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THE

DIPLOMATIC HERALD No.4 OF KAZAKHSTAN

2018

Quarterly publication No.4, 2018. ISSN 1814-7089. Issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan. In circulation since 1996. Founder: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan. Commissioning Editor: Gulsana Tulepbergenova. Materials published in the journal do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Editorial Board. Address: MFA RK, 31 Konaev Street, Astana, 010000. Tel.: +7 (7172) 72 05 50; 72 06 85. Email: diplomaticherald@mfa.kz Online version of the journal is available on the website: mfa.gov.kz The journal was re-registered by the Ministry of Information and Communications of the Republic of Kazakhstan on March 14, 2018. Registration Certificate: No. 16972-Đ–. Print run: 500 copies.

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The Editorial Board

EDITORIAL BOARD Kairat Abdrakhmanov – Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan, Chair of the Editorial Board of the Diplomatic Herald of Kazakhstan journal. Mukhtar Tileuberdi – First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Yerzhan Ashikbayev – Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Roman Vassilenko – Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Galymzhan Koishybayev – Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Yermek Kosherbayev – Executive Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Bolat Nurgaliyev – Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. Talgat Zhumagulov – Chairman of the International Information Committee of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Zhalgas Adilbayev – Ambassador at Large of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Alim Kirabayev – Director of the Foreign Policy Analysis and Forecasting Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Gulsana Tulepbergenova – Commissioning Editor.

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Contents

CONTENTS Kairat Abdrakhmanov. History Lessons and Focus on Pragmatism

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IN FOCUS Imangali Tasmagambetov. Kazakhstan and Russia: Understanding the Past and Priorities for the Future 10 Alexey Borodavkin. Russia and Kazakhstan: Past, Present, Future

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Sushma Swaraj. Kazakhstan and India: New Horizons for 26 Cooperation INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS A Stamp Dedicated to Kazakhstan's UNSC Membership

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Vladimir Voronkov. Code of Conduct for the Achievement of a Terrorism-Free World 33 Code of Conduct Towards Achieving a World Free of Terrorism

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Miroslav Jenča. Summing up Kazakhstan’s Membership on the UN Security Council 42 Adela Raz. Strengthening Interaction between Kazakhstan and Afghanistan 47 Zulfiya Amanzholova. Legal Status of the Caspian Sea: the Importance of the Aktau Convention 51 ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY Erlan Dosymbekov. The Development of Kazakhstan’s Business Climate and Investment Attractiveness in Light of Current Trends 56 Gulmira Kabiyeva. Anti-Corruption Support to Doing Business Transparently 61

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CHAPTERS OF HISTORY Kamilla Sheryazdanova. Review of the Book “Mikhail Issinaliyev – the Politician and Diplomat: Documentary Essays” 65 Khair Omarov. The Person, the Citizen, the Diplomat NEW APPOINTMENTS IN THE MINISTRY

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Kairat ABDRAKHMANOV, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan History Lessons and Focus on Pragmatism This October, head of state Nursultan Nazarbayev made an annual State of the Nation Address titled “Growing Welfare of Kazakh Citizens: Increase in Income and Quality of Life.” In his address, the President stressed that “in the context of difficult modern conditions, the foreign policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan requires adaptation and promotion of national interests based on the principles of pragmatism,” while “proactive” nature and “peaceful vision” remain its key components. To ensure successful implementation of the Address provisions, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs optimises the activities of the diplomatic service agencies, intensifies the promotion of Kazakhstan to big international organisations, continues to build mutually beneficial cooperation with regional and international partners and strengthens interaction with the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) as part of fulfilling the task to join this high-profile organisation. The Foreign Ministry has already begun to improve work in the field of economic diplomacy by developing a proactive foreign trade strategy for promoting domestic products to foreign markets. In addition, the attraction of foreign capital and advanced technologies to non-resource-based sectors of the economy is still crucial for foreign economic activity. There are plans to bring cooperation with the World Trade Organisation (WTO) to a new level, especially taking into account the 12th WTO Ministerial Conference in June 2020 in Astana. Within the roadmap for cooperation with the Astana International Financial Centre (AIFC), the foreign office assists the AIFC in establishing business relations with counterparties. Active work will continue with other concerned state agencies to turn Kazakhstan into a Eurasian transport and logistics hub connecting the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Europe, the Middle East and South and East Asia. In order to support tourism and business contacts, the visa regime is being liberalised for foreign citizens and a favourable visa regime is being created for our citizens.

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Kairat Abdrakhmanov. History Lessons and Focus on Pragmatism

*** The history of Kazakhstan is a powerful unifying factor for our people, a source of inspiration for all citizens. Leader of the Nation Nursultan Nazarbayev, in his fundamental article titled “Seven Facets of the Great Steppe,” sagely calls on the society to respect and study history, to draw lessons from the past. After all, the chronicle of any nation is full of heroism, victories and tragedies; it must be taken for what it is. This requires a scientific approach. This fully applies to the history of relations between our people and the outside world – the near and far abroad. PresidentNazarbayev settled all territorial issues of Kazakhstan with neighbouring countries, established friendship and strategic partnerships with neighbouring countries and major powers and built a system of mutually beneficial regional economic cooperation. It is the lessons of history that prompt Kazakhstan to take a proactive and decisive position in international issues: global nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation, strengthening political trust and cooperation at the international level, resolving conflicts and crises and promoting transnational economic projects. “Seven Facets of the Great Steppe” is addressed not only to the Kazakh people, but also to the wider international community – academia, historians, people of culture and art, specialists in the field of museum and archival affairs and journalists. The President urges the world community to take part in studying the cultural and historical heritage of the steppe civilisation. The Foreign Ministry will be directly involved in the implementation of projects for the modernisation of historical consciousness set forth by the head of state, since they all are of international importance. The Foreign Ministry and embassies of Kazakhstan will provide the necessary assistance to our researchers in working with the largest foreign archives. “Great Names of the Great Steppe” – our great ancestors who are known, respected and honoured in different parts of the Earth. Our task is to strengthen their memory, to promote the study and perpetuation of their heritage. Together with domestic and foreign scientists, a lot of work has to be done to organise the World Turkology Congress in 2019 in Astana and to study Turkic history in general. Diplomats are ready to take part in museum and cinematographic projects, the translation of steppe folklore anthologies into foreign languages and promoting our ancient art and technology in the global arena. These projects will strengthen and enrich our cooperation with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (ISESCO), the humanitarian dimension of the CIS, Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States (CCTS) and other organisations.

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We will also keep the practice of holding well-reputed thematic cultural press tours to Kazakhstan by foreign media and bloggers as part of the Rukhani Zhangyru (Modernisation of Kazakhstan) programme. We believe that this great work, initiated by the head of state, will certainly contribute to strengthening the international standing of our country and the mutual connectivity and enrichment of cultures of the modern world. ***

1) CSTO Collective Security Council session with restricted attendance. Astana Nov. 8, 2018; 2) XV Inter-Regional Cooperation Forum of Kazakhstan and Russia. Petropavlovsk (Kazakhstan), Nov. 9, 2018; 3) Opening ceremony of the International Technology Park of IT start-ups Astana Hub. Astana, Nov. 6, 2018.

In the fourth quarter of 2018, the foreign policy field was quite rich in events of high significance for our diplomacy with the participation of the head 7


Kairat Abdrakhmanov. History Lessons and Focus on Pragmatism

of state. The winter issue of our journal opens with a series of articles on Kazakh-Russian relations. Our countries have once again compared notes between the leaders and outlined new areas for cooperation within the 15th Kazakhstan-Russia Interregional Cooperation Forum, held on Nov. 9 in Petropavlovsk. In November, Astana hosted the Summit of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) under the chairpersonship of Kazakhstan, where international and regional security issues were reviewed, the results of the Organisation’s chairpersonship were summed up and future plans were outlined as part of passing the baton to Kyrgyzstan. In the context of the upcoming official events at the highest level in 2019, readers will be presented with an exclusive article by Minister of External (Foreign) Affairs of India Sushma Swaraj on the strategic nature of IndiaKazakhstan interstate relations, new horizons of cooperation and longstanding traditions of friendship between the peoples of our two countries. In December, Kazakhstan will complete its first in history, two-year nonpermanent membership in the main UN body – the Security Council, which we chaired this January. This unique experience has greatly enriched our diplomacy and brought it to a new professional level. United Nations Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Miroslav Jenča shared his opinion on the work done by Kazakhstan in an exclusive interview. A great achievement for our activities in the Security Council was the adoption by the United Nations in November of the Code of Conduct towards Achieving a World Free of Terrorism proposed by President Nazarbayev at the 70th session of the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in September 2015. UN Under-Secretary-General, head of the Counter-Terrorism Office Vladimir Voronkov writes in his article on the importance of counter-terrorism activities and the significance of the Code. In early November, the international community reaffirmed the relevance of the Universal Declaration on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free World, first adopted in 2015 on the initiative of Kazakhstan, by a relevant UNGA resolution. Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Adela Raz talks on the pages of the journal about Kazakh-Afghan relations that have reached a new level of bilateral and multilateral cooperation in recent years. Of significance was the opening ceremony of the Astana Hub International Technology Park of IT Start-ups held on the EXPO 2017 territory on Nov. 6 with the participation of President Nazarbayev. Its main goal is the development of a start-up culture in the country and the support of hightech projects to strengthen the economy. The Diplomatic Herald plans to talk about the first results of the technology park’s activities in its following issues. 8


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Along with the above-mentioned topics, the magazine also reveals other important themes, including the importance of the Aktau Convention on the Caspian Sea, characteristics of the development of the business environment and investment attractiveness of Kazakhstan and analysis of the activities of the new project office titled Protecting Business and Investments, as well as a number of articles commemorating our distinguished fellow diplomats.

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IN FOCUS Imangali TASMAGAMBETOV, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the Russian Federation Kazakhstan and Russia: Understanding the Past and Priorities for the Future

Meeting between President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin and President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev on the sidelines of the 15th Kazakhstan-Russia Interregional Cooperation Forum in Petropavlovsk (Kazakhstan), Nov. 9, 2018.

The relationship between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation may be viewed as a model of interstate relations. President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, who can rightly be considered the architect of modern Kazakh-Russian relations, reminded the country of this constant again in his annual State of the Nation Address on Oct. 5.

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Imangali Tasmagambetov. Kazakhstan and Russia: Understanding the Past and Priorities‌

Strategic partnership is based on the Treaty of Good-Neighbourliness and Alliance in the 21st Century (Ekaterinburg, 2013) signed by the Presidents of Kazakhstan and Russia. This comprehensive document is the very essence of the entire legal framework of Kazakh-Russian relations, which includes approximately 200 treaties, agreements and protocols on them signed from 1991-2018. The legal framework is well-balanced. There are approximately 60 instruments in the area of political, military and technical cooperation and more than 50 agreements in energy, industry, trade and finance. Meanwhile, more than 30 agreements have been concluded on space interaction and cooperation alone, including on the Baikonur launch site. By the beginning of the 21st century, Kazakhstan and Russia had built a sustainable model of relations based on a permanent political dialogue at the highest level. Trust relations and regular meetings of the leaders of the two countries are the essential factor of political importance in building equitable and mutually beneficial interstate cooperation. They are complemented by intensive contacts at the government level and steadily increasing inter-parliamentary interaction. The cornerstone of Kazakh-Russian relations is economic cooperation, both bilateral and multilateral. For the time being, all necessary mechanisms for the development of economic relations have been created. Economic interaction is regulated by the intergovernmental commission headed by the deputy prime ministers and its seven subcommissions on the main cooperation areas. Traditionally, mutual trade is one the drivers of bilateral processes between our countries. Despite the downturn in the global economy and anti-Russian sanctions imposed by a number of states, our countries have maintained the progressive development of trade and economic relations. Russia traditionally maintains a leading position among Kazakhstan’s trading partners; its share in the foreign trade turnover of Kazakhstan is 18.8 percent. According to the Statistics Committee of the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2017 recorded a significant increase in mutual trade between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation: the trade turnover amounted to $16 billion, an increase of 25.6 percent compared to 2016. The trade turnover in January-August reached $11.3 billion and grew by 8.3 percent over the same period last year. The only Trade Representation of the Republic of Kazakhstan abroad was opened in Russia; its key function is to promote Kazakh exports and attract direct investment to our country. Mutual investment retains considerable potential. According to the National Bank of Kazakhstan, the cumulative direct investment from 2005 to the first half of 2018 from Kazakhstan to Russia amounted to $3.6 billion; from 11


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Russia to Kazakhstan, $12.6 billion. There are more than 9,000 enterprises in Kazakhstan with Russian participation, which is more than one-third (37.5 percent) of the total number of enterprises with foreign capital in Kazakhstan. The National Export Strategy of Kazakhstan named Russia a “country of priority export interest” and included it in the top 30 priority countries for generating investment in target industries. The energy sector is the driver of bilateral economic cooperation. Russian companies are actively involved in the development of Kazakhstan’s Karachaganak, Korolevskoye and Tengiz oil and gas fields. Preparations are underway for the implementation of joint projects at the Khvalynskoye, Kurmangazy and Tsentralnoye transboundary fields. Kazakh and Russian oil is transported to third countries based on mutually beneficial approaches. The companies of the two countries closely cooperate in a project to expand the Caspian Pipeline Consortium. The latest landmark decision in the energy sector was the signing on Oct. 3 of the Protocol on Amendments to the Intergovernmental Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation in Oil and Petroleum Products Supply of Dec. 9, 2010. Previously, there was an agreement in effect on duty-free supply of Russian gasoline in the amount of about one million tonnes annually to Kazakhstan, which provided for a ban on the export of Kazakhstan’s own gasoline. The protocol creates opportunities for the opening of export of light petroleum products from modernised Kazakh refineries. The changes will allow regulating the supply of petroleum products between Kazakhstan and Russia, as well as the export of petroleum products from the Republic of Kazakhstan outside the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) at the level of the energy agencies of the two countries. Thus, our country will be able to make efficient decisions on the opening/closing of export or import of certain types of petroleum products depending on the balance of the domestic market of petroleum, oil and lubricants (POL). Kazakhstan and Russia, due to their geographical location, are actively working to build bilateral transport and transit capacity. In September 2017, the Protocol on Amendments to the Intergovernmental Agreement on the Specifics of the Legal Regulation of the Activity of Railway Enterprises, Institutions and Organisations of Oct. 4, 2016 came into force. The document simplified the transit of passengers across the Kazakh-Russian border. In the framework of intergovernmental air service agreements between Kazakhstan and Russia, there are approximately 175 regular flights a week. Kazakhstan’s airlines operate 85 flights a week to 10 cities of the Russian Federation; Russian airlines, 90 flights a week to 12 cities of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

