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ITEC Issue America's Longest Established Simulation & Training Magazine

Special Section: JIEDDO Leadership Insight

Overseas Trainer Col. Bryan L. Rudacille

Commander Joint Multinational Training Command

May 2013

Volume 18, Issue 3

Command Profile: Lt. Col. John D. Koch, Deputy Director of Simulations for the Joint Multinational Simulation Center

Cultural Training O Ground Vehicle Air Force Engagement O GameTech


When your mission is to train efficiently,

use MetaVR’s visual systems and geospecific terrain to create tactical ISR training scenarios that tie together JTAC, UAV, and ground attack simulations.

Real-time screen captures are from MetaVR’s visualization system and Afghanistan 3D virtual terrain and are unedited except as required for printing. The real-time renderings of the 3D virtual world are generated by MetaVR Virtual Reality Scene Generator™ (VRSG™). 3D models and animations are from MetaVR’s 3D content libraries. Photograph of the MetaVR-BSI JTAC desktop simulator courtesy of the Illinois Air National Guard, Peoria, IL. © 2013 MetaVR, Inc. All rights reserved. MetaVR, Virtual Reality Scene Generator, VRSG, the phrase “Geospecific simulation with game quality graphics”, and the MetaVR logo are trademarks of MetaVR, Inc. US 617-739-2667

military Training technology Features

Cover / Q&A

Special Section JIEDDO Leadership Insight Army Colonel Rod Coffey, Chief of Training Support Element, JIEDDO, gives MT2 an exclusive interview discussing IEDspecific force training operations to support combatant commanders.

6 8

Driving for Success

Ground vehicle operators equip soldiers for training and combat missions with munitions, food and supplies essential to a mobile military force and to battlefield success. By Cynthia L. Webb

May 2013 Volume 18, Issue 3

Command Profile Joint Multinational Simulation Center

Using blended live, virtual, constructive and gaming environments distributed from the U.S. Army’s Joint Multinational Readiness Center and Joint Multinational Simulation Center to test the 2nd Cavalry Regiment and partner nations. By Lieutenant Colonel John D. Koch


23 11



The Air Advisor

Blending In

GameTech 2013

The USAF Air Advisor Academy educates and trains airmendiplomats from a wide range of Air Force career fields who will engage with counterparts in foreign security forces across the globe. More specifically, graduates of this unique institution apply their USAF expertise to assess, train, educate, advise, assist and equip partner nation personnel. By Major General Timothy M. Zadalis

Departments 2 Editor’s Perspective 4 Program Highlights 5 PEOPLE 14 data packets 25 Team orlando 27 Resource Center

A little over a decade ago, helping soldiers understand the cultures into which they might be deployed generally wasn’t a priority. After all, most soldiers already had full training schedules, learning battlefield tactics, weaponry skills and other subjects more directly related to waging a war. This thinking has recently changed to put more emphasis on cultural training. By Karen Kroll

In the midst of travel restrictions and budget limitations, GameTech 2013 Thrills to Skills offered a compelling program for developers, users and supporting industry who attended the 2013 conference.

Industry Interview


Lars Borgwing

President and CEO Saab Training USA

Colonel Bryan L. Rudacille Commander Joint Multinational Training Command

“Our priority is to train U.S. forces to meet daily readiness requirements, or in preparation for specific named operations and contingency plans.” - Col. Bryan L. Rudacille

Military Training Technology Volume 18, Issue 3 • May 2013

Recognized Leader Covering All Aspects of Military Training Readiness Editorial Editor Brian O’Shea Managing Editor Harrison Donnelly Online Editorial Manager Laura Davis Copy Editors Sean Carmichael Laural Hobbes Correspondents J.B. Bissell • Christian Bourge • Peter Buxbaum Henry Canaday • Erin Flynn Jay • Karen Kroll Cynthia Webb

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EDITOR’S PERSPECTIVE GameTech 2013 recently took place and despite declined attendance from previous years, organizers say the event was a success. Frank C. DiGiovanni, Defense Department director of training, readiness and strategy, gave the government keynote speech and emphasized that game developers should look strategically to expand to other markets, including robotics and automation, energy, telecommunications, health care and new production technologies. He also stressed that the military was looking for customizable video game training scenarios. “You’ve got to have agility, to be able to give the end user the ability to use the system the way they want,” he said at the recent GameTech conference. Brian O’Shea Editor While organizers adamantly claim that this year’s event was a shining success, the government part of the audience’s equation was missing. Since sequestration was announced in March, much of government’s participation and attendance to events such as GameTech have been curtailed. DiGiovanni was given special permission to attend the conference as the government keynote speaker. While the nation tightens its budget belt, some see opportunity. “There’s an opportunity, I think, for new and innovative ways of training at home,” said Tom Baptiste, executive director for the National Center of Simulation. In many ways, Baptiste is correct. Simulated and virtual training tends to be cheaper to conduct than live training. Events such as GameTech are an excellent way for the game developer community to get together and discuss the many ways in which gaming platforms are evolving and can be used in other markets. However, a red flag for me is when DiGiovanni advised game developers to start looking in non-defense markets for their technology. I’m not suggesting that DiGiovanni is telling the gaming industry to give up on the defense market, but more like telling them to ride out this austere budget environment. The current budget scenario will have an effect for years to come. For game developers to keep their numbers in the black, they need to seek out other opportunities until hopefully, the Department of Defense once again uses resources to utilize ever-advancing gaming technology.

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That’s Why L-3 Link Developed the New Standard for Virtual Simulation Realism. It’s called HD World ®, a realistic, high-fidelity synthetic environment that immerses warfighters in dynamic high-definition training scenarios. HD World combines high-definition databases, image generation systems, physics-based processing technology and visual system displays to add unparalleled realism for manned and unmanned training. To see how L-3 Link is redefining training capabilities, go to

Link Simulation & Training

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS Training Solutions Support Contract Awarded Aptima recently announced its selection to a contract by the Naval Air Warfare Center’s Training Systems Division (NAWC-TSD). Under the five-year multi-award contract, which has a value of up to $781 million, Aptima will deliver training solutions to support military communities from air, land, surface, undersea, cross platform and joint systems, as well as to other government agencies. The Training Data Products Contract (TDPC) covers a life cycle of services that support the management of existing training systems, and the modernization and conversion to new and emerging training and delivery solutions. This includes activities related to the analysis, design, development, implementation and sustainment of training systems. “Aptima is thrilled to be part of an acquisition vehicle of this magnitude, and appreciative of the customers that have placed their trust in our innovative training capabilities,” said Mike Garrity, Aptima’s vice president of programs. “This contract characterizes the continuum of what we do, and it signals our company’s evolution and

growth towards larger, longer-term acquisition programs.” One of six contract awardees, Aptima qualified for each of the three set asides for small business. Since its founding in 1995, the company has specialized in engineering tools and technologies that improve human performance. Its research and development for the Department of Defense and government research labs has advanced the state of live, virtual and constructive learning models, content and courseware delivery, adaptive training systems and human performance measurement. “We look forward to transitioning our hardened R&D into the most intelligent and cost-effective solutions for training our nation’s warfighters,” added Garrity. Aptima’s extensive track record for developing training solutions for DoD includes: • Analysis, design, and evaluation: Through a decade-long partnership with Air Force Research Laboratory, Air Combat Command and the Group for Organizational

