Page 1

NATIONAL MUSEUM OF KOREA | QUARTERLY MAGAZINE

LANDSCAPES: SEEKING THE IDEAL LAND DATE    JULY 29 – SEPTEMBER 28, 2014 VENUE    SPECIAL EXHIBITION GALLERY, PERMANENT EXHIBITION HALL

VOL. 28

The exhibition Landscapes: Seeking the Ideal Land compares and contrasts the landscape paintings of Korea, China and Japan through the common theme of “the ideal land,” a long beloved theme in East rea to bring together the landscape masterpieces of the three countries including Yi Inmun’s Streams and Mountains Without End from the collection of the National Museum of Korea, Qian Xuan’s Ode on

SUMMER 2014 

Asian cultures. Featuring 112 works, the exhibition is the first in Ko-

Returning Home from China, and So Ami’s Eight Views of the Xiao and Xiang Rivers from Japan. The exhibition provides the opportunity to explore the diverse perspectives on what constitutes an ideal land seen with the mind’s eye of the people of old, and the changes that appeared according to the era. It also encourages us to look back on ourselves as people who sought to find peace in nature from the past to the present.

SUMMER 2014 VOL.28

QUARTERLY MAGAZINE  ISSN: 2005-1123


DIRECTOR'S MESSAGE

CONTENTS

QUARTERLY MAGAZINE VOL.28 SUMMER 2014

Summer is upon us, a time when everyone appreciates a nice cool place to get away

National Museum of Korea

from the scorching heat. We at the National Museum of Korea have been working hard

140-026, Korea

137 Seobinggo-ro, Yongsan-gu, Seoul,

to provide you with just such a place while upgrading our exhibitions and exhibition

Tel: (82 2) 2077-9573

facilities.

E-mail: polagu47@korea.kr

This May, we opened Musée d'Orsay as part of our ongoing exchange program with some of the world’s leading museums and art museums to introduce the histories and cultures of various regions around the globe. The artworks from the Musée d'Orsay provide visitors with an opportunity to explore the French art scene as well as the dramatic changes in European art and life during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Fax: (82 2) 2077-9258

CONNECT WITH LEGACY

Publisher:

Design and Production:

CULTURE THEMA

Ahn Graphics Inc., Editorial Team

THE IDEALIZED STANDARDS FOR ANCIENT SCULPTURE IN KOREA AND GREECE

Translation / Revision:

12

Timothy V. Atkinson / Cho Yoonjung

forth by the Korean Committee for

series on Buddhist paintings. You can have a leisurely look at a hanging scroll more than

Ethics in Book and Magazine Publication.

six meters long once used for Buddhist outdoor rituals, learn about the many stories

reproduced or transmitted in any form or

related to this piece, and contemplate the sincere devotion that the piece engenders.

No part of this publication may be by any means, electronic or mechanical,

CONNECT WITH NMK

Buddhist Hanging Scroll at Heungguksa Temple through October 26 as part of our regular

National Museum of Korea, a quarterly

to present items to the public for the first time. You have an opportunity to see both Unified Silla Buddhist art and the culture of the aristocratic elite (in the capital).

VISITOR

22

writing from the publisher. Printed in Korea

THEME EXHIBITION

Copyright © 2014

ENCOUNTER WITH AMITAYUS IN SUKHAVATI: BUDDHIST HANGING SCROLL AT HEUNGGUKSA TEMPLE

National Museum of Korea. All rights reserved. ISSN: 2005-1123

24

Note to Readers:

The renovation work at our regional national museums is also ongoing. Gimhae Nation-

The related information of image is given in the following order: title, period or

al Museum completed a year-long refurbishment of the permanent exhibition facilities,

produced year, material, dimensions and

which reopened this April. The overhaul allows visitors to get more out of the museum

Items from all other institutions are

experience.

16

PARIS, CITY OF MEMORIES & INSPIRATION

system, without prior permission in

artifacts and our research findings related to them. For example, we recently overhauled the exhibits inside the Unified Silla Room of the Prehistory and Ancient History Gallery

SPECIAL EXHIBITION

ART AND LIFE OF THE FIN DE SIÈCLE PARIS BEYOND IMPRESSIONISM: MASTERPIECES FROM THE MUSÉE D’ORSAY

including photocopy, recording, or any other information storage and retrieval

We continue to upgrade our exhibits in order to present you with the newly excavated

CURATOR TALK

08

Design Team of the NMK

magazine, abides by the principles set

02 HEO MOK, JOSEON SCHOLAR & IDEALIST

Editorial Direction:

Lee Mijin / Hwang Chiyoung

Meanwhile, we are running the thematic exhibit Encounter with Amitāyus in Sukhāvatī:

SPECIAL COLUMN

GREAT TOMB AT HWANGNAM: A SILLA TIME CAPSULE

RNM EXHIBITION

GAYA: A MARITIME NATION & KINGDOM OF IRON

management number.

26

classified by their collection names.

RNM EXHIBITION

Meanwhile, the National Museum of Korea will advance steadily by adding new pieces to

THE LANDSCAPE OF CHUNGCHEONGBUK-DO IN BOOKS AND PICTURES

the collection adopting the latest display techniques. At the same time, we will continue

30

to make our facilities more pleasant and convenient and look forward to seeing you with

Thank you.

CONNECT WITH WORLD

us soon.

LECTURE AT NMK

PERFECTION OF ENGLISH GENTLEMANSHIP: MUSEUMS AND THE GRAND TOUR

32 TALK AT FACEBOOK

THE TIGER: FEARLESS VS. FRIENDLY

34 DIRECTOR-GENERAL, THE NATIONAL MUSEUMS OF KOREA SUMMER, 2014

CONNECT WITH NEWS

Kim Youngna

  N EWS

36 EXHIBITION & PUBLICATIONS

38 NEW SPACE, NEW VIEW

HIDDEN BEAUTIES REVEALED IN THE RENEWED UNIFIED SILLA ROOM

40


DIRECTOR'S MESSAGE

CONTENTS

QUARTERLY MAGAZINE VOL.28 SUMMER 2014

Summer is upon us, a time when everyone appreciates a nice cool place to get away

National Museum of Korea

from the scorching heat. We at the National Museum of Korea have been working hard

140-026, Korea

137 Seobinggo-ro, Yongsan-gu, Seoul,

to provide you with just such a place while upgrading our exhibitions and exhibition

Tel: (82 2) 2077-9573

facilities.

E-mail: polagu47@korea.kr

This May, we opened Musée d'Orsay as part of our ongoing exchange program with some of the world’s leading museums and art museums to introduce the histories and cultures of various regions around the globe. The artworks from the Musée d'Orsay provide visitors with an opportunity to explore the French art scene as well as the dramatic changes in European art and life during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Fax: (82 2) 2077-9258

CONNECT WITH LEGACY

Publisher:

Design and Production:

CULTURE THEMA

Ahn Graphics Inc., Editorial Team

THE IDEALIZED STANDARDS FOR ANCIENT SCULPTURE IN KOREA AND GREECE

Translation / Revision:

12

Timothy V. Atkinson / Cho Yoonjung

forth by the Korean Committee for

series on Buddhist paintings. You can have a leisurely look at a hanging scroll more than

Ethics in Book and Magazine Publication.

six meters long once used for Buddhist outdoor rituals, learn about the many stories

reproduced or transmitted in any form or

related to this piece, and contemplate the sincere devotion that the piece engenders.

No part of this publication may be by any means, electronic or mechanical,

CONNECT WITH NMK

Buddhist Hanging Scroll at Heungguksa Temple through October 26 as part of our regular

National Museum of Korea, a quarterly

to present items to the public for the first time. You have an opportunity to see both Unified Silla Buddhist art and the culture of the aristocratic elite (in the capital).

VISITOR

22

writing from the publisher. Printed in Korea

THEME EXHIBITION

Copyright © 2014

ENCOUNTER WITH AMITAYUS IN SUKHAVATI: BUDDHIST HANGING SCROLL AT HEUNGGUKSA TEMPLE

National Museum of Korea. All rights reserved. ISSN: 2005-1123

24

Note to Readers:

The renovation work at our regional national museums is also ongoing. Gimhae Nation-

The related information of image is given in the following order: title, period or

al Museum completed a year-long refurbishment of the permanent exhibition facilities,

produced year, material, dimensions and

which reopened this April. The overhaul allows visitors to get more out of the museum

Items from all other institutions are

experience.

16

PARIS, CITY OF MEMORIES & INSPIRATION

system, without prior permission in

artifacts and our research findings related to them. For example, we recently overhauled the exhibits inside the Unified Silla Room of the Prehistory and Ancient History Gallery

SPECIAL EXHIBITION

ART AND LIFE OF THE FIN DE SIÈCLE PARIS BEYOND IMPRESSIONISM: MASTERPIECES FROM THE MUSÉE D’ORSAY

including photocopy, recording, or any other information storage and retrieval

We continue to upgrade our exhibits in order to present you with the newly excavated

CURATOR TALK

08

Design Team of the NMK

magazine, abides by the principles set

02 HEO MOK, JOSEON SCHOLAR & IDEALIST

Editorial Direction:

Lee Mijin / Hwang Chiyoung

Meanwhile, we are running the thematic exhibit Encounter with Amitāyus in Sukhāvatī:

SPECIAL COLUMN

GREAT TOMB AT HWANGNAM: A SILLA TIME CAPSULE

RNM EXHIBITION

GAYA: A MARITIME NATION & KINGDOM OF IRON

management number.

26

classified by their collection names.

RNM EXHIBITION

Meanwhile, the National Museum of Korea will advance steadily by adding new pieces to

THE LANDSCAPE OF CHUNGCHEONGBUK-DO IN BOOKS AND PICTURES

the collection adopting the latest display techniques. At the same time, we will continue

30

to make our facilities more pleasant and convenient and look forward to seeing you with

Thank you.

CONNECT WITH WORLD

us soon.

LECTURE AT NMK

PERFECTION OF ENGLISH GENTLEMANSHIP: MUSEUMS AND THE GRAND TOUR

32 TALK AT FACEBOOK

THE TIGER: FEARLESS VS. FRIENDLY

34 DIRECTOR-GENERAL, THE NATIONAL MUSEUMS OF KOREA SUMMER, 2014

CONNECT WITH NEWS

Kim Youngna

  N EWS

36 EXHIBITION & PUBLICATIONS

38 NEW SPACE, NEW VIEW

HIDDEN BEAUTIES REVEALED IN THE RENEWED UNIFIED SILLA ROOM

40


SPECIAL COLUMN

CONNECT WITH LEGACY

NMK 2014 SUMMER

GREAT TOMB AT HWANGNAM: A SILLA TIME CAPSULE BY HONG JINGEUN, CURATOR OF THE ARCHAEOLOGY AND HISTORY DEPARTMENT

THE TOMB COMES TO LIGHT Gold Girdle Three Kingdoms Period, 5th Century Gold L. 120.0 cm, W. 3.6 cm North Mound of Hwangnamdaechong, Gyeongju National Treasure No. 192 hwangbuk 45

A

gold crown was discovered

Hwangnamdaechong is in the center of a

evidence shows that several young women

by accident during the

Silla tumuli complex that extends from

were buried alive just south of the royal

construction of a private

Hwangnam-dong to Hwango-dong and

tomb in order to serve him in the hereafter.

residence in Noseo-dong ,

Noseo-dong. In July 1976, the Cultural

Hwangnamdaechong has a wood-

Gyeong ju in 1921, giving the world a

Properties Committee dubbed it the “Great

framed burial chamber that was covered

glimpse of the opulence enjoyed by the

Tomb at Hwangnam” because it is the larg-

with dirt, sealed with clay. On this were

elite in Silla some 1500 years earlier.

est of all the tombs in Hwangnam-dong.

placed massive river boulders that were

An ambitious archeological excavation

This twin-burial chamber tomb (for hus-

covered with a massive dirt mound. This

project was subsequently carried out on

band and wife) is laid out in the shape of

royal tomb type was common in Silla.

Hwangnam-dong Tombs 155 and 98, also

a gourd on a north-south axis. The mound

Such a construction was effective in pre-

Cheonmachong ,天馬塚

known as

02

Heavenly

measures 120 meters long (north-south),

venting the contents from being robbed,

Horse Tomb, and Hwangnamdaechong 

80 meters wide (east-west) and 22 meters

but it also prevented the tomb from being

皇南大塚 ,

high, a massive monument built in the

reopened to bury a second person who

tween 1973 and 1975, and a treasure trove

Maripgan 麻立干, 356‒514

period as the final

died subsequently. Instead, a second tomb

of relics was retrieved, including gold

resting place for a king and a symbol of

would have to be built beside the old one.

crowns, gold caps, beads and glass articles.

his august power. Many of the luxurious

In this case, the southernmost tomb was

These tumuli serve as kind of a time cap-

items he enjoyed in life were buried along

built first, with the second one constructed

sule, and their contents astounded the

with his corpse so that he could continue

some 20–30 years later, judging from the

world once more.

to enjoy them in the after-life. Moreover,

contents that were unearthed.

The Great Tomb at Hwangnam, be-

03


SPECIAL COLUMN

CONNECT WITH LEGACY

NMK 2014 SUMMER

GREAT TOMB AT HWANGNAM: A SILLA TIME CAPSULE BY HONG JINGEUN, CURATOR OF THE ARCHAEOLOGY AND HISTORY DEPARTMENT

THE TOMB COMES TO LIGHT Gold Girdle Three Kingdoms Period, 5th Century Gold L. 120.0 cm, W. 3.6 cm North Mound of Hwangnamdaechong, Gyeongju National Treasure No. 192 hwangbuk 45

A

gold crown was discovered

Hwangnamdaechong is in the center of a

evidence shows that several young women

by accident during the

Silla tumuli complex that extends from

were buried alive just south of the royal

construction of a private

Hwangnam-dong to Hwango-dong and

tomb in order to serve him in the hereafter.

residence in Noseo-dong ,

Noseo-dong. In July 1976, the Cultural

Hwangnamdaechong has a wood-

Gyeong ju in 1921, giving the world a

Properties Committee dubbed it the “Great

framed burial chamber that was covered

glimpse of the opulence enjoyed by the

Tomb at Hwangnam” because it is the larg-

with dirt, sealed with clay. On this were

elite in Silla some 1500 years earlier.

est of all the tombs in Hwangnam-dong.

placed massive river boulders that were

An ambitious archeological excavation

This twin-burial chamber tomb (for hus-

covered with a massive dirt mound. This

project was subsequently carried out on

band and wife) is laid out in the shape of

royal tomb type was common in Silla.

Hwangnam-dong Tombs 155 and 98, also

a gourd on a north-south axis. The mound

Such a construction was effective in pre-

Cheonmachong ,天馬塚

known as

02

Heavenly

measures 120 meters long (north-south),

venting the contents from being robbed,

Horse Tomb, and Hwangnamdaechong 

80 meters wide (east-west) and 22 meters

but it also prevented the tomb from being

皇南大塚 ,

high, a massive monument built in the

reopened to bury a second person who

tween 1973 and 1975, and a treasure trove

Maripgan 麻立干, 356‒514

period as the final

died subsequently. Instead, a second tomb

of relics was retrieved, including gold

resting place for a king and a symbol of

would have to be built beside the old one.

crowns, gold caps, beads and glass articles.

his august power. Many of the luxurious

In this case, the southernmost tomb was

These tumuli serve as kind of a time cap-

items he enjoyed in life were buried along

built first, with the second one constructed

sule, and their contents astounded the

with his corpse so that he could continue

some 20–30 years later, judging from the

world once more.

to enjoy them in the after-life. Moreover,

contents that were unearthed.

The Great Tomb at Hwangnam, be-

03


CONNECT WITH LEGACY

Silver Crown Three Kingdoms Period, 5th Century Silver H. 17.0 cm South Mound of Hwangnamdaechong, Gyeongju hwangnam 2942

NMK 2014 SUMMER

Glass Ewer and Cups Three Kingdoms Period, 5th Century (from left) H. 7.4 cm, H. 7.0 cm, H. 28.0 cm, H. 6.0 cm, H. 13.0 cm

GREAT TOMB AT HWANGNAM: A SILLA TIME CAPSULE

Gold Bracelet Three Kingdoms Period, 5th Century Gold and Jade W. 2.1 cm, D. 7.2 cm North Mound of Hwangnamdaechong, Gyeongju Treasure No. 623 hwangbuk 66

Gold Crown Three Kingdoms Period, 5th Century Gold and Jade H. 27.3 cm, D. 17.0 cm North Mound of Hwangnamdaechong, Gyeongju National Treasure No. 191 hwangbuk 1

A CHANCE ENCOUNTER WITH SILLA EXTRAVAGANCE Myriads of items were discovered during

woman’s tomb. No Silla queen during the

these along with two antler-shaped ex-

symbolized the king, who led the ceremo-

the excavation of Hwangnamdaechong, to

Maripgan period has been confirmed to

tensions are affixed with gold nails to the

nies for linking Heaven and Earth. The deer

include gold crowns, gilt-bronze crowns,

have been a ruler, making this crown a re-

crown band. Numerous comma-shaped

antler motif emerged as an important ele-

gold girdles, necklaces and other personal

vealing find.

green jade pendants hang from the “trunks”

ment decorating the hats of Siberian sha-

and their appendages like fruit on leaves

mans and can be linked to its use in Silla.

effects; saddlery decorated with silkworm

A gold crown was found in Geum-

patterns, metal utensils, glass utensils, and

nyeongchong , 金鈴塚

Gold Bell Tomb in

of gold. These decorations add a sense of

The gold crown from the Hwangnamdae-

various pottery pieces. They demonstrate

Gyeongju, which was most likely the rest-

glamor and mystery that exemplifies the

chong north tomb was designated National

Silla culture at its most extravagant. The

ing place of a prince, not a king. Many oth-

unique aesthetic of Silla. The gold crowns

Treasure No. 191 in December 1978 and is

person buried here was undoubtedly a

er personal adornments and a figurine of a

are very fragile, as they were crafted from

now a very important exhibit in the Silla

king, given the massive size of the tomb,

man on a horse were also unearthed. This

gold leaf, and so were probably not meant

Room, part of the Prehistory and Ancient

the gold crowns, and the luxurious adorn-

means that the right to wear a gold crown

to be worn on everyday occasions. Perhaps

History Gallery at the National Museum of

ments that were put inside. These articles

was not limited to kings in Silla.

their use was reserved for important state

Korea.

suggest that the tomb was built in the 5th

The gold crowns excavated from the

ceremonies or exclusively for burial.

The caps and gold crown ornament

north tomb at Hwangnamdaechong as

The decorations on the gold crowns are

exhumed from tombs are seen to symbol-

A gilt-bronze crown and sword with a

well as from Cheonmachong , Geum-

thought to symbolize a sacred “world tree”

ize the authority of specific occupants of

decorated ring pommel were unearthed in

nyeongchong, and

Seobongchong, 瑞鳳塚

and deer. The same motifs that are found

those tombs. The caps are of the style worn

the tomb to the south of Hwangnamdae-

Auspicious Phoenix Tomb, indicate a buri-

on Scythian crowns from several centuries

by Silla people and have been adorned

chong, indicating that the deceased was a

al practice unique to Silla, where by the

prior, suggest the origin of the Silla crown

with special ornaments. Made by con-

man. On the other hand, the north tomb

upper part of the crown was tied over the

design. Moreover, an earlier gilt-bronze

necting thin gold sheets, these headgear

contents included a gold crown, silver gir-

face of the deceased.

crown that was excavated from an old

are small and cannot be stretched open

century, during the Maripgan period.

dle pendant inscribed with the phrase “La-

The crown taken from the north tomb

tomb in Bokcheon-dong, Busan features a

left and right. Therefore, they would have

dy’s belt,” and colored spindle—evidence

at Hwangnamdaechong is the earliest ex-

decoration that looks very much like real

been difficult to actually wear on the head.

that a woman had been buried within.

ample of the type decorated with trident-

tree branches, indicating how the design

However, a cap taken from the Tang period

Hence, a gold crown was placed inside a

like protrusions in a “出” shape. Three of

evolved on the Korean Peninsula. The tree

Zhanghuai Prince Tomb 章懷太子墓 in China

04

05


CONNECT WITH LEGACY

Silver Crown Three Kingdoms Period, 5th Century Silver H. 17.0 cm South Mound of Hwangnamdaechong, Gyeongju hwangnam 2942

NMK 2014 SUMMER

Glass Ewer and Cups Three Kingdoms Period, 5th Century (from left) H. 7.4 cm, H. 7.0 cm, H. 28.0 cm, H. 6.0 cm, H. 13.0 cm

GREAT TOMB AT HWANGNAM: A SILLA TIME CAPSULE

Gold Bracelet Three Kingdoms Period, 5th Century Gold and Jade W. 2.1 cm, D. 7.2 cm North Mound of Hwangnamdaechong, Gyeongju Treasure No. 623 hwangbuk 66

Gold Crown Three Kingdoms Period, 5th Century Gold and Jade H. 27.3 cm, D. 17.0 cm North Mound of Hwangnamdaechong, Gyeongju National Treasure No. 191 hwangbuk 1

A CHANCE ENCOUNTER WITH SILLA EXTRAVAGANCE Myriads of items were discovered during

woman’s tomb. No Silla queen during the

these along with two antler-shaped ex-

symbolized the king, who led the ceremo-

the excavation of Hwangnamdaechong, to

Maripgan period has been confirmed to

tensions are affixed with gold nails to the

nies for linking Heaven and Earth. The deer

include gold crowns, gilt-bronze crowns,

have been a ruler, making this crown a re-

crown band. Numerous comma-shaped

antler motif emerged as an important ele-

gold girdles, necklaces and other personal

vealing find.

green jade pendants hang from the “trunks”

ment decorating the hats of Siberian sha-

and their appendages like fruit on leaves

mans and can be linked to its use in Silla.

effects; saddlery decorated with silkworm

A gold crown was found in Geum-

patterns, metal utensils, glass utensils, and

nyeongchong , 金鈴塚

Gold Bell Tomb in

of gold. These decorations add a sense of

The gold crown from the Hwangnamdae-

various pottery pieces. They demonstrate

Gyeongju, which was most likely the rest-

glamor and mystery that exemplifies the

chong north tomb was designated National

Silla culture at its most extravagant. The

ing place of a prince, not a king. Many oth-

unique aesthetic of Silla. The gold crowns

Treasure No. 191 in December 1978 and is

person buried here was undoubtedly a

er personal adornments and a figurine of a

are very fragile, as they were crafted from

now a very important exhibit in the Silla

king, given the massive size of the tomb,

man on a horse were also unearthed. This

gold leaf, and so were probably not meant

Room, part of the Prehistory and Ancient

the gold crowns, and the luxurious adorn-

means that the right to wear a gold crown

to be worn on everyday occasions. Perhaps

History Gallery at the National Museum of

ments that were put inside. These articles

was not limited to kings in Silla.

their use was reserved for important state

Korea.

suggest that the tomb was built in the 5th

The gold crowns excavated from the

ceremonies or exclusively for burial.