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Imangali Tasmagambetov. Kazakhstan and Russia: Understanding the Past and Priorities…

Authorised agencies and organisations continue to collaborate as part of the project to develop the road infrastructure of the Western Europe-Western China International Transit Corridor. Following the commissioning of the Kazakh and Chinese sections of this corridor, 2.1 million tonnes of cargo, a record amount in the last five years, was transported by road through the territory of Kazakhstan. Finalising the construction of a corridor in the Russian Federation will help to increase these figures several times. Compared with existing alternative corridors, Western Europe-Western China is better in terms of length and transportation time. Thus, transportation from the Chinese port of Lianyungang to the borders of European states by sea is reached in 45 days and along the Trans-Siberian Railway (TSR) – 14 days, whereas transportation through the Western Europe-Western China corridor will take up to 10 days. Innovation interaction becomes stronger. As part of bilateral agreements, Kazakhstan’s Autonomous Cluster Fund’s Park of Innovative Technologies (PIT AFC) cooperates with the Skolkovo Foundation and the Technopark of Novosibirsk Academgorodok. A PIT ACF representative office opened in the Skolkovo Technopark in 2017. The mission of the representative office is to create conditions for Kazakh start-ups to enter the EAEU market and provide expert support in the form of educational and acceleration programmes and a soft landing platform. The development of interregional relations is an important area of economic cooperation. Kazakhstan and Russia have the longest continuous land border in the world of 7,500 kilometres, along which 7 Kazakh and 12 Russian regions are located. Thanks to the efforts of Presidents Nazarbayev and Vladimir Putin, a new format of interaction has been successfully tested in KazakhRussian relations – annual interregional cooperation forums. This year, this event with the traditional participation of the heads of the two states was held on Nov. 9 in Petropavlovsk. It can be clearly seen that the forums contributed to the development of interregional relations and gave an additional impetus to bilateral trade. It should be noted that the Kazakh-Russian example of interregional cooperation could not but affect the achievement of the multilateral consensus on the Caspian Sea. Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan signed the Convention on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea in Aktau in August, creating new opportunities for building up comprehensive cooperation at the regional level. Kazakhstan and Russia largely determine the development vector of integration processes throughout the Eurasian space. Our states are rightfully considered the founders of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), EAEU and Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO). At the same time, the EAEU, initiated by President Nazarbayev, remains the most important 13


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priority for Kazakh-Russian interaction. The EAEU is becoming one of the influential interstate associations that has proven its viability in the global economy. At present, due to common efforts, Eurasian integration is becoming increasingly comprehensive. Since Jan. 1, the EAEU Customs Code, developed jointly with the business community, has entered into force; almost 70 percent of the proposals and initiatives received from entrepreneurs were included in the final version of the Code. Work continues on building common markets for energy resources (electricity, gas, oil and petroleum products), a common market for services and a common market for medicines. The implementation of the coordinated EAEU transport policy has been launched. Common tariffs for goods transportation by rail are already in force, reducing the tariffs for consumers more than two times due to the transfer of transport control to the external border and the time for goods transportation within the EAEU has decreased. In accordance with global trends, one of the key areas for EAEU development is the digital agenda. In October 2017, the heads of the EAEU member states approved the main areas for implementing the EAEU digital agenda until 2025. For purposes of practical implementation of initiatives, a special project office is being established within the Eurasian Economic Commission (EEC). President Nazarbayev proposed to set up an office for managing digital projects in Astana based on the International Technology Park of IT Start-ups titled Astana Hub. As the head of state noted, the Astana Hub infrastructure can provide all necessary conditions for the full operation of this digital office. In general, the main positive aspects of Eurasian economic integration for Kazakhstan are progressive overcoming of continental isolation, expansion of sales markets, movement towards establishing equal access to common infrastructure and ensuring the “four freedoms” – free movement of goods, labour, services and capital. Kazakhstan and Russia are constantly “comparing notes” on issues of the international agenda. The cooperation of the two states is not only a regional security factor within such organisations as the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) and SCO, but it also contributes to the settlement of complex international problems. Our countries are in favor of consolidating the international community in countering terrorism, strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime, resolving conflicts in the Middle East by peaceful diplomatic means, maintaining the agreements reached on the Iranian nuclear programme and taking consistent steps to rebuild Afghanistan.

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Imangali Tasmagambetov. Kazakhstan and Russia: Understanding the Past and Priorities‌

There is a common understanding between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation on countering the new challenges of our time. Speaking from the UN General Assembly in 2015, Nazarbayev and Putin voiced the idea of building a united front for countering terrorism, all participants of which would act in accordance with international law. Three years later, more than 70 states responded to this call by agreeing to create a coalition striving to eliminate the international terrorism threat. In September, on the margins of the 73rd session of the UN General Assembly, the initiative of the president of Kazakhstan on the adoption of the Code of Conduct towards Achieving a World Free of Terrorism was implemented. It should be noted that Astana and Moscow have built the optimal format of interaction in the UN. It is not by chance that the beginning of Kazakhstan’s non-permanent membership in the UN Security Council in January 2017 coincided with the start of the Syrian talks in Astana, which helped achieving stabilisation in Syria and giving an impetus to the Geneva talks. The Astana format today remains the only negotiating mechanism for stabilising the situation in Syria and an important factor in launching a political process to address the Syrian conflict. Cultural and humanitarian cooperation remains an important part of bilateral relations between our countries. Kazakh-Russian relations in this area are successfully developing within the programme of cooperation in the field of culture between the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2014-2016. The high efficiency of this programme contributed to its prolongation for 20172019. The programme provides for the expansion of contacts between artistic unions, theatres and museums in the fields of literature and translation, cinematography, folk art and librarianship. Cooperation in new directions is being strengthened. On Oct. 16 in Moscow, a memorandum of cooperation was signed between the National commission on the implementation of the Rukhani Zangyru programme and Russian partners of the Modern Kazakhstan culture in the global world project. The Anthologies of Modern Kazakh Prose and Anthologies of Modern Kazakh Poetry will be translated and published in Russian in cooperation with the Publishing House of M. Lomonosov Moscow State University, as well as the Moscow association of the Union of Russian Writers. Special attention is paid to developing cooperation in the field of education. Russia is becoming one of the most attractive destinations for Kazakh youth. It should be noted that the Kazakhs rank first among foreign students studying in Russia. To date, more than 65,000 Kazakh students are studying in various higher education institutions of Russia. This was made possible thanks to agreements concluded with Russia in the field of education. 15


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Citizens of Kazakhstan have equal rights with Russian citizens when entering higher education institutions in Russia. There are a number of agreements between the two countries in the field of education, bilateral and multilateral, signed within the CIS, SCO and EAEU. In the medium term, priorities of Kazakh-Russian cooperation are related to maintaining a high rate of versatile and mutually beneficial interaction. The potential of joint work is quite high in the field of innovation and digitalisation, increasing transport and transit potential and cooperation in the space industry. The Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation are still the leading actors in stabilising the regional security system and progressively developing integration processes in Eurasia. Together, Astana and Moscow can positively influence the enhancing of global security, including the strengthening of strategic stability through reinforcing the nonproliferation regime and countering the new challenges of our time.

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Alexey BORODAVKIN, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Russian Federation to the Republic of Kazakhstan

Russia and Kazakhstan: Past, Present, Future In their public speeches, the leaders of Russia and Kazakhstan, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin and Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev, rightly emphasise that our states are the closest neighbors. I believe that in these words lies not just a statement of the well-known political and geographical reality, but also something more related to the closeness of the Russian and Kazakh peoples, their historically evolved worldview, system of values and friendly fraternal feelings for each other. Huge Eurasian spaces do not divide our states, but unite them. The Great Steppe firmly tied Russians and Kazakhs. As L. Gumilyov wisely noted, Ancient Rus’ shared its borders with the Great Steppe; steppe inhabitants and Slavs learned to live in ethnic symbiosis. Let us recall how often Russian and Kazakh folklore praises the endless field and steppe, the open space stretching beyond the horizon, the feeling of freedom and will in the soul of a rider galloping on a horse. By the way, the phrases “volya-volnaya” or in Kazakh “yerik-zhiger” in their broad sense familiar only to you and me, is not present in any other language. In his article “Seven Facets of the Great Steppe,” First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan – Elbassy Nursultan Nazarbayev – succinctly and precisely stated, “The main plots, characters and motives of our culture have no boundaries and should be systematically researched and promoted throughout the whole space of Central Eurasia and in the whole world.” 17


Alexey Borodavkin. Russia and Kazakhstan: Past, Present, Future

Centuries of joint history not only brought together, but literally “fused” our peoples. Together we achieved victories, successes and tremendous feats and passed through trials and tribulations. We have common pride for the great accomplishments and common grief for the tragedies suffered. The history of Kazakhs dates back thousands of years. But its independence after the collapse of the USSR, Kazakhstan gained 27 years ago. By that time, the republic had an established government system; a developed economy, including energy, mining, high-tech industrial production and efficient agriculture, and was known for a high level of education, science and medicine. It was from the Kazakh land that humanity first stepped into space. The USSR’s nuclear shield was also forged here, which made it possible to create strategic parity and prevent the horror of the American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. But no one has also forgotten the repression and famine of the 30s, the forced deportation of peoples and the suppression of dissent. All this is also our common history. I am sure that one should not try to make out of it only a good or only a bad thing, to strike a certain balance. Dogmatism in this case is absolutely inappropriate. But it is impossible not to see the bleak results that some states located to the south of the Central Asian region have experienced in choosing a different historical path of development. So the assessment of the events of our past has a projection into the present, and, therefore, it is very relevant. In order to develop and form a single objective perception of the common history of Russia and Kazakhstan, the two countries created a working group of historians in 2017. The collapse of the Soviet Union demanded new interstate relations between Russia and Kazakhstan based on mutual respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, the principle of non-interference in internal affairs and respect for the legitimate interests of each other. It was not easy for Moscow and Astana to implement this agenda, but our joint efforts paid off. They managed to preserve the main thing – friendship and brotherhood of our peoples – and now, of independent states. These basic concepts have been translated into international legal language; the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan of May 25, 1992 and the Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan on Good Neighbourly Relations and Alliance in the 21st Century of Nov. 11, 2013 have been signed and are in force. The legal framework of our interstate relations includes hundreds of documents and continues to be improved and enriched. And we are talking not only about bilateral agreements, but also about multilateral legal agreements within the framework of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation 18


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(CSTO), the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), etc. The obligations contained therein made Russian-Kazakh relations exemplary – we are allies in the field of security and partners in economic integration. This new level of interstate relations between Russia and Kazakhstan is mutually beneficial. There is no winner or loser in our cooperation. It is important for Russia that Kazakhstan remains a politically stable and economically prosperous, friendly state to us; it is important that our ally has the necessary potential to participate in repelling common external threats to our countries. I am sure that Astana is also guided by a similar strategic attitude towards Russia. In the modern world, a concentration of various types of threats and challenges to the security of states is growing. Instead of dialogue and negotiations in international relations, illegal use of military force is increasingly practiced nowadays. We see multiple cases of unlawful interference in the internal affairs of states under various unseemly pretexts with the aim of overthrowing legitimate governments. Entire regions are subject to aggression by international terrorist groups. Organised crime and drug trafficking are becoming more common. Therefore, Moscow and Astana, together with other CSTO and SCO member states, have combined their efforts to effectively counter these threats, ensure high collective defenses and prevent and promptly stop attempts to sow conflicts and chaos on their territory. This course of our countries is supported by intensive bilateral military and military-technical cooperation; moreover, there are preferential terms of purchasing armaments and military equipment in Russia for allied Kazakhstan. Our bilateral strategic partnership is also relevant in foreign affairs. Russia and Kazakhstan, on the basis of trust and openness, coordinate their diplomatic efforts and come up with joint positions on the overwhelming majority of topical issues on the global agenda. This cooperation is becoming more effective thanks to the growing credibility of Kazakhstan in the world, as evidenced by the election of the Republic of Kazakhstan as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council, the summit of the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) in Astana in 2010, the success of EXPO 2017, the recognition of regular Congresses of World and Traditional Religions held in the capital of Kazakhstan and the ongoing Astana Process, which is an effective mechanism for the Syrian settlement. In the UN Security Council and the UN General Assembly, Russia and Kazakhstan strongly oppose attempts by some states to impose their will on others, condemn illegal unilateral sanctions, call for preserving the nuclear weapons control system and preventing an arms race in space, demanding that the revival of neo-Nazism must be stopped and advocating for universal rules on information security. One of the 19


