perspex sticks can be introduced to achieve better light transmitting performance.

CRITERIA DESIGN

59


B.8 Algorithmic Sketches

Practice of shuffle list.

60

CRITERIA DESIGN

Practice of shuffle list.

Practice of image sampler.

CRITERIA DESIGN

61


C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT - ASTRAL SHELL

SELECTED CRITERIA REFINEMENT BASED ON INTERIM FEEDBACK

Function â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Landmark

- Boundary voussoirs panel development

The shell is designed for attracting people to the unoccupied garden.

Performance: Light transmitting The light transmitting effect is expected to appeal people to stay or go through the shell. The contrast of heavy concrete and soft light are designed to be the attraction.

- Structural optimise thickness of voussoir panels

Structural design: Voussoir shell system

- Footing & touching ground design

Develop and analysis the voussoir system in partB to generate a compression only concrete voussoir shell.

62

- Planarize voussoir panels

PROJECT PROPOSAL

- Light spot pattern and sizes

PROJECT PROPOSAL

63


C.1 Technique & Construction GENERATING FORM

EXPLORATION SITE ANALYSIS

Opening orientations

- Location Function - Function From --Material Material

SITE ANALYSIS LITRACON

SITE ANALYSIS DESIGN CONCEPT

- Light Function spot size - Pattern From deisn --Material Recipe - Casting method

- Function Astral shell - From Landmark --Material Compression voussoir shell

- Function RhinoVault - From Contact faces of voussoir - Footing design -Material - Ground design - Construction method

BASIC FORM - RHINOVAULT RHIN

CONCRETE MIXTURE RHIN

- Function Structural equilibrium form - From Triangular shape - Openigns facing to paths -Material

-- Refer to Boral concrete recipe Function - Adjust the recipe to achieve -expected From worability -Material - Reinforcing

REMESH - MESHMECHINE RHIN

LIGHT TRANSMITTING RHIN MATERIAL

- Function Generate triangular meshes

- Function

DUAL OF MESH EDGES - WEAVERBIRD RHIN

RHIN CONCRETE FINISH

- 3mm and 6 mm perspex rods

- Create Hexagonal tessellations - Function

RHIN PLANARISATION KANGAROO2

ARMADILLO SITE ANALYSIS VAULT

-- Trim the perspex rods Function - Smooth surface

& EDGE SMOOTHENED -

THICKNESS ADDED - GRASSHOPPER RHIN -- Offset meshes to create the thickness of voussoirs Function

RHIN JOINT

-Planarize mesh faces Simulation

THICKNESS

- Function --Analysis From displacement and thicknesses of voussoirs

POROSITY DESIGN - GRASSHOPPER RHIN Light spot density PROJECT PROPOSAL

-

RHIN COST -- Fabrication Function fee - Labour requirement - From - Construction time

-Material

RHIN FORMWORK MAKING -- Cnc milling foam formwork Function - lazer cut plywood formwork - From - Lazer cut porosity bottom plate -Material - Formwork assemble - Formwork surface treatment

RHIN OPTIMISED VOUSSOIR GRASSHOPPER

64

MATERIALITY & FABRICATION

-- Dry connection or motar Function

RHIN FASLEMWORK MAKING -- Timber falsework Function

RHIN FINAL DESIGN

- Function Assign voussoir porosity density based on the displacement analysis - From PROJECT PROPOSAL

65


C.1 Algorithmic Process

RhinoVault59 The shape of the shell was redesigned into a triangular shape. The new form, which generated based on structural equilibrium is nice and clean with openings facing to each path to attract people to go in.

Remesh60 MeshMachine creates half-edge meshes.

Dual of mesh edges61 The half-edge meshes are used to generate their dual of Hexagonal tessellations.

Planarisation and edge smoothened62 The kangaroo2 tool ‘CoPlanar’ planarized the meshes. The edge of the shell is smoothened by ‘ClampLength’. Maximum and minimum lengths of the meshes are adjusted until the edges are smooth.

Tessellation generation63 The thicknesses of the voussoir pieces are varied by the displacement. Meshes are offset with certain distances. Outlines of the meshes are extracted, lofted and caped to generate the voussoir pieces. In this way, we get rid of the overlapping issue we found when added thickness of voussoir pieces by Weaverbird.

59- 63. Drawings by Cedric Chua.

66

PROJECT PROPOSAL

PROJECT PROPOSAL

67


C.1 Algorithmic Process

Displacement diagram64 Divide the voussoirs into four groups based on the displacement.