Effectiveness, Aptima and its partners have helped to define the “go to war” knowledge skills necessary for the contemporary operational environment. These analyses identified training gaps and corrective recommendations, covering every major weapon system within the USAF, and included joint and coalition partners. • Development, production, and implementation: Aptima developed courseware focused on the military decision-making process for the Captain’s Career Course at the Army’s Combined Armed Support Command. • Sustainment: As a member of the L-3 Communications Government Services Inc. Academic, Training & Exercise Contract Support team, Aptima helped convert and implement hundreds of hours of self-paced interactive courseware in support of the Air Force 505th Command and Control wing. Michael Garrity;

Training Support, Flight Equipment Work CAE has won approximately $87.7 million in contracts to provide training support services, update flight trainers and help maintain military flight simulation equipment for military customers. The modeling and simulation company won the contracts during the first two months of the fourth quarter for fiscal year 2013, the company recently said. Under a fourth contract, the company will provide in-service support services to an unidentified customer. “Our large installed base of simulators and training devices around the world continues to provide a steady source of orders for ongoing sustainment, maintenance and support services,” said Gene Colabatistto, group president for military products, training and services. Under a subcontract, a contract between a prime contractor and a subcontractor to furnish supplies or services for performance of a prime contract or subcontract with Lockheed Martin, CAE will help the U.S. Air Force maintain two C-130J maintenance and aircrew training system programs and help Taiwan’s air force maintain its C-130H training devices.

4 | MT2 18.3

A second contract covers updates to the Navy’s MH-60S helicopter’s operational flight trainers, weapons tactics trainers, aerodynamics model, weapons and airborne mine counter measures. Germany also awarded CAE a one-year contract extension to continue providing on-site maintenance for flight simulation equipment at 20 sites in Europe.

Engineers and technicians will help maintain fighter jets, transport planes and helicopters. “We are also seeing increased opportunities for simulator upgrades and updates as defense forces look for ways to increase the amount of training done in a synthetic environment,” Colabatistto said. Chris Stellwag;

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

Advanced Combat Ship Training Cubic Corporation’s Orlando-based Simulation Systems Division announced that it has received three prime contracts from Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division to develop instructor-led (synchronous) and instructor-facilitated self-paced (asynchronous) courseware in support of the Littoral Combat Ship Train to Qualify and Train to Certify shore-based training requirements for both variants of the littoral combat ship, and for the mission packages utilized on both ships. The Littoral Combat Ship program represents the U.S. Navy’s most advanced designs, capabilities and technologies to create the next generation of surface vessels that can operate in dangerous shallow and near-shore environments. If fully funded, the three indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity contracts have the potential value of up to $298.5 million over the five-year period-of-performance. This program represents a strategic partnership between the U.S. military, government and industry. This will result in the creation of jobs for veterans, engineers and new graduates of

science, technology, engineering and mathematics programs. “We are extremely pleased that Cubic has been selected to contribute and participate in this important Navy program,” said Brad Feldmann, president and chief operating officer of Cubic. “This announcement is another example of Cubic’s continued partnership with the United States Navy. We are steadfast in our commitment to this role in support of the men and women in uniform regarding their vital mission to defend freedom and the interests of the United States around the world.” The littoral combat ship courseware development programs will be executed in Orlando, Fla. Cubic’s Simulation Systems will partner with Cubic Mission Support Services, and a team of industry leading subcontractors including Austal USA, Alion Science and Technology, Sonalysts Inc., Aptima Inc., Cybernet Systems Corporation, RealTime Immersive Inc. and a host of small and economically disadvantaged businesses to deliver the interactive courseware products. Trisha Rule;

PEOPLE Army Reserve Colonel Brently F. White was nominated for promotion to the rank of brigadier general and for assignment as deputy commanding general, 75th Training Command (Initial Entry Training), Houston, Texas. White most recently served as assistant division commander, Headquarters, 95th Training Division (Initial Entry Training), Fort Sill, Okla. Ron Costella, a 20-year U.S. Army veteran, has rejoined American Systems as vice president and executive director of the training and operational services business segment. Costella will be responsible for developing and implementing a growth strategy for the segment, which provides

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

security assistance training for the departments of Defense and State in the U.S. and overseas. The segment also helps customers manage facilities and bases. CAE announced the appointment of Denny E. Brisley to the newly established position of director, Washington, D.C. Operations. Brisley will serve as the senior executive for CAE in Washington, D.C., supporting the Defense and Security business unit as well as other company business liaison efforts and government relations. Cubic Corporation recently announced the appointment of Dave Schmitz as president of Cubic Defense Applications. He succeeds Brad Feldmann, who

was recently promoted to president and chief operating officer of Cubic. Gary Slack, formerly executive vice president and chief financial officer for QinetiQ North America, has been promoted to president and chief operating officer at the Reston, Va.-based defense technology maker. Jonathan Rambeau, recently vice president of F-35 international programs at Lockheed Martin, has been appointed VP and general manager of the training and logistics solutions business. He succeeds Denise Saiki, who was promoted to corporate chief information officer and vice president in charge of Lockheed’s enterprise systems unit.