Alexey Borodavkin. Russia and Kazakhstan: Past, Present, Future

brightest recent examples of our successful cooperation is the joint work to promote the Kazakh initiative to adopt the UN Code of Conduct Towards Achieving a World Free of Terrorism. Kazakhstan together with Russia made a significant contribution to the definition of the legal status of the Caspian Sea – the relevant convention, as it is known, was signed in Aktau on Aug. 12 . Now, we are talking about accelerating the ratification process of this crucial international legal instrument and the translation of its provisions into the language of practical matters. Russia was among the states that actively supported Kazakhstan’s bid to hold the 12th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in Astana in 2020. We believe that this success of Kazakhstan will help to overcome the crisis in the Organisation and strengthen the positions of the EAEU in the international trade system. Another important area of our joint work is the coordination of efforts aimed at stabilising the situation in Afghanistan, which, unfortunately, has catastrophically degraded since deployment of the U.S. military in that country. Our countries are members of the Moscow Format on Afghanistan, as well as the SCO-Afghanistan Contact Group. Russia and Kazakhstan maintain coordination in the CIS, the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA), the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), OSCE and SCO and this benefits the organisations and ensures that the voices of Moscow and Astana are well heard in the international community. We welcome the desire of the countries of Central Asia, including Kazakhstan, for closer cooperation to improve the well-being of their people and jointly solve the pressing problems of the region. Russia is ready to fully support this attitude. It is important that Russia and Kazakhstan together advocate for “integration of integrations” with the participation of the EAEU and the European Union (EU) and the formation, as suggested by Putin, of a large Eurasian partnership involving other interstate associations located in the area from the Atlantic to the Pacific and Indian oceans. At the same time, Russia and Kazakhstan in their foreign policy are guided, above all, by their own national interests. These interests, as a rule, coincide. But even in cases where disagreements arise between our countries, for example, on the conditions and rates of nuclear disarmament, Moscow and Astana are trying to find a compromise, seeking to bring our positions closer. It is no secret that the active development of Russian-Kazakh allied relations and integration ties displeases some people. Adherents of the unipolar world order do not see Kazakhstan as an equal partner in international affairs, but as an object of their influence in order to destabilise the political situation in 20


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the country and in Central Asia, as they did it in some states in the post-Soviet area, as well as in the Balkans, Egypt, Iraq, Libya and Syria... If you look at history, this list can be supplemented with dozens of other examples of gross interference in the internal affairs of sovereign states, provoking bloody conflicts and unleashing many years of war. Moreover, in order to realise their ugly geostrategic goals of total domination in the world and deter Russia, unipolar strategists do not disdain to even cooperate with extremists and terrorists. Not to mention all sorts of illegal embargoes and sanctions, trade wars, political and financial pressure and blackmail. The need to counter this threat by the joint efforts of the entire world community, whose active participants are Russia and Kazakhstan, has become an urgent task on the global agenda. We do not close the door to dialogue; we are ready to solve problems on an equal basis. The economic interaction between our countries in recent years has reached a higher integration level. Thanks to the EAEU, which was initiated, as you know, by President Nazarbayev, Russia and Kazakhstan demonstrate impressive results of bilateral trade – in 2018 it will reach approximately $19 billion with an increase of about 9 percent. Russia leads the list of main trading partners of Kazakhstan. This foreign trade is dominated by goods with high added value. The gross Russian investment in the economy of Kazakhstan, amounting to $12.6 billion, also seems substantial. Moreover, in just the first half of 2018, Russia invested another $821 million in Kazakhstan, mainly in the manufacturing sector. The number of Russian-Kazakh joint ventures is constantly growing. Today, there are more than 6,000 of them, which is one-third of all joint ventures with foreign participation in Kazakhstan. AvtoVAZ, EuroChem, Gazprom, KAMAZ, Lukoil, Mechel, Rosatom, Roscosmos, Rostec, Rostselmash, Rusal, Russian Copper Company, Vimpelcom (Beeline), Yandex and many other large, medium and small Russian enterprises successfully operate in the Kazakh market. Cooperation in the financial and banking sector is increasing due to the presence of Russian banks in Kazakhstan, including Alfabank, Gazprombank, Russian Agricultural Bank Sberbank and VTB Bank. Almost 70 percent of Russian-Kazakh foreign trade and other financial transactions are carried out in national currencies. Soon, this figure will reach 75 percent. A number of promising Russian-Kazakh projects are expected to appear in the banking sector in the near future. Russian participation in the Kazakh economy gives it additional positive dynamics, brings significant income to the country’s budget, contributes to the improvement of the technological base, provides Kazakh goods an access to foreign markets, creates new jobs, helps to improve the skills of the labour force and creates conditions for more active use of the Astana International Financial 21


Alexey Borodavkin. Russia and Kazakhstan: Past, Present, Future

Centre. The strengthening integration ties between Russia and Kazakhstan within the framework of the EAEU allow for a mutually beneficial approach to fulfill the task set for the union – to achieve free and mutually beneficial movement of goods, services, capital and labour throughout the EAEU. Of course, the oil and gas component has traditionally played a big role in Russian-Kazakh economic cooperation. It is not only about the production of this raw material, but also about its deep processing and transportation. This involves development of hydrocarbon fields in the Caspian Sea, improving the quality of gas, willingness to participate in the gasification of Astana and Baikonur, transit of Kazakh oil to foreign markets, supply of new technological equipment, etc. Due to the transit geographical position of Russia and Kazakhstan, special attention is paid to the further strengthening of our transport and logistics connectivity. The construction of the Russian section of the highway along the Kazan-Orenburg-Akbulak border route with Kazakhstan, as the final link in the international Western Europe-Western China corridor, has been completed. The launch of a ferry service between the ports of Russia and Kazakhstan on the Caspian Sea is not far off. The project of the high-speed cargo-passenger railway corridor called Eurasia (Beijing-Astana-MoscowBerlin) is also underway. The idea of building up Russian-Kazakh cooperation in the field of tourism is actively moving forward. The growing integration and the complementary nature of the economies of our countries play an important role not only in strengthening the existing economic ties, but also in solving the most important tasks of both Russia and Kazakhstan in their economic strategic development. A new unprecedented wave of technological revolution at the beginning of the 21st century formed dozens of world-changing trends dramatically significant for each country. It is extremely important for our countries to be at the forefront of the global processes of economic digitalisation, which transform not only state institutions and businesses, but also all areas of our daily life. In this regard, there is a need to continue to actively implement the priorities of the digital agenda of the EAEU and strive to create a single digital space. It also entails the formation of a single Eurasian electricity market. From the point of view of combining the efforts of Russia and Kazakhstan to get to the heights of the fourth technological revolution, our bilateral cooperation in the field of space exploration deserves special attention. Our states not only managed to save the Baikonur Cosmodrome, which regularly launches spacecraft, but also begin the implementation of the project to create the Baiterek Space Rocket Complex at Baikonur using a promising Russian medium-lift launch vehicle with a high level of 22


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environmental safety. This year, the Zenit-M Space Rocket Complex, which is supposed to be reconstructed, was withdrawn from the lease and transferred to Kazakh partners. In addition, there are other joint projects. In particular, the launch of the next KazSat spacecraft is just around the corner, joint engagement of third countries to the commercialisation of the cosmodrome, installation of unified information collection stations of the GLONASS system in Kazakhstan and much more is in the pipeline. The interaction of Russia and Kazakhstan in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy is successfully developing. There are six joint ventures. For many years, the basis of Russian-Kazakh cooperation in this area has been the comprehensive programme, which, for the first time, was signed back in 2006 and updated every four years. Today, the Russian and Kazakh parties understand that the time has come for the programme to be updated. Given the progress of the negotiations, it can be said with confidence that this document will be signed before the end of this year. In the future, Kazakhstan will create its own nuclear energy base. As for Russia, we are ready to participate in the construction of the first nuclear power plant (NPP) of Russian design here. Russian-Kazakh allied relations and integration ties are directed to the future. Therefore, the priority is to work with young people. This, first of all, is about cooperation in the field of education. Russia trains highly qualified personnel for the national economy of Kazakhstan. More than 70,000 Kazakh citizens study at Russian universities and in the future will successfully use their knowledge for the benefit of their homeland. This is achieved, in particular, due to the fact that Russian and Kazakh citizens have equal rights to receive a Russian education. Thanks to this, annually more than 9,000 Kazakhs independently enroll in higher education institutions of Russia getting free education. More than 450 people receive scholarships from the Russian budget. In order for this positive dynamic not to fade away, there is a need to support the full-fledged teaching of the Russian language in secondary schools of Kazakhstan. Russian education can be also obtained in Kazakhstan. For example, there is a Kazakh branch of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, which has trained more than 1,800 highly qualified specialists with the most popular qualifications. In addition, branches of other famous Russian universities are also present in Kazakhstan. There is an opportunity to graduate from Russian universities with double diplomas, which can be given by many Kazakh and Russian educational institutions. In addition, the Joint Action Plan of Russia and Kazakhstan for 2019-2021, signed by the presidents of our countries on Nov. 9, provides for the opening of a Russian-Kazakh university and school in Kazakhstan.

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Alexey Borodavkin. Russia and Kazakhstan: Past, Present, Future

Organisations of Russia and Kazakhstan closely cooperate in priority areas of science and technology. Thus, in the territory of Kazakhstan, Russian scientists created an experimental facility based on the Kazakh Tokamak for Material Testing, which was launched during EXPO 2017. Another example is the mutually beneficial cooperation of the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas and KazMunaiGas Exploration Production on the joint development of a concept for the further development of oil fields in the West Kazakhstan region. One should also mention the long-term joint activity of Russian and Kazakh scientists within the walls of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia). In 2018, Kazakhstan launched the implementation of about 240 research projects with the participation of Russian scientists. About 70 of them are in the field of sustainable use of natural resources; about 60 of them in the field of information, telecommunications and space technology and more than 30 in the field of energy and engineering. These projects are designed for three years; over 50 Russian universities and research institutes take part in their implementation. The relations between our countries are dynamically developing in the cultural and humanitarian areas. Among the most recent examples, the National Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan held an exhibition entitled “Fifty masterpieces of the 20th century from the Tretyakov Gallery collection” as part of the celebrations of Astana’s anniversary in the summer and autumn. This platform also hosted, as part of the Days of Culture of Russia in Kazakhstan, the exhibition called “Astana-Moscow, Moscow-Astana. Ornamental Rhythms of Eurasia. From Antiquity to Modernity” from the collections of the All-Russian Museum of Decorative, Applied and Folk Art, representing a large-scale project about the culture of Eurasia. In SeptemberOctober, the Central Park of Astana hosted a large-scale exposition of the My Planet TV channel on the theme “Russia. Travel Ideas,” where everyone could get acquainted with the photographs of journalists, photographers and travellers about the natural and cultural diversity of Russia. The famous State Academic Kuban Cossack Choir held a concert with great success in the Palace of Peace and Accord, Astana. The literati and writers of our countries also maintain close ties and exchange experience at various venues. Thus, the International Writers Forum (Almaty) and the Eurasian Literary Forum “Energy of the Word in the Modern World” (Astana) were held in September. There are plans to carry out large-scale work on the translation into Russian and the publication of “Anthology of Modern Kazakh Prose” and “Anthology of Modern Kazakh Poetry.” Moreover, at the initiative of the Writers' Union of Kazakhstan, with the assistance of the Russian Literaturnaya Gazeta (Literary Newspaper) and the Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan 24


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in the Russian Federation, three Kazakhstan-Russia literary almanacs have been issued and the fourth publication is being prepared for presentation this year. It is impossible to cover all aspects of Russian-Kazakh allied relations and integration ties in one article. But, summing up some intermediate results, it should be stated that cooperation between Russia and Kazakhstan is comprehensive and is improving every year. Our brotherly states and peoples have common goals, which require a lot of hard work to be attained. In conclusion, I would like to congratulate the readers of the Diplomatic Herald on the upcoming New Year and wish you good health, well-being and every success!

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H.E. Sushma SWARAJ, Minister of External (Foreign) Affairs of India Kazakhstan and India: New Horizons for Cooperation

President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev (right) meets with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi (left) July. 8, 2015 in Astana. (Akorda.kz)

I visited Astana in the salubrious weather of August and was warmly received by H.E. Kairat Abdrakhmanov, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and by Prime Minister H.E. Bakytzhan Sagintayev. Before meeting them, I had an interaction with the Indian community, all of whom singularly praised the warmth and hospitality of the Kazakh people. The small Indian community is happy and feels welcomed in Kazakhstan. It is in this background of warmth that India-Kazakhstan friendship has flourished. Historically, Central Asia and India have interacted for more than 2,000 years. Buddhist monks travelled to China through Central Asia and established Buddhism there. The carvings of Buddha, important Buddhist teachers and Sanskrit Shlokas at Tamgaly Tas in the Almaty region stand witness to the rich cultural contact between the two countries. The Sakas and Kushans 26


Sushma Swaraj. Kazakhstan and India: New Horizons for Cooperation

came from this region to India. The Mughals had strong Central Asia connections and one of the famous Kazakhs known for his work “Tarikh-eRashidi,� Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlati, is buried in Srinagar, the capital of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. His grave was recently restored with the help of the Kazakh Embassy and Archeological Survey of India.

Official visit of Minister of External (Foreign) Affairs of India Sushma Swaraj (center right) to Kazakhstan. The joint photo was taken after meeting with the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan Kairat Abdrakhmanov (center left) Aug. 3 in Astana.

