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MYP5 skills & Fitness assignMent. 2009/2010.

Student – Hans Arro Teacher – Peter Butler

1


Contents Introduction About handball Handball research Handball rules

Overview Focus & Goal Fitness pre-testing Skill pre-Testing

(3-5) 3 3 4-5

(6-7) 6 6 7

Training plans & weekly reflections (8-14) First week plan 8 First week reflection 9 Second week plan 9-10 Second week modification reasoning 10 Second week reflection 10 Third week plan 10-11 Third week reflection 11 Fourth week plan 12 Fourth week reflection 12-13 Fifth week plan 13 Fifth week reflection 14

Post testing

(15-16)

Fitness post-testing Skill post-testing

15 16

Conclusion and Evaluation

17

Bibliography

18

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Introduction I have chosen to improve my aiming skill in handball. I am a sporty guy and the physical sports that fascinate me the most are to do with speed (not motor vehicles) and agility. Since I have played handball before I find that this is a sport that I would like to improve at in order to play more successfully in the future, even if the playing that will take place is not professional. Handball is a sport that is mostly played in Europe. There are records of games like handball from the medieval France, as well as from among the Inuit who live in Greenland. In the Middle Ages by the 19 th century similar games of handball existed in Denmark. The modern team handball game was created by the end of the 19th century in Europe and it was mainly made famous by Germany, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. A Danish gym teacher was the person who first drew up the rules for modern handball (hündbold) in 1898 and published them in 1906. 1 The men's field handball became very well know, as it was even played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany, at the request of Adolf Hitler. Twenty-three teams which were all put together of male players competed in the Berlin Games. The results of the game delighted Adolf Hitler as Germany came first, followed by Switzerland and Austria. 4 In handball, two teams play on a single handball court. The target of handball is to score as many goals in the opposing team’s goal as possible. The team with the highest point score wins the match. The ball is moved around the court fastest by passing. However, the ball can also be dribbled, but just like in basketball you cannot double-dribble. Double-dribbling will result in the ball changing possession from the team that double-dribbled to their opposing team. Dribbling is allowed to be attended for as long as the person in control of the ball wishes to dribble it. During dribbling three steps are the most you can take after catching a pass. You cannot hold the ball in your hands for more than three seconds without passing or bouncing it. Stalling is forbidden in handball. This means that without a clear attempt to attack the enemy goal, the ball changes possession and a free throw is awarded to the opposing team from a sideline. Each handball team has 12 members, two of which are goalkeepers. Only 7 of the 12 members are allowed to play on the court at the same time, however substitutions can be sent in at any moment. There is a safety area that extends about 6 meters around the goal. No player except the goalkeeper is allowed to touch ground in this area. Shooters may however leap into this area in case they intend to take the shot before they land. 3 3


Rules of handball (Court measures, duration, scoring, passing, nr of players etc.) The Playing Court: The court measures 20 meters (65' 7") by 40 meters (131' 3"). The court is larger than a basketball court, but the length may be shortened when space is limited. The goal area line, or 6-meter line (19' 8"), is the most important line. No one except the goalie is allowed to stand in the goal area. The goal opening is 2 meters by 3 meters. Players may jump into the area if the ball is released before landing in the area. The Ball: Team handball is played with a 32-panel leather ball. For women, the ball is 54 to 56 centimeters and 325 to 400 grams. For men, it is 58 to 60 centimeters and 425 to 475 grams. Number of Players: There are seven players on each team (six court players and one goalie). A maximum of 12 players may dress and participate in a game for each team. Substitutes may enter the game at any time through own substitution area as long as the player they are replacing has left the court. Uniform of the Players: Player numbers are 1 to 20. Uniform shirts and shorts are the same color. The goalkeeper must wear a different color shirt from teammates and opponents. No jewelry is allowed. Referees: There are two referees, a court referee and a goal line referee. Referees have complete authority: Their decisions are final. The referees are assisted by a timer and a scorer. Duration of the Game: For players 18 years and over, the game consists of 2, 30-minute halves with 10-minute half-time. For tournament and youth games 2, 15-minute or 2, 20- minute halves. This is running time except for injury or one team time-out per half. The teams change benches at half-time. The game ends in a tie unless the game demands a winner. (Tournament rules dictate that a winner must be determined.) Overtime consists of 2, 5-minute periods). Passive Play: It is illegal to keep the ball in a team's possession without making a recognizable attempt to attack and to try to score. In other words, a team cannot stall (free-throw awarded to the other team). Throw-Off: A throw-off is taken by the team that wins the coin toss and chooses to start the game with the ball. Each team must be in its own half of the court with the defense 3 meters away from the ball. Following a whistle, the ball is passed from center court to a teammate and play begins. Throw-off is repeated after every goal scored and after half-time. Scoring: A goal is scored when the entire ball crosses the goal line inside the goal. A goal may be scored from any throw (freethrow, throw-in, throw-off, goal-throw). Playing The Ball A player is allowed . . . -To run with the ball for 3 steps -To hold the ball for 3 seconds -Unlimited dribble with 3 steps allowed before and after dribbling (no double-dribble). A player is NOT allowed . . .