Aircraft, Training and Support for U.S. Air Force Light Air Support Mission Wittenstein recently announced that it is part of the supplier network tapped by the U.S. Air Force under its recently awarded Light Air Support (LAS) contract. The U.S. Air Force announced the selection of Sierra Nevada Corporation to supply aircraft for use by the Afghanistan National Army Air Corps and other future customers. The aircraft that will be provided is the Embraer A-29 Super Tucano. The aircraft will be used for conducting flight training, aerial reconnaissance and light air support operations and is a key element of U.S. government partner-building efforts in Afghanistan and other partner nations. Wittenstein’s role in the contract includes providing state-of-the-art control loading technology for the Super Tucano simulators. Wittenstein’s haptic technology provides pilots with high-fidelity force feedback for realistic flight conditions, ensuring pilots receive the most advanced training on the ground to best prepare them for the air. “Our colleagues are proud to be a part of the team selected by the U.S. Air Force for this important mission,” said Scott Metcalfe, business unit manager for Wittenstein Aerospace & Simulation Inc. “We work hard to ensure that we create best-in-class technology that can optimally train pilots for their missions.” The A-29 Super Tucano will be built in Jacksonville, Fla., by U.S. workers and with parts supplied by U.S. companies. Over 88 percent of the Super Tucano is made from parts supplied by U.S. companies, like Wittenstein, or countries that qualify under the Buy America Act. Aircraft training will be provided in Clovis, N.M. Wittenstein is among the other 70 U.S. suppliers in 21 states that will provide parts or services for the LAS program. At least 1,200 U.S. jobs will be supported through this contract. Barbara Colucci;

MT2  18.3 | 5


Compiled by KMI Media Group staff


nonymous networks causing a threat.

Colonel Rod Coffey Chief of Training Support Element Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization Q: Can you tell me the primary role and responsibilities of JIEDDO? A: JIEDDO is a designated DoD lead for rapidly providing support of the combatant commanders and their respective Joint Task Forces. Our primary role is to defeat IEDs as weapons of strategic influence. JIEDDO has three objectives: attack the network, defeat the device and train the force. Q: Can you describe the set of IED-specific force training operations to support combatant commanders? A: JIEDDO has three major lines of operation: attack the network, defeat the device, and train the force. Booby traps and improvised explosives have been around for centuries, but it’s the anonymous networks that are employing them that make them different these days. There are different kinds of training and there are different detection devices. Creating those devices and getting them into theater is key, but then getting to training bases and collectively training on them, designing the right kind of courses, is essential. That takes a lot of work. From a technological point of view, we have a whole series of four to five major detection devices for dismounted operations. Some are used to counter remote-control IEDs, some to detect other things. But wouldn’t it be great if there was one device that did everything? We have all sorts of assets, ISR [intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance] assets that help detect the network or detect new IEDs, that you can’t fully train on in the training base. It’s fairly specialized equipment, most of which only exists in theater. Simulations and different software capabilities allow us to put the IED environment into COCOMlevel exercises, but in a way that’s appropriate for the operational and strategic level. Q: In providing IED training operations, how do you measure success? 6 | MT2 18.3

A: There are a number of ways we measure our progress. First of all, we have an after-action review program at the brigade level and regimental combat team level, with the forces previously in Iraq and now in Afghanistan. It’s a critical filtering method that accumulates data, analyzes it and then realizes what is working and what is not. We also have site visits and course surveys. All of these processes are very important to measure success. If we see a unit that has a particular capability gap, then we would follow through on that with successive observations, applying a solution and training on it in the pre-deployment phase. Over time, we can see whether the change has worked or not. Q: What are some of the biggest challenges providing this kind of training? A: I believe the biggest challenge is getting the training to the unit at the right time and assisting units with the need for continuity. You might have a person trained for one of these key capabilities that is not really institutionalized yet, but then you have to move them to another job and you have to make a lesser-oftwo-evils choice. So that kind of need for iterative training is probably one of the biggest challenges. The services, of course, are working on institutionalizing certain counter-IED capabilities. I’d emphasize one of the things that really eliminates some of the challenges is we really focus on understanding what the services are already doing, making sure we’re filling a gap, and really augmenting capacity when they need it. That helps eliminate some of the challenges. Additionally, a big challenge continues to be personnel turnover during the pre-deployment cycle. Q: What are some of the training shortfalls JIEDDO has identified in mitigating the threat of IEDs? A: Sometimes, the shortfall is merely the need to quickly augment a capacity that the service already has. Some of this is structural in the

training base. The other areas are simply a matter of defining what counter-IED capabilities we’ve identified that are useful and what the capacity to train at any one time is. For example, with route clearance patrols, groundpenetrating radar that is put in a route clearance vehicle is challenging to train on, so one of the things we’ve created is surrogate groundpenetrating radar. It’s less expensive and it allows the soldier to train on a new device. We try to anticipate what’s happening in theater, so in a sense we’re always uncovering shortfalls, and we want to stay ahead of it. As a result, we’re always modifying the training or recommending modification based on the changing enemy tactics and procedures we see in theater, and based on the solutions the warfighter comes up with. Guys in combat are going to come up with a solution, and we capture those best practices and their identification of training or capability gaps. Q: How important is JIEDDO’s relationship with industry in regards to using the most up-to-date technology to provide training? A: I think it’s critical. There are things in the area of simulations and capability requirements that we identify because we’re solely focused on the IED problem. We’re in a position to articulate a requirement pretty rapidly from input from theater, integrate that with the services and then articulate that to industry. We do have a relationship with the whole of government as well. While we don’t currently train other agencies, there’s certainly a lot of info sharing. Q: Are there any new programs or initiatives that are scheduled to be implemented in 2013? A: There are several. Clearly there’s going to be some change in theater, a change in the conventional footprint, so there’s some fullspectrum targeting and training for special operators that we’ll provide augmentation for this year. O


crews are prepared for the live training

experience? The answer is Saab’s AFV Crew Training System. It is a purpose designed configurable training solution for armoured vehicle crews – commander, gunner, loader operator and driver – to master their individual, crew and collective skills in a cohesive learning experience. With Saab as your training partner the trainer has the ability to assess and qualify the trainee from CBT and virtual through to Live Simulation and Live Fire Exercises.

With the current drive to effectively replace live firing on vehicles with virtual simulation the AFV Crew Training System provides the trainee with the most realistic experience to ensure the required learning/training experience and build self-assurance. It also provides instructors with a powerful tool for continual assessment and evaluation. When it’s time to turn training in to confidence, Saab will bring you the solution you need to succeed.

