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Ýzmit'in Fetih Simgesi ORHAN CAMÝÝ

Hazýrlayan / Prepared By

Volkan ÞENEL

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Grafik/Tasarým: Mehmet TELORMAN KOCAELÝ BÜYÜKÞEHÝR BELEDÝYESÝ

ISBN:978-975-97223-6-4

M. Güler'den

(Gazi Süleyman Paþa Camii)

The Conquest Symbol of Ýzmit

ORHAN MOSQUE (Ghazi Süleyman Pasha Mosque)

ORHAN CAMÝÝ YAPTIRMA ve ONARMA DERNEÐÝ

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Orhan Camii Çeþmesi

ORHAN CAMÝÝ

ORHAN MOSQUE

(Gazi Süleyman Paþa Camii)

(Ghazi Süleyman Pasha Mosque)

Tarihçe

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Ýzmit þehrine hakim bir tepede (Orhan Mahallesi), Ýçkale'nin içerisinde bulunmaktadýr. Camii, Orhan Bey'in oðlu Þehzade Süleyman Paþa tarafýndan 1332 yýlýnda yaptýrýlmýþtýr. Ýzmit'teki Türk dönemi yapýlarýnýn en eskisidir.

Short History The mosque is located on a high hill of Ýzmit in Ýçkale district (Orhan Mahallesi), commanding a fine view of the city. It was built on the order of Orhan's son Süleyman Pasha in 1332. It is the oldest of all the Turkish period architectures.

Hazire Caminin güneybatýsýnda bulunan hazirede, caminin imamlarý ve yakýnlarý, eskiden bulunan medresenin müderrisleri ve Nakþibendî Tarikatýna Mensup bazý þeyhlerin mezarlarý bulunmaktadýr.

Graveyard The tombs of imams of this mosque and their relatives, teachers of the former medrese, and some Nakhshibendi sheikhs are in the graveyard which is in the southwest of the mosque.

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Minare Caminin minaresinin orijinal haliyle ilgili elimizde fazla bilgi bulunmamaktadýr. 1945 yýlýnda yýldýrým düþmesi, 1999 yýlýnda da deprem felaketi sonucu zarar gören minare 19. yüzyýlda yapýlmýþtýr. Günümüzdeki minare 2007 yýlý onarýmýnda yaptýrýlmýþtýr. (19. yüzyýl özelliklerini yansýtmaktadýr.)

Minaret We do not have much information about the original form of the minaret, of this mosque. The minaret which was damaged due to a lightning in 1945 and an earthquake in 1999, was th

built in the 19 century. The present minaret was built during the restoration in 2007 (reflects the features of

Orhan Camii'nin orijinal inþa kitabesi günümüze ulaþmamýþtýr. Harim kýsmýnda bulunan ve yakýn tarihlerde hazýrlanmýþ olabileceði düþünülen, levha kitabede þu bilgiler yer almaktadýr.

The original construction epigraph of the Orhan Mosque does not exist today. The following information is written on the plate epigraph which is in the yard of the mosque and thought to be prepared recently.

th

the 19 century.)

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Fatih'i Ýzmit Gazi Süleyman Paþa bin Orhan ve Fatih'i Hereke ve Fatih'i Aydos ve Fatih'i Kocaeli Sancaðý Sene 728 Ben 'a camii þerif ve medrese Sene 733 “The son of Orhan and the Conquerer of Ýzmit, Ghazi Süleyman Pasha and the Conquerer of Hereke, the Conquerer of Aydos and the Conquerer of Kocaeli Year 728 The mosque and the madrasah built on his order Year 733”

Mihrap Üzerindeki Ayet

Minber Süslemesi Orhan Camii Ýnþa Kitabesi

Cami yapýldýktan sonra töre gereði kýlýçla hutbe okunmuþ, o tarihten sonra her hutbeye kýlýçla çýkýlmýþtýr. (Osmanlý devlet geleneðinde savaþla alýnan yerlerde hutbe kýlýçla okunurdu. Bu adet fethi simgelemekteydi.)