India and Kazakhstan established diplomatic relations soon after Kazakhstan became independent. Since 2009, we have been strategic partners. Our interactions are multi-faceted, some aspects of which were captured in my bilateral interactions during the visit. In recent times, the bonds of friendship between the two countries have grown stronger by recent bilateral exchanges including the two visits of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, a bilateral visit in 2015 and a second visit in 2017 to attend the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) Summit. We are looking forward to receiving President Nursultan Nazarbayev in India in the near future. One strong aspect of our interaction has been defence cooperation. It currently comprises military-technical cooperation, military education and training, joint exercises, bilateral visits, joint sports and adventure activities and a Youth Exchange Programme between the National Cadet Corps of India and 27


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Voenni Kafaedra (Cadet Corps) of Kazakhstan. Prabal Dostyk, the joint counter terrorism exercise of the two forces, started in 2016. This year, we have upgraded this joint exercise from a platoon to a company level and rechristened it KAZIND. We are on course to implement the historic joint deployment of Kazakh army personnel with the Indian contingent in the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL). India stands solidly committed to assist the UN in the maintenance of international peace and security with a proud history of UN peacekeeping dating back to its inception in the 1950s. India has contributed nearly 195,000 troops, the largest number from any country, participated in more than 49 missions and 168 Indian peacekeepers have made the supreme sacrifice while serving in UN missions. India has also provided and continues to provide eminent force commanders for the UN. India is the second largest troop contributor with 7,676 personnel deployed in 10 out of 16 active UN peacekeeping missions, of which 760 are police personnel. The first all-women contingent in peacekeeping mission, a Formed Police Unit from India, was deployed in 2007 to the UN Operation in Liberia (UNMIL). A number of Kazakh army personnel benefit from our capacity building courses held under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) programme. In 2018, there has also been participation in each other’s defence expositions. India will also likely actively cooperate with Central Asian countries in tackling two of the big problems affecting our contiguous regions, terrorism and drug trafficking. The India-Kazakhstan Inter Governmental Joint Commission on Trade, Economic, Scientific, Technical, Industrial and Cultural Cooperation, established in 1993 and headed by the Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas on the Indian side and by the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources on the Kazakh side, has been meeting regularly and has so far held 13 sessions. It has formed a number of joint working groups in different areas, including trade and economic cooperation, connectivity, information technology and space cooperation among others. As a result, trade between the two countries reached $1 billion last year. We feel there is potential to further increase. Currently, lack of direct overland connectivity is affecting movement of goods and both countries are working on improving this situation. India has recently joined the Ashgabat Agreement and the Transports Internationaux Routiers (International Road Transport or TIR) convention and has been promoting the International North South Transportation Corridor (INSTC). While Kazakhstan wants access to the Indian Ocean, which will open up vast and dynamic markets of South and Southeast Asia for Kazakh goods, improved access to Central Asia would also mean that India can access the transportation routes to Russia and European countries. 28


Sushma Swaraj. Kazakhstan and India: New Horizons for Cooperation

Central Asian countries are also important for India from the viewpoint of energy and mineral resources security. Kazakhstan already supplies uranium and crude oil to India and we are interested in procuring other mineral resources to meet the requirements of the fast-growing Indian economy. The oil and gas pipeline from Central Asia to South Asia will further integrate the two regions. The Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) pipeline project will bring natural gas from Turkmenistan to India. Kazakhstan, which has shown interest in joining the project, could also use this route to transport its own natural gas to India. India is also a ready market for agricultural products and manufactured goods from the Central Asian region. What has amazed me are the great cultural links that Indian films and serials have established between India and the region. In each interaction, Bollywood films were recalled. Each generation has its own favorite film and actors. The favorite films of the region are not different from ours. People in Kazakhstan appear to have appreciated the family-oriented films and dramas from India that mirror the region’s own traditions and culture. The news that shooting of a Bollywood film was likely near Almaty was greeted with joy by people, with some of them dreaming of having a real-life glimpse of their favorite Bollywood idols! This cultural similarity is a result of centuries of interaction between the Central Asian region and India. It is in this milieu of cultural similarity and geographical proximity that relations between India and Central Asia have flourished and attained new heights. Kazakhstan was one of the co-sponsors of the UN General Resolution declaring June 21 as the International Day of Yoga in 2014 and since then, Yoga Day has been observed in many cities of Kazakhstan. This year, the Indian Embassy had a week-long yoga programme combining the celebration of 20 years of Astana with 70 years of India’s independence with the theme “Astana @20 and India @70.” A new city of republican significance Shymkent was added to the yoga calendar of the Embassy this year and I was informed that the programme there ended with the participants playing with gulal (coloured powder), thus combining yoga with the Indian festival of Holi! Many Kazakhs avail themselves of scholarships offered by the Indian Council of Cultural Relations for graduate and post-graduate courses and capacity building courses under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation programme. I have heard that these courses are highly commended and India will be ready to expand this interaction by offering more slots and tailor-made courses as per the requirement of Kazakhstan. Recently, 25 English teachers from schools of different regions of Kazakhstan were trained at the English and Foreign Language University of Hyderabad. This has been well appreciated and we hope to continue this course for the English teachers for the next few years. On the other hand, we acknowledge the 29


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contribution of Kazakhstan in imparting medical education to some of our students. Currently, there are around 3,200 of Indian students studying at various universities of the country. Swami Vivekanand Cultural Centre in Astana, which is the cultural wing of the Embassy, also offers classes in Indian dance, music, yoga and Hindi language. The Centre for Indian Classical Dance in Almaty run by Akmaral Kainazarova, who was trained at Kalakshetra, the famous dance academy of India, runs courses in classical and contemporary dance, yoga and Hindi. Similarly, Al Farabi Kazakh National University of Almaty, which has a Department of Indology, offers specialisation in Indian studies and classes in Hindi. A school in Almaty named after Mahatma Gandhi hosts an annual Mahatma Gandhi chess tournament. On Oct. 2, we will start several programmes commemorating the 150th anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, the father of our nation and the leader of our freedom struggle, an inspirational figure for the whole world. Many of these programmes will also be hosted in Kazakhstan, where he is held equally in high esteem. There is a good bilateral flow of tourists. While tourists from Kazakhstan are likely to visit the Golden Triangle of Delhi, Agra and Jaipur and admire the Taj Mahal, the monument of eternal love, and the beaches of Goa and Kerala, tourists from India delight in viewing the snowcapped mountains of Tien Shan, which reminds them of our own Himalayas. With easing of visa regimes from both sides, tourism is likely to increase in the coming years. Kazakhstan is a young nation, yet it has made its mark in the international arena and is playing a constructive role in many world processes and bodies. India is one of the founding members of the Conference of Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA), an Organisation that embodies the vision of Kazakhstan and President Nazarbayev of promoting peace, security and stability in Asia. It is not a coincidence that the move to establish CICA was backed by an equally visionary personality of India, the late Atal Behari Vajpayee, who participated in the first CICA summit held in Almaty in 2002. It is also apt that India was welcomed as an observer and member of SCO in 2005 and 2017, respectively, when Kazakhstan held its chairpersonship. In 2017-2018, Kazakhstan became the first country from the Central Asia region to become a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, where its work is being appreciated by one and all. In 20 years, Kazakhstan has built a splendid capital, Astana, which is now hosting major world events and a number of initiatives such as the Congress of the Leaders of World and Traditional Religions, the Astana Economic Forum and Astana talks on Syria. India was happy to participate in EXPO 2017. All these achievements in a short span of time are, in no small measure, due to the visionary leadership and the great talent of the people of 30


Sushma Swaraj. Kazakhstan and India: New Horizons for Cooperation

Kazakhstan. India will continue to strengthen and deepen relations with Kazakhstan in the years to come.

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INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

A Stamp Dedicated to Kazakhstan's UNSC Membership has been Introduced

A ceremony to celebrate the introduction of a postage stamp from the “Memorable and Jubilee Dates" series, titled “Membership of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the UN Security Council”, recently look place in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The event was attended by Deputy Foreign Minister Yerzhan Ashikbayev and Managing Director of Kazpost Baurzhan Ainabekov. The postage stamp is made by offset printing in four colors, in the form of a sheet of ten stamps. Copies of the stamp – 20,000. .

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Vladimir VORONKOV, Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations CounterTerrorism Office

Code of Conduct for the Achievement of a Terrorism-Free World Terrorism remains a complex global challenge-affecting people all over the world. New trends, such as the misuse of modern technologies by terrorist groups, are a continued threat to society. In response, we need to be equally adaptive and it is vital to create a coalition that takes a multilateral approach, including governments, international organisations, civil society and the private sector. In June, the General Assembly reviewed the United Nations’ Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy for the sixth time since 2006. As a result, a resolution (A/RES/72/284) was adopted which sets the direction for the counterterrorism efforts of the United Nations and its member states over the next two years. The Strategy consists of a number of measures member states should take to effectively counter terrorism along four pillars, namely: 1) Measures to address the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism. 2) Measures to prevent and combat terrorism. 3) Measures to build states’ capacity to prevent and combat terrorism and to strengthen the role of the United Nations system in this regard.

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Vladimir Voronkov. Code of Conduct for the Achievement of a Terrorism-Free World

4) Measures to ensure respect for human rights for all and the rule of law as the fundamental basis of the fight against terrorism. Following the Review, on June 28-29 United Nations Secretary-General Antรณnio Guterres convened the first-ever High-level Conference of Heads of Counter-Terrorism Agencies of Member States in New York. A core aim of this event was to strengthen international cooperation in the field of counterterrorism. The initiative to adopt a Code of Conduct for the Achievement of a Terrorism-Free World, proposed by President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev at the jubilee 70th Session of the United Nations General Assembly in September 2015, further consolidates the efforts of the international community to cooperate in ending terrorism and preventing violent extremism conducive to terrorism. Within the 73rd session of the UN General Assembly, the UN headquarters hosted the ceremony of the signing of the Code of Conduct Towards Achieving a World Free of Terrorism in the format of a high-level special event on Sept. 28. Foreign ministers and high representatives of more than 70 nations signed the code.

High-level meeting participants. Sept 28, 2018, New York

Since joining the Security Council in January 2017, Kazakhstan has had a key role in addressing some of the most pressing global peace and security issues of our time, including countering terrorism. The Code of Conduct calls for the creation of a global counter-terrorism coalition under the auspices of the United Nations. It reflects key elements of many Security Council resolutions 34


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and commits signatories to implement all four pillars of the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in an integrated and balanced manner through the development and realisation of regional and national plans. This initiative is a useful step in promoting multilateral partnership, creating synergies and implementing counter-terrorism measures, as well as exchanging best practices at international, regional and sub-regional levels. Today, more than 70 countries have signed the Code of Conduct. This is a testament to the commitment of the international community to strengthen cooperation and to support Kazakhstan’s mission in launching this initiative. Along with other international and regional initiatives, it will allow us to better address the future challenges of terrorism.

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Code of Conduct Towards Achieving a World Free of Terrorism Recalling the United Nations General Assembly Resolutions A/RES/72/123 of 7 December 2017 and A/RES/72/284 of 26 June 2018, which noted the importance of continuing to strive towards achieving a world free of terrorism, WE, THE MEMBER STATES OF THE UNITED NATIONS LISTED BELOW, Standing united in strengthening global efforts to prevent and counter the persistent scourge of terrorism in all forms and manifestations as it constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security, and has negative impacts on sustainable development and humanitarian space; reaffirming that terrorism in all its forms and manifestations is aimed at the destruction of lives and properties, human rights, fundamental freedoms and democracy, at threatening the sovereignty, territorial integrity and the security of States, hampering development, including but not limited to destroying infrastructure, harming the tourism industry, diverting foreign direct investment, impeding economic growth and increasing security costs, and at destabilizing legitimately constituted Governments; and stressing therefore that the international community should further prioritize counter-terrorism, inter alia, take the steps necessary to enhance cooperation to prevent and combat terrorism in a decisive, unified, coordinated, inclusive and transparent manner; Reaffirming that any acts of terrorism are criminal and unjustifiable regardless of their motivations, whenever, wherever and by whomsoever committed; unequivocally condemning in this regard in the strongest terms all of them along with methods and practices of terrorism, inter alia, the incitement of terrorist acts that remains a persistent threat in many States around the world; and repudiating attempts at the justification or glorification of terrorist acts that may incite further terrorist acts; Reaffirming also our commitment to take measures aimed at addressing the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism, including but not limited to prolonged unresolved conflicts, dehumanization of victims of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, lack of the rule of law and violations of human rights, ethnic, national and religious discrimination, political exclusion, socioeconomic marginalization and lack of good governance; while recognizing that none of these conditions can excuse or justify acts of terrorism; Reaffirming our determination to continue to do all that we can to resolve conflict, end foreign occupation, confront oppression, eradicate poverty, 36


Code of Conduct Towards Achieving a World Free of Terrorism

promote sustained economic growth, sustainable development, global prosperity, good governance, human rights for all and the rule of law, improve intercultural understanding and ensure respect for all religions, religious values, beliefs and cultures; Reiterating withal that terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and its ideology cannot and should not be associated with any religion, faith, confession, culture, civilization, nationality or ethnic group; Reaffirming the role of the United Nations guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter, including on questions related to international peace and security, in coordinating efforts on preventing and countering terrorism in all its forms and manifestations at the global level; Renewing our unwavering commitment to strengthening cooperation to this end, inter alia, by fostering dialogue and exchange of best practices at the international level, especially at the General Assembly; taking into account the importance of utilizing comprehensive and coherent national, regional and international approaches in such efforts; encouraging therefore relevant United Nations entities, international and regional organizations to enhance, in accordance with their mandates and in line with our national priorities, interaction and support to building capacity on this track, in particular, through funding, technical assistance and greater coordination between donor and recipient countries; and in this way, contributing to reinforcing national and regional ownership and the implementation of international obligations; Committing our adherence to the Charter and other sources of international law, inter alia, international human rights law, international refugee law and international humanitarian laws, in efforts to prevent and counter terrorism, in particular, conduct anti-terrorist operations; and recognizing that failure to do so could contribute to increased terrorist recruitment and incitement; Stressing the importance of “whole-of-government” and “whole-ofsociety” approaches and cooperation with media, civil and religious society, private sector and educational institutions in order to enhance dialogue, broaden understanding; Recognizing our primary responsibility and our leading role as Member States of the United Nations to implement the United Nations Global CounterTerrorism Strategy (GCTS); Reaffirming further our determination to make every effort to reach an agreement on a comprehensive convention on international terrorism (CCIT); Recognizing that the voluntary accession to any relevant international instrument by all of us would make it possible to cooperate and ensure convergence on actions to be taken;