The caps and gold crown ornament

north tomb at Hwangnamdaechong as

The decorations on the gold crowns are

exhumed from tombs are seen to symbol-

A gilt-bronze crown and sword with a

well as from Cheonmachong , Geum-

thought to symbolize a sacred “world tree”

ize the authority of specific occupants of

decorated ring pommel were unearthed in

nyeongchong, and

Seobongchong, 瑞鳳塚

and deer. The same motifs that are found

those tombs. The caps are of the style worn

the tomb to the south of Hwangnamdae-

Auspicious Phoenix Tomb, indicate a buri-

on Scythian crowns from several centuries

by Silla people and have been adorned

chong, indicating that the deceased was a

al practice unique to Silla, where by the

prior, suggest the origin of the Silla crown

with special ornaments. Made by con-

man. On the other hand, the north tomb

upper part of the crown was tied over the

design. Moreover, an earlier gilt-bronze

necting thin gold sheets, these headgear

contents included a gold crown, silver gir-

face of the deceased.

crown that was excavated from an old

are small and cannot be stretched open

century, during the Maripgan period.

dle pendant inscribed with the phrase “La-

The crown taken from the north tomb

tomb in Bokcheon-dong, Busan features a

left and right. Therefore, they would have

dy’s belt,” and colored spindle—evidence

at Hwangnamdaechong is the earliest ex-

decoration that looks very much like real

been difficult to actually wear on the head.

that a woman had been buried within.

ample of the type decorated with trident-

tree branches, indicating how the design

However, a cap taken from the Tang period

Hence, a gold crown was placed inside a

like protrusions in a “出” shape. Three of

evolved on the Korean Peninsula. The tree

Zhanghuai Prince Tomb 章懷太子墓 in China

04

05


CONNECT WITH LEGACY

NMK 2014 SUMMER

has fabric attached to lower brim and was

namdaechong, and the Samguksagi, 三國史記

pieces. These items, too, are believed to

secured to the wearer’s head with a string

History of the Three Kingdoms, says that the

have shown the authority of the king or

that tied under the chin. This cap from

different materials were used to make the

royal family member for which they were

Silla is presumed to have been outfitted

girdles, depending on the status of the in-

intended. The inclusion of everyday items

the same way. The crown ornament pro-

dividual wearer. The gold for either girdles

on the girdles reflects the practice of the

duces the look of a bird with wings spread

or crowns was a symbol of the royal family,

northern nomadic tribes, who kept many

in flight or a tree with branches. A Chinese

and gold girdles were removed from both

of the things that they needed on their

text records that Goguryeo caps have bird

the north and south tombs of Hwangnam-

persons. The leather or silk pieces once

feathers stuck in them. Thus, representing

daechong. This fact indicates the social

attached to the ornaments on the gold

the status of Silla kings or other royal fam-

standing of the occupants.

girdles from Hwangnamdaechong rotted

Attached on the leather or silk girdles

away long ago, but the luxuriousness of

were ornaments etched with various pat-

the adornments and pendants indicate

Various girdles made of gold, silver and

terns. Rings and ornaments are also on

that the deceased had been dressed in

gilt-bronze were unearthed from Hwang-

the girdle ends, while various charms

some kind of gold-colored skirt.

ily members with a bird motif was probably borrowed from Goguryeo practice.

GREAT TOMB AT HWANGNAM: A SILLA TIME CAPSULE

hang down such as a whetstone, pair of

Old Tomb in Hwangnam-dong, Gyeongju

tweezers, small knife, medicine case, incense pouch, fish figure and curved jade

INDICATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGES

Gold Crown Ornament Three Kingdoms Period, 5th Century Gold H. 40.6 cm South Mound of Hwangnamdaechong, Gyeongju Treasure No. 630

06

Various artifacts taken from Hwangnam-

articles found their way to the Japanese

as Buddhist temples with gold. The Nihon

daechong indicate that Silla had exchanges

islands as well, making Silla an important

shoki, 日本書紀 Chronicles of Japan, published

of some kind with Goguryeo and various

link in the overall trade route. Silla tumuli

in the 8th century, has a passage that reads

other regions that are now in China, Eu-

from the Maripgan period have yielded

“Silla is a kingdom of glittering gold,” indi-

rope, West Asia, and Japan. Goguryeo ex-

glass articles, gold bracelets with jade inlay

cating the presence of gold in the world of

erted direct and indirect influences on Silla

and other items that were carried over the

the living as well as that of the dead. The

from early on, as evidenced by the bronze

Silk Road from West Asia and Europe to

gold-related practices that began in the

lidded box unearthed from the Houchong

Silla. Roman glass, produced around the

Maripgan period were manifested in vari-

壺衧塚

ous later periods of the Silla kingdom.

in Gyeongju that bears the inscription

Mediterranean countries, was considered

“King Hotae of the Land of Gwanggaeto. ”

to be more precious than gold. For exam-

Hwangnamdaechong gave up myriads

廣開土地 好太王

Bronze vessels excavated from

ple, the phoenix head-shaped glass bottle

of luxurious artifacts, starting with gold

Hwangnamdaechong do not contain such

taken from the Hwangnamdaechong south

crowns, glassware, metal-ware, and horse

a specific reference, but many show close

tomb shows that gold was used to repair its

trappings, but the precise identity of the

ties with the northern kingdom. The drop-

damaged handle. Items that were produced

tomb occupant was never revealed. That’s

let-shaped gold earrings with pendants,

in distant realms and transported over the

why the largest tumulus in Hwangnam-

boat-shaped gilt-bronze shoes with thick

Silk Road all the way to Silla were of the

dong was simply named “Great Tomb at

spikes attached on thin soles, and caps

highest order of importance, like gold, and

Hwangnam.” In fact, the occupants of most

shaped like bird feathers were either made

they have only be found in the tombs of

Maripgan tumuli in Gyeongju are un-

in Goguryeo and sent to Silla or were made

kings and royal family members.

known. The sheer scale of Hwangnamdae-

by Silla craftsmen who were influenced by

The culture that gave rise to the wood-

chong makes this the greatest monument

Goguryeo styles. The presence of so many

en-framed chamber tomb covered with a

from the period, and it provides a look at

Goguryeo artifacts in Silla tombs shows

mound of earth and stone and the luxuri-

Silla burial practices, gold usage, and the

that the two states had close ties within the

ous articles inside changed at the end of

active East-West exchanges over the Silk

political context of East Asia.

the Maripgan period. The emphasis on

Road that occurred at that time. As such,

At this time, Silla also had trade ex-

burying gold articles with deceased kings

this is a precious time capsule related to

changes with states in Europe and West

was replaced by the practice of decorat-

Silla, a kingdom for which extant written

Asia via the Silk Road. Some of these

ing the palaces of living monarchs as well

records are scant.

07


CONNECT WITH LEGACY

NMK 2014 SUMMER

has fabric attached to lower brim and was

namdaechong, and the Samguksagi, 三國史記

pieces. These items, too, are believed to

secured to the wearer’s head with a string

History of the Three Kingdoms, says that the

have shown the authority of the king or

that tied under the chin. This cap from

different materials were used to make the

royal family member for which they were

Silla is presumed to have been outfitted

girdles, depending on the status of the in-

intended. The inclusion of everyday items

the same way. The crown ornament pro-

dividual wearer. The gold for either girdles

on the girdles reflects the practice of the

duces the look of a bird with wings spread

or crowns was a symbol of the royal family,

northern nomadic tribes, who kept many

in flight or a tree with branches. A Chinese

and gold girdles were removed from both

of the things that they needed on their

text records that Goguryeo caps have bird

the north and south tombs of Hwangnam-

persons. The leather or silk pieces once

feathers stuck in them. Thus, representing

daechong. This fact indicates the social

attached to the ornaments on the gold

the status of Silla kings or other royal fam-

standing of the occupants.

girdles from Hwangnamdaechong rotted

Attached on the leather or silk girdles

away long ago, but the luxuriousness of

were ornaments etched with various pat-

the adornments and pendants indicate

Various girdles made of gold, silver and

terns. Rings and ornaments are also on

that the deceased had been dressed in

gilt-bronze were unearthed from Hwang-

the girdle ends, while various charms

some kind of gold-colored skirt.

ily members with a bird motif was probably borrowed from Goguryeo practice.

GREAT TOMB AT HWANGNAM: A SILLA TIME CAPSULE

hang down such as a whetstone, pair of

Old Tomb in Hwangnam-dong, Gyeongju

tweezers, small knife, medicine case, incense pouch, fish figure and curved jade

INDICATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGES

Gold Crown Ornament Three Kingdoms Period, 5th Century Gold H. 40.6 cm South Mound of Hwangnamdaechong, Gyeongju Treasure No. 630

06

Various artifacts taken from Hwangnam-

articles found their way to the Japanese

as Buddhist temples with gold. The Nihon

daechong indicate that Silla had exchanges

islands as well, making Silla an important

shoki, 日本書紀 Chronicles of Japan, published

of some kind with Goguryeo and various

link in the overall trade route. Silla tumuli

in the 8th century, has a passage that reads

other regions that are now in China, Eu-

from the Maripgan period have yielded

“Silla is a kingdom of glittering gold,” indi-

rope, West Asia, and Japan. Goguryeo ex-

glass articles, gold bracelets with jade inlay

cating the presence of gold in the world of

erted direct and indirect influences on Silla

and other items that were carried over the

the living as well as that of the dead. The

from early on, as evidenced by the bronze

Silk Road from West Asia and Europe to

gold-related practices that began in the

lidded box unearthed from the Houchong

Silla. Roman glass, produced around the

Maripgan period were manifested in vari-

壺衧塚

ous later periods of the Silla kingdom.

in Gyeongju that bears the inscription

Mediterranean countries, was considered

“King Hotae of the Land of Gwanggaeto. ”

to be more precious than gold. For exam-

Hwangnamdaechong gave up myriads

廣開土地 好太王

Bronze vessels excavated from

ple, the phoenix head-shaped glass bottle

of luxurious artifacts, starting with gold

Hwangnamdaechong do not contain such

taken from the Hwangnamdaechong south

crowns, glassware, metal-ware, and horse

a specific reference, but many show close

tomb shows that gold was used to repair its

trappings, but the precise identity of the

ties with the northern kingdom. The drop-

damaged handle. Items that were produced

tomb occupant was never revealed. That’s

let-shaped gold earrings with pendants,

in distant realms and transported over the

why the largest tumulus in Hwangnam-

boat-shaped gilt-bronze shoes with thick

Silk Road all the way to Silla were of the

dong was simply named “Great Tomb at

spikes attached on thin soles, and caps

highest order of importance, like gold, and

Hwangnam.” In fact, the occupants of most

shaped like bird feathers were either made

they have only be found in the tombs of

Maripgan tumuli in Gyeongju are un-

in Goguryeo and sent to Silla or were made

kings and royal family members.

known. The sheer scale of Hwangnamdae-

by Silla craftsmen who were influenced by

The culture that gave rise to the wood-

chong makes this the greatest monument

Goguryeo styles. The presence of so many

en-framed chamber tomb covered with a

from the period, and it provides a look at

Goguryeo artifacts in Silla tombs shows

mound of earth and stone and the luxuri-

Silla burial practices, gold usage, and the

that the two states had close ties within the

ous articles inside changed at the end of

active East-West exchanges over the Silk

political context of East Asia.

the Maripgan period. The emphasis on

Road that occurred at that time. As such,

At this time, Silla also had trade ex-

burying gold articles with deceased kings

this is a precious time capsule related to

changes with states in Europe and West

was replaced by the practice of decorat-

Silla, a kingdom for which extant written

Asia via the Silk Road. Some of these

ing the palaces of living monarchs as well

records are scant.

07


CONNECT WITH LEGACY

CURATOR TALK

NMK 2014 SUMMER

Baegun gyegi (Detail) Heo Mok (1595–1682) Joseon Dynasty, 17th Century duk 4022

HEO MOK, JOSEON SCHOLAR & IDEALIST BY PARK SUNGWON, ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF THE ASIA DEPARTMENT

HEO MOK 許穆, 1595‒1682 WAS A LEADING SCHOLAR IN 17TH CEN-

H

eo mok had a staunchly upright character and

cess, Heo took on an ambitious project to put in order the diver-

would neither compromise his beliefs nor follow

gent rules of propriety advocated by various schools of Confucian

the current of changing times. The Silhak (Practi-

thought. At the same time, he completed several important works

cal Learning) scholar Yi

Ik 李瀷, 1681‒1763

wrote the

including a full account of the Manchu Invasion of 1636 and a

epitaph on Heo Mok’s gravestone: “He was not partial to power-

revised history of Joseon. Heo Mok was the foremost scholar of

weakening.” 不阿權柄 守正而

his day in the dialectical interpretation of Neo-Confucianism, and

Chief State Councilor Yi Wonik 李元翼, 1547‒1634 recognized Heo’s

was deeply knowledgeable of Taoist and Buddhist teachings. He

upstanding character and disposition early on, and agreed to let

was also well versed in astronomy, natural phenomena, geogra-

his own granddaughter marry him.

phy, and history.

holders and embraced rectitude without 不橈

His unyielding temperament is well illustrated in 1626, when

Joseon scholars shared a common aspiration: to become gov-

King Injo 仁祖, r. 1623‒1649 wanted to elevate his birthfather posthu-

ernment officials and assist the ruler in practicing proper state-

mously to the status of king. Heo Mok told Bak Jigye, 朴知誡, 1573‒1635

craft, and they were proud of their abilities to use their erudition

a leading supporter of the King’s plan, “If you accommodate His

to offer the right way to realize the ideal government. However,

AN AD-

Majesty’s wishes you will disrupt propriety.” Heo, who was a stu-

political extraction came to be centered on factions tied to dif-

HERENT OF THE YI HWANG 李滉, 1501‒1570 SCHOOL. HEO WAS ALSO

dent leader at the Royal Academy Seonggyungwan, 成均館 then had

ferent Confucian schools, each with its own interpretation of the

A LEADING POLITICAL FIGURE AT THE HEAD OF THE NAMIN, 南人

Bak’s name removed from the school register. For this Heo Mok

classics and Confucian philosophy and disputes often erupted

SOUTHERNERS FACTION, WHICH WOULD BECOME VERY IN-

was banned from sitting for the civil examination.

among these groups.

TURY JOSEON AND A DISCIPLE OF JEONG

08

GU, 鄭逑, 1543‒1620

HEO MOK, JOSEON SCHOLAR & IDEALIST

FLUENTIAL AT COURT. HE WAS AN AVID NEO-CONFUCIAN WHO

Even after the ban was subsequently lifted, Heo Mok did not

Heo Mok became fully active politically in the mid-17th cen-

SOUGHT TO REALIZE THE IDEAL STATE GOVERNED BY LEARNED

take the examination and instead sojourned in the countryside

tury, when the factional fighting had reached a feverish pitch. This

SCHOLARS AND BASED ON CONFUCIAN PHILOSOPHY, AND HE

and befriended nature. He met with local scholars and discussed

respected scholar who had rusticated himself in the countryside

WAS RENOWNED AS A WRITER AND POET. HIS UNIQUE CALLI-

matters of scholarship, associating with others who had become

came into the spotlight for his role in the “disputes over propri-

GRAPHIC STYLE WAS ALSO INFLUENTIAL.

recluses and were unwilling to tolerate differing views. In the pro-

ety,” 禮訟論爭 regarding the length of the mourning period at the death

09


CONNECT WITH LEGACY

CURATOR TALK

NMK 2014 SUMMER

Baegun gyegi (Detail) Heo Mok (1595–1682) Joseon Dynasty, 17th Century duk 4022

HEO MOK, JOSEON SCHOLAR & IDEALIST BY PARK SUNGWON, ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF THE ASIA DEPARTMENT

HEO MOK 許穆, 1595‒1682 WAS A LEADING SCHOLAR IN 17TH CEN-

H

eo mok had a staunchly upright character and

cess, Heo took on an ambitious project to put in order the diver-

would neither compromise his beliefs nor follow

gent rules of propriety advocated by various schools of Confucian

the current of changing times. The Silhak (Practi-

thought. At the same time, he completed several important works

cal Learning) scholar Yi

Ik 李瀷, 1681‒1763

wrote the

including a full account of the Manchu Invasion of 1636 and a

epitaph on Heo Mok’s gravestone: “He was not partial to power-

revised history of Joseon. Heo Mok was the foremost scholar of

weakening.” 不阿權柄 守正而

his day in the dialectical interpretation of Neo-Confucianism, and

Chief State Councilor Yi Wonik 李元翼, 1547‒1634 recognized Heo’s

was deeply knowledgeable of Taoist and Buddhist teachings. He

upstanding character and disposition early on, and agreed to let

was also well versed in astronomy, natural phenomena, geogra-

his own granddaughter marry him.

phy, and history.

holders and embraced rectitude without 不橈

His unyielding temperament is well illustrated in 1626, when

Joseon scholars shared a common aspiration: to become gov-

King Injo 仁祖, r. 1623‒1649 wanted to elevate his birthfather posthu-

ernment officials and assist the ruler in practicing proper state-

mously to the status of king. Heo Mok told Bak Jigye, 朴知誡, 1573‒1635

craft, and they were proud of their abilities to use their erudition

a leading supporter of the King’s plan, “If you accommodate His

to offer the right way to realize the ideal government. However,

AN AD-

Majesty’s wishes you will disrupt propriety.” Heo, who was a stu-

political extraction came to be centered on factions tied to dif-

HERENT OF THE YI HWANG 李滉, 1501‒1570 SCHOOL. HEO WAS ALSO

dent leader at the Royal Academy Seonggyungwan, 成均館 then had

ferent Confucian schools, each with its own interpretation of the

A LEADING POLITICAL FIGURE AT THE HEAD OF THE NAMIN, 南人

Bak’s name removed from the school register. For this Heo Mok

classics and Confucian philosophy and disputes often erupted

SOUTHERNERS FACTION, WHICH WOULD BECOME VERY IN-

was banned from sitting for the civil examination.

among these groups.

TURY JOSEON AND A DISCIPLE OF JEONG

08

GU, 鄭逑, 1543‒1620

HEO MOK, JOSEON SCHOLAR & IDEALIST

FLUENTIAL AT COURT. HE WAS AN AVID NEO-CONFUCIAN WHO

Even after the ban was subsequently lifted, Heo Mok did not

Heo Mok became fully active politically in the mid-17th cen-

SOUGHT TO REALIZE THE IDEAL STATE GOVERNED BY LEARNED

take the examination and instead sojourned in the countryside

tury, when the factional fighting had reached a feverish pitch. This

SCHOLARS AND BASED ON CONFUCIAN PHILOSOPHY, AND HE

and befriended nature. He met with local scholars and discussed

respected scholar who had rusticated himself in the countryside

WAS RENOWNED AS A WRITER AND POET. HIS UNIQUE CALLI-

matters of scholarship, associating with others who had become

came into the spotlight for his role in the “disputes over propri-

GRAPHIC STYLE WAS ALSO INFLUENTIAL.

recluses and were unwilling to tolerate differing views. In the pro-

ety,” 禮訟論爭 regarding the length of the mourning period at the death

09


CONNECT WITH LEGACY

NMK 2014 SUMMER

Heo Mok’s Seal Script Engravings

HEO MOK, JOSEON SCHOLAR & IDEALIST

vail, as did the Seokbong style from mid-Joseon on. Song Siyeol’s

some relief. The inscribed text is called East Sea Hymn, a sup-

calligraphy was in this vein.

plication to the Dragon King and various other gods of the sea.

On the other hand, Heo Mok pondered the harsh reality Joseon

Thereafter, the sea calmed, and the local people praised Heo Mok

faced in the aftermath of devastating war, and he felt that new so-

as a miracle worker, but he saw himself as a Confucian scholar

lutions had to be found by returning to the original philosophical

armed with the theoretical basis for refuting sorcery.

thought of Confucius and Mencius. As he poured over the early

Heo Mok was thoroughly knowledgeable of astronomy,

Confucian texts, he also extensively studied the ancient character

geography, geomancy, and other national phenomena, which he

writing systems practiced in the Xia, Yin (or Shang), and Zhou and

applied to find a practical solution to a larger problem. This stele

came up with his own style. This is why his works in seal script are

symbolized Heo’s resolution to re-create in Cheokju, in 17th cen-

appraised so highly.

tury Joseon, the administrative record of the legendary sage ruler

Heo Mok’s philosophical thought and theory are reflected in

Yu 禹 of the Xia, who “transformed the mountains and tamed the

the way he writes, and the seal script used in ancient texts before

rivers,” 治山治水 thereby rescuing the people from incessant flood-

the first Qin Emperor’s infamous “burning of books and burying

ing. In other words, he wished that the Joseon ruler would served

of scholars” 焚書坑儒 campaign between 213 and 210 BCE. Seal script

as a model for the world in the same way that Yu had. Regardless

marks his signature style. His brushstrokes exude the running feel,

of Heo’s intentions, the common people believed that his stele

somewhere between the semi-cursive and the cursive, and the

inscription had moved the gods.

sides of the strokes appear serrated. Heo’s Cheokjudonghaebi, 陟州東 海碑

The sage-ruler was seen as duty-bound to ensure the people

East Sea Stele inscription is a classic example of his unique seal

lived happily and without deprivation. After his rustication, he

script style. Many differences can be seen between this work and

wrote in seal script as a way to pray for Joseon’s transformation

the small seal

script 小篆

frequently found on other steles after the

Qin 秦, 221‒206 BCE unified the various scripts in use around China.

into becoming an idealized state that symbolized the best government during the Three Dynasties (Xia, Yin, and Zhou).