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A.N. Galitekin'den

Ýzmit'i Osmanlý Topraklarýna Katan Orhan Gazi

Orhan Gazi'nin Oðlu Süleyman Paþa

After the construction of the mosque was completed, a sermon (khutba) was given with a sword as a tradition, and from that date onwards all the sermons were given with a sword. (As per the Ottoman tradition, the sermon was preached with a sword in the conquered places. This tradition was a symbol of conquest.)

Yuvarlak kemerli mihrabýn üst kýsmýnda yeþil zemin üzerine yazýlmýþ “Zekeriya mabedde namaz kýlarken melekler ona seslendiler” (Al-i Ýmran/39) ayeti vardýr. Mihrap niþi içerisinde perde biçimli motif ve ucunda kandil görülmektedir. Minber, yan aynalýk ve korkuluk kýsýmlarýndaki süslemeleriyle dikkat çekmektedir. Süslemeleri barok tarzda ve bitkisel karakterlidir.

“Then the angels called unto him (Zekeriya), while he was standing in prayer in the chamber (mihrab)” (Al-i Ýmran/39) verse from the Quran is written on a green background at the top of a round, arched chamber. There is a curtain-shaped motif and a candle on the mihrab niche. The pulpit draws attention with the engravings on the side transom and banisters. The engravings are baroque and have drawings of plants.

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Kubbe Süslemeleri

Süsleme Unsurlarý Caminin harim kýsmýnda; kubbe içerisinde ortada güneþ ýþýnlarýný andýran çizgiler, ýþýnlarý sýnýrlayan rozetler, rozetlerin çevresinde de farklý büyüklüklerde elipsi andýran þekiller yer almaktadýr. (Bu bezemelerin 20. yüzyýlýn baþýnda iki denizci eri tarafýndan yapýldýðý rivayet edilmektedir.)

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A. Öztüre'den

Vaaz Kürsüsü Süslemesi

Decoration There are lines resembling sun rays, rosettes lining off the rays, and elliptical drawings of different sizes around the rosettes in the middle of the interior side of the dome, in the harim part of the mosque. (It is rumoured that these engravings were made by two sea men in the early 20th century.)

1950 li yýllarda Orhan Camii

Bazý kaynaklarda yapýnýn eski bir kiliseden camiye çevrildiði belirtilse de, yapýlan incelemelerde caminin kilise ile hiç bir ilgisinin olmadýðý tespit edilmiþtir.

Even though it is stated in some resources that the building was formerly a church and that it was later transformed into a mosque, it is found out after some investigations that the mosque has no connection with a church.

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Sultan Abdülmecid Dönemi Onarým Kitabesi

Onarýmlar 14. yüzyýlda yapýlmýþ olan cami; 19. yüzyýlda (1843), 20. yüzyýlda (1947, 1967, 1969, 2004, 2007) çeþitli onarýmlar geçirmiþ, orijinal yapýya göre birçok deðiþikliklere uðramýþtýr. Caminin günümüzdeki hali, 1843 yýlý sonrasý Sultan Abdülmecid'in emriyle gerçekleþtirilen onarým sonrasý ortaya çýkan durumu yansýtmaktadýr. Hünkâr mahfili, kadýnlar mahfili, son cemaat yeri, kubbe, minber ve vaaz kürsüsü bu onarým sonrasý yapýya eklenmiþtir.

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Restorations The mosque which was built in 14th century was restored many times in 19th century (1843), in 20th century (1947, 1967, 1969, 2004, and 2007); it underwent several changes compared to the original structure. The present appearance of the mosque resembles the one repaired on the order of Sultan Abdülmecid after 1843. Sultan's gathering place, women's gathering room, son cemaat place (half-open preparation place outside the mosque where people can pray if the mosque is too crowded.), dome, pulpit and preaching rostrum were added to the mosque after this restoration.

Mihrap

Vaaz Kürsüsü

Minber

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Kadýnlar Mahfili

Orhan Camii'in, Sultan Abdülmecid dönemi ta'lik hatlý onarým kitabesi günümüzde Kocaeli Arkeoloji ve Etnografya Müzesi'nde sergilenmektedir. The renewed epigraph of the Orhan Mosque of the Sultan Abdülmecid period is displayed in Kocaeli Archeology and Etnography Museum.