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Considering it imperative to establish a Code of Conduct to guide our actions individually and collectively based on the principles of the UN Charter, inter alia, through cooperation, respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, as well as national stability and security, PLEDGE THE FOLLOWING THROUGH THIS CODE OF CONDUCT: 1. We express our commitment to implementing the principles and provisions of this voluntary and non-legally binding Code of Conduct, without prejudice to our legal obligations. We commit to abiding by all relevant international obligations under existing international conventions and United Nations resolutions on terrorism to which we are party by allocating the necessary political will and human and material resources and seeking further assistance, when needed, in this regard. We also encourage States that have not done so to consider becoming parties to the existing international conventions and protocols against terrorism, and implementing them. 2. We reaffirm the duty to refrain from planning, organizing, instigating, promoting, executing, assisting, facilitating, financing, arming, harbouring terrorists, inciting or otherwise supporting directly or indirectly acts of terrorism. We also pledge to take all necessary measures to ensure that our territories are not used for planning, promoting, organizing, executing, initiating, assisting, financing, harbouring or participating in terrorist acts in another State or acquiescing in organized activities within our territory directed towards the commissioning of such acts. We urge all States to ensure no tolerance for terrorism, regardless of the targets or motives and stress the inadmissibility of supporting directly or indirectly terrorist groups in order to achieve political or geopolitical aims. 3. We pledge to support action by the General Assembly and Security Council aimed at preventing and countering terrorism. We encourage the Secretary-General to take measures, pursuant to international law, to address all conditions conducive to terrorism, both internal and external, in a balanced manner, as set out in the GCTS, and express desire to take into account such an assessment by the Secretary-General. We pledge to deploying holistic counterterrorism measures and systematic preventive steps to terrorism and terrorist activities, in accordance with our obligations under international law, in order to: a) suppress the recruitment of terrorists; b) address the threat posed by foreign terrorist fighters, including those returning or relocating, particularly from conflict zones, to their countries of origin or nationality, or to third countries.

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Code of Conduct Towards Achieving a World Free of Terrorism

c) strengthen our legislative framework, including measures to improve extradition and prosecution to bring perpetrators to justice; d) intensify our law and order capabilities, and criminal justice responses; e) curb the financing of terrorism; f) secure borders against infiltration by terrorists; g) intensify efforts towards surveillance and monitoring, inter alia, of new information and communication technologies (ICTs), while abiding by the rule of law; h) develop prosecution, rehabilitation and reintegration, as well as deradicalization programs; i) safeguard critical infrastructures and cultural heritage against terrorist attacks; j) prevent terrorists from acquiring and using small arms and light weapons, as well as weapons of mass destruction; k) counter terrorist ideologies and narratives; 4. We pledge to take comprehensive approaches, inter alia, to: a) adhere to the principle of non-intervention in the internal affairs of any State; b) contribute to the successful prevention and resolution of conflicts; c) eradicate poverty, ensuring inclusive economic growth and sustainable development; d) ensure good governance, respect for human rights and the rule of law as relevant and effective measures to prevent marginalization and discrimination that can become vulnerabilities exploited by terrorists; e) develop context-specific, comprehensive and integrated counterterrorism strategies, taking into account, as appropriate, the concerns of the youth as vulnerable groups; f) take into account gender aspects in counter-terrorism, while ensuring the participation and leadership of women and women’s organizations at all stages; g) promote dialogue towards intercultural understanding and respect for all ethnic groups, religions, religious values, beliefs and cultures; h) ensure primary responsibility of Member States in countering terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and continue dialogue and cooperation with segments of society, inter alia, civil and religious, the private sector, media, educational institutions, communities, women and youth groups; i) enhance solidarity in support of victims of terrorism and ensure that they are treated with dignity and respect. 5. We reaffirm that preventing and countering terrorism require intensified collective efforts at the regional and international levels. We therefore pledge to cooperate fully in the fight against terrorism among 39


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ourselves, in accordance with our obligations under international law, through inter alia, sharing data and information, providing mutual legal assistance and prosecuting perpetrators or handing them over to their respective countries or the State where the act was committed, on the basis of the principle of extradite or prosecute, in accordance with our internal laws, multilateral agreements and arrangements and ensuring that the refugee and asylum status is not abused by the perpetrators, organizers or facilitators of terrorist acts. We commit that any such measures we take will comply with the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter and our obligations under international law, in particular international human rights law, international refugee law and international humanitarian law. 6. We note the importance of intensifying regional cooperation and coordination among us in such areas as, inter alia, intelligence and information sharing, enhancing border security, strengthening legal and criminal justice response, cooperating in extradition and mutual legal assistance, providing mutual exchanges and support, as appropriate, as well as exchanging best practices. 7. We pledge to take measures to prevent and counter the use of the ICTs, including the Internet, by terrorists and their supporters, for the purposes of committing, inciting, recruiting for, funding or planning terrorist acts. We further pledge to cooperate in order to develop and implement effective counter narrative strategies with a view to curb dissemination of terrorist propaganda and promote peace, tolerance, coexistence and respect, to discourage all forms of hatred, vilification and terrorism. We also commit to advancing cooperation between us and regional organizations, and partnerships with the private sector and civil society in order to raise awareness and address the issue of the use of ICTs, including new technologies, for terrorist purposes, as well as their potential for countering the spread of the forgoing menaces. We further commit that any such measures we take will comply with the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter and our obligations under international law, in particular international human rights law and international humanitarian law. 8. We underscore the urgency of concerted action by the international community to fight against terrorism and address conditions conductive to its spread, and call on the United Nations to spearhead efforts to build a united front against terrorism, acting in accordance with international law, in a decisive, unified, coordinated, inclusive, accountable and transparent manner. In turn, we commit to: a) implementing the GCTS, as well as considering implementing the recommendations that have come from the subsequent Strategy review resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly through the development

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Code of Conduct Towards Achieving a World Free of Terrorism

and realisation of regional and national plans in order to put into action all the four pillars of the Strategy in an integrated and balanced manner; b) create potential for reinforcing complex, multifaceted and casespecific relationship of counter-terrorism and development, where appropriate and in line with existing mandates; utilising revamped regional approach, where relevant; as well as strengthening coordination within the United Nations, in particular, its modus operandi in the Headquarters and on the ground, to increase the effectiveness and ensure greater transparency and accountability; c) further strengthening, with a view to ensuring that national counterterrorism policies and practices are consistent with counter-terrorism obligations, our cooperation and coordination with the United Nations and its relevant entities, while collaborating with them to the fullest extent in the realization of their mandates, inter alia, the United Nations Office of Counter Terrorism and the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Centre; d) strive towards finding consensus on reaching an agreement to conclude the CCIT at the earliest convenience, while recognizing our valuable dialogue and efforts towards resolving any outstanding issues; 9. We establish through this Code of Conduct a coalition of partners striving towards achieving a world free of terrorism. We pledge to strive towards achieving a world free of terrorism by the Centenary of the United Nations. 10. We appeal to all stakeholders to support our efforts to intensify cooperation and implement our commitments. We also invite all other Member States of the United Nations to express their commitment to this Code of Conduct. New York, 28 September 2018

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Miroslav JENČA, United Nations Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Summing up Kazakhstan’s Membership on the UN Security Council

The Diplomatic Herald of Kazakhstan recently with the assistance of the Permanent Mission of Kazakhstan to the UN spoke with Miroslav Jenča, United Nations Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs, to sum up Kazakhstan’s membership on the UN Security Council. - Kazakhstan's membership on the UN Security Council is coming to an end. What do you personally remember about this two-year period? As the first non-permanent Council member from Central Asia, Kazakhstan played an important role during its tenure on the Security Council on a wide selection of issues ranging from Afghanistan and Syria to the nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, along with the important role of religious leaders in fostering tolerance across diverse cultures and religions, as well as the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). As a member of the Council, Kazakhstan was entrusted with the chairpersonship of important subsidiary bodies of the Security Council such as the 1267 (ISIL (Da’esh), Al-Qaida), the 1988 (Taliban) and the Somalia Eritrea Sanctions committees. 42


Miroslav Jenča. Summing up Kazakhstan’s Membership on the UN Security Council

As chair of the 1267 and 1988 committees, Kazakhstan conducted important visits to Afghanistan in October 2017, to Malaysia and Singapore in August 2017 and to the Philippines in March 2018. The main goal of these visits was to promote enhanced dialogue and engagement of the national authorities with the Committee and the Monitoring Team, including on the implementation of sanctions measures and on the awareness of the Committee’s procedures as well as on the terrorist threat assessment. One initiative of Kazakhstan that I recall was to introduce, for the first time in the history of the United Nations, a flag installation ceremony for the newly elected countries to the Council for the term 2018-2019. Its symbolism was welcomed by other Council members, who, upon its successful conclusion, suggested to make the ceremony an annual tradition of the Council. - How do you assess the chairpersonship of Kazakhstan on the UN Security Council in January? Kazakhstan has made a strong contribution to the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Your country held a meeting of the Council in January, which was chaired by President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, during which the Council was briefed by the Secretary-General. The meeting approached the issue from a conflict prevention perspective and resulted in the issuance of a Presidential Statement (S/PRST/2018/1), by which Council members expressed the importance of further advancing conflict prevention and preventive diplomacy tools, practices and efforts and of ensuring their most effective use. I would also like to commend Kazakhstan’s strong commitment to bringing the issue of Afghanistan and the regional Central Asian approach to the forefront on the Security Council’s agenda. Under the skillful leadership of Ambassador Kairat Umarov, as President of the Council in January, Kazakhstan organised the first Security Council mission to Afghanistan in over nine years, with a focus on the security-development nexus. Later in that month, the visit was complemented with a ministerial-level debate chaired by Foreign Minister Kairat Abdrakhmanov on “Maintenance of international peace and security: Building regional partnerships in Afghanistan and Central Asia as a model to link security and development,” during which the Secretary-General provided a briefing. The foreign ministers of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan also participated in the meeting, along with the Deputy Foreign Minister of Afghanistan and the Permanent Representative of Turkmenistan. The meeting led to the issuance of a Presidential Statement (S/PRST/2018/2), by which Council members stressed the importance of advancing regional, interregional and international cooperation to achieve longterm peace, stability and sustainable development in Afghanistan and Central 43


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Asia and expressed support for the joint efforts of countries of the region towards the enhancement of a zone of peace, cooperation and prosperity. - How, in your opinion, are Kazakhstan’s efforts to raise awareness in the Security Council of the situation and challenges faced by Central Asia and Afghanistan? Kazakhstan plays an active role in building greater international understanding of the Central Asian region. Kazakhstan’s efforts to address a range of topics in this regard during its Presidency of the Security Council were timely and highly relevant. I mentioned already the Security Council’s visit to Afghanistan, which Kazakhstan led. It provided an opportunity for the Council delegation to become better acquainted with the situation on the ground as well as the ongoing regional partnership between Central Asia and Afghanistan. The Kazakh efforts to bring more attention to this aspect of Afghanistan and the region were very welcomed. Kazakhstan and Germany jointly organised an Arria-formula meeting on “Partners for Afghanistan: Linking Security, Development and Peace in the Central Asian Region,” which was successful in giving a greater profile to the issue. I participated in the Arria-formula meeting and I stressed that Central Asia today is more dynamic than ever before. The growing cooperation among all five countries coupled with their renewed commitment to support the people of Afghanistan means that the present moment offers a unique opportunity. The region shares historic and cultural ties based also on its geographical location and history along the old Silk Road. There is great potential for integration and ties across fields of trade, science and culture. The economic complementarity and civilisational proximity between the peoples of Central Asia and Afghanistan can bolster cooperation in the region. I would like to mention the work of the United Nations Regional Centre for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia as well as the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, which are fostering greater regional cooperation. They stand ready to provide support as needed in efforts to create greater connectivity between Afghanistan and Central Asia. - You represent the UN. What in your assessment is the image of Kazakhstan in the UN as an Organisation? In more than 25 years as a member of the United Nations, Kazakhstan has played a positive role in the United Nations. I appreciate the Government’s strong support for the United Nations and its cooperation with the United Nations system, including the United Nations Regional Centre for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia (UNRCCA).