Porosity and thickness design65

Top view66

Stresslines analysis67

Assign different porosity density and adjust thickness of voussoir groups.

64 - 67. Drawings by Cedric Chua.

68

PROJECT PROPOSAL

PROJECT PROPOSAL

69


C.1 Previous iterations

T

he opening on the shell is the structural weak point. It is difficult to address the opening support on the ground in voussoir system. Moreover, there is a risk that has an opening on the shell in student precinct, as the expected density of students passing through is quite high. In addition, the opening on the shell will cause the weather issue, which cannot give sufficient shelter in rainy days. Therefore, we decided to remove the opening from the shell and work on the light transmitting concrete to achieve certain light effect in the shell.68 68. Drawings by Cedric Chua.

70

PROJECT PROPOSAL

PROJECT PROPOSAL

71


C.1 Construction Process

Cnc milling formwork

Formwork removal and surface treatment69

Laser cut formwork bottom plate

Footing pouring on site70

Fromwork assemble & Formwork oil

Steel ties installation71

Perspex rods placement

Falsework assembly72

Concrete casting

Placement of concrete voussoirs73

69 - 73. Drawings by Cedric Chua.

72

PROJECT PROPOSAL

PROJECT PROPOSAL

73


C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS & PROTOTYPES

SELECTED CRITERIA

Core tectonic elements

- Structural performance

- Formwork ( compare cnc milling foam formwork and laser cut plywood formwork)

- Cost

- Light transmitting concrete ( casting method and finish treatment)

- Fabrication difficulty - Fabrication time - Aesthetics

74

PROJECT PROPOSAL

PROJECT PROPOSAL

75


C.2 Prototype 1.1 DEVELOPMENT - Porosity template: To reduce the cost, laser cut plywood bottom plates with specific porosity density are made as template, which are reusable for pieces with same porosity density in similar sizes. - Smooth finish surface: We tape the bottom plate and the foam formwork. It simulates the formwork oil in real fabrication industry.

Laser cut bottom plate

3-axis cnc milling formwork & placement of 3mm perspex rods

Concrete mixing

Reinforcing placement

- Waterproofing strategy: In order to avoid the concrete leak out of the formwork, the foam was taped on the bottom plate both interior and outside for fixation and waterproofing. - Light transmitting material: 3mm Perspex rods are embed in holes on the plywood bottom plate. Perspex rods are thicker and stiffer than the fishing string, so it is more controllable and have larger light spots. - Concrete recipe: Refer to Boral concrete recipe, we developed it into more workable mixture. In this way, the mixture can be poured into the formwork and spread evenly without moving the Perspex rods. ( cement: sand: water = 6: 1: 2) - Reinforcing: Steel reinforcing mesh is used instead of fibreglass reinforcement. It is non-toxic and easy to work with. - Formwork removal: As the formwork and the bottom plate are taped, it is easy to remove the formwork.

Formwork removal

76

PROJECT PROPOSAL

Trim perspex rods

Smooth extrados surface

Light test

- Finish treatment: The 3mm Perspex can be easily snapped off after scratched by Perspex cutter.

PROJECT PROPOSAL

77


C.2 Prototype 1.2

T

he only differences between prototype 1.1 and 1.2 are formwork cutting method and waterproofing strategy.

SHORTAGE OF PROTOTYPE 1.1 - The placement of tape on formwork is time costly. - Cnc milling for prototype is costly and takes longer fabrication time.

DEVELOPMENT

Lazer cut plywood formwork with plastic sheet

Slightly pull the plastic sheet after pouring concrete

Formwork and plastic sheet removal

- Waterproofing strategy: The plastic sheet is placed in the plywood formwork.

- The tapes leave marks on the smooth surface.

- Pattern: The placement of plastic rods on the plastic sheet creates irregular patterns around light spot.

- As the Perspex rods are a bit loose in the holes, the concrete mix went through the hole and covered one rod.

- Light transmitting material: As the Perspex rods are inserted to the holes with plastic sheet on top, the plastic sheets prevent the rods from concrete cover. In addition, with the thickness of the plastic sheet, the rods are embed in the bottom plate more tightly. - Formwork removal: The plastic sheet avoid the concrete panel sticking on the formwork. - Cost: The cost of laser cut formwork in this size is relatively much cheaper than the cnc milling

Rough intrados surface

78

PROJECT PROPOSAL

Smooth extrados surface with pattern

Light testing

- Cnc milling cannot create sharp angles.