For political reasons, Heo Mok was demoted to magistrate of

Heo Mok’s calligraphic style was inspired by the scripts of an-

Cheokju, 陟州 now Samcheok in Gangwon-do, in 1660. Local resi-

cient China, for he wanted to manifest in his writing the spiritual

of the queen dowagers. His official career advanced and then was

The literary works become complete entities unto themselves and

dents along the coast had been suffering from frequent tsunamis,

world of an ideal state. Heo clearly believed that a man’s calligra-

set back repeatedly as he stood on the front lines of the controversy.

come alive as artworks.

so in 1662 Heo had this stele erected in an attempt to provide

phy was linked to his thought and his character.

Baegun gyegi (White Cloud Valley Record) Heo Mok (1595 –1682) Joseon Dynasty, 17th Century duk 4022

Calligraphy of Song Siyeol Song Siyeol (1607–1689) Joseon Dynasty, 17th Century duk 5279

He bolstered the position of the Namin as their leading theoreti-

Sometimes, handwriting may even resemble the writer’s life,

cian, rising steadily in the bureaucracy, from Inspector-General to

and interestingly, that is the case with Heo Mok’s. His thin, sharp

Minister of Personnel and then Right State Councilor.

strokes depict a rugged individualism. The “curiously” unique

Heo Mok of the Namin took on the Seoin (Westerners faction),

calligraphic style of Heo Mok attracted as much attention as his

the leading faction in Joseon at that time. However, when he per-

political stance. The people who revered Heo Mok would imitate

ceived that the situation was wrong, he would stand firm on his

his style of brushing, while those with differing political views

principles, even taking issue with fellow Namin. He was candid

would disparage them as being eccentric.

with the King

Sukjong 肅宗, 1661‒1720

himself in an effort to rectify

Heo Mok’s calligraphy was both praised and castigated in his

things. As his recommendations were not heeded, he promptly

day while being contrasted with the style of the leading conser-

retired to the countryside. Thereafter, the Namin went down the

vatives of his day, Song Siyeol 宋時烈, 1607‒1689 and Song Jungil. 宋浚吉,

path of political self-destruction. Heo Mok, as their leader, as-

1606‒1672

sumed responsibility for their demise and spend his last years in

Seokbong style of Han Ho, 韓濩, 1543‒1605 one of the most influential

seclusion. Yet, he continued to present memorials to the throne

calligraphers in all of Joseon. Remarkably, the differing ways in

until his death.

which these two men wrote Classical Chinese were related to their

Handwriting is said to reveal certain aspects of the writer’s

Their calligraphy was powerful and manly, based on the

Neo-Confucian learning.

character traits. Can Heo Mok’s staunch uprightness be seen in his

Joseon was founded upon the ideology of the Southern Song

calligraphy? Traditionally, people saw in calligraphy a beauty that

Neo-Confucian Zhu Xi, 朱熹, 1130‒1200 and this school remained the

extended beyond mere aesthetics to include erudition and refine-

mainstream of the Neo-Confucian philosophy practiced in Joseon.

ment of character. That is why calligraphy was a scholars’ art form

It was the spiritual foundation for the royal family and the conser-

that stood apart from other types of art. In addition, the calligraphic

vative elite. The Songxue calligraphy style 松雪體 of Zhao Mengfu, 

style added significance to the individual’s own poems or prose

趙孟頫, 1254‒1322

as well as his transcriptions of famous passages from the classics.

ings of the rationalist Master Zhu, and this style continued to pre-

10

was introduced in late Goryeo along with the teach-

11


CONNECT WITH LEGACY

NMK 2014 SUMMER

Heo Mok’s Seal Script Engravings

HEO MOK, JOSEON SCHOLAR & IDEALIST

vail, as did the Seokbong style from mid-Joseon on. Song Siyeol’s

some relief. The inscribed text is called East Sea Hymn, a sup-

calligraphy was in this vein.

plication to the Dragon King and various other gods of the sea.

On the other hand, Heo Mok pondered the harsh reality Joseon

Thereafter, the sea calmed, and the local people praised Heo Mok

faced in the aftermath of devastating war, and he felt that new so-

as a miracle worker, but he saw himself as a Confucian scholar

lutions had to be found by returning to the original philosophical

armed with the theoretical basis for refuting sorcery.

thought of Confucius and Mencius. As he poured over the early

Heo Mok was thoroughly knowledgeable of astronomy,

Confucian texts, he also extensively studied the ancient character

geography, geomancy, and other national phenomena, which he

writing systems practiced in the Xia, Yin (or Shang), and Zhou and

applied to find a practical solution to a larger problem. This stele

came up with his own style. This is why his works in seal script are

symbolized Heo’s resolution to re-create in Cheokju, in 17th cen-

appraised so highly.

tury Joseon, the administrative record of the legendary sage ruler

Heo Mok’s philosophical thought and theory are reflected in

Yu 禹 of the Xia, who “transformed the mountains and tamed the

the way he writes, and the seal script used in ancient texts before

rivers,” 治山治水 thereby rescuing the people from incessant flood-

the first Qin Emperor’s infamous “burning of books and burying

ing. In other words, he wished that the Joseon ruler would served

of scholars” 焚書坑儒 campaign between 213 and 210 BCE. Seal script

as a model for the world in the same way that Yu had. Regardless

marks his signature style. His brushstrokes exude the running feel,

of Heo’s intentions, the common people believed that his stele

somewhere between the semi-cursive and the cursive, and the

inscription had moved the gods.

sides of the strokes appear serrated. Heo’s Cheokjudonghaebi, 陟州東 海碑

The sage-ruler was seen as duty-bound to ensure the people

East Sea Stele inscription is a classic example of his unique seal

lived happily and without deprivation. After his rustication, he

script style. Many differences can be seen between this work and

wrote in seal script as a way to pray for Joseon’s transformation

the small seal

script 小篆

frequently found on other steles after the

Qin 秦, 221‒206 BCE unified the various scripts in use around China.

into becoming an idealized state that symbolized the best government during the Three Dynasties (Xia, Yin, and Zhou).

For political reasons, Heo Mok was demoted to magistrate of

Heo Mok’s calligraphic style was inspired by the scripts of an-

Cheokju, 陟州 now Samcheok in Gangwon-do, in 1660. Local resi-

cient China, for he wanted to manifest in his writing the spiritual

of the queen dowagers. His official career advanced and then was

The literary works become complete entities unto themselves and

dents along the coast had been suffering from frequent tsunamis,

world of an ideal state. Heo clearly believed that a man’s calligra-

set back repeatedly as he stood on the front lines of the controversy.

come alive as artworks.

so in 1662 Heo had this stele erected in an attempt to provide

phy was linked to his thought and his character.

Baegun gyegi (White Cloud Valley Record) Heo Mok (1595 –1682) Joseon Dynasty, 17th Century duk 4022

Calligraphy of Song Siyeol Song Siyeol (1607–1689) Joseon Dynasty, 17th Century duk 5279

He bolstered the position of the Namin as their leading theoreti-

Sometimes, handwriting may even resemble the writer’s life,

cian, rising steadily in the bureaucracy, from Inspector-General to

and interestingly, that is the case with Heo Mok’s. His thin, sharp

Minister of Personnel and then Right State Councilor.

strokes depict a rugged individualism. The “curiously” unique

Heo Mok of the Namin took on the Seoin (Westerners faction),

calligraphic style of Heo Mok attracted as much attention as his

the leading faction in Joseon at that time. However, when he per-

political stance. The people who revered Heo Mok would imitate

ceived that the situation was wrong, he would stand firm on his

his style of brushing, while those with differing political views

principles, even taking issue with fellow Namin. He was candid

would disparage them as being eccentric.

with the King

Sukjong 肅宗, 1661‒1720

himself in an effort to rectify

Heo Mok’s calligraphy was both praised and castigated in his

things. As his recommendations were not heeded, he promptly

day while being contrasted with the style of the leading conser-

retired to the countryside. Thereafter, the Namin went down the

vatives of his day, Song Siyeol 宋時烈, 1607‒1689 and Song Jungil. 宋浚吉,

path of political self-destruction. Heo Mok, as their leader, as-

1606‒1672

sumed responsibility for their demise and spend his last years in

Seokbong style of Han Ho, 韓濩, 1543‒1605 one of the most influential

seclusion. Yet, he continued to present memorials to the throne

calligraphers in all of Joseon. Remarkably, the differing ways in

until his death.

which these two men wrote Classical Chinese were related to their

Handwriting is said to reveal certain aspects of the writer’s

Their calligraphy was powerful and manly, based on the

Neo-Confucian learning.

character traits. Can Heo Mok’s staunch uprightness be seen in his

Joseon was founded upon the ideology of the Southern Song

calligraphy? Traditionally, people saw in calligraphy a beauty that

Neo-Confucian Zhu Xi, 朱熹, 1130‒1200 and this school remained the

extended beyond mere aesthetics to include erudition and refine-

mainstream of the Neo-Confucian philosophy practiced in Joseon.

ment of character. That is why calligraphy was a scholars’ art form

It was the spiritual foundation for the royal family and the conser-

that stood apart from other types of art. In addition, the calligraphic

vative elite. The Songxue calligraphy style 松雪體 of Zhao Mengfu, 

style added significance to the individual’s own poems or prose

趙孟頫, 1254‒1322

as well as his transcriptions of famous passages from the classics.

ings of the rationalist Master Zhu, and this style continued to pre-

10

was introduced in late Goryeo along with the teach-

11


CONNECT WITH LEGACY

CULTURE THEME

NMK 2014 SUMMER

Marble Statue of a Discus Thrower (Diskobolos) Roman Period, 2nd Century AD after a Lost Greek Original of about 450–440 BC © The Trustee of The British Museum

THE IDEALIZED STANDARDS FOR ANCIENT SCULPTURE IN KOREA AND GREECE

was the vast difference in geography between Greece, in the middle of the Mediterranean, and Korea, in East Asia. It is fair to say that no points of contact existed between these two cultural spheres at that time. The greatest distinction between these two

Pensive Bodhisattva Three Kingdoms Period, Late 6th Century Gilt Bronze H. 83.2 cm National Treasure No. 78 bon 2789

traditions, however, comes from culture: what subjects were being

THE IDEALIZED STANDARDS

sculpted, what materials were being used and how these subjects were being expressed. Greek sculpture was based on humanism and was used to express epic literature and mythological content in three-dimensional form. The Greek fascination with the human body was also reflected fully in the sculptural tradition, and Greek sculptors sought to reproduce (their idealized) beauty of the human form. Even the garment folds covering their subject’s bodies were elabo-

FOR ANCIENT SCULPTURE IN KOREA AND GREECE

rately portrayed. Oftentimes the male form was shown naked, and the female forms, while clothed, were sensually expressed through the folds in their robes. The sculptors are believed to have worked in bronze or marble because these media enabled them to achieve detailed representations of the human body. On the other hand, large-scale production of Korean sculpture

BY SHIN SOYEON,

coincided with the advent of Buddhism on the Korean Peninsula

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF THE FINE ARTS DEPARTMENT

during the Three Kingdoms Period. The output was mostly objects of religious worship, starting with the images of the deities at the top of the Buddhist hierarchy, which in descending order are the

A

Buddha, 佛 bodhisattvas, 菩薩 Four Maharajas, 四天王 the guardians of

exposed to first-hand. “Looking like a Greek god” became a popular

all religious objects, the sculptors were not free to exercise their

phrase for praising the exceptional good looks of both Western and

creative impulses but were required to follow strict guidelines. In

Korean movie stars and fashion models. Thus ancient Greek sculp-

addition, true-to-life portrayal was not the primary concern. This

ture continued to offer models of the ideal body proportions and

votive statuary was meant to inspire awe in Buddhist believers as

balance for modern society, both East and West.

representations of the divine in the human world. Buddhist statues

ncient Greek culture drove the advancement of West-

the four regions and eight classes of supernatural beings (deva, 天

ern European culture. The Renaissance saw a resur-

naga, 龍 yaksa, 夜叉 gandharva, 乾闥婆 asura, 阿修羅 garuda, 迦樓羅 kin-

gence of literature and the arts, and sculpture was

nara, 緊那羅 and mahoraga 摩喉羅迦). These were followed by the ar-

centered at the Greek visual arts. Koreans became

hats, 羅漢 or 阿羅漢 apsaras 飛天 and offerings givers. Because these were

In this case, what can be deemed “classic” for Koreans when it

could be produced from bronze, wood, clay or stone, above all the

comes to ancient Korean visual culture in general and sculpture in

thick-grained granite available to the Silla sculptors was the hard-

particular? Buddhist sculpture occupies the most central position

est material to shape.

in the ancient Korean carving tradition. Most Koreans would prob-

Commonalities can be found in the sculpted pieces from such

ably point to Buddha at Seokguram Grotto, on Tohamsan Mountain

dissimilar cultural backgrounds because idealized standards were

in Gyeongju, as the classic example of ancient Korean sculpture.

applied from the archaic and classic stages of cultural develop-

Such words as “solemn,” “sublime,” “harmonious,” and “idealistic

ment. The Kouros (“youth,” “boy”) nudes produced in various

realism” have been used to describe this stone sculpture from Uni-

Korean and Greek sculptures are the respective products of cul-

styles during the archaic period in Greece (800–480 BCE) can be

fied Silla. This is unquestionably one of the finest examples of stone

tures from completely different time periods, historical back-

compared with the Buddhist statuary from the Three Kingdoms

sculpture for the period. Beginning from the 20th century, Seok-

grounds and geographical environments. The disparities far out-

Period on the Korean Peninsula. The Greek representations of

guram has been profusely praised by numerous scholars. Perhaps

weigh the commonalities. Greek sculptors were the most prolific

muscular, broad-shouldered young men wearing no clothes were

this focus of attention is from the appeal to the Western and mod-

in the Hellenistic period, which ended in 31 BCE. Korean Classical

erected on sacred sites or at tombs, and they were designed to cel-

ern visual taste, like a rediscovery of the classical art typical of the

sculpture-making did not get started until the fifth century CE,

ebrate the beauty and excellence of the male form. They stand in

Western European Renaissance.

more than 400 years later. Apart from this huge time gap, there

a frontal pose, gazing straight ahead, with one leg striding forward

12

13


CONNECT WITH LEGACY

CULTURE THEME

NMK 2014 SUMMER

Marble Statue of a Discus Thrower (Diskobolos) Roman Period, 2nd Century AD after a Lost Greek Original of about 450–440 BC © The Trustee of The British Museum

THE IDEALIZED STANDARDS FOR ANCIENT SCULPTURE IN KOREA AND GREECE

was the vast difference in geography between Greece, in the middle of the Mediterranean, and Korea, in East Asia. It is fair to say that no points of contact existed between these two cultural spheres at that time. The greatest distinction between these two

Pensive Bodhisattva Three Kingdoms Period, Late 6th Century Gilt Bronze H. 83.2 cm National Treasure No. 78 bon 2789

traditions, however, comes from culture: what subjects were being

THE IDEALIZED STANDARDS

sculpted, what materials were being used and how these subjects were being expressed. Greek sculpture was based on humanism and was used to express epic literature and mythological content in three-dimensional form. The Greek fascination with the human body was also reflected fully in the sculptural tradition, and Greek sculptors sought to reproduce (their idealized) beauty of the human form. Even the garment folds covering their subject’s bodies were elabo-

FOR ANCIENT SCULPTURE IN KOREA AND GREECE

rately portrayed. Oftentimes the male form was shown naked, and the female forms, while clothed, were sensually expressed through the folds in their robes. The sculptors are believed to have worked in bronze or marble because these media enabled them to achieve detailed representations of the human body. On the other hand, large-scale production of Korean sculpture

BY SHIN SOYEON,

coincided with the advent of Buddhism on the Korean Peninsula

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF THE FINE ARTS DEPARTMENT

during the Three Kingdoms Period. The output was mostly objects of religious worship, starting with the images of the deities at the top of the Buddhist hierarchy, which in descending order are the

A

Buddha, 佛 bodhisattvas, 菩薩 Four Maharajas, 四天王 the guardians of

exposed to first-hand. “Looking like a Greek god” became a popular

all religious objects, the sculptors were not free to exercise their

phrase for praising the exceptional good looks of both Western and

creative impulses but were required to follow strict guidelines. In

Korean movie stars and fashion models. Thus ancient Greek sculp-

addition, true-to-life portrayal was not the primary concern. This

ture continued to offer models of the ideal body proportions and

votive statuary was meant to inspire awe in Buddhist believers as

balance for modern society, both East and West.

representations of the divine in the human world. Buddhist statues

ncient Greek culture drove the advancement of West-

the four regions and eight classes of supernatural beings (deva, 天

ern European culture. The Renaissance saw a resur-

naga, 龍 yaksa, 夜叉 gandharva, 乾闥婆 asura, 阿修羅 garuda, 迦樓羅 kin-

gence of literature and the arts, and sculpture was

nara, 緊那羅 and mahoraga 摩喉羅迦). These were followed by the ar-

centered at the Greek visual arts. Koreans became

hats, 羅漢 or 阿羅漢 apsaras 飛天 and offerings givers. Because these were

In this case, what can be deemed “classic” for Koreans when it

could be produced from bronze, wood, clay or stone, above all the

comes to ancient Korean visual culture in general and sculpture in

thick-grained granite available to the Silla sculptors was the hard-

particular? Buddhist sculpture occupies the most central position

est material to shape.

in the ancient Korean carving tradition. Most Koreans would prob-

Commonalities can be found in the sculpted pieces from such

ably point to Buddha at Seokguram Grotto, on Tohamsan Mountain

dissimilar cultural backgrounds because idealized standards were

in Gyeongju, as the classic example of ancient Korean sculpture.

applied from the archaic and classic stages of cultural develop-

Such words as “solemn,” “sublime,” “harmonious,” and “idealistic

ment. The Kouros (“youth,” “boy”) nudes produced in various

realism” have been used to describe this stone sculpture from Uni-

Korean and Greek sculptures are the respective products of cul-

styles during the archaic period in Greece (800–480 BCE) can be

fied Silla. This is unquestionably one of the finest examples of stone

tures from completely different time periods, historical back-

compared with the Buddhist statuary from the Three Kingdoms

sculpture for the period. Beginning from the 20th century, Seok-

grounds and geographical environments. The disparities far out-

Period on the Korean Peninsula. The Greek representations of

guram has been profusely praised by numerous scholars. Perhaps

weigh the commonalities. Greek sculptors were the most prolific

muscular, broad-shouldered young men wearing no clothes were

this focus of attention is from the appeal to the Western and mod-

in the Hellenistic period, which ended in 31 BCE. Korean Classical

erected on sacred sites or at tombs, and they were designed to cel-

ern visual taste, like a rediscovery of the classical art typical of the

sculpture-making did not get started until the fifth century CE,

ebrate the beauty and excellence of the male form. They stand in

Western European Renaissance.

more than 400 years later. Apart from this huge time gap, there

a frontal pose, gazing straight ahead, with one leg striding forward

12

13


CONNECT WITH LEGACY

Painted Gypsum Kouros Statuette Probably Cypriot, about 560 BC from Naukratis, Egypt 31.5 × 10.1 × 10.1 cm © The Trustee of The British Museum

NMK 2014 SUMMER

THE IDEALIZED STANDARDS FOR ANCIENT SCULPTURE IN KOREA AND GREECE

nese and planar; the figures appear stiff, and their apparel heavy,

ality and superb proportionality between head and body. The exact

projecting a poor sense of depth. With the passage, however, one

identity of this main Buddha is still unknown, and the dearth of

leg would be shown bent, suggesting movement, and a faint smile

historical records on Seokguram beyond the Samgungnyusa, 三國遺事

began to appear on the face, enhancing naturalness and infusing

Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms, hampers in-depth research ef-

the sense of liveliness. Most notably are the images in the pensive

forts. The statue has been described as “ideal,” “idealized realism,”

pose, with a detailed presentation of the arms and legs and a mys-

“harmonious,” and “exquisite,” but no one can say with certainty

terious smile on the face. Such works can be described as projecting

how it was made.

a sense of confidence and even preeminence. Greek sculpture in the Classical period (480–323 BCE) featured

No Kanon–like treatise was ever written, but the size of the main Buddha is the same as that in India’s Mahabodhi Temple, 摩詞菩提寺 or

still greater naturalness of the human form and an organic connec-

大覺寺

tion among the various body parts. Kritios Boy, produced around

was followed. Meanwhile, the Seokguram cave structure has been

480 BCE, counter-posed with the right foot moved forward and

linked to the domes over Buddha images carved on the side of a

the body weight mainly on the left foot. The Diskobolus, or “Discus

cliff at Bamiyan, in Afghanistan as well as to the Pantheon in distant

Thrower,” was completed around 450 BCE. It shows dynamic body

Rome. The size and proportions of the statue and the cave construc-

movement, muscularity, and power, and projects balance as well as

tion specifications were all available to the Seokguram builders;

harmony between tension and relaxation. The tightly-wound pose

the nimbus placement, dome height, sizes of the slab stone, and

allows the viewer to imagine ensuing motion. Such a transition

antechamber were most likely all predetermined. Ultimately, the

in presentation style can also be found in the Buddhist sculpture

measurements applied were the key to achieving impeccable form

from the Unified Silla Period. Examples include the Stone Standing

for both the sculptors of ancient Greece and Unified Silla.