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Miroslav Jenča. Summing up Kazakhstan’s Membership on the UN Security Council

Kazakhstan is also known as one of the world’s leaders in nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament. The United Nations thanks Kazakhstan’s contributions including rejecting the possession of nuclear weapons and founding the International Day against Nuclear Tests. The United Nations greatly appreciates Kazakhstan’s positive contribution to international peace and security issues. Kazakhstan is very wellknown for its proactive stance in mediation and confidence-building, not only in the region but also on a much broader scale. We also appreciate Kazakhstan’s positive approach to the issues of transboundary water management. Kazakhstan has consistently supported dialogue and UNRCCA’s efforts towards a mutually acceptable regional agreement. Kazakhstan’s success with the Northern Aral Sea is an impressive contribution to international efforts to mitigate the dangerous effects of the desiccation of the Aral Sea. Kazakhstan is a great advocate for the SDGs and a strong supporter of regional cooperation in a wide range of areas and I would particularly note the valuable cooperation on counter-terrorism. I would like to highlight the Joint Plan of Action for Implementing the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in Central Asia, adopted under the auspices of the UNRCCA. This document was endorsed by the countries of the region in 2011. It was the first regional plan to implement this important strategy anywhere in the world and has become a model for other regions. We also appreciated Kazakhstan’s support for the UN’s activities, such as organising the international EXPO 2017 exhibition on the theme of Future Energy, as well as your generous contribution of $2 million for the Africa – Kazakhstan Partnership for the SDGs. - The civil war in Syria is one of the bloodiest conflicts of the current decade. In this vein, how much did the Astana Process help and justify its mission? The brutal conflict in Syria has had a devastating toll and challenged the ability of the international community to respond. Ultimately, a truly sustainable solution to the conflict should be a new Syria that can be shared by all: a united, inclusive, democratic and non-sectarian state based on political pluralism and equal citizenship. The United Nations Secretary-General’s Special Envoy, Staffan de Mistura, is working to convene an inclusive and credible constitutional committee to draft a new constitution, leading to presidential and parliamentary elections under UN supervision, including participation from the diaspora. In order to help advance these political processes, we have urged the parties to agree to a ceasefire and sought to create a calm, neutral and safe environment in Syria. 45


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Kazakhstan, through its support for the Astana Process, has contributed to efforts to de-escalate the situation on the ground and promote confidencebuilding measures, including on the release of detainees and demining, in the hope that this would contribute positively to progress on the political track in Geneva based on UN Security Council resolution 2254. As we have seen, progress has been challenging and the war waged on combatants continues to challenge these agreements. Humanitarian access has remained elusive for many of the most vulnerable and a military mindset continues to prevail in some quarters. Nonetheless, we are convinced that there can be no military solution. With Idlib, the last remaining Astana de-escalation zone, an agreement between Russia and Turkey was achieved, containing an escalation that threatens three million civilians who have nowhere else to go. We must capitalise on this window of opportunity to progress on the political track. The risk sometimes, in mediation, is that alternative options in the political track give the parties the option to forum shop. In the case of Astana, we were pleased that the agenda remained focused on the areas agreed by the Special Envoy, in particular de-escalation and confidence building measures. - Where and how could the accumulated political experience of Kazakhstan be useful after the end of its membership on the UN Security Council? The efforts by Kazakhstan to focus the Council’s attention on the role of preventive diplomacy in Central Asia as the support to the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan in order to create greater connectivity between Afghanistan and Central Asia are well appreciated. I hope that Kazakhstan will continue its work in this field. I would also like to praise the efforts of Kazakhstan in leading a critical global conversation about promoting religious tolerance and advancing the universal right to freedom of religion and beliefs. I recall that earlier in April, jointly with the United Nations Alliance of Civilisations (UNAOC), Kazakhstan organised an Arria-formula meeting entitled “Religious Leaders for a Safe World,� which focused on the significance of fostering tolerance across diverse cultures and religions.

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Adela RAZ, Deputy Foreign Minister of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Strengthening Interaction between Kazakhstan and Afghanistan Central Asia has gone through tremendous socio-economic changes over the last two and a-half decades and assumed a new role in the international realm. It has turned into the hub of economic integration in the Eurasian region, which is home to some of the world’s rapidly growing economies. Located at the heart of the Eurasian super-continent and encircled by rapidly growing China and India, Central Asia is seemingly a potential transit hub for trade and capital flows beyond the Eurasian region. Among them, however, the economic development in Kazakhstan presents the success story of Central Asia. With a GDP of roughly $160 billion, Kazakhstan’s economy is larger than all of the Central Asian countries put together (World Bank, 2018) /1/. A well-educated workforce coupled with a probusiness government and an investment-friendly legal framework makes Kazakhstan one of the most attractive countries in Central Asia for internal and external investors. This demonstrates the stability of political institutions in the country, which is one of the important factors in assessment of investment attractiveness. Along with other countries in the region, Kazakhstan has always sought to play a constructive role in fostering international peace and security. Moreover, its constructive engagement in the stabilisation of post2001 Afghanistan is an example in point. Since 2001, Kazakhstan has channeled more than $20 million in foodstuffs to Afghanistan and has spent $50 million for Afghan students to pursue their higher education in Kazakh universities.

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Adela Raz. Strengthening Interaction between Kazakhstan and Afghanistan

Having long-standing historic and cultural ties, the relationship between Kazakhstan and Afghanistan is strong and has great potential to further deepen and develop in different areas. For instance, trade and economic cooperation is steadily expanding between the two countries and currently, trade value between Afghanistan and Kazakhstan stands at $600 million, up from $400 million in 2015 (The Kabul Times, 2018) /2/. Meanwhile, in August, Afghanistan and Kazakhstan signed a Memorandum of Understanding to ease trade between the two countries. Besides strong bilateral ties between the two countries, Kazakhstan is an important regional partner country for Afghanistan, including under the Regional Economic Cooperation Conference on Afghanistan (RECCA) and the Heart of Asia – Istanbul Process (HoA-IP). By assuming the presidency of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), Kazakhstan organised a visit of the Council’s delegation to Afghanistan in January. The aim of this visit was to reaffirm the continuation of the international community’s support for Afghanistan and to provide an opportunity for independent assessment of the efforts of the Afghan government and the effectiveness of the international community’s support for establishing sustainable peace in Afghanistan. Furthermore, Kazakhstan initiated a ministerial debate in the UNSC with the participation of a high-level delegation from the Central Asian countries, Afghanistan, the United States and some of the European countries to explore opportunities for enhancing regional economic cooperation between Afghanistan and its neighbouring countries. At the regional level and under a new approach, the Government of Kazakhstan convened the Regional Conference on Empowering Women in Afghanistan on Sept. 5 in Astana, Kazakhstan.

The Conference was attended by high-level delegations from Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Central Asian countries and China and 48


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representatives of the United Nations and the European Union (EU), as well as civil society organisations and the private sector. The Conference considered key thematic issues about women’s empowerment, such as Sustainable Economic Growth through Women’s Economic Empowerment, Women’s Economic Empowerment through Regional Cooperation and the Role of Education and New Knowledge in Empowering Women in Afghanistan. While appreciating the efforts of the government of Afghanistan to improve the situation for Afghan women and girls, the participants discussed the challenges that hinder the full participation of women in society and the economy and focused on the policy measures and strategies to effectively address these challenges.

On the sideline of the Conference, two separate memorandums of understanding were signed between the Afghanistan Women Chamber of Commerce and Industry and Atameken National Chamber of Entrepreneurs and the Association of Business Women of Kazakhstan in order to enhance cooperation and to further expand trade between the two countries. Another significant outcome of the Conference was the launch of a new EU-funded initiative through which Afghan women will be educated and provided with vocational and technical training at universities in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The Conference concluded with the adoption of the Astana Declaration on Empowering Women in Afghanistan, which highlights the importance of 49


Adela Raz. Strengthening Interaction between Kazakhstan and Afghanistan

women’s economic empowerment including women’s entrepreneurship development and the need to work for their full inclusion in education and the workforce, as well as their full political participation, particularly in the peace process. As Afghanistan has recently adopted women-friendly policies and programmes, the Astana Conference on women was a very timely and relevant initiative for the alignment of international support behind these policies and programmes. This has been a unique initiative by Kazakhstan in bringing women from our region to speak about our shared challenges and opportunities, as well as learning from the experience of each other. Afghanistan in the last few years has progressed tremendously in empowering women by putting great attention on areas such as economic empowerment, women’s technical capacity building and women in peace. Despite challenges, women in Afghanistan have strong and active civil society engagement and have been an effective and strong voice for change. This is an outstanding achievement that can be shared with women in Central Asia and vice versa, learning from the technical skill sets of women in the region. Afghanistan puts great importance in further expanding relationships with countries in Central Asia. Similarly, analyzing the relationship between Afghanistan and Kazakhstan shows that both countries are moving towards constructive interaction. In addition, there is a strong political will by the leadership of the two countries to enhance cooperation in different areas, especially improving economic cooperation. Both countries should strive to effectively make use of the existing momentum to further develop trade and economic cooperation that will help them improve their economic welfare in the long run. List of References: 1. World Bank national accounts data. Retrieved from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?locations=KZ. 2. The Kabul Times (August 6, 2018). Trade between Afghanistan and Kazakhstan to increase. Retrieved from https://thekabultimes.gov.af/2018/08/06/trade-between-afghanistankazakhstan-to-increase/.

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Zulfiya AMANZHOLOVA, Ambassador at-Large of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan Legal Status of the Caspian Sea: the Importance of the Aktau Convention

At the Caspian Summit in Aktau (Kazakhstan), 12 of Aug. 2018. From left: the presidents of Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan (Akorda.kz)

Aug. 12, 2018 is a landmark day in the history of the Caspian Five, since it was marked by signing the Convention on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea in Aktau, a fundamental international treaty among the Presidents of Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan that defined the legal framework for cooperation of the littoral states in all spheres of activity in the Caspian Sea. The Convention is the result of an extensive and very complex negotiating process, accompanied by persistent and principled debates on each issue requiring a legal settlement. The achievement of the agreement was facilitated by a common desire to address the existing problems, as well as by constructivism and mutual understanding of the negotiators. Political and territorial compromises have resulted from five Caspian summits, seven meetings of the ministers of foreign affairs of the Caspian states and fifty51


Zulfiya Amanzholova. Legal Status of the Caspian Sea: the Importance of the Aktau‌

two meetings of the Special Working Group (SWG) on the Development of the Convention, not including regular consultations and formal and informal meetings of the parties in various formats. The delegations of the Caspian states have done a lot of hard work to create the fundamental document that takes into consideration the interests of all parties. The parties used the existing world experience to prepare it. The applicable rules of international maritime law were adapted to the Caspian Sea and incorporated into the text of the Convention on the Legal Status. Proposals from experts and national authorities who participated in the talks were widely used in the search for suitable wording. It is remarkable that the multi-year negotiation process within the SWG format had started in January 1997 in Almaty and its outcomes were summarised on the Kazakh coast at the International Day of the Caspian Sea. Now, the much-anticipated document is informally referred to as the Aktau Convention. According to the felicitous and concise definition of President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev given at the fifth Caspian Summit, the Convention is the “Constitution of the Caspian Sea.� Indeed, it has become a new backbone for the balanced international legal system of relations between the littoral states of the sea. This international treaty formalises the basic operating principles and defines the rights and obligations of the parties regarding the use of the Caspian Sea, including its waters, seabed, subsoil, natural resources and the airspace above it. The Convention on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea delimits national zones of jurisdiction and sovereignty; procedures for the exercise of sovereign rights to subsoil use, navigation, fishing and marine scientific research in areas with different legal regimes were established and issues of security cooperation, as well as the conservation and rational use of aquatic biological resources and the protection of the marine environment, were settled. In accordance with the Convention, matters relating to the Caspian Sea shall be exclusively addressed within the competence of the parties and settled on the basis of respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence, sovereign equality of the states, non-use of force or the threat of force, mutual respect, cooperation and non-interference in the internal affairs of each other. Complex negotiations on the division of the Caspian water area resulted in the mutually acceptable agreements, according to which the sea area is delimited by internal, territorial waters, fishery zones and the common maritime space, where different legal regimes will be applied. The Caspian littoral states agreed to establish state maritime borders along the outer limit of 15-mile territorial waters. At the same time, the 52


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delimitation of internal and territorial waters between states with adjacent coasts should be made by agreement between them, taking into account the principles and norms of international law. Ten-mile fishery zones adjacent to territorial waters were also established. Each state obtained exclusive rights to harvest biological resources. Fishing will be carried out on a quota basis. As for the so-called shared aquatic biological resources, such as sturgeon species, seals and sprat, agreed norms and rules for reproduction and regulation of their use are applied. Scientific research serves as the basis for both the conservation of aquatic biological resources and the management of shared biological resources. The parties have made mutual commitments to combat the illegal fishing of shared biological resources. The common maritime space is preserved outside the fishery zones. Freedom of navigation is established outside the state maritime borders and is exercised without prejudice to the sovereign and exclusive rights of the parties, covering subsoil use and fishing, respectively. Navigation in the Caspian Sea and passage to/from the sea can be carried out exclusively by ships under the flags of the states of the Caspian Five. The agreement was reached that each state shall exercise sovereign rights to subsoil use within the boundaries of its seabed sectors of the Caspian Sea. The main pipelines and cables can be laid in the seabed and the existing environmental requirements and standards should be strictly observed in order to avoid damage to the unique marine environment. An important condition is the need to coordinate the route for pipelines only with the party whose sector will host the pipeline. The agreement on freedom of transit by all means of transport from the Caspian Sea to other seas, oceans and back creates favourable opportunities for economic development. It helps us to unite the efforts of our states in expanding the transport infrastructure. Thanks to this, the transit and transport potential of the Caspian region will be significantly increased and the landlocked countries will be connected with the rest of the world. This also will be achieved through the agreements, concluded by the Caspian Five at the fifth Caspian Summit, on cooperation in the field of trade and economic relations and transport. Considering the environmental part of the convention, the parties first of all assumed that any activity in the Caspian Sea should not cause damage to the marine environment and biological diversity. The ecological system of the Caspian Sea and all its components must be fully protected and preserved. For a long time, the littoral states have been actively cooperating in this area on the basis of the Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea, signed 15 years ago in Tehran, by jointly and comprehensively regulating anthropogenic impact on the marine environment

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Zulfiya Amanzholova. Legal Status of the Caspian Sea: the Importance of the Aktau…

and solving the problems associated with pollution of the sea from various sources, including those located in the coastal area. In addition to that, the Convention thoroughly spells out the exclusive rights of the parties to regulate, authorise and conduct marine scientific research in their territorial waters, fishery zones and sectors. Marine scientific research within the territorial waters, fishery zones and sectors of the coastal states can be carried out only with their written permission and on the terms established by them. The Convention pays special attention to security issues in the Caspian Sea. A mutually acceptable solution was found to the problem of the potential military activities. Given the likelihood of new challenges and threats to stability in the region, and taking into account the need for the presence of military formations in the Caspian Sea for antiterrorist purposes, the parties developed a principle on “ensuring a stable balance of armaments of the parties in the Caspian Sea, developing military capabilities within the limits of reasonable sufficiency with due regard to the interests of all the parties and without prejudice to the security of each other.” This principle is considered in conjunction with other conventional principles, namely “compliance with the agreed confidence-building measures in the military field in the spirit of predictability and transparency in line with general efforts to strengthen regional security and stability, including in accordance with international treaties concluded among all the parties,” as well as “using the Caspian Sea for peaceful purposes, making it a zone of peace, good-neighbourliness, friendship and cooperation and solving all issues related to the Caspian Sea through peaceful means.” The Communiqué of the fifth Caspian Summit reflects a common understanding of the heads of the coastal states on ensuring security interests confirming the need to develop and adopt agreed confidence-building measures in the field of military activities in the Caspian Sea. We managed to reach a consensus on the important principle of nonpresence in the Caspian Sea of armed forces not belonging to the parties. In a follow-up to the above principles, in Aktau the littoral states concluded the Agreement on Prevention of Incidents in the Caspian Sea, defining the rules for navigation of warships and flights of aircraft of the armed forces. The Convention has an agreement to collectively counteract any illegal activities in the Caspian Sea. With a view to its practical implementation, on the fields of the Aktau Summit the states signed three intergovernmental protocols on cooperation in combating terrorism and organised crime, as well as on interaction among border authorities.