Vortex from CM Labs [Photo courtesy of CM Labs]

Ground vehicle training essential for a mobile military force. Ground vehicle operators equip soldiers for training and combat missions with munitions, food and supplies essential to a mobile military force and to battlefield success. At Motor Transport Instruction Company, Marine Corps Detachment at Fort Leonard Wood, Mo., instructors teach roughly 2,160 Marines annually to become basic motor transport operators on 1.25-ton to 22.5-ton vehicles. Vehicles include HMMWVs, the all-wheel drive, all-terrain 7-ton Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement, and the Logistic Vehicle System Replacement heavy trucks. Students learn basic driving skills and are assigned to operational units for more advanced training to help with resupply, overseas security missions or transporting supplies at U.S. bases. The goal is to support a unit’s mission for carrying artillery, infantry and supplies, according to MTIC academics officer Jay Rhine. Motor transport operators push logistics and supplies and are crucial for military operations, he said. “They are pretty nervous. We start them out on the smallest vehicles. We use the crawl, walk, run theory,” said Gunnery Sergeant Steve Baker. “The biggest thing is they are just scared of driving that big vehicle.” Training boosts confidence, said Baker, who served in Afghanistan as a motor transport platoon sergeant and convoy commander. “The skills we used in Iraq and Desert Storm, we pass them on to the students and to the instructors,” said 28-year-veteran Master Gunnery Sergeant Larry Cantu. “We have to think both sides and real world,” he said. “We get great feedback.” The 38-day motor vehicle operator course includes HMMWV and 7-ton driving simulators, said curriculum developer Steve McGuire. “They do drive time with all of the vehicles. They do leave here with a license. They have to be ready to operate the vehicles.” Another course teaches advanced vehicle recovery skills. The school also provides mobile training before deployment, Rhine said. 8 | MT2 18.3

By Cynthia L. Webb, MT2 Correspondent

“The simulators have to be as real as possible to provide realism to the student,” McGuire said. The simulators provide safe training. “When they get to the actual piece of gear, it is easier to train.” Detachment executive officer Major Steven Murphy deployed last year to Afghanistan. “In that environment, I got to see how important ground transportation is in the battlefield,” Murphy said. His unit transported supplies with 7-ton mine-resistant ambushprotected (MRAP) trucks and MRAP all-terrain vehicles in a massive area while battling dust storms, IED dangers and other challenges. “In today’s world, this school is the baseline for that,” Murphy said. Students become professional drivers and convoy operators and need skills to move combat supplies quickly and safely. The Army trains more than 5,000 motor transport operators (88Ms) annually at Fort Leonard Wood and plans to possibly launch a next-generation driving training simulator in fiscal 2014-2017, according to Jeffrey Skinner, a retired Army sergeant major and chief of the driver standardization office at the U.S Army Transportation School in Fort Lee, Va. “We know the value that simulators bring to the fight and we try and maximize their use,” Skinner said. “They hone their skills before they get in the truck,” he said. “Some of these students have never driven anything bigger than mom or dad’s pickup truck. We start them in the simulator and then we move them to the vehicles. After that, the student is very comfortable handling large vehicles.” The Army has used operator driving simulators since 2001. Its revamped Common Driver Trainer (CDT) simulators will feature improved graphics, movement and other capabilities to streamline combat transporter training. The Army has CDTs for systems including Strykers and M1 Abrams.

The new CDTs will replicate training vehicles, including the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles, the M915 line-haul tractor and the Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck. “It brings realism to the system,” Skinner said. “The knobs, the start button is exactly where it is on the truck. It looks exactly like the vehicle that the soldier will get into and be able to drive. “The soldier’s speed of learning will obviously increase,” he said. The system can replicate convoy routes and roads to familiarize students with terrain, weather conditions and other challenges. The training helps students to be effective when they join their unit, Skinner explained.

Advanced Training The Army’s National Training Center at Fort Irwin, View of Scope Technolgies’ Augmented Reality animations overtop of equipment, as seen through prototype Epson Moverio augmented reality glasses. [Photo courtesy of Scope Technologies] Calif., holds advanced two-week training exercises yearround for U.S. and multinational forces. The desert and The realistic training helps save fuel and ammunition costs, he 1,000-square-mile terrain provide an ideal combat training ground. said. The 1916th Support Battalion supports the exercises, which can Soldiers come to Fort Hood’s Mission Command Training Centrain 5,000-8,000 fully equipped soldiers at a time. ter with their units for more advanced training on wheeled vehicle Motor vehicle operators’ training includes setting up convoys, simulators, according to simulation officer Lieutenant Colonel Mike practicing driving distance and speed for IED safety, and transportTrue. True is in charge of integrating Fort Hood’s simulators into a ing supplies, said 1st Sergeant Natasha Montgomery, who helps unit’s training. run the exercises. Soldiers are sent to the field for two weeks. “It is the difference between life and death in most cases,” said Montgomery of training. Soldiers learn to work as a team and to react quickly. Missions include practicing security checkpoints for ground vehicle convoys, medical drills and firing exercises. “Everything that could possibly happen, we practice,” said vehicle transporter Sergeant Kimberly Brown. Skills include recovering and evacuating disabled vehicles quickly from dangerous situations. Crews help repair communications equipment, said communications specialist Private Selicia Milton. Sergeant Cindi Thayer, who works in the battalion’s communications unit and has deployed to Iraq three times, said Fort Irwin’s convoy training skills are essential for battle readiness. When she witnessed rollovers, “the training I received here immediately kicked in,” Thayer said.

Simulating Reality Laser Shot Inc. of Stafford, Texas, provides the military with 360-degree wheeled vehicle training simulators that can replicate terrain and conditions for deployments, said vice president Gregg Owens. The company helped soldiers prepare for Iraq’s Green Zone deployment by modeling its roads and buildings. Fort Hood and other posts use its systems to Gregg Owens practice convoy driving skills and communications, Owens said. “We are not there to teach the driver to drive the vehicle,” Owens said. The simulators are used for more advanced training. “We are there to teach the driver to work with the team.”

