problems and ﬁnd solutions for them. There’s no manual for these things.” Gidmark says that tenacity and the ability to work though the problem have been huge assets as he and his team of students have tackled the whale articulation project. “The logistics are difﬁcult to grasp unless you’ve done something on a smaller scale,” says Gidmark. Just like the class articulation, the ﬁrst step in the whale project involved identifying the bones. Students were assigned different sections of the anatomy, such as the ribs, skull, ﬂippers, and vertebrae. Once the bones were identiﬁed, each was placed on a three-foot turntable, and, while one student slowly turned it, another took multiple photos from different angles. These were used to make three-dimensional (3D) images of each bone. Students then created a 3D animation of the whale. Sydney Fretwell ’19, who plans to attend veterinary school, worked on the computer animation. “Once it’s ﬁnished, we’ll be able to see how it articulates. If we move the tail upwards, the whole verticular column is going to move with it.” A 3D model of the atrium is helping the team determine the appropriate articulation of the whale for the space. “There’s going to be a two-inch pipe that goes through all of the vertebrae that will need to be professionally bent, so we need to know exactly what we want before it’s hung,” says Gidmark. In addition to the scanning and animation of the whale, another component of the project that was new for the team was the cleaning, repairing, and even re-creation of some of the bones. Because the bones were exposed to the elements for years before coming to Knox, they were discolored and
covered in dirt and algae. Sam Arrez ’19, who plans to attend medical school, worked with other students over winter term to clean the bones. “It was a lot of trial and error. We started off with hydrogen peroxide and a stain-removing powder. We had to ﬁgure out things like if it was better to soak the bones in a solution or rinse them. Or what works better, a toothbrush or scraper?” When they completed the cleaning process, the team coated the bones in a liquid polymer to strengthen them. Some of the bones were damaged or broken and had become porous from exposure. In some cases, the smaller ﬁnger bones (yes, whales have ﬁngers) were missing entirely. The team used the College’s 3D printer to re-create smaller bones. To repair some of the larger ones, Assistant Professor of Art Andrea Ferrigno has been working with Gidmark to sculpt missing sections of vertebrae. And she’s been working with students to develop the best way to repair cracks and other deformities. Jini John ’19 is headed to optometry school this fall and enjoys specialized detail work. During spring term, she used a combination of resin and microballoons to ﬁll bone deformities, layering and sanding multiple times to achieve a natural look. “If you pile a lot on, it’s going to bubble up and look plaster-like,” which is why John’s steady hand and eye for detail has been such an asset to the project. “In the end, you want it to look like bone, not artiﬁcial.” Once the bones were cleaned and repaired, the last step was to paint all of the bones to give them a uniform look. This summer, Gidmark and students are putting the whale together in 10-foot sections, with plans to have the
credible project, and kind of angry at myself at biting off such a big project.”
Jini John ’19 makes some adjustments to the red-tailed hawk she and her team articulated for the class Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy.
whale articulated and hanging in the atrium by Homecoming weekend. “I often wafﬂe between being so humbled and amazed and honored to be part of this incredible project, and kind of angry at myself at biting off such a big project,” says Gidmark. “So whose idea was this? Oh yeah, it was mine. Totally mine.” He says that for his students, “learning how to actually connect a chevron bone to a vertebra is not really that transferable, I’ll give you that. There are not that many jobs out there that need that skill. But it’s those softer skills of planning, and work, and thought, and the fact that they really do pay off—you can’t do it without those tools.” And while Gidmark and his students continue their work in the biology wing of the Umbeck ScienceMathematics Center, he can’t help but look to the future. “Twenty years from now, that whale is going to be hanging there, and the alumni who put it together are going to come back, and they’re going to remember. And they’ll go ﬁnd the dog or seal or hawk and they’ll still be here. We did this together, and it was a crazy amount of work. And it was wonderful.” KNOX MAGAZINE Summer 2019