Temple of Supreme Enlightenment, suggesting that a standard

Maitreya and Amitabha Buddha of Gamsansa Temple (719), where

Yet another commonality can be found when comparing the

the figures appear to emerge from solid rock, and the Gold Seated

sculpture of ancient Greece and Unified Silla: the pieces were mod-

Amitabha Buddha from the Pagoda at Hwangboksa Temple Site

els for repeated reproduction in subsequent years. The Bhumispar-

(706), which has the corpulent look typical of Tang Chinese works.

sa mudra (降魔觸地印 touching-the-earth hand gesture for overcom-

Interestingly, Unified Silla statuary includes strictly solemn figures

ing demons) carved inside Seokguram during Unified Silla also

alongside figures with one foot raised and the other heel planted

served as the ideal standard. After the close of the classical era, the

firmly on the ground.

Greek sculptural tradition increasingly emphasized intense emo-

The terms “balance,” “rhythm,” “proportion” and “harmony”

tional expression and dramatic postures, while Unified Silla

aptly describe both Greek classical sculpture and Unified Silla

sculpture gave way to detailed and aristocratic forms in

Buddhist sculpture. The difference is that these descriptions were

Goryeo.

first applied to the former in ancient Greece whereas the words to

Identifying precisely the role of “sculpture” in

portray the latter are mostly from the 20th century. Doryphoros,

the Unified Silla cultural tradition is a very complex

or “Spear-bearer,” produced in bronze by Polykleitos around 440

issue. Importantly, Korean and Greek sculpture of-

BCE, is one of the most famous examples of Greek sculpture from

fer notably different aesthetics that are very hard

the Classical period. The original piece is not extant, but Roman

to compare. However, we have sought here to

marble reproductions provide a good idea of what the original once

find the respective “idealized standards” used in

looked like. The contrapposto pose (most of the weight on one foot

cultural spheres from different time periods and

so that the shoulders and arms twist off-axis from the hips and

geographical places. The most prominent feature

legs) accentuates movement, while the facial expression projects a

of Greek classical sculpture is the realistic three-

and arms touching the thighs. Over time, the overall naturalness

transcendent calmness. The work depicts in realistic detail the rib-

dimensionality, while the Korean sculpture is

of the body depiction increased and the lips became slightly up-

cage, muscles, sinews, blood vessels, hair, and skin texture. It exem-

characterized by abstract representation of the

turned to create the famous “archaic smile.”

plifies what Polykleitos described in his Kanon on what constitutes

human body. However, the common traits

the perfectly harmonious and balanced proportions of the human

of the archaic and classic stages

body in the sculpted form.

of cultural development do

The sculptured Korean Buddhist images from the late Three Kingdoms Period also feature a faint smile on the face and suggest movement in the pose. Buddhism was transmitted to the Korean

The Buddhist figures carved inside Seokguram in the mid-8th

Peninsula via China in the late 4th century onwards, giving rise to

century are Unified Silla sculpture pieces that embody all four of

the construction of many temples. From the 6th century, Buddhist

the abovementioned traits—balance, rhythm, proportion and har-

sculpturing began in earnest. At first, the style was essentially Chi-

mony. The main Buddha is brought alive through three-dimension-

14

Buddha Unified Silla, about 751 H. 326 cm Seokguram Grotto, Gyeongju, Gyeongsanbuk-do National Treasure No. 24 Photo by Oh Seyoon

not follow the progression of time.

15


CONNECT WITH LEGACY

Painted Gypsum Kouros Statuette Probably Cypriot, about 560 BC from Naukratis, Egypt 31.5 × 10.1 × 10.1 cm © The Trustee of The British Museum

NMK 2014 SUMMER

THE IDEALIZED STANDARDS FOR ANCIENT SCULPTURE IN KOREA AND GREECE

nese and planar; the figures appear stiff, and their apparel heavy,

ality and superb proportionality between head and body. The exact

projecting a poor sense of depth. With the passage, however, one

identity of this main Buddha is still unknown, and the dearth of

leg would be shown bent, suggesting movement, and a faint smile

historical records on Seokguram beyond the Samgungnyusa, 三國遺事

began to appear on the face, enhancing naturalness and infusing

Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms, hampers in-depth research ef-

the sense of liveliness. Most notably are the images in the pensive

forts. The statue has been described as “ideal,” “idealized realism,”

pose, with a detailed presentation of the arms and legs and a mys-

“harmonious,” and “exquisite,” but no one can say with certainty

terious smile on the face. Such works can be described as projecting

how it was made.

a sense of confidence and even preeminence. Greek sculpture in the Classical period (480–323 BCE) featured

No Kanon–like treatise was ever written, but the size of the main Buddha is the same as that in India’s Mahabodhi Temple, 摩詞菩提寺 or

still greater naturalness of the human form and an organic connec-

大覺寺

tion among the various body parts. Kritios Boy, produced around

was followed. Meanwhile, the Seokguram cave structure has been

480 BCE, counter-posed with the right foot moved forward and

linked to the domes over Buddha images carved on the side of a

the body weight mainly on the left foot. The Diskobolus, or “Discus

cliff at Bamiyan, in Afghanistan as well as to the Pantheon in distant

Thrower,” was completed around 450 BCE. It shows dynamic body

Rome. The size and proportions of the statue and the cave construc-

movement, muscularity, and power, and projects balance as well as

tion specifications were all available to the Seokguram builders;

harmony between tension and relaxation. The tightly-wound pose

the nimbus placement, dome height, sizes of the slab stone, and

allows the viewer to imagine ensuing motion. Such a transition

antechamber were most likely all predetermined. Ultimately, the

in presentation style can also be found in the Buddhist sculpture

measurements applied were the key to achieving impeccable form

from the Unified Silla Period. Examples include the Stone Standing

for both the sculptors of ancient Greece and Unified Silla.

Temple of Supreme Enlightenment, suggesting that a standard

Maitreya and Amitabha Buddha of Gamsansa Temple (719), where

Yet another commonality can be found when comparing the

the figures appear to emerge from solid rock, and the Gold Seated

sculpture of ancient Greece and Unified Silla: the pieces were mod-

Amitabha Buddha from the Pagoda at Hwangboksa Temple Site

els for repeated reproduction in subsequent years. The Bhumispar-

(706), which has the corpulent look typical of Tang Chinese works.

sa mudra (降魔觸地印 touching-the-earth hand gesture for overcom-

Interestingly, Unified Silla statuary includes strictly solemn figures

ing demons) carved inside Seokguram during Unified Silla also

alongside figures with one foot raised and the other heel planted

served as the ideal standard. After the close of the classical era, the

firmly on the ground.

Greek sculptural tradition increasingly emphasized intense emo-

The terms “balance,” “rhythm,” “proportion” and “harmony”

tional expression and dramatic postures, while Unified Silla

aptly describe both Greek classical sculpture and Unified Silla

sculpture gave way to detailed and aristocratic forms in

Buddhist sculpture. The difference is that these descriptions were

Goryeo.

first applied to the former in ancient Greece whereas the words to

Identifying precisely the role of “sculpture” in

portray the latter are mostly from the 20th century. Doryphoros,

the Unified Silla cultural tradition is a very complex

or “Spear-bearer,” produced in bronze by Polykleitos around 440

issue. Importantly, Korean and Greek sculpture of-

BCE, is one of the most famous examples of Greek sculpture from

fer notably different aesthetics that are very hard

the Classical period. The original piece is not extant, but Roman

to compare. However, we have sought here to

marble reproductions provide a good idea of what the original once

find the respective “idealized standards” used in

looked like. The contrapposto pose (most of the weight on one foot

cultural spheres from different time periods and

so that the shoulders and arms twist off-axis from the hips and

geographical places. The most prominent feature

legs) accentuates movement, while the facial expression projects a

of Greek classical sculpture is the realistic three-

and arms touching the thighs. Over time, the overall naturalness

transcendent calmness. The work depicts in realistic detail the rib-

dimensionality, while the Korean sculpture is

of the body depiction increased and the lips became slightly up-

cage, muscles, sinews, blood vessels, hair, and skin texture. It exem-

characterized by abstract representation of the

turned to create the famous “archaic smile.”

plifies what Polykleitos described in his Kanon on what constitutes

human body. However, the common traits

the perfectly harmonious and balanced proportions of the human

of the archaic and classic stages

body in the sculpted form.

of cultural development do

The sculptured Korean Buddhist images from the late Three Kingdoms Period also feature a faint smile on the face and suggest movement in the pose. Buddhism was transmitted to the Korean

The Buddhist figures carved inside Seokguram in the mid-8th

Peninsula via China in the late 4th century onwards, giving rise to

century are Unified Silla sculpture pieces that embody all four of

the construction of many temples. From the 6th century, Buddhist

the abovementioned traits—balance, rhythm, proportion and har-

sculpturing began in earnest. At first, the style was essentially Chi-

mony. The main Buddha is brought alive through three-dimension-

14

Buddha Unified Silla, about 751 H. 326 cm Seokguram Grotto, Gyeongju, Gyeongsanbuk-do National Treasure No. 24 Photo by Oh Seyoon

not follow the progression of time.

15


SPECIAL EXHIBITION

ART AND LIFE OF THE FIN DE SIÈCLE PARIS Mme Valtesse de la Bigne / Henry Gervex

BEYOND IMPRESSIONISM: MASTERPIECES FROM THE MUSÉE D’ORSAY BY K I M SEU NGI K , A SSOCI AT E CU R ATOR OF T H E EX H I BI T ION DEPA RTM EN T

MAY 3 – AUGUST 31, 2014 SPECIAL EXHIBITION GALLERY

T

he exhibition Beyond Impressionism: Masterpieces from the Musée d’Orsay sheds light on artists who emerged in the late 19th century after Impressionism as well as the brilliant urban culture of modern Paris. It

features 175 works including the paintings of European greats from Claude Monet to Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh and Henri Rousseau, as well as a diverse collection of sculptures, handcrafts, drawings and photographs. Selected from the Musée d’Orsay, a famous center of Impressionist art, these works reflect the changes in art from the late 19th century to the early 20th century and the life of Paris in its rapid transformation into a modern city.

16

17


SPECIAL EXHIBITION

ART AND LIFE OF THE FIN DE SIÈCLE PARIS Mme Valtesse de la Bigne / Henry Gervex

BEYOND IMPRESSIONISM: MASTERPIECES FROM THE MUSÉE D’ORSAY BY K I M SEU NGI K , A SSOCI AT E CU R ATOR OF T H E EX H I BI T ION DEPA RTM EN T

MAY 3 – AUGUST 31, 2014 SPECIAL EXHIBITION GALLERY

T

he exhibition Beyond Impressionism: Masterpieces from the Musée d’Orsay sheds light on artists who emerged in the late 19th century after Impressionism as well as the brilliant urban culture of modern Paris. It

features 175 works including the paintings of European greats from Claude Monet to Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh and Henri Rousseau, as well as a diverse collection of sculptures, handcrafts, drawings and photographs. Selected from the Musée d’Orsay, a famous center of Impressionist art, these works reflect the changes in art from the late 19th century to the early 20th century and the life of Paris in its rapid transformation into a modern city.

16

17


The Eiffel Tower, built as the

brilliantly lit with gas lamps and the newly introduced electric lights and lined with

commemorative arch and

monumental works of architecture, were crowded with out to enjoy city life. The popthe reign of Napoleon III, 1852‒1870 Paris had been completely transformed under the

was a source of inspiration

guiding hand of Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann. The system of 20 administrative

as the symbol of modern

districts, which remains to this day, was established at that time, and within each district not only houses but also parks, public buildings and cultural facilities were cre-

material civilization.

ated. The small maze-like streets were integrated to form wide boulevards and many existing buildings were demolished to make way for new ones. Thanks to progress in the glass and steel industries, buildings with roofs made of large pieces of glass were featured at the Paris World Exposition of 1889. The Eiffel Tower, built as the commemorative arch and entrance to the exposition, was a source of inspiration as the symbol

La Charmeuse de serpents / Henri Rousseau

entrance to the exposition,

View of Section “Paris, la vie mondaine”

ulation of Paris had grown from 500,000 in the 1800 to 2.5 million by 1896. During

View of Section “Architecture á Paris”

The 19th century was a time of transition for the city of Paris. The wide boulevards,

ART AND LIFE OF THE FIN DE SIÈCLE PARIS BEYOND IMPRESSIONISM: MASTERPIECES FROM THE MUSÉE D’ORSAY

CONNECT WITH NMK

Sculptures of Edgar Degas

La brouette verger / Camille Pissarro

THE MODERN CITY OF PARIS

of modern material civilization. LIFE IN PARIS DURING THE BELLE EPOCH

sky on the outskirts of Paris. Paintings of factory workers, cargo workers, and washer

The citizens of Paris reveled in modern city life, taking walks on the wide and orderly

women reflect the humble and busy lives of the common people, hidden beneath the

new boulevards and relishing newfound leisure. From the latter half of the 19th cen-

glamor of Paris.

tury, Paris enjoyed a period of greater affluence than ever before, a time that came

18

to be known as La Belle Epoque (beautiful age). The wealthy upper class and the ris-

AFTER IMPRESSIONISM: ARTISTS WHO LEFT THE CITY BEHIND

ing bourgeois held brilliant parties every night, and dressed in their finest clothes

Impressionists of the late 19th century such as Pierre Auguste Renoir, Claude Monet

they went to the rack track, to concerts and the opera. The clothes and jewels seen in

and Edgar Degas took the everyday life of Paris as their subject, using pure colors in-

the portraits that these Parisians sat for reveal the trend sensitive tastes of that time.

fused with light. Capturing contemporary life in quick brushstrokes, their works were

Aside from the leaders of high society, dancers, singers, actors and others working in

a sign of innovation and change and heralded the birth of modern art. To go into the

diverse fields gathered in Paris also to enjoy the life of pleasure, the golden age and

open air and paint the scene unfolding before the eyes was the common ideal tying

the glittering life of the city.

the artists together up to the 1870s. But with rapid urbanization, changes emerged

While the streets of Paris were crowded with people enjoying themselves, the city

as the artists began to pursue their own artistic worlds rather than the subject of the

also harbored the common people and laborers leading their own weary lives. Artists

city. From the 1880s, Monet began to focus on the changes that appeared in colors

of the late 19th century captured moments from their lives on canvas, one expressing

moment to moment according to the light, and Degas turned to sculpture and color-

the comic side of city through by picturing crowds in a fluster on a rainy day, another

ful pastels. Under the influence of classical art, Renoir used soft colors to highlight the

touching on the darker side of urbanization by depicting grey buildings and grey

contours and volume of the human body. In the end, neither Renoir nor Monet took

19


The Eiffel Tower, built as the

brilliantly lit with gas lamps and the newly introduced electric lights and lined with

commemorative arch and

monumental works of architecture, were crowded with out to enjoy city life. The popthe reign of Napoleon III, 1852‒1870 Paris had been completely transformed under the

was a source of inspiration

guiding hand of Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann. The system of 20 administrative

as the symbol of modern

districts, which remains to this day, was established at that time, and within each district not only houses but also parks, public buildings and cultural facilities were cre-

material civilization.

ated. The small maze-like streets were integrated to form wide boulevards and many existing buildings were demolished to make way for new ones. Thanks to progress in the glass and steel industries, buildings with roofs made of large pieces of glass were featured at the Paris World Exposition of 1889. The Eiffel Tower, built as the commemorative arch and entrance to the exposition, was a source of inspiration as the symbol

La Charmeuse de serpents / Henri Rousseau

entrance to the exposition,

View of Section “Paris, la vie mondaine”

ulation of Paris had grown from 500,000 in the 1800 to 2.5 million by 1896. During

View of Section “Architecture á Paris”

The 19th century was a time of transition for the city of Paris. The wide boulevards,

ART AND LIFE OF THE FIN DE SIÈCLE PARIS BEYOND IMPRESSIONISM: MASTERPIECES FROM THE MUSÉE D’ORSAY

CONNECT WITH NMK

Sculptures of Edgar Degas

La brouette verger / Camille Pissarro

THE MODERN CITY OF PARIS

of modern material civilization. LIFE IN PARIS DURING THE BELLE EPOCH

sky on the outskirts of Paris. Paintings of factory workers, cargo workers, and washer

The citizens of Paris reveled in modern city life, taking walks on the wide and orderly

women reflect the humble and busy lives of the common people, hidden beneath the

new boulevards and relishing newfound leisure. From the latter half of the 19th cen-

glamor of Paris.

tury, Paris enjoyed a period of greater affluence than ever before, a time that came

18

to be known as La Belle Epoque (beautiful age). The wealthy upper class and the ris-

AFTER IMPRESSIONISM: ARTISTS WHO LEFT THE CITY BEHIND

ing bourgeois held brilliant parties every night, and dressed in their finest clothes

Impressionists of the late 19th century such as Pierre Auguste Renoir, Claude Monet

they went to the rack track, to concerts and the opera. The clothes and jewels seen in

and Edgar Degas took the everyday life of Paris as their subject, using pure colors in-

the portraits that these Parisians sat for reveal the trend sensitive tastes of that time.

fused with light. Capturing contemporary life in quick brushstrokes, their works were

Aside from the leaders of high society, dancers, singers, actors and others working in

a sign of innovation and change and heralded the birth of modern art. To go into the

diverse fields gathered in Paris also to enjoy the life of pleasure, the golden age and

open air and paint the scene unfolding before the eyes was the common ideal tying

the glittering life of the city.

the artists together up to the 1870s. But with rapid urbanization, changes emerged

While the streets of Paris were crowded with people enjoying themselves, the city

as the artists began to pursue their own artistic worlds rather than the subject of the

also harbored the common people and laborers leading their own weary lives. Artists

city. From the 1880s, Monet began to focus on the changes that appeared in colors

of the late 19th century captured moments from their lives on canvas, one expressing

moment to moment according to the light, and Degas turned to sculpture and color-

the comic side of city through by picturing crowds in a fluster on a rainy day, another

ful pastels. Under the influence of classical art, Renoir used soft colors to highlight the

touching on the darker side of urbanization by depicting grey buildings and grey

contours and volume of the human body. In the end, neither Renoir nor Monet took

19


coloring of Paul Gauguin’s

pointillism influenced by the science of optics. From the 1880s many artists, departing completely from the noise and bustle of

work Navis treated their

city life, sought to express the mysteries of nature or the spiritual world. Leaving be-

subjects in a flat, decorative

hind the city and its increasing industrialization, in 1886 Paul Gauguin headed for the

way while pursuing a new

small village of Pont-Aven in Bretagne in western France in search of the wildness and primitiveness of nature. With a group of followers, he developed the Synthetism

art for a new age.

style, painting spiritual subjects in clear simplified forms and strong colors. Vincent van Gogh, who had arrived in Paris in 1886, soon became disillusioned with life in the city and in 1888 left for Arles in the south of France. There he dreamt of a community of artists who would bond with nature under the strong sunlight, and produced striking works that expressed his inner world. Paul Cézanne, who had failed success in Paris, settled down in his hometown of Aix-en-Provence in the early 1880s. There he explored ways of reducing nature to its basic geometric forms and produced a series of works that had great influence on 20th century artists such as Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso. DREAM OF THE END OF THE CENTURY Following publication of the “Symbolist Manifesto” in 1886 by the poet Jean Moréas, Symbolism became the major trend across all genres of art, literature, and philosophy at the end of the century. Symbolists rejected the idea of a world dominated by science and technology and sought to express not the material world but ideas, fantasies, and dreams. Modeling themselves on the poet Stéphane Mallarmé, young writers tended toward allusion rather than description, and metaphor rather than designation. Symbolist artists such as Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and Odilon Redon focused

ART AND LIFE OF THE FIN DE SIÈCLE PARIS BEYOND IMPRESSIONISM: MASTERPIECES FROM THE MUSÉE D’ORSAY

Influenced by the pure

and Paul Signac showed so-called Neo-Impressionist works featuring the technique of

CONNECT WITH NMK

part in the final Impressionist exhibition in Paris, while artists such as Georges Seurat

on myths and dreams, the unconscious and the immaterial and painted a world

Essai de figure en plein air: Femme à l’ombrelle tournée vers la droite Claude Monet 1886 Oil on canvas, 131 × 88 cm ©Photo RMN / Musée d'Orsay - GNC media, 2014

Eugène Boch (Le poète) Vincent van Gogh 1888 Oil on canvas, 60.3 × 45.4 cm ©Photo RMN / Musée d'Orsay - GNC media, 2014

La Femme au boa noir Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec 1892 Oil on cardboard, 50 × 40 cm ©Photo RMN / Musée d'Orsay - GNC media, 2014

Les lavandières à Pont-Aven ou Lavandières au Moulin Simonou Paul Gauguin 1886 Oil on canvas, 71 × 90 cm ©Photo RMN / Musée d'Orsay - GNC media, 2014

completely different to reality. Though Henri Rousseau was active at the same time as the Impressionists he created an exotic world arising from his imagination. His bold method of expression paved the way for Surrealism in the 20th century. The belief that the purpose of art was not just to reproduce nature was succeeded by a group of late 19th century artists called Les Nabis, which included Paul Sérusier, Pierre Bonnard, Maurice Denis and Édouard Vuillard. The word “Nabis” originates from Hebrew and Arabic and means “prophet.” Influenced by the pure coloring of Paul Gauguin’s work they treated their subjects in a flat, decorative way while pursuing a new art for a new age. The exhibition Beyond Impressionism: Masterpieces from the Musée d’Orsay is storied with the changes that marked the brilliant art scene of the late 19th to early 20th century. Along with the works of the masters who led art through its development from postImpressionism to modern art, the exhibition also features the Art Nouveau craftworks of René Lalique and Émile Gallé, architectural drawings showing the modernity of Paris, drawings by artists such as Théophile Steinlen that capture aspects of life in Paris, photographs of the Eiffel Tower construction site taken by Louis-Émile Durandelle, and photographs of the ateliers of the artists of the day. Visitors will be able to feel the spirit of the artists who lived in this period of transition leading to the 20th century and explore aspects of Paris as the capital of art and a modern city.