MT2  18.3 | 9

At the start of the Iraq war, IEDs were killing soldiers in convoys. Fort Hood simulations officers created plywood mockups of HMMWVs and used existing simulation software as a cheap and effective way to train for the hazards, said Georgie McAteer, Fort Hood’s director of mission command training. “We used some of our simulations to create a picture and they were able to drive in a virtual convoy. This allowed them to learn how to communicate. They learned how to use their radios and to pay attention to where they were in formation,” McAteer said. “The Army had always focused on the tracked vehicles and really not any of the wheeled vehicles,” she said. Wartime needs changed that. Since then, 70,000 soldiers have trained on the plywood mockups, bolstered by the Virtual Battlespace 2 battlefield simulation system, McAteer said. Simulators are located in pods in a large warehouse. Soldiers sit in plywood vehicle mockups, outfitted with inside the Stryker simulator at Ft. Hood’s Mission Command Training Center train on wheeled vehicle a gas pedal, weapons system and steering wheel. Sol- Soldiers simulators. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Army, Ft. Hood] diers shoot lasers at a screen while following commands. “When they look out of the vehicles, they are seeing a 360-degree virtual environment around them with sights and Nedohin. Scope worked recently with Epson Corp. to develop sounds as closely replicated as possible,” True said. The pods can prototype augmented reality glasses. With AR, digital information link together to see other vehicles. is added to enhance a real-world About 18,000 soldiers train annually, with the bulk of the trainview. ing specific to ground vehicle training, McAteer said. The training The glasses could be used to is safer than live training and soldiers can practice complicated show animations and instruction missions in advance. “In our envimanuals for training, such as vehironment it costs virtually nothing cle repairs in combat, Nedohin said. to restart it up and run it again,” AR glasses could become contact True said. lenses as technology evolves. “We True, who has 18 years of serare targeting the military as a very vice, deployed with the 3rd Cavalry. attractive market for us,” Nedohin “Without these virtual simulators, said. “The unique thing about wearour crews enter live training much ing glasses and applying AR is you Dr. Razia Oden more timid. These simulators incan digitally change the crease soldiers’ confidence on their ment to recreate the environment weapons systems and their standard you want to train in.” Sebastien Loze operating procedures.” MTIC’s Rhine said new developments include multi-platform simulators with interchangeable dashes to help students train for realistic scenarios. Future Trends Florida-based Design Interactive is working with the Army to develop a vehicle casualty extraction trainer to help soldiers train Future ground vehicle simulafor IED dangers and rollovers. The HMMWV-based trainer is detion trends include getting more signed for various warfighters to practice getting people out of veaccurate vehicle feedback, said Sehicles quickly and safely, said senior research associate Dr. Razia bastien Loze, Canada-based CM Oden. Labs Simulations Inc.’s director of The trainer will replicate a HMMWV. Instructors can add audio, marketing. Another push, he said, lighting and smells to mimic battle conditions and change compois for higher-end vehicles for more nents to train differently in a cost-effective way, Oden said. Rescue realistic training. CM Labs’ Vortex personnel can use extraction tools to practice cutting into the vevirtual reality simulation software David Nedohin hicles. “We have designed it so the metal of the vehicle will give the system can replicate vehicle models, same resistance of the HMMWV,” Oden said. predict vehicle behavior and recreAny technology requires the marketplace to adapt. “The chalate collisions and weather conditions. lenge is to do it better, faster, at a lower price point, and maintain “The biggest challenges our customers have had to overcome reliability and usability,” said Laser Shot’s Owens. O are linked to the need to allow trainees to develop complete trust in a collaborative and reliable simulation environment,” Loze said. For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea Canada-based Scope Technologies Inc. sells augmented reality at or search our online archives (AR) software solutions to industrial clients and its technology for related stories at could help the military, said business development manager David 10 | MT2 18.3

The face of USAF engagement.

By Major General Timothy M. Zadalis, U.S. Air Force

Nestled in the local townships of small town New Jersey is an Air Education and Training Command (AETC) schoolhouse with a small faculty of instructors who are packing quite a punch across the service and around the world. This school, the USAF Air Advisor Academy, educates and trains airmen-diplomats from a wide range of Air Force career fields Maj. Gen. Timothy M. Zadalis who will engage with counterparts in foreign security forces across the globe. More specifically, graduates of this unique institution apply their USAF expertise to assess, train, educate, advise, assist and equip partner nation personnel. Assigned to AETC’s 2nd Air Force and 37th Training Wing, the Air Advisor Academy officially achieved full operating capability on January 14, 2013. The process began in early 2007, when substantial demand for general purpose force air advisors led the Air Force Chief of Staff to direct AETC to build a permanent pre-deployment training detachment. Since that time, the command has trained over 3,400 air advisors, with most early graduates serving as air advisors in Iraq and Afghanistan. Now fully operational, the Air Advisor Academy has the annual capacity to train up to 1,500 airmen who will advise counterparts in a multitude of nations across every region, supporting a

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wide array of contingency and peacetime missions around the world. As security challenges and strategic importance increase across the African Maghreb, for example, the Air Advisor Academy is poised to provide education and training to a whole host of airmen deploying to that region as well. The U.S. military’s responsibility to perform the advising function is steeped in policy and guidance. The U.S. National Security Strategy directs a comprehensive, whole-ofgovernment engagement strategy. In order to achieve this vision, the National Defense Strategy directs the Department of Defense to “build the capacity of a broad range of partners for long-term security.” Similarly, one of six key missions in the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review is to “build the security capacity of partner states.” The Department’s Defense Planning Guidance document states that “the U.S. will work closely with allies and partners to ensure collective capability and capacity for securing common interests.” Finally, in support of this guidance, the National Military Strategy directs the services to “strengthen and enable partner capacity to enhance security.” The 2011 Air Force Global Partnership Strategy, the service’s guidance for the development of plans and programs to build global partnerships in support of national security objectives, grew out of this guidance. AETC, with the Air Advisor Academy in the lead, is enabling the implementation of this engagement plan. In his May 23, 2012, commencement speech to U.S. Air Force Academy graduates, President Barack Obama acknowledged that, “today, Air Force personnel are serving in 135 nations—partnering, training, building their capacity.” He added that “this is how peace and security will be upheld in the 21st century—more nations bearing the costs and responsibilities of leadership. And that’s good for America. It’s good for the world. And we’re at the hub of it, making it happen.” As the president’s comments indicate, Air Force engagement efforts are in line with his administration’s guidance. Tireless effort at the Air Advisor Academy has enabled the service to meet those requirements—a huge return on a small, well-placed investment. In addition to in-residence courses that have fueled this success, Air Advisor Academy instructors recently took their air advising education and training on the road, teaching air advising to USAF airmen in Europe and in the Pacific. In mid-January 2013, a team of instructors, led by Major Alex Richburg, taught an air advising course to 23 members of the 12 | MT2 18.1 18.3

36th Airlift Squadron at Yokota Air Base, Japan, preparing these airmen for the multiple partner nation engagement activities planned across the Pacific region over the next year. With America’s strategic shift toward the Pacific, it will become increasingly important for air advisors to build relationships and partner nation capacity across the U.S. Pacific Command area of responsibility. This mobile training team was an important step in that direction. The Air Advisor Academy’s next stop was Eastern Europe, where another team of instructors trained 10 U.S. Air Force personnel who comprise the newly activated U.S. Aviation Detachment, 52nd Operations Group’s Detachment 1, assigned to Lask Air Base in Poland. Four instructors from the Air Advisor Academy, led by Master Sergeant Jeffrey Culver, taught five days of course material ranging from air advisor core knowledge to communicating in a cross-cultural environment. The American airmen receiving this education and training will facilitate increased cooperation and interoperability between U.S. and Polish Air Force F-16 and C-130 operations and maintenance personnel.