• • • •

To endanger an opponent with the ball. To pull, hit or punch the ball out of the hands of an opponent. To contact the ball below the knee. To dive on the floor for a rolling or stationary ball.

Defending the Opponent: A player is allowed to use the torso of the body to obstruct an opponent with or without the ball. However, using the outstretched arms or legs to obstruct, push, hold, trip or hit is NOT allowed. The attacking player is not allowed to charge into a defensive player. Throw-In: A throw-in is awarded when ball goes out of bounds on the sideline or when the ball is last touched by a defensive player (excluding the goalie) and goes out of bounds over the endline. The throw-in is taken from the spot where the ball crossed the sideline, or if it crossed the endline, from the nearest corner. The thrower must place one foot on the sideline to execute the throw. All opposing players must stay 3 meters away from the ball.

4


Referee Throw: A referee throw is awarded when . . . The ball touches anything above the court after a simultaneous infringement of the rules after simultaneous possession of the ball. The Referee throws the ball vertically between two opposing players. The jumping players may grab the ball or tap it to a teammate. All other players must be 3 meters away from the throw. The referee throw is always taken at center court. Free-Throw: For a minor foul or violation, a free-throw is awarded to the opponent at the exact spot it took place. If the foul or violation occurs between the goal area line and the 9-meter line, the throw is taken from the nearest post outside the 9-meter line. The thrower must keep one foot in contact with the floor, then pass or shoot. 7-Meter Throw: The 7-meter throw is awarded when . . .

• • • •

A foul destroys a clear chance to score The goalie carries the ball back into his or her own goal area A court player intentionally plays the ball to his or her own goalie in the goal area and the goalie touches the ball A defensive player enters his or her goal area to gain an advantage over an attacking player in possession of the ball.

All players must be outside the free-throw line when the throw is taken. The player taking the throw has 3 seconds to shoot after referee's whistle. Any player may take the 7-meter throw. Goal-Throw: A goal-throw is awarded when . . . The ball rebounds off the goalkeeper over the endline The ball is thrown over the endline by the attacking team. The goalie takes the throw inside the goal area and is not restricted by the 3-step/3-second rule. Progressive Punishments Progressive Punishments: Pertain to fouls that require more punishment than just a free-throw. "Actions" directed mainly at the opponent and not the ball (such as reaching around, holding, pushing, hitting, tripping and jumping into an opponent) are to be punished progressively. Warnings (yellow card): The referee gives only one warning to a player for rule violations and a total of three to a team. Exceeding these limits results in 2-minute suspensions thereafter. Warnings are not required prior to giving out a 2-minute suspension. 2-minute suspensions awarded for . . . -Serious or repeated rules violations -Unsportsmanlike conduct -Illegal substitution. -The suspended player's team plays short for 2 minutes. Disqualification and Exclusion (red card): A disqualification is the equivalent of three, 2-minute suspensions. A disqualified player must leave court and bench, but the team can replace player after the 2-minute suspension expires. An exclusion is given for assault. The excluded player's team continues short one player for the rest of the game.