20

21


coloring of Paul Gauguin’s

pointillism influenced by the science of optics. From the 1880s many artists, departing completely from the noise and bustle of

work Navis treated their

city life, sought to express the mysteries of nature or the spiritual world. Leaving be-

subjects in a flat, decorative

hind the city and its increasing industrialization, in 1886 Paul Gauguin headed for the

way while pursuing a new

small village of Pont-Aven in Bretagne in western France in search of the wildness and primitiveness of nature. With a group of followers, he developed the Synthetism

art for a new age.

style, painting spiritual subjects in clear simplified forms and strong colors. Vincent van Gogh, who had arrived in Paris in 1886, soon became disillusioned with life in the city and in 1888 left for Arles in the south of France. There he dreamt of a community of artists who would bond with nature under the strong sunlight, and produced striking works that expressed his inner world. Paul Cézanne, who had failed success in Paris, settled down in his hometown of Aix-en-Provence in the early 1880s. There he explored ways of reducing nature to its basic geometric forms and produced a series of works that had great influence on 20th century artists such as Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso. DREAM OF THE END OF THE CENTURY Following publication of the “Symbolist Manifesto” in 1886 by the poet Jean Moréas, Symbolism became the major trend across all genres of art, literature, and philosophy at the end of the century. Symbolists rejected the idea of a world dominated by science and technology and sought to express not the material world but ideas, fantasies, and dreams. Modeling themselves on the poet Stéphane Mallarmé, young writers tended toward allusion rather than description, and metaphor rather than designation. Symbolist artists such as Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and Odilon Redon focused

ART AND LIFE OF THE FIN DE SIÈCLE PARIS BEYOND IMPRESSIONISM: MASTERPIECES FROM THE MUSÉE D’ORSAY

Influenced by the pure

and Paul Signac showed so-called Neo-Impressionist works featuring the technique of

CONNECT WITH NMK

part in the final Impressionist exhibition in Paris, while artists such as Georges Seurat

on myths and dreams, the unconscious and the immaterial and painted a world

Essai de figure en plein air: Femme à l’ombrelle tournée vers la droite Claude Monet 1886 Oil on canvas, 131 × 88 cm ©Photo RMN / Musée d'Orsay - GNC media, 2014

Eugène Boch (Le poète) Vincent van Gogh 1888 Oil on canvas, 60.3 × 45.4 cm ©Photo RMN / Musée d'Orsay - GNC media, 2014

La Femme au boa noir Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec 1892 Oil on cardboard, 50 × 40 cm ©Photo RMN / Musée d'Orsay - GNC media, 2014

Les lavandières à Pont-Aven ou Lavandières au Moulin Simonou Paul Gauguin 1886 Oil on canvas, 71 × 90 cm ©Photo RMN / Musée d'Orsay - GNC media, 2014

completely different to reality. Though Henri Rousseau was active at the same time as the Impressionists he created an exotic world arising from his imagination. His bold method of expression paved the way for Surrealism in the 20th century. The belief that the purpose of art was not just to reproduce nature was succeeded by a group of late 19th century artists called Les Nabis, which included Paul Sérusier, Pierre Bonnard, Maurice Denis and Édouard Vuillard. The word “Nabis” originates from Hebrew and Arabic and means “prophet.” Influenced by the pure coloring of Paul Gauguin’s work they treated their subjects in a flat, decorative way while pursuing a new art for a new age. The exhibition Beyond Impressionism: Masterpieces from the Musée d’Orsay is storied with the changes that marked the brilliant art scene of the late 19th to early 20th century. Along with the works of the masters who led art through its development from postImpressionism to modern art, the exhibition also features the Art Nouveau craftworks of René Lalique and Émile Gallé, architectural drawings showing the modernity of Paris, drawings by artists such as Théophile Steinlen that capture aspects of life in Paris, photographs of the Eiffel Tower construction site taken by Louis-Émile Durandelle, and photographs of the ateliers of the artists of the day. Visitors will be able to feel the spirit of the artists who lived in this period of transition leading to the 20th century and explore aspects of Paris as the capital of art and a modern city.

20

21


PARIS, CITY OF MEMORIES & INSPIRATION

PARIS, CITY OF MEMORIES & INSPIRATION

CONNECT WITH NMK

VISITOR

JANG BOIN university lecturer JEONG HYERAN housewife 1.  I first visited the Musée d’Orsay when

3.  The most memorable work was

I was 20 and taking a backpacking trip

Claude Monet’s Londres, Le Parlement,

in Europe. I didn’t much about it at the

trouée de soleil dans le brouillard. It is a

time. I was just conscious of the fact that

work that has a contemplative feel over-

I was visiting a famous place. Now that

all. It’s colorful and impressive but it also

time has passed, I wondered how differ-

seems to speak of the history of Britain,

ently I would feel, and that’s why I came

veiled in mist.

to see the exhibition. 4.  I would recommend the exhibition

I N T ERV I EW ED BY T H E EDI TOR I A L T EA M

QUESTIONS ON THE SPECIAL EXHIBITION

2.  Seeing the works from the Musée

to anyone who first visited the Musée

d’Orsay again after brings back memo-

d’Orsay at a young age, like me. Seeing

ries. Like my friend who also saw the ex-

the works again brought back memories

hibition said, the exhibition was hugely

of that time and also inspired new feel-

inspiring and made me want to study

ings and impressions.

French history and 19th century fashion all over again.

HAN EUNJU housewife KIM JEONGHUI housewife

1 What made you come to see the exhibition Beyond Impressionism: Masterpieces of the Musée d’Orsay?

2 What was your impression of the exhibition?

1.  We have a group of friends who

3.  The most impressive work was

sometimes visit exhibitions together.

Mme Charles Max by Giovanni Boldini.

We came here after seeing the ad for the

Though it was only a painting, it was as

Musée d’Orsay exhibition at the National

if I could feel the texture of the dress.

Museum of Korea. 4.  It’s a rare opportunity to be able to

3

2.  I would have liked to see more

see these works without travelling all

explanations of the works. The boards

the way to Europe. I would like to tell

in the halls and the audio guide did

everyone around me to see the exhibi-

4

not provide quite enough information.

tion, especially the children.

Who would you like to recommend this exhibition to, and why?

The exhibition has inspired me to learn

What was the most memorable work in the exhibition?

more about art.

LEE EUNYEONG

café owner

PARK JINBONG office worker

CHOE YEONGIN housewife

1.  I don’t know much about art but have

3.  As expected, I liked the Monet works

1.  I once lived in Paris twenty years ago.

3.  I found Mme Valtesse de la Bigne by

always liked the works of Claude Monet.

best. If I had to pick another work, it

The exhibition made me think about that

Henri Gervex most memorable. The

I like the special beauty and brightness

would be Visiteurs à l’Exposition univer-

time, so I came here with a friend.

elegance of the woman in a shimmering

of the Impressionist works. I heard that

selle de 1900, sous une pluie torrentielle by

the exhibition included some of Monet’s

Charles Paul Raynouard. It aroused my

2.  I had expected to see mostly works by

works, so I made this trip to Seoul spe-

curiosity and I wanted to stay looking at

the masters such as Monet and van Gogh,

4.  I’d like to recommend the exhibi-

cially to see it.

it. It made me feel as if I were in the pic-

but there was a diverse collection which

tion to my husband, who lived in Paris

ture walking the streets back in that time.

made the exhibition much more interest-

in 1990s. In his mind, Paris is his second

ing. There was one room where the walls

home so the exhibition should be a good respite for him.

2.  I was pleased that there were more

white dress was impressive.

works than I had expected. I thought

4.  It’s a good place for couples like us

were painted red and hung with por-

there would be only paintings and

to go on a date. I hope other couples will

traits of aristocrats over one meter high.

sculptures, so it was wonderful to see the

enjoy the overall warm, tranquil atmo-

I stayed there for a long time, feeling the

beautiful accessories and dishes that gave

sphere of the exhibition.

beauty and opulence of that period.

a glimpse into life in those times.

22

23


PARIS, CITY OF MEMORIES & INSPIRATION

PARIS, CITY OF MEMORIES & INSPIRATION

CONNECT WITH NMK

VISITOR

JANG BOIN university lecturer JEONG HYERAN housewife 1.  I first visited the Musée d’Orsay when

3.  The most memorable work was

I was 20 and taking a backpacking trip

Claude Monet’s Londres, Le Parlement,

in Europe. I didn’t much about it at the

trouée de soleil dans le brouillard. It is a

time. I was just conscious of the fact that

work that has a contemplative feel over-

I was visiting a famous place. Now that

all. It’s colorful and impressive but it also

time has passed, I wondered how differ-

seems to speak of the history of Britain,

ently I would feel, and that’s why I came

veiled in mist.

to see the exhibition. 4.  I would recommend the exhibition

I N T ERV I EW ED BY T H E EDI TOR I A L T EA M

QUESTIONS ON THE SPECIAL EXHIBITION

2.  Seeing the works from the Musée

to anyone who first visited the Musée

d’Orsay again after brings back memo-

d’Orsay at a young age, like me. Seeing

ries. Like my friend who also saw the ex-

the works again brought back memories

hibition said, the exhibition was hugely

of that time and also inspired new feel-

inspiring and made me want to study

ings and impressions.

French history and 19th century fashion all over again.

HAN EUNJU housewife KIM JEONGHUI housewife

1 What made you come to see the exhibition Beyond Impressionism: Masterpieces of the Musée d’Orsay?

2 What was your impression of the exhibition?

1.  We have a group of friends who

3.  The most impressive work was

sometimes visit exhibitions together.

Mme Charles Max by Giovanni Boldini.

We came here after seeing the ad for the

Though it was only a painting, it was as

Musée d’Orsay exhibition at the National

if I could feel the texture of the dress.

Museum of Korea. 4.  It’s a rare opportunity to be able to

3

2.  I would have liked to see more

see these works without travelling all

explanations of the works. The boards

the way to Europe. I would like to tell

in the halls and the audio guide did

everyone around me to see the exhibi-

4

not provide quite enough information.

tion, especially the children.

Who would you like to recommend this exhibition to, and why?

The exhibition has inspired me to learn

What was the most memorable work in the exhibition?

more about art.

LEE EUNYEONG

café owner

PARK JINBONG office worker

CHOE YEONGIN housewife

1.  I don’t know much about art but have

3.  As expected, I liked the Monet works

1.  I once lived in Paris twenty years ago.

3.  I found Mme Valtesse de la Bigne by

always liked the works of Claude Monet.

best. If I had to pick another work, it

The exhibition made me think about that

Henri Gervex most memorable. The

I like the special beauty and brightness

would be Visiteurs à l’Exposition univer-

time, so I came here with a friend.

elegance of the woman in a shimmering

of the Impressionist works. I heard that

selle de 1900, sous une pluie torrentielle by

the exhibition included some of Monet’s

Charles Paul Raynouard. It aroused my

2.  I had expected to see mostly works by

works, so I made this trip to Seoul spe-

curiosity and I wanted to stay looking at

the masters such as Monet and van Gogh,

4.  I’d like to recommend the exhibi-

cially to see it.

it. It made me feel as if I were in the pic-

but there was a diverse collection which

tion to my husband, who lived in Paris

ture walking the streets back in that time.

made the exhibition much more interest-

in 1990s. In his mind, Paris is his second

ing. There was one room where the walls

home so the exhibition should be a good respite for him.

2.  I was pleased that there were more

white dress was impressive.

works than I had expected. I thought

4.  It’s a good place for couples like us

were painted red and hung with por-

there would be only paintings and

to go on a date. I hope other couples will

traits of aristocrats over one meter high.

sculptures, so it was wonderful to see the

enjoy the overall warm, tranquil atmo-

I stayed there for a long time, feeling the

beautiful accessories and dishes that gave

sphere of the exhibition.

beauty and opulence of that period.

a glimpse into life in those times.

22

23


YU KYUNGHEE, ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF THE FINE ARTS DEPARTMENT

THEME EXHIBITION

May 2 – October 26, 2014 BUDDHIST PAINTING GALLERY, PERMANENT EXHIBITION HALL, 2F

24

ENCOUNTER WITH AMITAYUS IN SUKHAVATI: BUDDHIST HANGING SCROLL AT HEUNGGUKSA TEMPLE

CONNECT WITH NMK

Buddhist Hanging Scroll at Heungguksa Temple, Joseon Dynasty, 1902, 628 × 381 cm

ENCOUNTER WITH AMITAYUS IN SUKHAVATI: BUDDHIST HANGING SCROLL AT HEUNGGUKSA TEMPLE

T

he latest exhibition features the

reflects her wishes to meet Amitayus in

at the time who adopted Western tech-

hanging scroll from Heungguksa

Paradise.

niques such as chiaroscuro, he created

Temple in Hanmisan Mountain,

Moreover, the royal consort Eom

his own artistic language based on tradi-

which dates to 1902. When completely

hosted at Heungguksa Temple a cer-

tional techniques while also seeking to

unfurled, the painting is over 6m high.

emony called Manilhoe, which involves

incorporate new elements.

Depicted on the large picture plane are

chanting to the Amitayus/Amitabha

with seven figures including Amitayus

for ten thousand days, or a period of 30

cloth imported from Manchester, Eng-

in Sukhavati (Paradise), the bodhisattvas

years, to pray for the peace and prosper-

land. After the opening of Korea’s ports,

Avalokitesvara and Mahasthamaprapta,

ity of the royal family and her son. At

cotton goods accounted for the lion’s

Mahakasyapa and Ananda, and Manjusri

her request, the event was presided over

share of imports. They were purchased

and Samantabhadra. The Buddha’s hand

by the Monk Haesong, who was known

mostly by wealthy members of the upper

is outstretched to greet those heading to

for his mastery of the Shurangama Sutra

class living mostly in Seoul and Gyeong-

Paradise, and surrounding the figure are

and the Avatamsaka Sutra from Geon-

gi-do Province. As a painting commis-

clouds of colors representing holy energy.

bongsa Temple, Geumgangsan Mountain.

sioned by royalty, the Heungguksa hang-

Amitayus is another name of Am-

The base for the painting is cotton

And to accommodate the large gathering,

ing scroll was produced on high quality

itabha, the Buddha who presides over

a new building named Mitajeon (Hall of

English cotton.

the Western Pure Land preaching the

Amitabha) was constructed in front of

law. They are often distinguished from

the Heungguksa’s main hall Yaksajeon

people in the period following the open-

each other as the Buddha of Infinite Life

(Hall of the Medicine Buddha). Manil-

ing of Korea’s ports as they looked toward

(Amitayus) and the Buddha of Infinite

hoe, where the mantra “namu amitabul”

Amitayus to save them in a time of

Light (Amitabha). The early 20th century

(mindfulness of the Buddha) was chant-

political and social turmoil and the close

when the Heungguksa hanging scroll was

ed ten thousand times a day, was thus

relationship between expression of faith

painted was a period of historical and

held at the temple. As previously men-

and iconography in Buddhist art.

political upheaval in Korea. To appease

tioned, this period in Korean history was

The exhibition Encounter with Ami-

their fears over social instability and their

a turbulent one and the people dreamed

tayus in Sukhavati is an opportunity to

very lives, people tended to use the name

of Paradise as they invoked the name of

explore stories in history and the lives

Amitayus (Muryangsubul in Korean).

Amitayus, the Buddha of Infinite Life, as

of people living in the modern period

a way to overcome their fears and uncer-

through a single modern Buddhist paint-

tainty of real life.

ing that shows both an experimental

The record of the painting found at the bottom of the scroll gives the background to the artwork. The painting

The Heungguksa hanging scroll was

was commissioned by the Honorable

painted by Gyeongseondang Eungseok,

Princess Consort Eom, who had been a

the artist monk and master Buddhist

court lady attending on Empress My-

painter of the modern period. Active

eongseong before rising to the position of

mostly in Seoul and the Gyeonggi-do

royal consort. The royal consort Eom had

area, he produced some 70 Buddhist

entered the palace at the age of five as

paintings in his lifetime. His skill was

a court lady in training. She served as a

such that he received many commissions

close attendant of Empress Myeongseong

from the royal court. In contrast

and later became the Emperor’s concu-

to some artist

bine. When the Empress was killed by

monks

THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF KOREA HOSTS THE EXHIBITION

Japanese in 1895 she rose to the position

ENCOUNTER WITH AMITAYUS IN SUKHAVATI: BUDDHIST

of royal consort and bore a son named Yi

HANGING SCROLL AT HEUNGGUKSA TEMPLE FROM MAY 2

Eun, 1897‒1970 later named Prince Imperial

TO OCTOBER 26, 2014 IN THE BUDDHIST PAINTING GALLERY.

Yeongchin, who remained her only blood

THE EXHIBITION, OPENED IN TIME WITH BUDDHA’S

relative. She commissioned the Buddhist

BIRTHDAY, IS THE EIGHTH IN A SERIES FEATURING A

hanging scroll to pray for the well-being

LARGE BUDDHIST PAINTING CALLED GWAEBUL (BUDDHIST

of Emperor Gojong, the 26th monarch of

HANGING SCROLL), WHICH IS HUNG OUTDOORS ON

the Joseon Dynasty, the crown prince and

CEREMONIAL OCCASIONS. THE FIRST EXHIBITION IN THE

his wife, herself and her son and had it

SERIES WAS HELD IN 2006 FEATURING THE HANGING

enshrined at Heungguksa Temple in Goy-

SCROLL AT CHEONGGOKSA TEMPLE.

ang, Gyeonggi-do Province. The painting

The painting reflects the faith of the

spirit based and adherence to tradition.

25


YU KYUNGHEE, ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF THE FINE ARTS DEPARTMENT

THEME EXHIBITION

May 2 – October 26, 2014 BUDDHIST PAINTING GALLERY, PERMANENT EXHIBITION HALL, 2F

24

ENCOUNTER WITH AMITAYUS IN SUKHAVATI: BUDDHIST HANGING SCROLL AT HEUNGGUKSA TEMPLE

CONNECT WITH NMK

Buddhist Hanging Scroll at Heungguksa Temple, Joseon Dynasty, 1902, 628 × 381 cm

ENCOUNTER WITH AMITAYUS IN SUKHAVATI: BUDDHIST HANGING SCROLL AT HEUNGGUKSA TEMPLE

T

he latest exhibition features the

reflects her wishes to meet Amitayus in

at the time who adopted Western tech-

hanging scroll from Heungguksa

Paradise.

niques such as chiaroscuro, he created

Temple in Hanmisan Mountain,

Moreover, the royal consort Eom

his own artistic language based on tradi-

which dates to 1902. When completely

hosted at Heungguksa Temple a cer-

tional techniques while also seeking to

unfurled, the painting is over 6m high.

emony called Manilhoe, which involves

incorporate new elements.

Depicted on the large picture plane are

chanting to the Amitayus/Amitabha

with seven figures including Amitayus

for ten thousand days, or a period of 30

cloth imported from Manchester, Eng-

in Sukhavati (Paradise), the bodhisattvas

years, to pray for the peace and prosper-

land. After the opening of Korea’s ports,

Avalokitesvara and Mahasthamaprapta,

ity of the royal family and her son. At

cotton goods accounted for the lion’s

Mahakasyapa and Ananda, and Manjusri

her request, the event was presided over

share of imports. They were purchased

and Samantabhadra. The Buddha’s hand

by the Monk Haesong, who was known

mostly by wealthy members of the upper

is outstretched to greet those heading to

for his mastery of the Shurangama Sutra

class living mostly in Seoul and Gyeong-

Paradise, and surrounding the figure are

and the Avatamsaka Sutra from Geon-

gi-do Province. As a painting commis-

clouds of colors representing holy energy.

bongsa Temple, Geumgangsan Mountain.

sioned by royalty, the Heungguksa hang-

Amitayus is another name of Am-

The base for the painting is cotton

And to accommodate the large gathering,

ing scroll was produced on high quality

itabha, the Buddha who presides over

a new building named Mitajeon (Hall of

English cotton.

the Western Pure Land preaching the

Amitabha) was constructed in front of

law. They are often distinguished from

the Heungguksa’s main hall Yaksajeon

people in the period following the open-

each other as the Buddha of Infinite Life

(Hall of the Medicine Buddha). Manil-

ing of Korea’s ports as they looked toward

(Amitayus) and the Buddha of Infinite

hoe, where the mantra “namu amitabul”

Amitayus to save them in a time of

Light (Amitabha). The early 20th century

(mindfulness of the Buddha) was chant-

political and social turmoil and the close

when the Heungguksa hanging scroll was

ed ten thousand times a day, was thus

relationship between expression of faith

painted was a period of historical and

held at the temple. As previously men-

and iconography in Buddhist art.

political upheaval in Korea. To appease

tioned, this period in Korean history was

The exhibition Encounter with Ami-

their fears over social instability and their

a turbulent one and the people dreamed

tayus in Sukhavati is an opportunity to

very lives, people tended to use the name

of Paradise as they invoked the name of

explore stories in history and the lives

Amitayus (Muryangsubul in Korean).

Amitayus, the Buddha of Infinite Life, as

of people living in the modern period

a way to overcome their fears and uncer-

through a single modern Buddhist paint-

tainty of real life.

ing that shows both an experimental

The record of the painting found at the bottom of the scroll gives the background to the artwork. The painting

The Heungguksa hanging scroll was

was commissioned by the Honorable

painted by Gyeongseondang Eungseok,

Princess Consort Eom, who had been a

the artist monk and master Buddhist

court lady attending on Empress My-

painter of the modern period. Active

eongseong before rising to the position of

mostly in Seoul and the Gyeonggi-do

royal consort. The royal consort Eom had

area, he produced some 70 Buddhist

entered the palace at the age of five as

paintings in his lifetime. His skill was

a court lady in training. She served as a

such that he received many commissions

close attendant of Empress Myeongseong

from the royal court. In contrast

and later became the Emperor’s concu-

to some artist

bine. When the Empress was killed by

monks

THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF KOREA HOSTS THE EXHIBITION

Japanese in 1895 she rose to the position

ENCOUNTER WITH AMITAYUS IN SUKHAVATI: BUDDHIST

of royal consort and bore a son named Yi

HANGING SCROLL AT HEUNGGUKSA TEMPLE FROM MAY 2

Eun, 1897‒1970 later named Prince Imperial

TO OCTOBER 26, 2014 IN THE BUDDHIST PAINTING GALLERY.