AETC Roles and Responsibilities The Air Force has recently codified 13 service core functions and has directed specific commanders of USAF major commands (MAJCOMs) to lead integration of these core functions. As one might expect, General Edward A. Rice Jr., the AETC commander, leads the USAF education and training core function. It is important to note that General Rice is the building partnerships (BP) core function lead integrator (CFLI) as well. This makes perfect sense, as these two core functions are indelibly linked. For example, AETC is charged with educating and training as many as 8,500 partner nation personnel on an annual basis at just about every educational institution and training venue in the command. Through the International Military and Education Training (IMET) program, foreign counterparts attend AETC’s Undergraduate Pilot Training, Air Command and Staff College, Air War College, Senior Non-Commissioned Officer Academy, and the Air Force Academy, just to name a few. This education and training at AETC institutions quite literally builds partnerships on a daily basis. Additionally, both the Inter-American Air Forces Academy and the Defense Language Institute–English Learning Center are assigned to AETC. The primary mission of these

organizations is to build partnerships by educating and training partner nation personnel. Additionally, AETC’s Air Force Security Assistance Training Squadron manages the training of foreign partners in 137 countries, who fly and maintain aircraft they have purchased through programs such as foreign military sales (FMS) and foreign military financing (FMF). Furthermore, the Air Force Culture and Language Center, also assigned to AETC, helps Air University and other organizations, such as the Air Advisor Academy, educate and train airmen who will engage and advise other partner nation personnel. In the April 19, 2010, preamble to the USAF Air Advisor Academy Charter, then Air Force Chief of Staff General Norton A. Schwartz specifically discussed BP in the context of AETC’s Air Advisor Academy: “Our nation’s security is in substantial measure dependent upon our success in building partnerships and partner capacity, and countering irregular and asymmetric threats.” Accordingly, he stated, “One of our most significant tasks that we face is helping to prepare our partners to defend sovereignty and govern effectively.” AETC is leading the way toward the vision of the past and present Air Force Chiefs of Staff. In his recently published Vision for the U.S. Air Force, the new Chief of Staff, General Mark A. Welsh III, made reference to the two core functions assigned to AETC. He submitted, “Education and training are the foundation of our airpower advantage” and emphasized the importance of building partnerships as the Air Force moves forward: “To strengthen our enduring contributions, the Air Force will enhance relationships and interoperability with our sister services, other government agencies, allies and partners.” In addition to the CFLI roles, AETC is also lead-MAJCOM for expeditionary skills training (EST). Accordingly, AETC manages all foundational (Tier 1), home-station (Tier 2), and advanced (Tier 3) EST across the Air Force. AETC is charged with managing and executing Combat Airman Skills Training and the Evasion and Conduct after Capture course as well. Furthermore, the command manages USAF-wide countering improvised explosive devices (C-IED) training, a critically important element of EST as IEDs are the number-one killer of coalition forces and a threat in many other hotspots throughout the world. Again, the tie between these AETC roles is critical. A substantial portion of Air Advisor Academy course material, referred to as “fieldcraft,” is based upon EST lessons. Examples of fieldcraft skills taught at the Air Advisor Academy

include high threat driving, active shooter/ insider threat, advanced weapons, self protection, small team tactics, convoy operations and C-IED training. In fact, fieldcraft training is carefully interwoven throughout Air Advisor Academy curriculum and fully integrated with air advising core knowledge/skills and language, region, and culture course material. Beyond its lead-MAJCOM role for EST, AETC is also charged with developing, standardizing, executing and evaluating nonUSAF aircrew qualification and maintenance training. Currently, AETC leads training in Mi17, Mi-35, An-32, King Air 350, Cessna 182, Cessna 208 and Pilatus PC-12 aircraft. The command is postured to add other important non-USAF aircraft programs in the future. U.S. Air Force aircrew and maintainers learn to fly and maintain these aircraft and then learn to advise partner nation personnel in those roles. Coming full circle on the linkages between AETC roles and responsibilities, the same airmen who receive AETC training in non-USAF aircraft operations and maintenance also learn air advising and fieldcraft skills at AETC’s Air Advisor Academy.

USAF Engagement Space It’s important to understand building partnerships and air advising in the context of the many other related joint terms and DoD programs. While whole-of-government partner nation engagement could be viewed as the foundation of this collective effort, the emerging concept of aviation enterprise development serves as the overarching construct for the U.S. Air Force contribution. It is generally accepted across the community that there are four pillars to the USAF engagement effort: building relationships, building capability, enabling interoperability, and gaining access. BP and security cooperation (SC) both fully encompass these pillars, filling what might be referred to as the USAF engagement space. Security assistance (SA), which includes FMS, FMF and IMET, cuts across the first three pillars, filling a portion of the space and serving as an important subset of BP and SC. Building partner capacity (BPC) and security force assistance (SFA) are directly tied to developing the capability of a foreign military force and, for the USAF, developing a partner nation’s aviation enterprise. The U.S. Air Force performs BPC and SFA through the air advising function and, in so doing, enables foreign counterparts to conduct irregular warfare (IW) activities, including counterinsurgency (COIN) and

Members of the 52nd Operations Group and Spangdahlem Air Base Honor Guard stand in formation during an Aviation Detachment (AV DET) activation ceremony on the flightline at Lask Air Base, Poland. The AV DET supports Poland’s continued defense modernization and standardization with the U.S. and North Atlantic Treaty Organization. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Air Force/photo by Airman 1st Class Gustavo Castillo]

foreign internal defense (FID), and other foreign security force activities, such as countering external threats, in line with U.S. national interests. As such, air advising fully encompasses USAF efforts to build partner nation capability and plays a key role in building relationships and enabling interoperability. While there are many players across these disciplines, the air advisor is, in essence, the face of the U.S. Air Force engagement effort. The Air Advisor Academy is, in many ways, USAF’s link to many of these larger joint efforts. For example, the academy is emerging as USAF’s answer to security cooperation training venues in the other services. In fact, the academy plans to train airmen preparing to serve in an SC capacity, such as security cooperation officers working in U.S. embassies abroad. Similarly, AETC is working diligently with key stakeholders from Headquarters U.S. Air Force, sister services, the joint community, and the Air Advisor Academy to fully align its course material with emerging joint SFA training standards and corresponding levels of training. Additionally, lessons at the schoolhouse include education and training in SC, SA, FMS, IW, COIN, FID, and other content directly tied to joint and DoD programs. Finally, in March 2013, the Air Advisor Academy launched a new course that will train key members of each theater’s commander, Air Force Forces (COMAFFOR) planning staff. These planners will develop COMAFFOR campaign support plans and individual country plans that support geographic combatant command theater engagement plans. These

plans will codify theater and country-specific aviation enterprise development activities and other partner nation engagement efforts across the region. These planners will then implement the campaign support plans they helped to develop by serving as air advisors as they work with partner nation personnel across the region.