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Focus and Goal: The focus of this skills training period will be to improve my aim in handball. I do not expect a major improvement in a short time period like this. I will focus on increasing my pre-test result’s point amount by around 20%. I will mostly focus on practicing my aim by shooting at a goal as well as a target marker on a wall. I will do this over and over again in order to improve my aim. I will measure my skill by shooting at a point marker which is very similar to the one pictured on the right. To see a difference in my skill I will shoot at the point marker 30 times both before and after the training period. Plan – In order to improve my skill I have broken down my plan in to components that will help me specify what kinds of actions are important to improve for the improvement of my chosen skill. - Work on my shooting position. (the way legs and the body is positioned when throwing the ball) - Work on the grip of the ball (to make sure that when thrown the balls trajectory will not be affected by a bad grip.) - Action of the arm. (Swinging the ball) - Work on aim. (For example try out different spins in order to find the best technique for me to hit the center of the target) Fitness pre-testing – This table shows the physical capabilities of my body before the skill and fitness training Muscular Flexibility Muscular Muscular Muscular Muscular Endurance Sit & reach Power Strength Endurance Endurance Sit-up Test test (cm). Vertical Flexed Push-ups wall sit jump (cm). arm hang (seconds)

39

22cm

Cardio Vascular Endurance 12 min run

Cardio Vascular Endurance Harvard step test

26 laps

-

66cm

1m12s

Cardio Speed Vascular Endurance “Quick Multi stage feet” ladder

-

-

6

22 Speed 20 metre Sprint

3.6s

Balance. Stork stand test

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Skill Pre-Testing: This table presents the pre-testing results for my aim in handball – I tested my aim in handball by shooting at a point marked target from six meters away. I shot the target for 30 times, recording the results after every 10 shots. I then averaged the results in order to get an average point score for my shooting session. The results are displayed below. Attempt nr. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Points Points Points – 1 – 2 – 3 20 50 10 20 10 20 50 50 20 10 20 50 20 20 50 20 50 20 50 20 20 20 20 20 10 20 50 20 10 10 Average point results = 260p

I was able to score an average of 260 points. I did this by standing 6 meters away from the target marker, shooting the ball with my right hand as displayed on the image above.

Planning: What will I do in order to increase my aiming skill in handball? In order to improve my aiming skill I have to train certain muscle groups as well as the aiming skill itself. By increasing muscular strength and endurance and by working on my shooting technique I will be able to improve my results from those of skill pre-testing. I will work out training plans that will guide me through my P.E sessions, helping me develop the skills and muscle strength that I need in order to improve my skill-testing results. 6 P’s!!!

Week 1training planPE (Fitness)

PE (Skills) 7


Area of Fitness

Leg strength/ Arm strength/ Muscular endurance

Accuracy/ Throwing technique/ Reflexes

Exercises

3min. Med. Ball/5min. Run/3min. Bri. Dips (1min. + 30sec. Rest)/ 4min. Weights (1.5min. + 30sec. Rest x 2)

Intense exercises

2min – tri. Dips/ 2min – 4kg weights/ sprint run

2.5min. shots – normal distance/ 2.5min. shots further away/ 5min. Bouncing the ball on the wall/ 5min shooting at markers in a goal 5min. – shots at the target point system marker

Time Types of exercises performed

20min. Muscle training – Throwing medicine ball with a partner/ Biceps training/ Weight lifting/ Running

20min. Skill – Accuracy/techniqu e – Shots further away from the target/ shots close to the target/ bouncing the ball off the wall

Why these muscle groups? -

-

In order to improve my handball shooting technique I have chosen to train my leg strength, arm strength and muscular endurance. For this my skill training involves consecutive shooting. Muscle strength and endurance is developed by various exercises such as tri. Dips. It is important to improve muscle strength and endurance to not let fatigue of my muscles lower my point score in the end testing. I also go to the gym to work on my lower back and stomach muscles. Since there is not enough time in class to work on all the muscle groups I have taken time to go to a gym with a partner in order to train the muscles that I do not have enough time in school to train.

Reflection of week one – 8


The training lessons this week went quite well. I was provided with a sufficient amount of time in order to complete my training program. I tried following my program as much as possible; however I think that for the next week I need to change a few things. The biggest problem occurred during the fitness part of my program. Since I don’t have a training partner it was quite hard to figure out how to perform some exercises such as throwing the medicine ball. Everyone was busy with their own fitness training and therefore I did not have anyone to pass the ball between. Therefore I had to skip this fitness part. Instead I did some triceps training and I think that this is something that I am going to change for my next week’s plan as well. There were no complications training with weights, therefore I had quite intense fitness training on that part. The skills training of my program went smooth. There were no problems training my accuracy and throwing technique. There was a lot of room in the handball skill training area and therefore I was able to finish my skills training without distractions. I also visited the Welcome-Fitness centre for the improvement of my lower back and stomach muscles. By using several work-out machines in the gym I was able to put a lot of pressure on these muscle groups. Week 2 training plan – PE (Fitness) Area of Leg strength/ Fitness Arm strength/ Muscular endurance Exercises