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Speaking about the significance of the Convention at the Summit in Aktau, President Nazarbayev stressed that it created not only an effective legal framework, but also opened a new page in the history of pentalateral cooperation and would promote cooperation of the Caspian states under the new conditions. To date, the littoral states together built a strong architecture of relations in various fields of activity in the Caspian Sea. Together with the Convention on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea, we have a significant legal base of 17 pentalateral international treaties. Obviously, it will be expanded, supplemented by new necessary documents. In the near future, the parties will ratify the Convention, since this is a necessary condition for its entry into force. By concluding the Convention, the Caspian littoral states demonstrated to the world a unity in creating an effective mechanism to increase the opportunities for tapping their potential. They created favourable conditions for the deepening of mutually beneficial economic cooperation and the development of a new transit-transport infrastructure. The settlement of different territorial and resource issues is aimed at resolving potential differences. This will contribute to sustainable development and stability in the region and will have a beneficial effect on all aspects of life in our countries.

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ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY Erlan DOSYMBEKOV, EY-Managing Partner for Kazakhstan and Central Asia, Member of the Governing Board of the Kazakhstan Foreign Investors’ Council Association (KFICA), The Development of Kazakhstan’s Business Climate and Investment Attractiveness in Light of Current Trends

The 31st Plenary Session of the Foreign Investors’ Council chaired by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev. Astana, June 6, 2018 (www.fic.kz)

The history of EY’s practice in Kazakhstan is closely bound up with the development of the country’s business and investment climate. We began operating in Kazakhstan in 1992, when the market had just opened up to international cooperation. Many major investors (already clients of EY on a global level) recognised the market’s potential and began opening offices here. We came to Kazakhstan to help clients who needed quality assurance and business advisory services meeting international standards. In time, the 56


Erlan Dosymbekov. The Development of Kazakhstan’s Business Climate and Investment…

Government itself became our client and today, services to national companies and the Government make up a large part of our portfolio. Over the course of 25 years, not only have we seen major improvements in the country’s business environment (as a foreign investor and in representing the interests of our clients), but we have also made our own contribution by advising the Government on a wide range of issues concerning the investment climate and investment attractiveness. It is essential to note that many of these achievements were made possible thanks to the timely course set by the country’s leadership towards accelerated industrial and innovation-driven development and related programmes (GPFIIR 2010-2014, then GPIIR 2015-2019 as part of the Kazakhstan-2050 Strategy and the vision of Kazakhstan’s inclusion in the top 30 developed countries). As a result, in only the last 10 years, the country has attracted on the order of $250 billion in foreign direct investments and has been the recipient of over 70 percent of the investments made in the Central Asian region (according to Kazakhstan’s Ministry for Investments and Development). Nevertheless, the events of recent years and global trends are fundamentally transforming the idea of investment attractiveness and the criteria by which it is evaluated. In October of this year, the World Economic Forum (WEF) published its annual report on the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI). GCI methodology was updated in 2018 to take elements of the Fourth Industrial Revolution into account. The 2018 report put Kazakhstan in 59th place (where it was in 2017). Despite Kazakhstan’s respectable position in the general ranking of 140 countries, individual criteria show room for improvement. Thus, for example, Kazakhstan’s competitiveness is judged to be average in terms of Information and Communications Technology (44th place) and Education and Skills (57th) and weak in the category of Innovation Capacity (87th). Another recent World Bank Group report, The Best Countries to Invest In (a survey of over 6,000 chief executives and business owners worldwide), concludes that private, corporate and major institutional investors are concerned not only with a country’s natural wealth and sales markets, but are increasingly deciding in favor of technologies and brands developed in a country. No less important in terms of the investment climate today is science. According to the latest data from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics, the five leading countries in terms of investments in research and development (R&D) in absolute terms are the U.S., China, Japan, Germany and the Republic of Korea. As a percentage of GDP, South Korea is in the lead (4.3 percent), followed by Israel (4.1 percent) and Japan (3.6 percent). China’s R&D spending is 2 percent 57


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of GDP and its average annual growth rate of R&D spending is 18.3 percent, compared with 1.4 percent in other developed countries. By way of comparison, spending on scientific research in Kazakhstan is less than 0.3 percent of GDP. These examples illustrate the new reality of global competition for investments. Countries moving into the forefront today are those capable of projecting a favorable image – not only as a source of abundant and accessible natural resources, but also in offering investors high-quality human capital, technological infrastructure and conditions for the development of science and innovations. Here it should be noted that the country’s leadership has adopted a very forward-thinking policy – both externally (i.e. efforts to position the country to attract new investments) and on the domestic market (incentives to enhance the investment climate and encourage reinvestment by current investors) – and this policy takes into account all the latest global trends. Kazakhstan’s Ministry for Investment and Development, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and embassies and Kazakh Invest are making great headway on the external front. Here, I could name the recent initiatives for membership in the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) and the World Trade Organisation (WTO), expanded partnership with the European Union (EU), creation of the Astana International Financial Centre, involvement in the Belt and Road Initiative and much more. Domestic issues are addressed not only by the Ministry for Investment and Development (one-stop shopping for all investors’ issues), but also at such platforms as the Foreign Investors’ Council (FIC), chaired personally by the head of state, and the Prime Minister’s Council on Improvement of the Investment Climate. EY has been an active member of FIC since 2001. Each year FIC’s Investment Policy Working Group collaborates with the Ministry for Investments and Development and leading foreign investors to formulate a plan of action identifying the highest-priority issues affecting the investment climate and then, actively addresses those issues. These include the adoption of best global practices, legislative improvements and tax and customs administration. Sessions of the Prime Minister’s Council on Improvement of the Investment Climate, where is EY is an active member as well, discuss ways of promoting a national investment policy in line with economic development priorities and the needs of current and potential investors. The recently adopted National Investment Strategy for 2018-2022 (drafted by the Ministry of Innovation and Development and the World Bank with input from the community of foreign investors in the form of comments and suggestions submitted via the forums and platforms already mentioned) should also be mentioned. This Strategy identifies priority areas for investment, 58


Erlan Dosymbekov. The Development of Kazakhstan’s Business Climate and Investment…

including areas with current potential (the food industry, deep processing of oil, gas and minerals and machine engineering) and others that hold promise for the future (information and communications technology (ICT), tourism and finance). The Strategy also identifies 36 countries that offer potential for closer cooperation, including 11 priority countries (China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, the U.K. and the U.S.). The industry and country priorities identified in the Strategy will help in achieving the desired results. Special attention should be given to soft power as a factor of growing importance in competition for investments. Soft power is the ability to influence the decisions of third parties by virtue of intangible assets. The concept of soft power includes a number of criteria: full and consistent integration in the global economy (open trade relations, an effective visa regime and immigration policy) and image (cultural heritage, science, sports and business image). Kazakhstan’s achievements in the sphere of soft power include inter-ethnic and religious harmony, nuclear nonproliferation initiatives, renewable energy, international sports competitions and cultural events. The country’s numerous international conferences and forums also contribute to soft power. One such event, Promotion of Trade and Investments for Development: The Eurasian View, a high-level forum organised by Kazakhstan’s Ministry of National Economy in partnership with a WTO group – the Friends of Investment Facilitation for Development – underscores the importance that the Government attaches to the multilateral discussion of investment opportunities. Countries that have the soft power of influential brands obtain more investments by inspiring confidence in investors. Thus, for example, the specialised international exhibition EXPO-2017 in Astana had a positive impact on the country’s development, both economically and in terms of image, and the exhibition infrastructure continues to generate value. This was vividly illustrated in November, when Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev officially opened the Astana Hub, an international technopark for IT startups on the EXPO grounds.

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Erlan Dosymbekov’s participation as a speaker at a high-level forum “Promotion of Trade and Investments for Development: The Eurasian View”, Astana, Sept. 28, 2018.

Efforts to promote a startup culture are yet another example of soft power and a key means of motivating talented young people to realize their business ideas in Kazakhstan. In today’s gig economy, the younger generation can work remotely from any part of the world without being limited to a single employer, country or even citizenship, and they need to have the right conditions at home. This involves creating an entire culture. On the other hand, by enhancing the business climate, we make our market more attractive to foreign investors. Finally, I would like to point out that modern investors (especially now, with such a wide choice of countries to invest in) are giving increasing attention to transparent and predictable legislative environment, rule of law and independence of judicial system in the country. They naturally want to safeguard their investments and be able to rely on the market in the long term. Laws also require updating to meet the needs of the digital age and this must be done in a timely manner. We at EY see great opportunities in this area and are open to discussion and joint efforts.

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Gulmira KABIYEVA, Head of the Project Office Protecting Business and Investments Anti-Corruption Support to Doing Business Transparently

After signing of a Memorandum on Cooperation and the Creation of the “Protecting Business and Investments” project office between the Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan for Civil Service and Anti-Corruption, as well as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Investment and Development. Astana, 11 of April 2018

The prosperity of any state, the embodiment of new ideas and innovations, depends on business development. Thanks to the full support of the government of Kazakhstan, a solid institutional framework of a market economy has been formed over the years of independence. Private initiatives and free enterprise became the key factors of economic development and growth of the country’s welfare. Today, the international community highly appreciates the business environment in Kazakhstan. According to the 2018 World Bank Doing Business research, Kazakhstan ranks 28th out of 190 countries and we are first (last year in the third place) in terms of Protecting Minority Investors. Our country ranks third under the Protection of Investors indicator of the Global Competitiveness Index of the World Economic Forum. 61


Gulmira Kabiyeva. Anti-Corruption Support to Doing Business Transparently

Kazakhstan became an associate member of the Investment Committee of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and also joined the Declaration on International Investment. Within the implementation of the Plan of the Nation, the Astana International Financial Centre was established on the experience of such well-known international financial centres as Abu Dhabi, Dubai, London, New York, Singapore, Shanghai and Tokyo. At the same time, the country does not intend to rest on its laurels and continues to take different measures to support and protect the rights and legitimate interests of business. This year, the President signed the law “On Introducing Amendments and Additions on the Improvement of Business Regulation.” The main purpose of the changes is the liberalisation of legislation in the field of business regulation. Amendments to the law envisage the reduction of state control functions by 30 percent. Approximately 1,000 amendments were made to 14 codes and 109 laws to create the most favourable conditions for boosting business. The head of state noted that “now it is extremely important to open all possible ‘gateways’ to strengthen business activity and involve a wide range of people in entrepreneurship.” At the 31st plenary meeting of the Foreign Investors Council, the head of state once again paid attention to the need to create better conditions for business. Effectiveness of investment decisions made is based to a certain extent on the efficiency of the anti-corruption policy that has received a new vector thanks to the political will of the President of Kazakhstan. Systemic and comprehensive measures to prevent corruption have allowed Kazakhstan to improve its position in the international rating agencies, whose evaluation depends on equity prices, credit availability, investment attractiveness and trust to states, firms and banks. Thus, Kazakhstan entered the list of lower level of corruption, gaining 31 points for the first time in the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index for 2017. These estimates are the highest ones over Kazakhstan’s history in this rating (for comparison, in 1999 - 23 points). Similar progress was observed in the estimates of seven out of nine international rating agencies. In the framework of the anti-corruption strategy approved by the head of state, the 100 concrete steps Plan of the Nation lays the groundwork for a fundamentally new model of a state free from corruption. This model is based on early prevention and effective diagnosis. The activities are aimed at the prevention of corruption incidents rather than addressing the consequences. The prevailing desire was to disseminate the “do not give and do not take bribes” principle to make corruption impossible and disadvantageous for both officials and citizens. For the first time, prevention 62