Conclusion In his preamble to the USAF Air Advisor Academy charter, General Schwartz said that “to achieve success, we will need trained, educated and qualified general purpose force (GPF) airmen to help build global air, space and cyber partnerships in support of combatant commanders’ security cooperation and irregular warfare activities.” He added that “a robust GPF Air Advisor capability will leverage the hard-earned expertise derived from our recent efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan.” All too often, the lessons of past wars are lost on the next generation. Instructors at the Air Advisor Academy are working diligently to institutionalize the progress made in air advising and expeditionary training over the last decade. Now fully operational and aggressively spreading the word, the little schoolhouse in New Jersey is punching above its weight in response to today’s threats and is poised to make an even greater impact in the future. O For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea at or search our online archives for related stories at

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DATA PACKETS 3-D Modeling Software Presagis’ Creator has been around for approximately 15 years. This year’s release of Creator is focused on improving user experience. A Fresh New UI Creator has a more intuitive UI. The introduction of the new ribbon toolbar helps one find and use commands more efficiently—resulting

in less trial-and-error when creating 3-D objects. The new Creator gives more control of the tools used most by enabling the user to customize the desktop. For example, users can drag and drop frequently used tools onto the ribbon toolbar or maximize one’s workspace with docking windows.

Improved “Analyze Models” Tool Improved model defect detection enables user to more quickly identify 3-D models that violate rules that the user sets. Full Integration with Terra Vista If a person uses Terra Vista to generate terrain databases, he/she can now edit and save 3-D models by launching Creator directly from Terra Vista. Free Upgrade to Creator Active maintenance clients will be able to download the latest version of Creator via the Presagis Customer Portal at no cost when it becomes available. Maintenance clients also have access to all kinds of additional perks, including: • High-quality, product-specific email and phone support • New product releases and service packs • Access to online help forums Eric Simon;

Artificial Intelligence Middleware Launched MASA Group (MASA), a developer of artificial intelligence (AI)-based modeling and simulation software for the defense, emergency preparedness, serious games and games-development markets, announced the launch of MASA Life, its new AI middleware, during Game Developers Conference (GDC) 2013. MASA Life is an intuitive, adaptable AI middleware allowing developers of games, serious games and simulations to make their non-player characters (NPCs) more realistic and smarter. Thanks to its behavior modeling disruptive workflow, Life is designed to increase the productivity of game developers and nontechnical professional users requiring highly realistic and adaptable intelligent behaviors. Life marries an intuitive development environment with simplicity, control and flexibility. Life brings a powerful dimension of realism to games and simulation environments, providing users with reliable technology to model and execute convincing behaviors. “With MASA Life, we aim to simplify behavior authoring,” Frank Gwosdz, life product manager at MASA Group, commented. “Life offers game developers and designers alike the capability to 14 | MT2 18.3

model behaviors of individuals, groups or crowds of agents. It provides a designer-friendly graphical authoring tool, an interactive sandbox, a lean and scalable runtime, as well as out-of-thebox behavior contents.” MASA has a longstanding game-related culture that started more than 10 years ago with the development of Conflict Zone. A real-time strategy war game, it was entirely developed by MASA Group and published by Ubisoft in 2001. Life builds upon the experience MASA has gained in the war games arena with its AI-based simulation software MASA Sword designed to help users develop highly realistic scenarios to train military and civil decision makers. Furthermore, in 2011 MASA Group acquired key artificial intelligence assets and hired product development talent from Artificial Technology GmbH, a technology leader in behavior authoring within the games development industry. The acquired assets included EKI One, an innovative middleware designed for the easy authoring of NPC behaviors in online and video games. The inception of MASA Life thus takes full advantage of the productivity-driven approach

used by artificial technology within the games industry, and of the advanced AI technology developed by MASA within the defense industry. “State-of-the-art artificial intelligence technology has been inside MASA’s DNA since the origins of the company more than 15 years ago. Gaming is an essential part of our corporate culture, and many among MASA’s talented software engineers are former game developers themselves,” Gilles Mazars, chief technology officer at MASA Group, declared. “With MASA Life’s unique AI technology, game developers at GDC can see for themselves how MASA’s new AI middleware makes their game developing experience easier and faster, while providing them with a powerful business differentiator.” Life empowers both technical and non-technical users (such as creative staff and project managers) to author, inspect and debug autonomous, reusable behaviors within minutes. Life also provides pathfinding and navigation by using the well-known Recast and Detour open source solution. MASA’s aim with this integration is to provide additional value to the game development community at large. Gilles Mazars;

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

Web-Based Simulation VT MÄK recently announced the release of MÄK WebLVC Server 1.0—a new product that enables web-based simulation applications running in a browser to interoperate with traditional DIS or HLA federations. MÄK WebLVC Server was first demonstrated in fall 2012. Having completed a short beta period, this release marks its general availability. MÄK WebLVC Server connects web-based simulation federates to DIS/HLA federations without requiring any changes to existing applications. Based on the VR-Exchange interoperability portal, the server translates simulation data between a federation’s native protocol and a new web-friendly simulation interoperability protocol called WebLVC. Web-based applications written in JavaScript can connect to the server, and directly send and receive WebLVC messages. A federation may be using DIS, HLA 1.3, HLA 1516, HLA Evolved, TENA, or any other protocol for which a VR-Exchange “Broker” exists. MÄK WebLVC Server can be used on closed labs behind firewalls, or over the Internet. In addition to the server software itself, the MÄK WebLVC Server product comes with a set of JavaScript libraries called VR-Link.js—a JavaScript implementation of some of the key functionality in

VR-Link (C++ interoperability toolkit). VR-Link.js implements the client side of the WebLVC protocol, easing the job of building WebLVC-compliant JavaScript federates. Several sample JavaScript applications are also included with the server—to demonstrate how to send and receive WebLVC messages from the user’s own web applications. MÄK WebLVC Server is the first product to come out of VT MÄK’s broader WebLVC initiative. The MÄK