3min.Triceps/5 min. Run/3min. Bri. Dips (1min. + 30sec. Rest)/ 4min. Weights (1.5min. + 30sec. Rest x 2)

Intense exercises

2min – tri. Dips/ 2min – 4kg weights/ sprint run 20min. Muscle training – biceps dips/ Triceps dips/ Weight lifting/ Running

Time Types of exercises performed

PE (Skills) Accuracy/ Throwing technique/ Reflexes 2.5min. shots – normal distance/ 2.5min. shots further away/ 5min. Bouncing the ball on the wall/ 5min shooting at markers in a goal 5min. – shots at the target point system marker 20min. Skill – Accuracy/techniqu e – Shots further away from the target/ shots close to the target/ 9


bouncing the ball off the wall Modifications: I have made one small change to the training program. Instead of performing medicine ball training in my fitness part I decided to work on my biceps. I decided to do so because I do not have a partner to perform the medicine ball exercise with. Also, I think training triceps is a good idea since I am already putting a lot of pressure on my biceps, therefore there will be equality in my arms training between the two weeks. Why these muscle groups? -

-

In order to improve my handball shooting technique I have chosen to train my leg strength, arm strength and muscular endurance. For this my skill training involves consecutive shooting. Muscle strength and endurance is developed by various exercises such as tri. Dips. It is important to improve muscle strength and endurance to not let fatigue of my muscles lower my point score in the end testing. I also go to the gym to work on my lower back and stomach muscles. Since there is not enough time in class to work on all the muscle groups I have taken time to go to a gym with a partner in order to train the muscles that I do not have enough time in school to train.

Reflection of week 2: The training programme this week worked out fine. I was well rested for my three P.E lessons and I used all the time I had available wisely. I strictly followed my training plan and I therefore finished a bit earlier than anticipated without any breaks in between exercises. The change from medicine ball training to triceps dips came out to be successful; I was able to follow my training plan without any unplanned breaks or interruptions. In the gym I worked on my lower back as well as my stomach muscles. I performed different exercises on several machines that the Welcome-Fitness centre has available. Since I feel that this week’s training was quite heavy I count it as pure progression in the sense of fitness and skill training. A lot of tension was put on my muscles on this week and I plan to continue the same way next week for maximum improvement. Week 3 training plan – PE (Fitness) Area of Leg strength/ Fitness Arm strength/ Muscular endurance Exercises

PE (Skills) Accuracy/ Throwing technique/ Reflexes

3min.Triceps/5 2.5min. shots – min. Run/3min. normal distance/ Bri. Dips (1min. 2.5min. shots 10


+ 30sec. Rest)/ 4min. Weights (1.5min. + 30sec. Rest x 2) Intense exercises

Time Types of exercises performed

2min – tri. Dips/ 2min – 4kg weights/ sprint run 20min. Muscle training – biceps dips/ Triceps dips/ Weight lifting/ Running

further away/ 5min. Bouncing the ball on the wall/ 5min shooting at markers in a goal 5min. – shots at the target point system marker 20min. Skill – Accuracy/techniqu e – Shots further away from the target/ shots close to the target/ bouncing the ball off the wall

Why these muscle groups? -

-

In order to improve my handball shooting technique I have chosen to train my leg strength, arm strength and muscular endurance. For this my skill training involves consecutive shooting. Muscle strength and endurance is developed by various exercises such as tri. Dips. It is important to improve muscle strength and endurance to not let fatigue of my muscles lower my point score in the end testing. I also go to the gym to work on my lower back and stomach muscles. Since there is not enough time in class to work on all the muscle groups I have taken time to go to a gym with a partner in order to train the muscles that I do not have enough time in school to train.

Reflection of week 3: This week’s training was almost identical to last week’s training. I followed my plan and completed the exercises that I had assigned myself. I figured that this training program puts a lot of pressure on the development of my muscle strength; however it is not too good for skill development. After adding extra pressure on training especially arm strength I would like to deduct time from the fitness training and use it more for skill training since that area of training advances more slowly. I found out, though, that unfortunately this is not possible since in class, skill and fitness training is clearly separated by time. I am scheduled to do 40 minutes of consecutive training in both fitness and skill training at school, having no chance to change the time schedule. I think this would have had a good impact on my training since I visit the gym where I do extra training on my muscle groups anyways. Since it is not possible though, I will just have to continue with my current training plan. 11