Yeongchin, who remained her only blood

THE EXHIBITION, OPENED IN TIME WITH BUDDHA’S

relative. She commissioned the Buddhist

BIRTHDAY, IS THE EIGHTH IN A SERIES FEATURING A

hanging scroll to pray for the well-being

LARGE BUDDHIST PAINTING CALLED GWAEBUL (BUDDHIST

of Emperor Gojong, the 26th monarch of

HANGING SCROLL), WHICH IS HUNG OUTDOORS ON

the Joseon Dynasty, the crown prince and

CEREMONIAL OCCASIONS. THE FIRST EXHIBITION IN THE

his wife, herself and her son and had it

SERIES WAS HELD IN 2006 FEATURING THE HANGING

enshrined at Heungguksa Temple in Goy-

SCROLL AT CHEONGGOKSA TEMPLE.

ang, Gyeonggi-do Province. The painting

The painting reflects the faith of the

spirit based and adherence to tradition.

25


A display of many various pottery items on the second floor

GAYA: A MARITIME NATION & KINGDOM OF IRON T H E EDI TOR I A L T EA M OF T H E NATIONA L MUSEUM OF KOR EA

26

T

RNM EXHIBITION. 1

he Gimhae National Museum has been reopened after a year of extensive renovation work that began in April 2013. The permanent galleries, located on the first

and second floors, have undergone complete change with all

APRIL 1, 2014 – PERMANENT EXHIBITION GALLERIES, GIMHAE NATIONAL MUSEUM

outdated facilities replaced and the exhibitions reorganized to more clearly communicate certain themes. While remaining faithful to its role as a museum devoted to the Gaya culture, the Gimhae National Museum has made notable changes to The Gimhae National Museum has been reopened on April 1, 2014

expand its educational function.

27


A display of many various pottery items on the second floor

GAYA: A MARITIME NATION & KINGDOM OF IRON T H E EDI TOR I A L T EA M OF T H E NATIONA L MUSEUM OF KOR EA

26

T

RNM EXHIBITION. 1

he Gimhae National Museum has been reopened after a year of extensive renovation work that began in April 2013. The permanent galleries, located on the first

and second floors, have undergone complete change with all

APRIL 1, 2014 – PERMANENT EXHIBITION GALLERIES, GIMHAE NATIONAL MUSEUM

outdated facilities replaced and the exhibitions reorganized to more clearly communicate certain themes. While remaining faithful to its role as a museum devoted to the Gaya culture, the Gimhae National Museum has made notable changes to The Gimhae National Museum has been reopened on April 1, 2014

expand its educational function.

27


and legends related to the foundation of the ancient Gaya Confederation. It is a city where the remains of Gaya can be seen everywhere you turn, with some of the major sites being the dolmens of Gusan-dong, which are among the largest in Korea, the royal tombs of Geumgwan Gaya in Daeseong-dong, and the Bonghwang-dong site where relics such as parts of old boats and oars attest to Gaya’s maritime trade. A comprehensive overview of the wonderful culture and spiritual legacy of Gaya can be seen at the Gimhae National Museum. With the reopening of the museum and its perma-

GAYA: A MARITIME NATION & KINGDOM OF IRON

Gimhae in Gyeongsangnam-do Province is steeped in myths

CONNECT WITH NMK

OVERVIEW OF GAYA, THE MYSTERIOUS ANCIENT KINGDOM

area before foundation of Geumgwan Gaya. There are so many

and music and food. A notable item is the earthenware vessel

of them that visitors are surprised to realize such ornaments

in the shape of a house, discovered recently at the Seok-dong

were made in the Bronze Age.

site in Changwon, which is on public display for the first time.

The final part of the first floor exhibition is devoted to the

The vessel is a model of a two-storied house with a gabled roof,

foundation and development of Gaya and includes a display

comprised of two bays in width and depth and nine pillars.

of mounted dishes and other well-made vessels that exemplify

The walls have been decorated with thin incised patterns with

the beauty of Gaya earthenware. Other artifacts include pom-

a door depicted in what appears to be the front. Judging from

meled swords and iron goods with bird-shaped barbs, which

the spout for filling the vessel in the middle of the roof and

give a glimpse into the practice of bird worship and the spiri-

the spout for pouring at the front where the door is found, this

tual life of the Gaya people, as aspect that is further explored

piece of pottery was designed to hold liquid.

on the second floor. Silla style earthenware, belt pendants, earrings and other

Indeed a collection of earthenware, including bird-shaped vessels, can be found exhibited on the second floor of the mu-

nent exhibition galleries, the story of Gaya is vividly presented

items that appeared with the introduction of Silla civilization

seum. The number of artifacts is so great that entering this part

in greater detail and depth, thanks to the storytelling approach

into Gaya territory hint at the final days of Gaya.

of the exhibition it is like walking into a pottery store. In fact

and organization of each exhibition theme in a separate space.

this section of the gallery has been designed to give visitors an

Plate Armours of Gaya

At the start of the exhibition the continued historical recogni-

SECOND FLOOR: GAYA AND THE GAYA PEOPLE

idea of what the museum’s storeroom looks like and stimulate

tion of Gaya is explored through documentary evidence. Gal-

The second floor exhibition is organized under the keywords

their imagination. The final section of the exhibition features

lery I on the first floor gallery is devoted to telling the story of

life, pottery, iron, and exchange into four rooms: Life of the

the boat and oar found at the Bonghwang-dong site, which are

Gaya’s maritime exchange and is hence painted the blue-black

Gaya People; Beauty of Gaya Pottery; Gaya, Kingdom of Iron;

the earliest example of modes of transportation from Geumg-

color of the sea while Gallery II on the second floor is painted

and Gaya, Maritime Kingdom. The Gaya people lived by raising

wan Gaya and concrete evidence of the kingdom’s maritime

dark brown as a setting for exploration of Gaya’s iron culture.

silkworms and making silken cloth, cultivating grains, produc-

exchange.

Thanks to these efforts to improve the exhibition environment,

ing iron, and engaging in trade. As iron production and trade

which include lowering the display level to enable better view-

were especially active, Gaya was known as a kingdom of iron

sea routes, and the Gaya people, who were skilled in making

ing, visitors can understand the themes more clearly.

and a maritime kingdom. The people cultivated rice and other

steel thanks to a plentiful supply of iron, have been somewhat

crops for food and also caught fish and collected shellfish. The

shrouded in mystery due to a lack of materials. At the newly

FIRST FLOOR: THE WAY TO GAYA

exhibition explores the daily life in Gaya by shedding light

reopened Gimhae National Museum, however, the real story of

The first floor exhibition traces the history of Gaya in chrono-

on its varied aspects of the culture such as its excellent earth-

Gaya can be discovered through a rich and diverse display of

logical order. The relics are organized under themes according

enware and iron making skills, construction of large tumuli,

artifacts.

House-shaped Pottery Gaya Seok-dong, Changwon H. 18.0 cm

Bird-shaped Pottery Gaya Mangdeok-ri, Gimhae H. 15.5 cm

Gaya, a kingdom that played a central role in trade over

to period, making their distinguishing features clear in context. The themes for the rooms on the first floor are Prehistoric Culture of the Lower Nakdonggang River, Dawn of Gaya, and Foundation and Development of Gaya. The display starts with a collection of the oldest extant remains from the Nakdonggang River Basin. These include relics from the Paleolithic Age, when people first began to inhabit the river basin area, large shell mounds from the Neolithic Age when people began to live in settled lives, and burnished red pottery, polished stone daggers, and bronze daggers from the Bronze Age, which were symbols of high rank. The collection of comb-patterned pottery is arranged in a way that enables visitors to compare pattern variations and understand the imporBoat and Oar, L. 390 cm, Bonghwang-dong site

28

tance of these works in history. Also on display are a diverse collection of tools that provide insight into the way of life of the Bronze Age people as they began rice cultivation in the downstream part of the Nakdonggang River Basin. Items such as double-blade daggers and stone adzes show the development of woodworking skills. There is also a collection of beautiful accessories made of glass or carved jade and crystal. Most of these artifacts were discovered in the tumuli of Yangdong-ri, Gimhae, and are valuable materials for study of the people who inhabited the Gimhae

29


and legends related to the foundation of the ancient Gaya Confederation. It is a city where the remains of Gaya can be seen everywhere you turn, with some of the major sites being the dolmens of Gusan-dong, which are among the largest in Korea, the royal tombs of Geumgwan Gaya in Daeseong-dong, and the Bonghwang-dong site where relics such as parts of old boats and oars attest to Gaya’s maritime trade. A comprehensive overview of the wonderful culture and spiritual legacy of Gaya can be seen at the Gimhae National Museum. With the reopening of the museum and its perma-

GAYA: A MARITIME NATION & KINGDOM OF IRON

Gimhae in Gyeongsangnam-do Province is steeped in myths

CONNECT WITH NMK

OVERVIEW OF GAYA, THE MYSTERIOUS ANCIENT KINGDOM

area before foundation of Geumgwan Gaya. There are so many

and music and food. A notable item is the earthenware vessel

of them that visitors are surprised to realize such ornaments

in the shape of a house, discovered recently at the Seok-dong

were made in the Bronze Age.

site in Changwon, which is on public display for the first time.

The final part of the first floor exhibition is devoted to the

The vessel is a model of a two-storied house with a gabled roof,

foundation and development of Gaya and includes a display

comprised of two bays in width and depth and nine pillars.

of mounted dishes and other well-made vessels that exemplify

The walls have been decorated with thin incised patterns with

the beauty of Gaya earthenware. Other artifacts include pom-

a door depicted in what appears to be the front. Judging from

meled swords and iron goods with bird-shaped barbs, which

the spout for filling the vessel in the middle of the roof and

give a glimpse into the practice of bird worship and the spiri-

the spout for pouring at the front where the door is found, this

tual life of the Gaya people, as aspect that is further explored

piece of pottery was designed to hold liquid.

on the second floor. Silla style earthenware, belt pendants, earrings and other

Indeed a collection of earthenware, including bird-shaped vessels, can be found exhibited on the second floor of the mu-

nent exhibition galleries, the story of Gaya is vividly presented

items that appeared with the introduction of Silla civilization

seum. The number of artifacts is so great that entering this part

in greater detail and depth, thanks to the storytelling approach

into Gaya territory hint at the final days of Gaya.

of the exhibition it is like walking into a pottery store. In fact

and organization of each exhibition theme in a separate space.

this section of the gallery has been designed to give visitors an

Plate Armours of Gaya

At the start of the exhibition the continued historical recogni-

SECOND FLOOR: GAYA AND THE GAYA PEOPLE

idea of what the museum’s storeroom looks like and stimulate

tion of Gaya is explored through documentary evidence. Gal-

The second floor exhibition is organized under the keywords

their imagination. The final section of the exhibition features

lery I on the first floor gallery is devoted to telling the story of

life, pottery, iron, and exchange into four rooms: Life of the

the boat and oar found at the Bonghwang-dong site, which are

Gaya’s maritime exchange and is hence painted the blue-black

Gaya People; Beauty of Gaya Pottery; Gaya, Kingdom of Iron;

the earliest example of modes of transportation from Geumg-

color of the sea while Gallery II on the second floor is painted

and Gaya, Maritime Kingdom. The Gaya people lived by raising

wan Gaya and concrete evidence of the kingdom’s maritime

dark brown as a setting for exploration of Gaya’s iron culture.

silkworms and making silken cloth, cultivating grains, produc-

exchange.

Thanks to these efforts to improve the exhibition environment,

ing iron, and engaging in trade. As iron production and trade

which include lowering the display level to enable better view-

were especially active, Gaya was known as a kingdom of iron

sea routes, and the Gaya people, who were skilled in making

ing, visitors can understand the themes more clearly.

and a maritime kingdom. The people cultivated rice and other

steel thanks to a plentiful supply of iron, have been somewhat

crops for food and also caught fish and collected shellfish. The

shrouded in mystery due to a lack of materials. At the newly

FIRST FLOOR: THE WAY TO GAYA

exhibition explores the daily life in Gaya by shedding light

reopened Gimhae National Museum, however, the real story of

The first floor exhibition traces the history of Gaya in chrono-

on its varied aspects of the culture such as its excellent earth-

Gaya can be discovered through a rich and diverse display of

logical order. The relics are organized under themes according

enware and iron making skills, construction of large tumuli,

artifacts.

House-shaped Pottery Gaya Seok-dong, Changwon H. 18.0 cm

Bird-shaped Pottery Gaya Mangdeok-ri, Gimhae H. 15.5 cm

Gaya, a kingdom that played a central role in trade over

to period, making their distinguishing features clear in context. The themes for the rooms on the first floor are Prehistoric Culture of the Lower Nakdonggang River, Dawn of Gaya, and Foundation and Development of Gaya. The display starts with a collection of the oldest extant remains from the Nakdonggang River Basin. These include relics from the Paleolithic Age, when people first began to inhabit the river basin area, large shell mounds from the Neolithic Age when people began to live in settled lives, and burnished red pottery, polished stone daggers, and bronze daggers from the Bronze Age, which were symbols of high rank. The collection of comb-patterned pottery is arranged in a way that enables visitors to compare pattern variations and understand the imporBoat and Oar, L. 390 cm, Bonghwang-dong site

28

tance of these works in history. Also on display are a diverse collection of tools that provide insight into the way of life of the Bronze Age people as they began rice cultivation in the downstream part of the Nakdonggang River Basin. Items such as double-blade daggers and stone adzes show the development of woodworking skills. There is also a collection of beautiful accessories made of glass or carved jade and crystal. Most of these artifacts were discovered in the tumuli of Yangdong-ri, Gimhae, and are valuable materials for study of the people who inhabited the Gimhae

29


A

30

The corner devoted to “Landscapes of Chungbuk by Modern Artists”

T H E EDI TOR I A L T EA M OF T H E NATIONA L MUSEUM OF KOR EA

MAY 1 – JUNE 22, 2014 CHEONGJU NATIONAL MUSEUM

THE LANDSCAPE OF CHUNGCHEONGBUK-DO IN BOOKS AND PICTURES

THE LANDSCAPE OF CHUNGCHEONGBUK-DO IN BOOKS AND PICTURES

CONNECT WITH NMK

The corner devoted to “Joseon Dynasty Landscapes of the Chungbuk Region”

RNM EXHIBITION. 2

Hongdo, Choe Buk, Yi Yunyeong, and

vertical presence of the subject.

Yun Jaehong. Jeong Seon’s paintings of

The final part of the exhibition is de-

Dodamsambong Peaks, a trio of rocky

voted to modern works that capture the

peaks in the water, Bongseojeong Pavil-

landscape of Chungbuk from diverse

ion in Danyang, and Haseonam Rock, a

perspectives, using diverse techniques

large rock of three layers, show the ripe,

and materials. With the development of

mellow brushstrokes of the artist in his

roads and railroads in the 20th century,

60s. They show the greatness of Jeong

travel to scenic spots around the coun-

Seon as an artist, for rather than simply

try became much easier. Sainam Rock, a

recreating the landscape as it is, they

rock cliff surrounded by pines, is easily

capture the distinguishing characteris-

approachable by car and many artists in

tics of each scene with the artist’s special

modern times have painted the distinc-

n exhibition of artworks in-

Through these works it was possible to

created by odd rock formations and wa-

style and technique. Also on display are

tive rock face in the four seasons using

spired by the beautiful land-

gain an idea of the characteristics of the

ters, taking delight in communing with

critiques of the paintings written by the

various angles and new materials. Aside

scape of Chungcheongbuk-do

Chungbuk landscape, where the most

nature.

top poet of the day Yi Byeongyeon and

from the famous scenic spots, there are

literati painter Jo Yeongseok.

also works that that depict the everyday

Province (hereafter “Chungbuk”) was

famous spots are, and when the Chun-

The second part of the exhibition

recently held at the Cheongju National

gbuk region started to gain a reputation

showed works from the 18th to early

Museum. The exhibition was divided

for its scenery. Along with the eight

19th century in the Joseon Dynasty

tunity to see some rare works: Kim

into three parts. The first part was de-

sights of Gwandong in Gangwon-do

when “true-view” landscape painting,

Hongdo’s paintings Oksunbong Peak and

voted to literary works inspired by the

Province, the eight sights of Danyang

which focused on native sites, reached

Sainam Rock, jointly designated Treasure

of Chungbuk has inspired artists from

Chungbuk landscape carried in antholo-

are among the most celebrated scenic

its peak. The major artists featured in-

No. 782, which are rarely loaned to other

the Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties to

gies and other books. These include the

spots in the country. Oksunbong Peak, a

clude Jeong Seon, considered the father

institutions. Painted when Kim was 52

the present. Their thoughts have been

of true-view landscape painting, Kim

The exhibition presented an oppor-

lives of the people in the natural setting of the Chungbuk region. The lovely natural environment

13th century Poem on Hanbyeongnu Pavil-

series of mountain peaks included in the

years old, they are wonderful examples

expressed sometimes in the form of

ion by Ju Yeol; Further Record on Places

eight sights, was named by Yi Hwang as

of the artist’s mature style, expressive-

writing and sometimes in the form of

Worth Visiting in Danyang by the famous

a significant sightseeing destination. The

ness and ability to manipulate a com-

sculpture and painting. The exhibition at

Neo-Confucian scholar Yi Hwang, writ-

books on display show how this view

position. For example, in Oksunbong

the Cheongju National Museum makes

ten in 1548 when he was serving as

of Oksunbong Peak was shared by and

Peak, the peaks placed at the left hand

us realize once again that it is human

magistrate of Danyang; Poem on Oksun-

spread among Confucian scholars who

side of the painting differ slightly from

instinct to take pleasure in beautiful

bong Peak, written by the calligrapher

were followers of Yi. They also reveal

their actual appearance. In fact Kim

scenery and express one’s impressions,

Kim Jeonghui around 1814; and Record

that many other sights were considered

did not paint the right-hand side of the

and urges us to head outdoors to explore

on Hanbyeongnu Pavilion, written by Yun

attractive for travelers. Looking at the

peaks, thereby enhancing the image of

the beautiful green landscapes.

Jaehong in 1822 when he was serving as

works, it was easy to imagine Koreans

magistrate of Cheongpung.

of old riding boats to marvel at scenery

bamboo-shoots, from which Oksunbong View of Cheongju National Museum

Oksunbong Peak from Album of Byeongjin Year Kim Hongdo Joseon Dynasty, 1796 Ink and light colors on paper 26.5 × 31.5 cm Treasure No.782 Leeum, Samsung Museum of Art

Dodam Sambong—Three Peaks in the River Jeong Seon Joseon Dynasty, 1738 Light colors on paper 34.8 × 29.2 cm Leeum, Samsung Museum of Art

Peak gets its name, and emphasizing the

31


A

30

The corner devoted to “Landscapes of Chungbuk by Modern Artists”

T H E EDI TOR I A L T EA M OF T H E NATIONA L MUSEUM OF KOR EA

MAY 1 – JUNE 22, 2014 CHEONGJU NATIONAL MUSEUM

THE LANDSCAPE OF CHUNGCHEONGBUK-DO IN BOOKS AND PICTURES

THE LANDSCAPE OF CHUNGCHEONGBUK-DO IN BOOKS AND PICTURES

CONNECT WITH NMK

The corner devoted to “Joseon Dynasty Landscapes of the Chungbuk Region”

RNM EXHIBITION. 2

Hongdo, Choe Buk, Yi Yunyeong, and

vertical presence of the subject.

Yun Jaehong. Jeong Seon’s paintings of

The final part of the exhibition is de-

Dodamsambong Peaks, a trio of rocky

voted to modern works that capture the

peaks in the water, Bongseojeong Pavil-

landscape of Chungbuk from diverse

ion in Danyang, and Haseonam Rock, a

perspectives, using diverse techniques

large rock of three layers, show the ripe,

and materials. With the development of

mellow brushstrokes of the artist in his

roads and railroads in the 20th century,

60s. They show the greatness of Jeong

travel to scenic spots around the coun-

Seon as an artist, for rather than simply

try became much easier. Sainam Rock, a

recreating the landscape as it is, they

rock cliff surrounded by pines, is easily

capture the distinguishing characteris-

approachable by car and many artists in

tics of each scene with the artist’s special

modern times have painted the distinc-

n exhibition of artworks in-

Through these works it was possible to

created by odd rock formations and wa-

style and technique. Also on display are

tive rock face in the four seasons using

spired by the beautiful land-

gain an idea of the characteristics of the

ters, taking delight in communing with

critiques of the paintings written by the

various angles and new materials. Aside

scape of Chungcheongbuk-do

Chungbuk landscape, where the most

nature.

top poet of the day Yi Byeongyeon and

from the famous scenic spots, there are

literati painter Jo Yeongseok.

also works that that depict the everyday

Province (hereafter “Chungbuk”) was

famous spots are, and when the Chun-

The second part of the exhibition

recently held at the Cheongju National

gbuk region started to gain a reputation

showed works from the 18th to early

Museum. The exhibition was divided

for its scenery. Along with the eight

19th century in the Joseon Dynasty

tunity to see some rare works: Kim

into three parts. The first part was de-

sights of Gwandong in Gangwon-do

when “true-view” landscape painting,

Hongdo’s paintings Oksunbong Peak and

voted to literary works inspired by the

Province, the eight sights of Danyang

which focused on native sites, reached

Sainam Rock, jointly designated Treasure

of Chungbuk has inspired artists from

Chungbuk landscape carried in antholo-

are among the most celebrated scenic

its peak. The major artists featured in-

No. 782, which are rarely loaned to other

the Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties to

gies and other books. These include the

spots in the country. Oksunbong Peak, a

clude Jeong Seon, considered the father

institutions. Painted when Kim was 52

the present. Their thoughts have been

of true-view landscape painting, Kim

The exhibition presented an oppor-

lives of the people in the natural setting of the Chungbuk region. The lovely natural environment

13th century Poem on Hanbyeongnu Pavil-

series of mountain peaks included in the

years old, they are wonderful examples

expressed sometimes in the form of

ion by Ju Yeol; Further Record on Places

eight sights, was named by Yi Hwang as

of the artist’s mature style, expressive-

writing and sometimes in the form of

Worth Visiting in Danyang by the famous

a significant sightseeing destination. The

ness and ability to manipulate a com-

sculpture and painting. The exhibition at

Neo-Confucian scholar Yi Hwang, writ-

books on display show how this view

position. For example, in Oksunbong

the Cheongju National Museum makes

ten in 1548 when he was serving as

of Oksunbong Peak was shared by and

Peak, the peaks placed at the left hand

us realize once again that it is human

magistrate of Danyang; Poem on Oksun-

spread among Confucian scholars who

side of the painting differ slightly from

instinct to take pleasure in beautiful

bong Peak, written by the calligrapher

were followers of Yi. They also reveal

their actual appearance. In fact Kim

scenery and express one’s impressions,

Kim Jeonghui around 1814; and Record

that many other sights were considered

did not paint the right-hand side of the

and urges us to head outdoors to explore

on Hanbyeongnu Pavilion, written by Yun

attractive for travelers. Looking at the

peaks, thereby enhancing the image of

the beautiful green landscapes.