- Fabrication time: The fabrication time of laser cut formwork is less than the cnc milling. And placing plastic sheets take less time than tape placement.

SHORTAGE OF PROTOTYE 1.2 - It is hard to assemble the plywood formwork in precise angles. - Plastic sheet creates wrinkles on surfaces. The angles of the panel are rough and not precise as designed. Moreover, it is difficult to clean out the plastic sheet, as some of it was cast into the concrete. - The gravity of the concrete mix cannot press down the plastic sheet to completely fit with the formwork, so there are some fillet edges on one face.

PROJECT PROPOSAL

79


C.2 Prototype 2.0 W

e decided to develop laser cut plywood formwork with plastic sheet for waterproofing, as it is cheaper and takes less working time. In this section, we want to remove face wrinkles and create smooth finish. The excessive Perspex rods need to be treated to smoothen the extrados panel face. Moreover, the precision of the angle of the formwork should be developed to minimize errors. At the same time, we cast panels with different porosity density and used 6mm Perspex rods.

Panel fixing

Plastic sheet placement

Bottom plate placement

Chamfer placement

DEVELOPMENT - Smoothen extrados surface: We put a polypropylene sheet op top of the plastic sheet. The polypropylene sheet creates smooth finish and gets rid of the wrinkles on plastic sheet. - Angle precision: Etch the outline of the panel on the bottom plate to guide the formwork assemble. In addition, we installed polypropylene chamfers at angles to avoid the wrinkles. - Trim perspex rods: The 6mm Perspex rods can not be easily snapped off as 3mm rods, so it requires specific cutter to cut the rods. We use Dremel rotary tool to cut the rods, which is easy to work with and creates clean finish.

Perspex rods placement

80

PROJECT PROPOSAL

Concrete pouring & reinforcing placement

Formwork removal

Trim perspex rods

PROJECT PROPOSAL

81


C.2 Prototype 2.0

0.5% Porosity

1% Porosity

SHORTAGE OF PROTOTYE 2.0

ANALYSIS

- There are wrinkles on side surfaces.

- For further development, we can use continuous laser cut polypropylene panel to cover all side surfaces for edge chamfer instead of individual chamfers at each edge.

- Difficult to remove plastic sheet from wrinkles on side surfaces.

1.5% Porosity

- As the errors at the angles and side surfaces cannot be eliminated thoroughly, it may be better to apply mortar for connection when assemble on site, - Some Perspex rods moved out of the holes when sparing concrete within the formwork. In order to spare the mixture evenly in the formwork, we shook the formwork after pouring which tolerates the errors occurred during fabrication. With the mortar, concrete. Some rods are loose in the holes, so they moved out and concrete block the holes. the chamfer angle and wrinkles at the side surfaces are allowed. - The polypropylene chamfers create smooth finish, but it slightly moved from the original space and embed in the concrete panel.

Side Surface detail

82

PROJECT PROPOSAL

PROJECT PROPOSAL

83


C.3 FINAL DETAILED MODEL I

n the last section, we tested on the light transmitting material for fabrication. In this part, we are going to make the structural model with the voussoir system, which simulates the construction process and structural performance of the shell. At the same time, it proofs the workability and structure of the designed digital model.

84

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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C.3 Structural Model W

ith the designed digital model, we labeled each piece and 3d print them to simulate the concrete voussoir fabrication processes. Based on the fabrication test in C.2, we get the conclusion that it is difficult to achieve the precise angle and side surface wrinkle. Therefore, we will fabricate the concrete voussoir with chamfer to get rid of the wrinkle at the angle and minimize the error at the angle. In this way, mortar should be introduced to fill the gaps between voussoirs and cover the wrinkles on side surfaces. When making the structural model, we used glue for connection as the simulation of mortar.

The 3d print voussiors are produced with high precision. We manually adjusted voussoir pieces during the configuration process to minimize the error. However, the errors cannot be eliminated, especially the accumulation of imperfections in last voussoirs. The gaps between the last voussoirs are visible and are the weak points of the structure. Through the construction experience, we came to the conclusion that the actual construction requires professional workers, who are capable to manually adjust the pieces during assembly to reduce the errors.

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Step 1: Laser cut falsework

Step 2: Falsework assembly

Step 3: Placement of voussoirs

Step 4: Falsework removal

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C.3 Detail Mortar

Chipboard floor tile

Steel support structure

Steel tie

Concrete footing

Voussoir connection detail74

Voussoir connection detail75

T

he steel plates are supports of the shell, which are designed to evenly distribute the loads to the footings. Steel ties connects steel supports and absorb the horizontal thrust as Amadillo Vault does.76 It contributes to keep the shell stable. The hexagonal chipboard floor tiles around the shell are designed to highlights the shell on the site. 74. Drawing by Cedric Chua.