Week 4 training plan – PE (Fitness) Area of Leg strength/ Fitness Arm strength/ Muscular endurance Exercises

3min.Triceps/5 min. Run/3min. Bri. Dips (1min. + 30sec. Rest)/ 4min. Weights (1.5min. + 30sec. Rest x 2)

Intense exercises

2min – tri. Dips/ 2min – 4kg weights/ sprint run 20min. Muscle training – biceps dips/ Triceps dips/ Weight lifting/ Running

Time Types of exercises performed

PE (Skills) Accuracy/ Throwing technique/ Reflexes 2.5min. shots – normal distance/ 2.5min. shots further away/ 5min. Bouncing the ball on the wall/ 5min shooting at markers in a goal 5min. – shots at the target point system marker 20min. Skill – Accuracy/techniqu e – Shots further away from the target/ shots close to the target/ bouncing the ball off the wall

Why these muscle groups? -

-

In order to improve my handball shooting technique I have chosen to train my leg strength, arm strength and muscular endurance. For this my skill training involves consecutive shooting. Muscle strength and endurance is developed by various exercises such as tri. Dips. It is important to improve muscle strength and endurance to not let fatigue of my muscles lower my point score in the end testing. I also go to the gym to work on my lower back and stomach muscles. Since there is not enough time in class to work on all the muscle groups I have taken time to go to a gym with a partner in order to train the muscles that I do not have enough time in school to train.

Reflection on week 4: 12


As assigned by my training plan I worked both on my skill and muscle strength. This week, however, I did not do as good in class as during the previous weeks. I was not able to give full effort in class as I encountered stomach ache. I completed the exercises I had set for myself in a lighter way so that I wouldn’t strain my body. It was especially uncomfortable to perform skill training since it includes a lot of movement, however for a good effort grade I was obligated to do it. I compensated my poor performance in class by working on all my muscle groups instead of just stomach and back muscles in the gym for more than an hour. Next week I plan to put more effort in to my skills training since I was not able to train with a handball in the gym. The fact that I have now fallen behind with my skill training is not good news since I cannot practice skills with a handball anywhere else than at school, therefore I will have to put concerted effort in to skill training in the last training session next week. Week 5 training plan –

Why these muscle groups? 13


-

-

In order to improve my handball shooting technique I have chosen to train my leg strength, arm strength and muscular endurance. For this my skill training involves consecutive shooting. Muscle strength and endurance is developed by various exercises such as tri. Dips. It is important to improve muscle strength and endurance to not let fatigue of my muscles lower my point score in the end testing. I also go to the gym to work on my lower back and stomach muscles. Since there is not enough time in class to work on all the muscle groups I have taken time to go to a gym with a partner in order to train the muscles that I do not have enough time in school to train.

Reflection on week 5: With this week’s classes I was able to equalize my fitness and skills development. Since I was not able to put much effort in to skills training last week I performed extra intense skill training this week. I settled down on a court and practiced my accuracy as well as throwing technique for some extra time. At some point I had to take a break since as we know, when you do things too fast or for too long they tend to get sloppy, therefore at that point I had to settle down for a while and take control of my training again. Otherwise this training session was successful. Fitness training came out very well just like the weeks before and visiting the gym again was also nice. I have figured that going to a gym has a good impact on my fitness state, so I am considering monthly membership even after I finish with this sports season! For the next lesson the class has planned to conduct skill and fitness testing again for results comparison. I will then be able to see whether or not I have had any improvement in my handball aiming skill. ď Š

Post-testing: Post testing – fitness: 14


After concentrating my skill and fitness training on certain muscle groups for five weeks my fitness level in those muscle groups has changed. My new fitness testing results are listed below: Muscular Flexibility Muscular Endurance Sit & reach Power Sit-up Test test (cm). Vertical jump (cm).

47

21cm

Cardio Vascular Endurance 12 min run

Cardio Vascular Endurance Harvard step test

31 laps

-

55cm

Muscular Strength Flexed arm hang

1m33s

Cardio Speed Vascular Endurance “Quick Multi stage feet” ladder

-

-

Muscular Muscular Endurance Endurance Push-ups wall sit (seconds)

28 Speed 20 metre Sprint

4.2s

Balance. Stork stand test

-

As we can see all of the conducted fitness tests gave different results of what was recorded before the fitness and skill training. After this training season, in some muscle groups the results show increase in muscle strength as well as muscle endurance – such as arm muscles, but they also show a decrease of strength in other muscle groups such as leg muscles which were almost not trained at all. Using this information we can conclude that my created training programs did not have perfect balance in training all muscle groups equally, yet we can see that the most important muscle groups for my chosen skill have been trained well.