Jaehong in 1822 when he was serving as

works, it was easy to imagine Koreans

magistrate of Cheongpung.

of old riding boats to marvel at scenery

bamboo-shoots, from which Oksunbong View of Cheongju National Museum

Oksunbong Peak from Album of Byeongjin Year Kim Hongdo Joseon Dynasty, 1796 Ink and light colors on paper 26.5 × 31.5 cm Treasure No.782 Leeum, Samsung Museum of Art

Dodam Sambong—Three Peaks in the River Jeong Seon Joseon Dynasty, 1738 Light colors on paper 34.8 × 29.2 cm Leeum, Samsung Museum of Art

Peak gets its name, and emphasizing the

31


LECTURE AT NMK

CONNECT WITH WORLD

NMK 2014 SUMMER

PERFECTION OF ENGLISH GENTLEMANSHIP: MUSEUMS AND THE GRAND TOUR

1. St. Mark's Square in Venice, Italy

1

2

2. Big globe at the Kunstkamera Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia

PERFECTION OF ENGLISH GENTLEMANSHIP: MUSEUMS AND THE GRAND TOUR

32

to Northern Europe and Germany and

After several years of touring in this

For the most part, however, the English-

gradually over the seas to America.

fashion, the English returned home bring-

men successfully finished the grand tour

The grand tour continued to grow both

ing with art works they had acquired, the

having enhanced their level of interna-

in scale and numbers through the end of

coins, maps and books they had collected

tional culture and knowledge. Their trav-

the 18th century. The Englishman seeking

on the road. Back home these artifacts

els gave them a foundation for success at

out Italy as the source of inspiration for

served to show off their cultivation and

home in the fields of politics, economics

BY HA KYEHOON,

scholars, artists and architects first passed

spoke for their intellectual curiosity. In

and diplomacy. The precious artifacts, art

ART CRITIC

through France, then Germany and Aus-

the 18th century, the social atmosphere

works and books that had been relatively

tria before crossing the Alps.

was such that an individual’s social status

easy for them to collect and therefore

Once in Italy, they headed first to Florence

depended not so much on a display of

often growing large in scale served as

In the 17th century Europeans found

Finally, Philip II of Spain, seeking to pun-

then Venice and finally Rome. Cities such

one’s wealth and power but rather one’s

important resources for the foundation

themselves living in conditions rather

ish English pirates, launched the “invin-

as Florence and Venice not only inspired

level of culture and sophistication.

of Britain’s early museums and libraries.

different to the Middle Ages or the Re-

cible” Spanish Armada only to be defeated

artistic sensibilities, they also allowed

Of course, the effects of the grand tour

For example, the Ashmolean Museum at

naissance. Christopher Columbus had dis-

by the English naval fleet. With this

freedom and dissipation. Compared with

were not always positive. For some, the

Oxford University, the British Museum

covered America in 1492, and their lives

defeat, dominance of the Pacific passed

the artistic image of these cities, Rome, as

trip abroad held the danger of moral

in London, Sir John Soane’s Museum, the

expanded beyond England and France,

to England and the Netherlands. England

the center of the Popes and the Catholic

corruption. Initially, the grand tour was

Wallace Collection, and the Burrell Col-

Spain and the Netherlands on the conti-

rose to become a maritime power in the

Church, had a strongly religious image.

taken by young people between the ages

lection in Glasgow were all directly or

nent to a much wider world. Thanks to

Elizabethan Era, and after the Puritan

Crowded with the English abroad, it was

of 16 and 21 with a tutor or knowledge-

indirectly founded in connection with the

early colonization of South America and a

Revolution in the 1640s and the Glorious

also rife with robbery, begging, and swin-

able guide, but as more adults began to

grand tour. It can be said that they are the

strong maritime trade, in the 16th century,

Revolution in 1688, the emerging middle

dling. Hence Italy invited both lofty praise

take up the trip some youths were led to

museums that they are today thanks to

Spain and Portugal brought goods such as

class began to freely engage in economic

and loathing. The grand tour continued

indulge in gambling and women, thus

the travel experiences of their founders

gold, silver, tobacco and sugar to Europe

activity, bringing a great rise in national

nevertheless with the English visiting the

wasting their opportunity for self-cultiva-

and acquaintances.

and enjoyed great prosperity. Meanwhile,

wealth.

major cities of Italy to see first-hand the

tion and returning home in ruined health.

France and England moved to colonize

Against this background, in British so-

architecture and art works they had so

With the increase in the number of travel-

North America, though they were some-

ciety it became trend for children of the

admired and to listen to beautiful music.

lers, the Italian locals began to find them

what disadvantaged when it came to

aristocracy and the wealthy to take the

Their travels also enabled them to view

a nuisance and obstruction to their daily

maritime trade, which was dominated by

so-called “grand tour” to Italy, home of

the rare and precious artifacts that the up-

lives, while some tourists fell victim to

Spain. They were forced to seek profits

classical art and culture, as a way to finish

per echelon of Italy had accumulated over

fraud and robbery and some even lost

through smuggling and piracy.

off their education. This practice spread

the years.

their lives.

33


LECTURE AT NMK

CONNECT WITH WORLD

NMK 2014 SUMMER

PERFECTION OF ENGLISH GENTLEMANSHIP: MUSEUMS AND THE GRAND TOUR

1. St. Mark's Square in Venice, Italy

1

2

2. Big globe at the Kunstkamera Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia

PERFECTION OF ENGLISH GENTLEMANSHIP: MUSEUMS AND THE GRAND TOUR

32

to Northern Europe and Germany and

After several years of touring in this

For the most part, however, the English-

gradually over the seas to America.

fashion, the English returned home bring-

men successfully finished the grand tour

The grand tour continued to grow both

ing with art works they had acquired, the

having enhanced their level of interna-

in scale and numbers through the end of

coins, maps and books they had collected

tional culture and knowledge. Their trav-

the 18th century. The Englishman seeking

on the road. Back home these artifacts

els gave them a foundation for success at

out Italy as the source of inspiration for

served to show off their cultivation and

home in the fields of politics, economics

BY HA KYEHOON,

scholars, artists and architects first passed

spoke for their intellectual curiosity. In

and diplomacy. The precious artifacts, art

ART CRITIC

through France, then Germany and Aus-

the 18th century, the social atmosphere

works and books that had been relatively

tria before crossing the Alps.

was such that an individual’s social status

easy for them to collect and therefore

Once in Italy, they headed first to Florence

depended not so much on a display of

often growing large in scale served as

In the 17th century Europeans found

Finally, Philip II of Spain, seeking to pun-

then Venice and finally Rome. Cities such

one’s wealth and power but rather one’s

important resources for the foundation

themselves living in conditions rather

ish English pirates, launched the “invin-

as Florence and Venice not only inspired

level of culture and sophistication.

of Britain’s early museums and libraries.

different to the Middle Ages or the Re-

cible” Spanish Armada only to be defeated

artistic sensibilities, they also allowed

Of course, the effects of the grand tour

For example, the Ashmolean Museum at

naissance. Christopher Columbus had dis-

by the English naval fleet. With this

freedom and dissipation. Compared with

were not always positive. For some, the

Oxford University, the British Museum

covered America in 1492, and their lives

defeat, dominance of the Pacific passed

the artistic image of these cities, Rome, as

trip abroad held the danger of moral

in London, Sir John Soane’s Museum, the

expanded beyond England and France,

to England and the Netherlands. England

the center of the Popes and the Catholic

corruption. Initially, the grand tour was

Wallace Collection, and the Burrell Col-

Spain and the Netherlands on the conti-

rose to become a maritime power in the

Church, had a strongly religious image.

taken by young people between the ages

lection in Glasgow were all directly or

nent to a much wider world. Thanks to

Elizabethan Era, and after the Puritan

Crowded with the English abroad, it was

of 16 and 21 with a tutor or knowledge-

indirectly founded in connection with the

early colonization of South America and a

Revolution in the 1640s and the Glorious

also rife with robbery, begging, and swin-

able guide, but as more adults began to

grand tour. It can be said that they are the

strong maritime trade, in the 16th century,

Revolution in 1688, the emerging middle

dling. Hence Italy invited both lofty praise

take up the trip some youths were led to

museums that they are today thanks to

Spain and Portugal brought goods such as

class began to freely engage in economic

and loathing. The grand tour continued

indulge in gambling and women, thus

the travel experiences of their founders

gold, silver, tobacco and sugar to Europe

activity, bringing a great rise in national

nevertheless with the English visiting the

wasting their opportunity for self-cultiva-

and acquaintances.

and enjoyed great prosperity. Meanwhile,

wealth.

major cities of Italy to see first-hand the

tion and returning home in ruined health.

France and England moved to colonize

Against this background, in British so-

architecture and art works they had so

With the increase in the number of travel-

North America, though they were some-

ciety it became trend for children of the

admired and to listen to beautiful music.

lers, the Italian locals began to find them

what disadvantaged when it came to

aristocracy and the wealthy to take the

Their travels also enabled them to view

a nuisance and obstruction to their daily

maritime trade, which was dominated by

so-called “grand tour” to Italy, home of

the rare and precious artifacts that the up-

lives, while some tourists fell victim to

Spain. They were forced to seek profits

classical art and culture, as a way to finish

per echelon of Italy had accumulated over

fraud and robbery and some even lost

through smuggling and piracy.

off their education. This practice spread

the years.

their lives.

33


CONNECT WITH WORLD

TALK AT FACEBOOK

NMK 2014 SUMMER

UPDATED ON APRIL 11, 2014

THE TIGER: FEARLESS VS. FRIENDLY

UPDATED ON OCTOBER 25, 2013

THE TIGER: FEARLESS VS. FRIENDLY

RANK BADGE WITH TWIN TIGER DESIGN Joseon Dynasty Silk 18.3 × 16.9 cm namsan 798

A rank badge is a decorative square

rank badges with a cloud and crane

patch attached to the front and back of

design, while officials of the lower ranks

the official robes of government officials

(danghagwan) wore rank badges with a

and members of the royal family. This

white crane design. Then in 1871 (8th year

rank badge embroidered with a twin-

of Emperor Gojong), the design on rank

tiger design was worn by a high-ranking military official. The tiger is known for its

MOUNTAIN SPIRIT

Paintings of the mountain spirit started to

monly seen in folk painting. The tiger was

be enshrined at Buddhist temples when

considered a sacred animal and symbol

indigenous belief in the mountain spirit

of strength and courage. Here it has been

was fused with Buddhism. In Buddhism

depicted as a friendly, familiar creature

there is a mountain god, who is one of

rather than a ferocious beast to present it

badges for civil officials changed to a twin

the gods that protect the Buddhist law,

as an animal close to people, and a spiri-

crane design for the high officials and a

or dharma. However, most Korean paint-

tual being that assists humans.

warrior-like courage and is considered a

single crane design for lower officials. In

ings of the mountain god reflect native

loyal, intelligent beast that punishes evil.

the case of military officials, high officials

folk beliefs rather than Buddhism. This

Rank badges were originally worn only by

wore a rank badge with a twin-tiger de-

painting shows the typical mountain god

the highest civil and military officials, but

sign and lower officials a rank badge with

of folk belief, featuring an old man of

were adopted for the robes of all officials

a single tiger design. This system contin-

otherworldly appearance accompanied

during the reign of King Yeonsangun.

ued to the end of the Joseon Dynasty in

by a tiger, with steep mountains in the

From 1734 (10th year of King Yeongjo),

1910.

background. Beside the mountain god is

civil officials of the three highest ranks (collectively called dangsanggwan) wore

34

Around the world summer this year is hotter than ever before thanks to 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil fever. To mark the World Cup season, the National Museum of Korea introduces on its Facebook some artifacts featuring the tiger, symbol of the Korean national soccer team who wear a tiger emblem on the left-hand side of their official uniforms. But the fearlessness of the tiger is nothing new. Here we explore traditional beliefs about tigers and the use of the tiger as a symbol throughout Korean history.

Joseon Dynasty Silk 109.5 × 81.0 cm sin 015313

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM /NMK.SEOUL.KOREA

a young child attendant, while the tiger is depicted in cartoonish style, as com-

35


CONNECT WITH WORLD

TALK AT FACEBOOK

NMK 2014 SUMMER

UPDATED ON APRIL 11, 2014

THE TIGER: FEARLESS VS. FRIENDLY

UPDATED ON OCTOBER 25, 2013

THE TIGER: FEARLESS VS. FRIENDLY

RANK BADGE WITH TWIN TIGER DESIGN Joseon Dynasty Silk 18.3 × 16.9 cm namsan 798

A rank badge is a decorative square

rank badges with a cloud and crane

patch attached to the front and back of

design, while officials of the lower ranks

the official robes of government officials

(danghagwan) wore rank badges with a

and members of the royal family. This

white crane design. Then in 1871 (8th year

rank badge embroidered with a twin-

of Emperor Gojong), the design on rank

tiger design was worn by a high-ranking military official. The tiger is known for its

MOUNTAIN SPIRIT

Paintings of the mountain spirit started to

monly seen in folk painting. The tiger was

be enshrined at Buddhist temples when

considered a sacred animal and symbol

indigenous belief in the mountain spirit

of strength and courage. Here it has been

was fused with Buddhism. In Buddhism

depicted as a friendly, familiar creature

there is a mountain god, who is one of

rather than a ferocious beast to present it

badges for civil officials changed to a twin

the gods that protect the Buddhist law,

as an animal close to people, and a spiri-

crane design for the high officials and a

or dharma. However, most Korean paint-

tual being that assists humans.

warrior-like courage and is considered a

single crane design for lower officials. In

ings of the mountain god reflect native

loyal, intelligent beast that punishes evil.

the case of military officials, high officials

folk beliefs rather than Buddhism. This

Rank badges were originally worn only by

wore a rank badge with a twin-tiger de-

painting shows the typical mountain god

the highest civil and military officials, but

sign and lower officials a rank badge with

of folk belief, featuring an old man of

were adopted for the robes of all officials

a single tiger design. This system contin-

otherworldly appearance accompanied

during the reign of King Yeonsangun.

ued to the end of the Joseon Dynasty in

by a tiger, with steep mountains in the

From 1734 (10th year of King Yeongjo),

1910.

background. Beside the mountain god is

civil officials of the three highest ranks (collectively called dangsanggwan) wore

34

Around the world summer this year is hotter than ever before thanks to 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil fever. To mark the World Cup season, the National Museum of Korea introduces on its Facebook some artifacts featuring the tiger, symbol of the Korean national soccer team who wear a tiger emblem on the left-hand side of their official uniforms. But the fearlessness of the tiger is nothing new. Here we explore traditional beliefs about tigers and the use of the tiger as a symbol throughout Korean history.

Joseon Dynasty Silk 109.5 × 81.0 cm sin 015313

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM /NMK.SEOUL.KOREA

a young child attendant, while the tiger is depicted in cartoonish style, as com-

35


CONNECT WITH NEWS

NEWS

NMK 2014 SUMMER

NEW “HUMANITIES ROUND TABLE” LAUNCHED

PARTNERSHIP WITH KOREAN AIR TO PROMOTE KOREAN CULTURE EXTENDED

SAMSUNG PUBLISHING CHAIRMAN KIM JONGGYU DONATES CHILDREN’S BOOKS Kim Jonggyu, Chairman of Samsung Publishing Co., has donated 200 books to the Children’s Museum at the National Museum of Korea. In December 2013 the library in the Children’s Museum was renovated into a new reading room for children named Gureum Maru. To mark Children’s Day on May 5 this year, Kim donated the 200 volumes covering world literature, culture and history to help enhance children’s sensibilities. Kim is currently Honorary Chairman of the Korean Museum Association and Chairman of the National Trust for Cultural Heritage of Korea, and this gift to the Children’s Museum comes as part of his ongoing book donation activities, following similar donations to the Chuncheon National Museum and the Ulsan Daegok Museum. In addition, to mark the centennial of the Korean museums in 2009, Kim donated to the NMK ten artifacts from the Three Kingdoms Period including Goguryeo horse trappings. The NMK plans to install the books in the Children’s Library Gureum Maru, where young visitors to the museum sit and read

36

as they relax with their families. The donated books cover the range of Korean and world literature such as The Story of Hong Gildong and The Little Prince to children’s history, humanities and philosophy books, which are designed to spark children’s interest and teach them about various fields. A visit the library in the Children’s Museum will prove to be an enjoyable and highly worthwhile experience.

Kim Jonggyu, Chairman of Samsung Publishing Co.

The National Museum of Korea and Korean Air concluded an agreement June 10, 2014 to extend their partnership in projects to promote Korean culture. Under the agreement, the two organizations will cooperate with each other over the next two years to encourage active cultural exchange inside and outside the country and undertake projects that work toward cultural prosperity. The original partnership between the NMK and Korean Air came about when the two organizations agreed to cooperate in holding a special exhibition in Korea and overseas. The initial agreement on the “Promotion of Korean Culture” lasted for two years from May 2012, and the recent extension has paved the way for stronger cooperation in the future. Over the past two years Korean Air has provided support on eight occasions including the transportation of Korean art works for exhibition overseas and foreign works for exhibition in Korea, and air tickets for related figures participating in the events. The art works featured in the current special exhibition Beyond Impressionism: Masterpieces from the Musée d’Orsay were transported here with the help of Korean Air. In this regard, the exhibition is seen as an exemplary case of mutual cooperation and growth between business and cultural organizations.

The National Museum of Korea has introduced a new lecture program format. Newly launched in the first half of 2014, the “Humanities Round Table” departs from the old lecture delivery format and brings together a number of experts who can discuss set topics from several different viewpoints. The topic for the first Round Table, held May 31, was “Portraits of the East and West,” the occasion serving to answer questions surrounding the art of portrait painting. Participants in the first discussion included Prof. Jo Insu (Asian painting history, Korea National University of the Arts), Prof. Goh Jonghui (Western art history, Hanyang Women’s University), and curator Lee Sumi (history of Korean painting, National Museum of Korea). The major works up for discussion were a Portrait of Napoleon, and a Portrait of King Taejo of Joseon. Using these as representative works of the East and West, a fascinating discussion was held on the differences in reasons for painting the portraits,

1

method of expression, enshrinement and display. “Humanities Round Table” is open to the general public. Held in the main auditorium of the NMK, attendance is free and there is no need for prior reservation. The next Round Table will be held on Saturday, November 15, at 2 p.m.

2

1. Portrait of King Taejo Jo Jungmuk et al.. 1872 National Treasure No. 317 Gyeonggijeon, Jeonju 2. Napoleon I on His Imperial Throne Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres 1806 Musee de l’Armee, Hotel des Invalides, Paris

“THE CULTURAL FEAST OF THE MUSEUM” BEGINS The National Museum of Korea, in cooperation with the Cultural Foundation of the National Museum of Korea, hosts the “The Cultural Feast of the Museum” every Saturday in the Open Plaza from May 17 to October 4, and on public holidays. Along with the exhibitions, research activities, and learning programs carried out by the NMK, this program aims to give the public access to a range of performing arts and enhance the museum’s function as a multipurpose cultural venue. “The Cultural Feast of the Museum” consists of various events organized around a set monthly theme as well as special events for special days such as Chuseok (Harvest Moon Festival) and Hangul Day, in celebration of the creation of the Korean alphabet. The event will be held a total of 24 times

with some 42 troupes holding a wide variety of performances, which are free to all museum visitors. The monthly themes are “Museum Week” in May, to mark International Museum Day; “Youth Stage” in June; “Midsummer Classical Music” in July, and “Midsummer Night’s Jazz” in August. Special performances will also be held in June to mark the Musée d’Orsay exhibition, September to celebrate Chuseok, and in October to mark Hangul Day. For further details, visit the NMK website at www.museum.go.kr, or the brochure, which can be obtained from the information desk at the museum.