Hünkar Mahfili

Kadýnlar mahfili ve hünkar mahfili iki bölümden oluþmaktadýr. Hünkar mahfilinin kadýnlar mahfiline bitiþik olan kýsmý padiþahýn ibadet etmek için kullandýðý, diðer kýsmý ise padiþahýn dinlenmek ve diðer ihtiyaçlarýný gidermek için kullandýðý mekânlardýr.

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The women's gathering place and the sultan's gathering place is made up of two parts. The part of the sultan's gathering place which is next to the women's gathering place was used for praying by the sultan. The sultan was using the other part of it to have a rest etc.

Güzin'i Al-i Osmanlý hazret-i Orhan'ý ziþanýn Vezir ve erþed evladý Yapdý fi sebil-l 'Ullah hem nam-ý emin 'Ullah Süleyman gaza piþe idüp müþrikleri berbad Müþerref olduðu dem hakip ayindan ser-i Ýzmid Bu vala cami'i balaya itdi sýkle is'a Ruz-ý vakite az kaldý kim ol ma'bed-i ülya Rükü-ý secdeye müþrif taharrükle ola mu'tad Rýza Paþa görüb emr-i ibadette bu halatlý Tutub destin hulusla kýyama eyledi Ki ya'ný sevk-edüp zýl'lý-ý Hüda Abdülmecid Han'a Kemal-i ihtiyacýn ol makamýn eyledi irad Yine tacdide kendi zat-ý ziþanýn edüp me'mur Oda… emsal eyledi hemçün dil-nihad Ve rütbe-i saye-i þahanesinde ol dý muhtahken Metanetle görenler zan ederler beyze-i pülad Ýde emr-i þehinþahisin i Allah müstefi Namaz-ý abidin oldukça minhac-i dil-i aba Hitamýnda yazub tarih-i tamýn hame-iz zaik Bu dilcu ma'bedi Abdülmecid Han kýldý nev-bünyüd 1259 (M.1843)

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Mimari Özellikler

Architectural Features

Kuzey-Güney istikametinde dikdörtgen plana sahip olan caminin, beden duvarlarý kâgir tarzda yapýlmýþtýr. Caminin esas ibadet yeri olan harim kýsmý, yapýnýn en eski yeridir. Giriþ kapýsý üzerinde “Allah Teâlâ þöyle buyuruyor: Müttakilere

Harim Kýsmý (Genel)

(Allah'a karþý gelmekten sakýnanlara) cennetlere esenlikle, güven içinde girin, denilir.” (Hicr/46) ayeti vardýr. Dikdörtgen planlý olan harimin kýble yönü duvarýnda mihrap ve minber, doðu duvarýnda vaaz kürsüsü bulunmaktadýr. Harim kýsmýnýn ortasýnda ahþap bir kubbeye yer verilmiþtir. Tavan düz ahþap çýtalýdýr. Tavan ile kubbeyi ahþap saçaklar ayýrmaktadýr. Kubbe dört adet ahþap direk üzerine oturmaktadýr. Caminin son cemaat yeri ahþaptýr.

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Harim Giriþ Kapýsý (Kuzey)

Kýlýç ile Hutbe Okunmasý

The mosque has a rectangular plan in the northsouth direction and the walls are built of stone. The main praying section of the mosque, harim, is the oldest part of the mosque. A verse from the Quran “The God says: "The believers are told to enter the Gardens and Springs in peace, in complete security!" (Surat al-Hijr, 46) is written on the entrance door. The mihrab and the pulpit stands by the wall of rectangular-shape harim, which is on the Kýblah direction, and the preaching rostrum stands by the east wall. There is a wooden dome in the middle of the harim. The ceiling is made of flat wooden laths. Wooden fringes separate the ceiling from the dome. The dome stands on four wooden columns. Son cemaat place of the mosque is also made of wood.

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Orhan Camii