Post skill-testing: After training different muscle groups and my handball aiming skill, I recreated the skill testing conditions. By doing this I ensured fair comparison between the pre and post testing results. By 15


throwing the handball at the target from six meters away for 30 times I was able to record and average the following results: Attempt Points Points Points As we can see there has been a nr. – 1 – 2 – 3 significant improvement in the point 1 50 20 20 score after training certain skills and 2 50 20 50 muscle groups for 5 weeks. With 3 20 50 20 almost no knowledge or training of 4 20 50 20 handball I scored 260 points in pre5 50 50 50 testing. Now, after 5 weeks of 6 10 20 10 training I was able to increase the 7 50 20 50 results by an average of 47.5 points 8 20 10 20 which is a 15.5% difference. 9 20 50 20 Looking at these results we can 10 10 20 50 count my handball skill-training Average point results = season successful. 307.5p

Conclusion and Evaluation Looking back at the skill training season I can see that the good effort I put in training paid off in the final skill testing. As we can see from the results my skill improved about 15% out of the 20% I was aiming for. Therefore we can say that the goals I had set myself were realistic. The fact that I improved in my chosen skill means that I have had a successful five week training period in both fitness as well as skill training. We can see from the pre and post fitness testing 16


that I have improved in certain fitness areas, especially the ones that are affected by the muscle groups which I performed more intense training on. The training plans were easy to follow as we can see from every week’s reflection, and required modifications were made in order to improve the training sessions. Overall we can say that the training sessions went very well. I went through peaks and troughs throughout this five week training period. During some training weeks I went through intense fitness and skill training while during some other week I did not feel so good in class and I was not able to perform fully. Problems such as this were solved by working harder the following training weeks and doing extra training after school from personal time. The training programs created seem to be well made. Due to the fact that the training plans had both exercises as well as the length for which these exercises had to be performed noted, they were easy to fully follow in class. I displayed positive attitude towards the skill training season as I always came to class with a prepared plan and as I gave my best to follow it. As said I did not always feel perfectly fine in class so I did have some obstacles to encounter. I gave my best to work out the best possible solutions to those kinds of problems by putting extra effort in to the training after school. I believe that going to the gym was a good idea since it is hard to improve in a sport and in fitness if one only trains themselves once a week. Muscles strength does not improve if you only do two hours of training a week. Also, this five week training period was not consecutive. Between these five weeks of training there were many events such as holidays and a week where school was cancelled due to a virus. For some people this increased the time in between the training periods for up to three weeks. This had a large impact on their skill and fitness improvement. If I was to improve anything in this training period then I would make the training sessions to be more frequent. It is more useful to have 30 minutes of training every day rather than have two hours of training throughout the whole week with sometimes having larger gaps than a week in between the training. Also, next time when designing weekly training plans it would be a huge plus to discuss with a professional personal training supervisor. This way students could figure out which muscle groups they should train in order to balance out their muscle strength and see which muscles a professional fitness trainer would advise them to train. These are the two major improvements I see that could be applied. Otherwise the intensity of training and the use of different training techniques is up to the individual who is carrying out the training season. If they have the time and will then they can do anything they need for the improvement of their training period.

Bibliography (displayed in the MLA7 format) 1. "What is Handball?" Spanish Website. Web. 28 Nov. 2009. <http://www.ctspanish.com/legends/king/handball.htm>. 2. "Team Handball Basic Rules." Tripod | Error. Web. 28 Nov. 2009. <http://usadth.tripod.com/rules.html>. 17


3. "Team handball." Dictionaries and Encyclopedias on 'Academic' Web. 28 Nov. 2009. <http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/8180>. 4. "Sport - Team Handball." Sport Is Good! Web. 28 Nov. 2009. <http://www.sportisgood.com/sp/servlet/com.sportisgood.web.SportView?sportID=11>.

http://www.sportisgood.com/sp/servlet/com.sportisgood.web.SportView?sportID=11 http://www.cbc.ca/olympics/handball/story/2008/05/12/f-olympics-handball-history.html http://usadth.tripod.com/rules.html http://www.ctspanish.com/legends/king/handball.htm

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PE assignment