75. Drawing by Cedric Chua. 76. Block Research Group, The Armadillo Vault, <https://block.arch.ethz.ch/brg/files/RIPPMANN_AAG2016_armadillo-vault_1472480994.pdf> [Accessed 1 June 2018].

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A

A

PLAN77 0

1M

2M

77. Drawing by Be Kostelijk.

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SECTION A 1: 100

78. Drawing by Be Kostelijk.

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79. Drawing by Be Kostelijk.

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80. Drawing by Cedric Chua

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81. Drawing by Cedric Chua

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C.4 LEARNING OBJECTIVE AND OUTCOMES I

n this part, I learned how to design the algorithm definitions for fabrication. Different fabrication methods require different definitions. I tried cnc milling for foam formwork and laser cut for plywood formwork. Grasshopper plug in, FabTool, was introduced to label and layout the fabrication pieces. Different fabrication methods may come up with difference outcome. In our case, the cnc milling create formwork with round angles. The laser cut plywood formwork requires extra chamfers. The cost and labour requirements are also different. From this case, I understood that there are various digital fabrication methods and materials are possible for one project. It will be better to have a try with different fabrication tools to figure out the most suitable one for the project. By making the prototypes, I realised that there were imperfections on the fabrication pieces. It does not go ideally as what I deigned. Refer to the fabrication and construction of Amadillo Vault, the errors cannot be eliminated, so I tried to figure out the solutions for the errors and how to minimize these imperfections. Errors are common in digital design and digital fabrication, so it should be designed with certain tolerance to allow the errors or solutions to compensate the error should be taken during construction processes. In addition, material prototypes and structural prototypes are indispensable for testing digital design structures. .

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Tomas, Antonio and Marti, Pascual, ‘Optimality of Candela’s Concrete Shells: A Study of His Posthumous Design’, (2010), p.67. <https://www. researchgate.net/profile/Antonio_Tomas3/publication/279761881_Optimality_of_Candela’s_concrete_shells_A_study_of_his_posthumous_design/ links/55a7d16d08ae1dca686fcdd1/Optimality-of-Candelas-concrete-shells-A-study-of-his-posthumous-design.pdf> [Accessed 10 March 2018].

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Frearson, Amy, Armadillo Vault is a pioneering stone structure that supports itself without any glue, <https://www.dezeen.com/2016/05/31/armadillo-vaultblock-research-group-eth-zurich-beyond-the-bending-limestone-structure-without-glue-venice-architecture-biennale-2016/> [Accessed 30 March 2018]. Fry, tony, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg, 2008). ‘Highway service area Deitingen south, triangle concrete cupola roof’, <https://www.tumblr.com/search/heinz%20isler.> [Accessed 26 Marth 2018]. Institute for Computational Design and Construction and University of Stuttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012 (2012) <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=8807> [Accessed 4 March 2018]. Institute for Computational Design and Construction and University of Stuttgart, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-2014 (2015) <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=8807> [Accessed 11 March 2018]. ‘Isler shell’, <http://docplayer.org/50979175-V-hochbau-i-baukonstruktionen-std.html> [Accessed 25 March 2018]. Keskeys, Paul, Architectural Details: Toyo Ito’s Flowing Concrete Canopy, <https://architizer.com/blog/ inspiration/stories/architectural-details-toyo-ito/> [Accessed 14 March 2018]. Krishnagnr, Pneumatic structures (2015) <https://www.slideshare.net/Krishnagnr/pneumatic-structures-55250260> [Accessed 14 March 2018]. ‘Los Manatiales Restaurant’, <https://www.archdaily.com/496202/ad-classics-los-manantiales-felix-candela> [Accessed 10 Marth 2018]. ‘Litracon xPL’, Litracon, <http://www.litracon.hu/en/about-us> [Accessed 10 April 2018]. Litracon, Litracon pXL®, <http://www.litracon.hu/en/about-us> [Accessed 10 April 2018]. ‘Meiso no Mori Municipal Funeral Hall’, <https://www.pinterest.com.au/pin/502925483361434609/?lp=true> [Accessed 15 Marth 2018].

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Mo zijun 813475 finaljournal  
Mo zijun 813475 finaljournal  
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