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institutions have been introduced, including anti-corruption monitoring, as well as the identification, analysis and elimination of corruption risks. A set of measures is being implemented for anti-corruption training and education of the population, creating an atmosphere of absolute rejection of bribery. We are gradually beginning to realise that the best way to rid society of corruption is early prevention and unification of efforts of the state, civil society, business community and citizens of Kazakhstan. In addition, Kazakhstan still faces certain risks to business and investors connected with their activities in our country. In this regard, the Agency intends to promptly and rigidly respond to any unlawful interference with business. In the past three years alone, the Agency has identified 976 cases of unlawful interference with business activities. Illegal actions brought 389 officials to criminal responsibility. The above statistics are confirmed by studies conducted among business entities of the Atameken National Chamber of Entrepreneurs (NCE), which assessed the level of corruption in the regions and in state bodies. According to the results of the special review on corruption sociological research, the frequency of corruption schemes has increased in the period of 2016-2017. Entrepreneurs have noted an increase in corruption in the Almaty, Atyrau, Mangystau, South Kazakhstan and Zhambyl regions. It has been found that every second corrupt transaction is initiated by an official (54.5 percent) or an entrepreneur (40.6 percent) and both parties act as initiators in 5 percent of cases. According to entrepreneurs, the main reasons for corruption are unreasonably high requirements and their impracticability, the complexity of the procedures, the lengthy period of execution and the desire to evade responsibility. As for the protection of rights and legitimate interests of entrepreneurs, many unresolved issues remain; first of all, it concerns the quality of handling complaints by state bodies. For ensuring a favourable investment climate and increasing the confidence of business and investors in government institutions, the agency, together with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry for Investment and Development of Kazakhstan, created a “Protecting Business and Investments� project office, which officially began its work on June 8. Its activity is focused on anti-corruption support for business projects in Kazakhstan. Specialised front offices were established throughout the country, in all oblasts and cities of republican significance. The only requirement for an investor is adherence to an anti-corruption agreement, which means commitment to doing business transparently and adhering to a zero tolerance policy against any manifestation of corruption. We believe that the Agency’s assistance from the beginning to the completion of a business project will be a significant constraining factor for 63


Gulmira Kabiyeva. Anti-Corruption Support to Doing Business Transparently

dishonest officials who wish to receive corruption revenue from an entrepreneur. Anti-corruption support is provided under the accession of businesspersons and investors to the above-mentioned Agreement. The key novelty of this project is the constant presence of the Agency and ministries in the activities of investors, which will allow them to conduct business freely and legally. Today, anti-corruption support is available for 229 projects of domestic and foreign investors for a total amount of over 6.4 trillion tenge (UD$17.4 billion). Activity of the project office is based on a constructive approach to all the details while protecting the legitimate interests of entrepreneurs and investors. Entrepreneurs go directly to the project office, to the regional front offices and also operate through the Agency’s call centre (1424). The portfolio of front offices already has a plenitude of resolved issues. Direct communication with investors made it possible to identify pain points that hinder the development of business and entrepreneurship in the country. During the current period, 190 (about 85 percent) out of 223 received appeals on problematic issues were resolved positively, while providing assistance to entrepreneurs and investors. The Agency has applied a fundamentally new anti-corruption approach, which envisages 24/7 free of charge anti-corruption support for investment projects. The investor may contact the project office or regional front offices for verbal advice or send a written request. Our task is to prevent corruption and to preemptively protect the rights and interests of investors and, in general, the entire business.

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CHAPTERS OF HISTORY

Kamilla SHERYAZDANOVA, PhD, Deputy Director of the Institute of Diplomacy of the Public Administration Academy under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Review of the Book “Mikhail Issinaliyev – the Politician and Diplomat: Documentary Essays” (Compiled by I.M. Kozybaev) After the dissolution of the USSR, a number of young and independent states appeared on the world map, including Kazakhstan. The new time required a solution to many serious problems; the number of external international challenges was enormous and the foreign ministry had to work hard to develop regulations on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kazakh foreign missions, the status and duties of the Ambassador of the Republic of Kazakhstan and recruitment and training of personnel, which was much-needed for the full-fledged operation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the new geopolitical realities. The state faced the task of fostering a new generation of diplomats that could protect national interests, implement foreign policy in different areas, contribute to a positive international standing of the country and create a favorable stable environment around Kazakhstan for the successful transformation. Experienced diplomats who studied in Soviet diplomacy schools were needed, as well as knowledge and experience to ensure recognition and support from international organisations (primarily the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), United Nations (UN), etc.) and expand ties with other countries.

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Kamilla Sheryazdanova. Review of the Book “Mikhail Issinaliyev – the Politician and…

Thanks to experienced diplomats, the foreign ministry of independent Kazakhstan took a firm footing, creating starting positions for establishing, expanding, deepening and promoting international relations with countries around the globe. Mikhail Ivanovich Issinaliev is the bright star shining among the constellation of Kazakh diplomats; he left this world, but he also left his trace in the memory of fellow diplomats. Professor Ilyas Kozybaev wrote the monograph “Mikhail Issinaliev – the Politician and Diplomat: Documentary Essays” dedicated to the prominent statesperson, politician and diplomat. The author has carried out a lot of work to re-create a holistic picture of the life of the eminent diplomat. The book is based on a huge amount of new, intrinsically exclusive information that is almost impossible to be collected from other sources. The book evidences how extensive and diverse was the professional biography of Issinaliev. It shows how much he did as Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kazakh SSR. In particular, it should be emphasised that at that time the Foreign Ministry of the Kazakh SSR was lucky that such a persistent, principled and purposeful person managed the ministry. His actions predetermined some changes in the application of Issinaliev’s rich practical experience, knowledge and professionalism. The predominant part of the book quite fully reveals the personality and individual qualities of Issinaliev. He was very educated and smooth in communication with subordinate employees; he was respected among colleagues and friends even with regard to questions far from international affairs. Issinaliev had perseverance, patience and will and thanks to these qualities, despite the challenges of life, he kept self-control and stood fast in overcoming difficulties and pursuing his goals. He knew and comprehended other countries and other cultures very well and skillfully managed his subordinates to solve the tasks set. Invaluable were his knowledge about his own country, its geography, history, culture, political and economic structures and institutions, human and economic resources and briefly speaking, everything that determined the priorities of our country’s foreign policy. He was a genuine and honest diplomat who was able to think and solve various problems, properly assess the situation and clearly and skillfully express his point of view. He was not only smart, but he also had independent, unconventional thinking. At the same time, his understanding of diplomacy rested on precision, the correct statement of a position of our country and accurate formulations. The synthesised diplomatic essays in the chapters describe in detail the activities of M.I. Issinaliev in the Komsomol and in the party. The section on 66


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foreign service and business trips of Issinaliev is well-shaped. Of high interest are archival materials, family correspondence and letters/memories of people close to him. High-ranking diplomats well-known both in the country and in the world are among the students of Issinaliev. It was a truly great professional experience for young diplomats; it was a real opportunity to learn how to think, to learn how to express thoughts, to learn how to elaborate on a topic, to look for ways to implement a foreign policy task. The efforts of diplomat Issinaliev on personnel training have not disappeared and continue to generate value for the country. The book attracts attention not only with its substantive content, but also with an intriguing composition, an innovative technique and a form used to present the material. Many more kind words could be said with regard to the monograph under review and all of them would be completely fair. I wish the collection of works in the field of diplomacy to be replenished with precisely such works.

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Khair OMAROV, Honored Diplomatic Service Officer of the Republic of Kazakhstan The Person, the Citizen, the Diplomat

At the presentation of the Hungarian Order of the Holy Crown Middle Cross (with) Star by President Arpad Genz. Photo from Kurmanguzhin’s family photo archive.

In a family, there are people who eventually become the pride of a nation. One of them is certainly my unforgettable friend, my agemate Salim Kurmanguzhin, who passed away at the age of 85 due to a serious illness. He was born and brought up in a hard-working peasant family. Kurmanguzhin turned into a highly intelligent person as he received a good education. His soul reverently treasured three values: parents, family and Motherland. He deeply honored his parents. His father, Aleken-agai, for many years was the head of an agricultural enterprise. He was an active and strong advocate of the collectivefarm movement and was in friendly relations with well-known Kazakh statesperson Zh. Tashenov – the relations that arose during the years of studying

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Khair Omarov. The Person, the Citizen, the Diplomat

together. He also played a role in the fate of his son and his accomplishments in the field of diplomacy. Kurmanguzhin adored and loved with his whole soul his wife Lyaila - a contemporary, a graduate of the chemical faculty of Kazakh State University, who defended her thesis and was awarded the high academic title of Candidate of Chemical Sciences. She returned his love, became a faithful friend, a solid support, a strong home front in work, activities, undertakings, the path. They raised two sons, Rustem and Zhassulan, who gave them grandchildren and greatgrandchildren, creating a whole clan and the tree of the Kurmanguzhins. The children of Kurmanguzhin followed in his footsteps, forming a diplomatic dynasty. As for the other two titles of this article’s heading, they are related to the professional biography and activities of Kurmanguzhin. He describes 45 years of his diplomatic service in his book of memoirs published in 2003. He was and remained a lifelong diplomat. In the years of maturity and onwards, Kurmanguzhin, although he had left the Central Office of the Foreign Ministry, remained in its system, providing advisory and methodological assistance. He was the head of the advanced education department for ambassadors and senior diplomats of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan. The post-MFA period of Kurmanguzhin’s life was characterised by his educational and teaching activities. It should be noted that he had reached academic heights, having defended his thesis. While teaching in a number of educational institutions, including KIMEP University, Kurmanguzhin gave a series of lectures on diplomatic studies in English. Within this framework, he linked his diplomatic practice with the theory of foreign policy. He is the author of several books, manuals and brochures. Kurmanguzhin was a nuts-and-bolts diplomat, a systemic and career one. After graduating from the Institute of Foreign Languages, Kurmanguzhin devoted his whole life to the diplomatic field. He was a Soviet diplomat who represented the interests of the USSR abroad and worked in senior positions on three continents. The countries he worked in the Soviet era are Egypt, Ethiopia and Turkey. These countries were not only interesting in terms of history, but were also important for the USSR’s foreign policy. While there, Kurmanguzhin turned into a professional diplomat. When Kazakhstan achieved its independence, he became one of the leaders of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and headed the Kazakhstan Embassy in Hungary. Besides that, he became the first Kazakh Ambassador who was awarded the highest state award in the country of stay after completing his foreign business trip. It is essential to note that while working in various territorial and functional departments in the midst of foreign business trips, Kurmanguzhin also worked in such a reputable agency of the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs 69


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as the General Secretariat. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs used the secretariat to communicate with other departments and to control the execution of proposals and requests, reference materials and other documents sent from embassies and foreign missions to the central office. This experience was very useful to Kurmanguzhin when he became the first Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of independent Kazakhstan. He played a crucial role in Kazakhstan’s independence and made a great contribution to the legal foundation of the foreign ministry, as well as to the creation of its material and technical base. Kurmanguzhin addressed not only the distribution of responsibilities and general management, but also organisational issues, and was in charge of the European area. Few people know that U.S. Secretary of State James Baker communicated directly with Kurmanguzhin two or three times to accelerate the resolution of urgent problems in bilateral relations. Both in Soviet times and in the field of diplomacy of independent Kazakhstan, Kurmanguzhin worked dedicatedly and fruitfully and was awarded state awards and government insignia. He takes his rightful place as a statesperson, as well as a famous Kazakh diplomat among the constellation of his colleagues. As long as the Kazakh people prosper and an independent Kazakhstan exists, his image and face will remain in the memory of his contemporaries and future generations as an example of serving the Motherland. Goodbye, my never-to-be-forgotten friend. Imanyn salamat bolsyn!

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NEW APPOINTMENTS IN THE MINISTRY

Viktor TEMIRBAYEV was appointed as the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the Republic of Lithuania by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 732 dated August 27, 2018. In 1993, he graduated from the Moscow Institute of Electronic Engineering specialising in radio engineering. In 1999, he graduated from the Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation specialising in international relations. Since 1993, he has been working in the system of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan. From 2005-2006, he served as Head of the Department of International Organisations and Security Issues and Head of the Asian Cooperation Department at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. From 2006-2007, he worked as Head of the Political Division at the Secretariat of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA) in Almaty. From 2007-2008, he worked as Deputy Head of the Representative Office of the Kazyna Sustainable Development Fund in Almaty. In 2009, he was Director of the Corporate Development Department at the National Innovation Fund, Samruk-Kazyna National Wealth Fund in Almaty. From 2010-2018, he worked as Counselor and Minister Counselor at the Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Russian Federation. He has the diplomatic rank of First-Class Counselor. Baurzhan ABDRAKHMANOV was appointed as Consul General of the Republic of Kazakhstan to Istanbul (Republic of Turkey) in August 2018. In 2005, he graduated from Zhubanov Aktobe State University specialising in engineering technology. In 2011, he graduated from the Abay Alma-Ata State University specialising in international relations. From 1997-2006, he held different positions in the private sector. From 2007-2009, he held different positions including managerial ones in the Ministry of Transport and Communication of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In 2010, he worked as Counselor of the Consular Department in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. From August 20102011, he served as Consul General at the Consulate General of the Republic of

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Kazakhstan in Dubai (United Arab Emirates). From 2012-2018, he worked as Consul at the Consulate of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Antalya. From February-August 2018, he served as Counselor at the Consulate General of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Istanbul (Republic of Turkey). He has the diplomatic rank of Second-Class Counselor. Anuarbek AKHMETOV was appointed as Director of the Europe Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan in September 2018. In 1998, he graduated from Kazakh State Management Academy specialising in international economic relations. In 2010, he graduated from Sorbonne University, Sorbonne Graduate Business School (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Institute d’Administration of des Enterprises de Paris) specialising in management for organisations and enterprises, business administration. He is a career diplomat. Since 1998, he has been working in different positions in the system of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. From 2007-2013, he served as Counselor at the Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the French Republic. From 2014-September 2018, he worked as Deputy Director of the Department of Foreign Economic Policy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. He has the diplomatic rank of Second-Class Counselor. Nikolay ZHUMAKANOV was appointed as Director of the International Legal Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan in September 2018. In 2005, he graduated from Al-Farabi Kazakh National University specialising in international law. In 2014, he graduated from the European Centre for Strategic and International Studies in Brussels specialising in international relations. He is a career diplomat. Since 2005, he has been working at different positions in the system of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. From 2012-2015, he worked as Counselor at the Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the Kingdom of Belgium. From 2015-2017, he worked as Minister Counselor at the Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the Kingdom of Belgium. From 2017-September 2018, he worked as Deputy Director of the Europe Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan. He has the diplomatic rank of First-Class First Secretary. 72


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