37


CONNECT WITH NEWS

NEWS

NMK 2014 SUMMER

NEW “HUMANITIES ROUND TABLE” LAUNCHED

PARTNERSHIP WITH KOREAN AIR TO PROMOTE KOREAN CULTURE EXTENDED

SAMSUNG PUBLISHING CHAIRMAN KIM JONGGYU DONATES CHILDREN’S BOOKS Kim Jonggyu, Chairman of Samsung Publishing Co., has donated 200 books to the Children’s Museum at the National Museum of Korea. In December 2013 the library in the Children’s Museum was renovated into a new reading room for children named Gureum Maru. To mark Children’s Day on May 5 this year, Kim donated the 200 volumes covering world literature, culture and history to help enhance children’s sensibilities. Kim is currently Honorary Chairman of the Korean Museum Association and Chairman of the National Trust for Cultural Heritage of Korea, and this gift to the Children’s Museum comes as part of his ongoing book donation activities, following similar donations to the Chuncheon National Museum and the Ulsan Daegok Museum. In addition, to mark the centennial of the Korean museums in 2009, Kim donated to the NMK ten artifacts from the Three Kingdoms Period including Goguryeo horse trappings. The NMK plans to install the books in the Children’s Library Gureum Maru, where young visitors to the museum sit and read

36

as they relax with their families. The donated books cover the range of Korean and world literature such as The Story of Hong Gildong and The Little Prince to children’s history, humanities and philosophy books, which are designed to spark children’s interest and teach them about various fields. A visit the library in the Children’s Museum will prove to be an enjoyable and highly worthwhile experience.

Kim Jonggyu, Chairman of Samsung Publishing Co.

The National Museum of Korea and Korean Air concluded an agreement June 10, 2014 to extend their partnership in projects to promote Korean culture. Under the agreement, the two organizations will cooperate with each other over the next two years to encourage active cultural exchange inside and outside the country and undertake projects that work toward cultural prosperity. The original partnership between the NMK and Korean Air came about when the two organizations agreed to cooperate in holding a special exhibition in Korea and overseas. The initial agreement on the “Promotion of Korean Culture” lasted for two years from May 2012, and the recent extension has paved the way for stronger cooperation in the future. Over the past two years Korean Air has provided support on eight occasions including the transportation of Korean art works for exhibition overseas and foreign works for exhibition in Korea, and air tickets for related figures participating in the events. The art works featured in the current special exhibition Beyond Impressionism: Masterpieces from the Musée d’Orsay were transported here with the help of Korean Air. In this regard, the exhibition is seen as an exemplary case of mutual cooperation and growth between business and cultural organizations.

The National Museum of Korea has introduced a new lecture program format. Newly launched in the first half of 2014, the “Humanities Round Table” departs from the old lecture delivery format and brings together a number of experts who can discuss set topics from several different viewpoints. The topic for the first Round Table, held May 31, was “Portraits of the East and West,” the occasion serving to answer questions surrounding the art of portrait painting. Participants in the first discussion included Prof. Jo Insu (Asian painting history, Korea National University of the Arts), Prof. Goh Jonghui (Western art history, Hanyang Women’s University), and curator Lee Sumi (history of Korean painting, National Museum of Korea). The major works up for discussion were a Portrait of Napoleon, and a Portrait of King Taejo of Joseon. Using these as representative works of the East and West, a fascinating discussion was held on the differences in reasons for painting the portraits,

1

method of expression, enshrinement and display. “Humanities Round Table” is open to the general public. Held in the main auditorium of the NMK, attendance is free and there is no need for prior reservation. The next Round Table will be held on Saturday, November 15, at 2 p.m.

2

1. Portrait of King Taejo Jo Jungmuk et al.. 1872 National Treasure No. 317 Gyeonggijeon, Jeonju 2. Napoleon I on His Imperial Throne Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres 1806 Musee de l’Armee, Hotel des Invalides, Paris

“THE CULTURAL FEAST OF THE MUSEUM” BEGINS The National Museum of Korea, in cooperation with the Cultural Foundation of the National Museum of Korea, hosts the “The Cultural Feast of the Museum” every Saturday in the Open Plaza from May 17 to October 4, and on public holidays. Along with the exhibitions, research activities, and learning programs carried out by the NMK, this program aims to give the public access to a range of performing arts and enhance the museum’s function as a multipurpose cultural venue. “The Cultural Feast of the Museum” consists of various events organized around a set monthly theme as well as special events for special days such as Chuseok (Harvest Moon Festival) and Hangul Day, in celebration of the creation of the Korean alphabet. The event will be held a total of 24 times

with some 42 troupes holding a wide variety of performances, which are free to all museum visitors. The monthly themes are “Museum Week” in May, to mark International Museum Day; “Youth Stage” in June; “Midsummer Classical Music” in July, and “Midsummer Night’s Jazz” in August. Special performances will also be held in June to mark the Musée d’Orsay exhibition, September to celebrate Chuseok, and in October to mark Hangul Day. For further details, visit the NMK website at www.museum.go.kr, or the brochure, which can be obtained from the information desk at the museum.

37


CONNECT WITH NEWS

EXHIBITION & PUBLICATIONS

NMK 2014 SUMMER

BEYOND IMPRESSIONISM: MASTERPIECES FROM THE MUSÉE D’ORSAY ISBN 978-89-91127-98-2

KIM HYEONGTAE APPOINTED CFNMK PRESIDENT

OVERSEAS EXHIBITION OF TREASURES FROM KOREA: ARTS AND CULTURE OF THE JOSEON DYNASTY 1392-1910 DATE  JUNE 29 – SEPTEMBER 28, 2014 VENUE  HAMMER BUILDING

An overseas exhibition of Korean cultural treasures is set to open in the Korean Gallery at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA). The NMK has an ongoing relationship with LACMA, which has seen a steady rise in visitors since its reopening in 2009 to become one of the five major cultural venues in the United States. Comprised of nine buildings in all, LACMA has a collection of 110,000 items, including 500 from Korea. It is the largest public museum in the western part of the United States. The Korean Gallery, where the Joseon exhibition is held, is located in the Hammer Building. This is a venue for the exhibitions of new artists from the Los Angeles area, the works of masters such as Picasso and Gauguin and diverse works from Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Treasures from Korea: Arts and Culture of the Joseon Dynasty 1392-1910 features a

38

superlative collection of items that are on display not only in the Korean Gallery but also the Chinese Gallery, which had been cleared for this purpose. The 300 items include nine National Treasures and 15 Treasures as well as paintings, calligraphy, ceramics, furniture, lacquer ware, metal crafts, sculpture and costume from the royal family and ruling class to the commoners. The exhibition is hence an opportunity for the American public and Koreans living in America to come into contact with Korean culture and gain a better understanding of it. This exhibition of carefully selected works sheds light on the royal court of Joseon and its culture, Joseon society and religion, Confucianism and rites, and the early modern period, which will give visitors a glimpse of past Koreans’ way of thinking and their everyday lives.

Kim Hyeongtae was appointed president of the Cultural Foundation of the National Museum of Korea June 5. The new president majored in painting at Hongik University and over the past 30 years has based himself in the Hongdae area (around the university) working as an artist, musician, theater actor, culture critic and cultural event planner. In 1992 he opened Baljeonso (Power Plant) and Gompangi (Mold) which gained a reputation as alternative cultural venues, and in 1995 established Cultural Planning Dosirak, to carry out culture-related projects. Kim is also currently serving as culture business sub-committee member of the Presidential Committee for Cultural Enrichment.

The National Museum of Korea has published a catalog to accompany the special exhibition Beyond Impressionism: Masterpieces from the Musée d’Orsay. The preface, written by Caroline Mathieu, chief curator at the Musée d’Orsay, gives an overview of artists and painting styles associated with Post-impressionism. The catalog features a wide variety of works and detailed explanations divided into six themes: Impressionism, Neo-impressionism, Gauguin, van Gogh and Cézanne, Paris in the Belle Epoque Period, and Symbolism and Les Nabis. Filled with a wealth of information, it also includes an essay on Post-impressionism and its influence on Asian art.

ENCOUNTER WITH AMITAYUS IN SUKHAVATI, BUDDHIST HANGING SCROLL AT HEUNGGUKSA TEMPLE ISBN 978-89-93773-34-7

A catalog on the Buddhist hanging scroll at Heungguksa Temple, dating to 1902, has been published. This hanging scroll was enshrined at the temple to pray for the well-being of Emperor Gojong, the 26th monarch of the Joseon Dynasty, the crown prince and his wife, the royal consort, and her son Prince Imperial Yeongchin. The catalog explores the meaning of the painting, its distinguishing features, and the background to its production, how it came to be commissioned by the Honorable Princess Consort Eom, reflecting her wishes to meet Amitayus in Paradise. The catalog also introduces Gyeongseondang Eungseok, the artist monk and master Buddhist painter of the modern period who painted the hanging scroll.

ANCIENT CIVILIZATION IN VIETNAM, EARLY MORNING ON THE RED RIVER

THE LANDSCAPE OF CHUNGCHEONGBUK-DO IN PAINTINGS AND BOOKS

ISBN 978-89-958073-9-2 93910

ISBN 978-89-966769-3-5

This catalog has been published to accompany the special exhibition organized to highlight the results of the first phase of a five-year joint academic research project by the National Museum of Korea and the Vietnam National Museum of History which began in 2009. The catalog introduces the bronze drum of the Đông So n Culture, a great source of pride for the Vietnamese people, as well as a range of artifacts that show the formation and development of Vietnamese culture from the ancient Bronze Age. It is divided into three sections: ProtoVietnamese Civilizations, the Red River and the Đông Son Culture, and the Bronze Culture of Central and Southern Vietnam.

This catalog has been published by the Cheongju National Museum to mark its first special exhibition of 2014. The exhibition gives an overview of artworks inspired by the beautiful scenery of Chungcheongbukdo Province including poetry from the late Goryeo period to the Joseon period, late Joseon paintings, and works of modern art. The catalog features paintings by Joseon Dynasty masters such as Jeong Seon, Kim Hongdo, and Yun Jaehong, and a collection of creative landscapes painted from various perspectives. The essay section includes photographs of famous scenic spots, and it is interesting to compare them with paintings of the same site.

39


CONNECT WITH NEWS

EXHIBITION & PUBLICATIONS

NMK 2014 SUMMER

BEYOND IMPRESSIONISM: MASTERPIECES FROM THE MUSÉE D’ORSAY ISBN 978-89-91127-98-2

KIM HYEONGTAE APPOINTED CFNMK PRESIDENT

OVERSEAS EXHIBITION OF TREASURES FROM KOREA: ARTS AND CULTURE OF THE JOSEON DYNASTY 1392-1910 DATE  JUNE 29 – SEPTEMBER 28, 2014 VENUE  HAMMER BUILDING

An overseas exhibition of Korean cultural treasures is set to open in the Korean Gallery at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA). The NMK has an ongoing relationship with LACMA, which has seen a steady rise in visitors since its reopening in 2009 to become one of the five major cultural venues in the United States. Comprised of nine buildings in all, LACMA has a collection of 110,000 items, including 500 from Korea. It is the largest public museum in the western part of the United States. The Korean Gallery, where the Joseon exhibition is held, is located in the Hammer Building. This is a venue for the exhibitions of new artists from the Los Angeles area, the works of masters such as Picasso and Gauguin and diverse works from Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Treasures from Korea: Arts and Culture of the Joseon Dynasty 1392-1910 features a

38

superlative collection of items that are on display not only in the Korean Gallery but also the Chinese Gallery, which had been cleared for this purpose. The 300 items include nine National Treasures and 15 Treasures as well as paintings, calligraphy, ceramics, furniture, lacquer ware, metal crafts, sculpture and costume from the royal family and ruling class to the commoners. The exhibition is hence an opportunity for the American public and Koreans living in America to come into contact with Korean culture and gain a better understanding of it. This exhibition of carefully selected works sheds light on the royal court of Joseon and its culture, Joseon society and religion, Confucianism and rites, and the early modern period, which will give visitors a glimpse of past Koreans’ way of thinking and their everyday lives.

Kim Hyeongtae was appointed president of the Cultural Foundation of the National Museum of Korea June 5. The new president majored in painting at Hongik University and over the past 30 years has based himself in the Hongdae area (around the university) working as an artist, musician, theater actor, culture critic and cultural event planner. In 1992 he opened Baljeonso (Power Plant) and Gompangi (Mold) which gained a reputation as alternative cultural venues, and in 1995 established Cultural Planning Dosirak, to carry out culture-related projects. Kim is also currently serving as culture business sub-committee member of the Presidential Committee for Cultural Enrichment.

The National Museum of Korea has published a catalog to accompany the special exhibition Beyond Impressionism: Masterpieces from the Musée d’Orsay. The preface, written by Caroline Mathieu, chief curator at the Musée d’Orsay, gives an overview of artists and painting styles associated with Post-impressionism. The catalog features a wide variety of works and detailed explanations divided into six themes: Impressionism, Neo-impressionism, Gauguin, van Gogh and Cézanne, Paris in the Belle Epoque Period, and Symbolism and Les Nabis. Filled with a wealth of information, it also includes an essay on Post-impressionism and its influence on Asian art.

ENCOUNTER WITH AMITAYUS IN SUKHAVATI, BUDDHIST HANGING SCROLL AT HEUNGGUKSA TEMPLE ISBN 978-89-93773-34-7

A catalog on the Buddhist hanging scroll at Heungguksa Temple, dating to 1902, has been published. This hanging scroll was enshrined at the temple to pray for the well-being of Emperor Gojong, the 26th monarch of the Joseon Dynasty, the crown prince and his wife, the royal consort, and her son Prince Imperial Yeongchin. The catalog explores the meaning of the painting, its distinguishing features, and the background to its production, how it came to be commissioned by the Honorable Princess Consort Eom, reflecting her wishes to meet Amitayus in Paradise. The catalog also introduces Gyeongseondang Eungseok, the artist monk and master Buddhist painter of the modern period who painted the hanging scroll.

ANCIENT CIVILIZATION IN VIETNAM, EARLY MORNING ON THE RED RIVER

THE LANDSCAPE OF CHUNGCHEONGBUK-DO IN PAINTINGS AND BOOKS

ISBN 978-89-958073-9-2 93910

ISBN 978-89-966769-3-5

This catalog has been published to accompany the special exhibition organized to highlight the results of the first phase of a five-year joint academic research project by the National Museum of Korea and the Vietnam National Museum of History which began in 2009. The catalog introduces the bronze drum of the Đông So n Culture, a great source of pride for the Vietnamese people, as well as a range of artifacts that show the formation and development of Vietnamese culture from the ancient Bronze Age. It is divided into three sections: ProtoVietnamese Civilizations, the Red River and the Đông Son Culture, and the Bronze Culture of Central and Southern Vietnam.

This catalog has been published by the Cheongju National Museum to mark its first special exhibition of 2014. The exhibition gives an overview of artworks inspired by the beautiful scenery of Chungcheongbukdo Province including poetry from the late Goryeo period to the Joseon period, late Joseon paintings, and works of modern art. The catalog features paintings by Joseon Dynasty masters such as Jeong Seon, Kim Hongdo, and Yun Jaehong, and a collection of creative landscapes painted from various perspectives. The essay section includes photographs of famous scenic spots, and it is interesting to compare them with paintings of the same site.

39


NEW SPACE, NEW VIEW

HIDDEN BEAUTIES REVEALED IN THE RENEWED UNIFIED REOPENING DATE | MAY 20, 2014 SILLA ROOM VENUE | UNIFIED SILLA ROOM, PREHISTORY AND ANCIENT HISTORY GALLERY CONTENT |100 ITEMS INCLUDING THE IRON SEATED BUDDHA FROM BOWONSA TEMPLE

exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in 2013 as part of a special exhibition on Silla. Along with the Iron Seated Buddha, statues of the Eight Dharma Protectors and other works provide solid testament to the world of the Pure Land in Silla. The exhibition will give visitors insight into Unified Silla as a nation that used Buddhism to strengthen the power of the throne and emphasize the legitimacy of the royal family, and forged its own identity through active exchange with other countries.         The second half of the exhibition introduces the culture of the capital and the provinces of Unified Silla. Relics excavated from the royal capital and Anapji Pond, the pond in the royal palace garden, attest to the sophisticated aristocratic culture of the time. A collection of green-glazed earthenware has been assembled for comparison with tri-colored glazed pottery (sancai) from the Tang Dynasty. A display of artifacts from Pyeongsan, Hwanghae-do Province and other areas and a Gilt-bronze Incense Burner from the Mireuksa Temple site suggest that the culture of regional society did not fall behind that of the capital. One item not to be missed is the Gilt-bronze Incense Burner excavated from Iksan, Jeollabuk-do Province. With its lion-shaped feet, firm body and openwork cloud-shaped carvings, it imparts an air of solidity and strength.         In addition, a small Buddhist Urn (sarira reliquary) made of silver and decorated with a gilded twin-bird design is on display to the public for the first time after restoration and conservation work. Part of the museum’s Dongwon Collection, it is especially valuable for its traces of the style of the Western Regions (Central Asia).         The revamped Unified Silla Room greets visitors with a collection of artifacts that reflect the style and ease of aristocratic life, developments in Buddhist art, and the sophisticated aesthetics formed through exchange with the Tang and Western Regions. Take some time out to revel in the luxury of the Unified Silla people by exploring the beautiful, finely crafted works on display.

    Unified Silla built on the craft traditions and techniques of the Three Kingdoms Period to achieve a brilliant art and culture. The splendor of this art and culture can be seen in the renewed Unified Silla Room, which opened May 20. The focus of the opening exhibition was to highlight the culture of Unified Silla as a result of the thoughts and aristocratic tastes of the people who sought to recreate the Buddhist pure land. The exhibition also features newly excavated artifacts and reflects the latest research achievements. It departs from the Unified Silla exhibitions held so far in terms of period and area as it focuses on the mid- and late Unified Silla period and the aristocratic culture not only of the capital but also regional society. Efforts have been made to encourage visitor participation through such means as a touch-screen digital magnifying glass that enables the designs on the artifacts to be examined up close.         Visitors are overwhelmed by the Buddhist sculptures in the room. The Iron Seated Buddha, presumably from Bowonsa Temple in Seosan, Chungcheongnam-do Province, has the powerful presence of the Seokguram Buddha in Gyeongju. It was greatly acclaimed when it was


NEW SPACE, NEW VIEW

HIDDEN BEAUTIES REVEALED IN THE RENEWED UNIFIED REOPENING DATE | MAY 20, 2014 SILLA ROOM VENUE | UNIFIED SILLA ROOM, PREHISTORY AND ANCIENT HISTORY GALLERY CONTENT |100 ITEMS INCLUDING THE IRON SEATED BUDDHA FROM BOWONSA TEMPLE

exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in 2013 as part of a special exhibition on Silla. Along with the Iron Seated Buddha, statues of the Eight Dharma Protectors and other works provide solid testament to the world of the Pure Land in Silla. The exhibition will give visitors insight into Unified Silla as a nation that used Buddhism to strengthen the power of the throne and emphasize the legitimacy of the royal family, and forged its own identity through active exchange with other countries.         The second half of the exhibition introduces the culture of the capital and the provinces of Unified Silla. Relics excavated from the royal capital and Anapji Pond, the pond in the royal palace garden, attest to the sophisticated aristocratic culture of the time. A collection of green-glazed earthenware has been assembled for comparison with tri-colored glazed pottery (sancai) from the Tang Dynasty. A display of artifacts from Pyeongsan, Hwanghae-do Province and other areas and a Gilt-bronze Incense Burner from the Mireuksa Temple site suggest that the culture of regional society did not fall behind that of the capital. One item not to be missed is the Gilt-bronze Incense Burner excavated from Iksan, Jeollabuk-do Province. With its lion-shaped feet, firm body and openwork cloud-shaped carvings, it imparts an air of solidity and strength.         In addition, a small Buddhist Urn (sarira reliquary) made of silver and decorated with a gilded twin-bird design is on display to the public for the first time after restoration and conservation work. Part of the museum’s Dongwon Collection, it is especially valuable for its traces of the style of the Western Regions (Central Asia).         The revamped Unified Silla Room greets visitors with a collection of artifacts that reflect the style and ease of aristocratic life, developments in Buddhist art, and the sophisticated aesthetics formed through exchange with the Tang and Western Regions. Take some time out to revel in the luxury of the Unified Silla people by exploring the beautiful, finely crafted works on display.

    Unified Silla built on the craft traditions and techniques of the Three Kingdoms Period to achieve a brilliant art and culture. The splendor of this art and culture can be seen in the renewed Unified Silla Room, which opened May 20. The focus of the opening exhibition was to highlight the culture of Unified Silla as a result of the thoughts and aristocratic tastes of the people who sought to recreate the Buddhist pure land. The exhibition also features newly excavated artifacts and reflects the latest research achievements. It departs from the Unified Silla exhibitions held so far in terms of period and area as it focuses on the mid- and late Unified Silla period and the aristocratic culture not only of the capital but also regional society. Efforts have been made to encourage visitor participation through such means as a touch-screen digital magnifying glass that enables the designs on the artifacts to be examined up close.         Visitors are overwhelmed by the Buddhist sculptures in the room. The Iron Seated Buddha, presumably from Bowonsa Temple in Seosan, Chungcheongnam-do Province, has the powerful presence of the Seokguram Buddha in Gyeongju. It was greatly acclaimed when it was


NATIONAL MUSEUM OF KOREA | QUARTERLY MAGAZINE

LANDSCAPES: SEEKING THE IDEAL LAND DATE    JULY 29 – SEPTEMBER 28, 2014 VENUE    SPECIAL EXHIBITION GALLERY, PERMANENT EXHIBITION HALL

VOL. 28

The exhibition Landscapes: Seeking the Ideal Land compares and contrasts the landscape paintings of Korea, China and Japan through the common theme of “the ideal land,” a long beloved theme in East rea to bring together the landscape masterpieces of the three countries including Yi Inmun’s Streams and Mountains Without End from the collection of the National Museum of Korea, Qian Xuan’s Ode on

SUMMER 2014 

Asian cultures. Featuring 112 works, the exhibition is the first in Ko-

Returning Home from China, and So Ami’s Eight Views of the Xiao and Xiang Rivers from Japan. The exhibition provides the opportunity to explore the diverse perspectives on what constitutes an ideal land seen with the mind’s eye of the people of old, and the changes that appeared according to the era. It also encourages us to look back on ourselves as people who sought to find peace in nature from the past to the present.

SUMMER 2014 VOL.28

QUARTERLY MAGAZINE  ISSN: 2005-1123

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