Simulation-Based Command and Battle Staff Training System The U.S. Army selected Lockheed Martin to design an advanced simulation-based training system that will ensure Army, joint and coalition leaders are prepared to act decisively in the evolving operational environment. The Joint Land Component Constructive Training Capability (JLCCTC) system will support training exercises that replicate complex operational scenarios, preparing commanders and their staff to direct military operations. The indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity contract has a $146 million ceiling value over five years. JLCCTC integrates seven current command and battle staff training tools into a single system and presents simulated enemy and friendly forces so that commanders and their staff can practice making decisions during high-pressure military missions. The system also supports the Army’s strategy for an integrated training environment that combines

live, virtual and computer-generated training elements. “Integrating seven training components provides sustainment cost savings and makes it easier and faster to generate training scenarios,” said Jim Weitzel, vice president of training solutions for Lockheed Martin’s Mission Systems and Training business. “JLCCTC will be built with a modeling and simulation-based architecture to present data driven scenarios for relevant, adaptable training.” In addition to integration, Lockheed Martin developed the Warfighter’s Simulation (WARSIM) component of JLCCTC. In 2012, WARSIM supported 14 training exercises and trained more than 22,000 commanders, their staffs and units. Lockheed Martin’s industry team of large and small businesses has experience with all components that will be incorporated into the system. Scott Lusk;

WebLVC Suite product is scheduled for release in Q2. MÄK WebLVC Suite will include a collection of out-of-the-box web apps built on the WebLVC Server and WebLVC Protocol. These apps will allow users to observe their simulation in 2-D or 3-D, control VR-Forces-based simulation scenarios, or provide a web-based simulated camera or sensor display through streaming video. Ben Lubetsky;

Modeling and Simulation Software Upgrade The Ternion Corporation released Flames, version 11.0.1. This version is an incremental release correcting minor issues found in the Flames Runtime Suite since version 11.0 was released. The following updates are included: • Updated copies of main Flames dynamic/ shared runtime library and some of the bundled component libraries. This corrects some minor issues that were discovered since the release of version 11.0. • Updates to make use of version 4.8.4 of the Qt user interface framework upon which the Flames user interface is based. This newer version of Qt provides better support for the look and feel of the Windows 8 operating system. Version 11.0.1 is an update to the runtime suite only. No development suite products are affected by this update. Whitney Sheppard; MT2  18.2 | 15

Overseas Trainer

Q& A

Providing LVC Training Aids, Ranges and Institutional Learning Opportunities Colonel Bryan L. Rudacille Commander Joint Multinational Training Command Colonel Bryan L. Rudacille, a native of Fairfax, Va., was commissioned as an infantryman upon graduation from the United States Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., in May 1986, where he also received a Bachelor of Science degree. Later, Rudacille earned his master’s degree in military science from the United States Marine Corps University and a Master of Arts degree in strategic security studies from the National Defense University. In command and staff positions, he served with the 1st Armored Division; 7th Infantry Division; I Corps Long Range Surveillance Company; Combat Applications Group, U.S. Army Special Operations Command; and served on multiple occasions in the 75th Ranger Regiment. Prior to commanding at the U.S. Army’s only overseas training command, the 7th U.S. Army Joint Multinational Training Command, also referred to as JMTC, at Grafenwoehr, Germany, Rudacille commanded the 165th Infantry Brigade at Fort Jackson, S.C.; the 1st Battalion, 27th Infantry Regiment of the 25th Infantry Division; and the 1st Ranger Battalion at Hunter Army Airfield in Ga. In addition to completing the Joint Advanced Warfighting School at the Joint Forces Staff College in Norfolk, Va., Rudacille wears British and Canadian foreign Jump Wings, and numerous U.S. Army awards and decorations, such as, the Afghanistan Campaign Medal, the Iraq Campaign Medal, Global War on Terrorism Service Medal as well as Ranger Tab, Combat Infantryman Badge, Expert Infantryman Badge and the Master Parachutist Badge. Q: Can you describe the roles and responsibilities of the Joint Multinational Training Command [JMTC]? A: The Joint Multinational Training Command is the U.S. Army’s only overseas training command. The JMTC provides U.S. soldiers based in Europe with live, virtual and constructive training aids and devices, ranges, and institutional learning opportunities. The command is capable of supporting training for individual soldiers through a 3-star headquarters. JMTC platforms and training areas consist of a simulation center, a maneuver and combat training center, a combined arms training center and a noncommissioned-officer academy. Additionally, Training Support Activity Europe, also called TSAE, provides training aids and devices at training sites in at least 17 installations Europe-wide. We are capable of exporting these capabilities to support U.S. military forces in Europe, Africa, or anywhere a combatant commander requires training. Our priority is to train U.S. forces to meet daily readiness requirements, or in preparation for specific named operations and contingency plans. During the last several years, we’ve focused primarily on support to U.S. and multinational forces deploying to Afghanistan. Most recently, we’ve focused on training for the future fight in the complex operational environment offered by the Decisive Action Training Environment, often referred to as DATE. The DATE supports 16 | MT2 18.3

the Army’s core competencies: wide area security and combined arms maneuver. Future conflict will also entail significant operations with joint, interagency, intergovernmental and multinational partners. JMTC provides a unique opportunity for U.S. forces to train with coalition partners and allies, many of which we will operate alongside in contested areas. This promotes trust among partners, increases interoperability of personnel and systems, and reduces the impact of culture, technology and governance as obstacles to combined mission success. Q: What do you expect will be the greatest challenges in 2013? A: This is a diverse organization so there isn’t any one particular challenge more significant than the others. We do believe the change in mission for ISAF will present considerable challenges as we see adjustments in U.S. and NATO support in Afghanistan. Following troop reductions in Afghanistan, some may argue the natural course for nations, and potentially our own military services, is to go back to training in ways that assure specific national goals or service-oriented functions. We hope to dissuade anyone from seeking to follow a path that would diminish our ability to fight as a joint team and/or as a coalition. We must contest any plans to withdraw from our current practice of training together. We have been successful operating alongside each other during the past 10 years, training together in the future sustains the interoperability we’ve gained, the trust we’ve built, and the relationships we’ve forged.

The United States Army Europe’s [USAREUR] force structure will continue to adjust in 2013. Units will move to new locations within Europe, some will deactivate, while others focus on mission sets other than those dominated by deployments to Afghanistan. As USAREUR’s training arm, JMTC will keep pace with unit requirements for training. Homestation training must match the demand of units who do not have a pending deployment. Our combat training center provides a complex, realistic environment that will challenge leaders to make decisions rapidly while possessing imperfect information. Units train to be successful on a battlefield, which requires a broader range of missions. We are absolutely convinced we can meet this challenge given the strength of our team and the guidance provided by our senior Army leaders. Finally, we expect challenges while operating in a constrained fiscal environment. This is natural given the conclusion of major operations in Afghanistan and follows a long history of fiscal drawdown in the military after major combat operations conclude. Our Army has always responded to the needs of our nation; the nation needs us to maintain readiness consistent with a reduction in budget, and we will respond. Our challenge, not unlike other training platforms, will be to develop a budget that can provide consistent, reliable and quality support to our Title X forces while meeting designated theater security cooperation plans. Given these challenges, JMTC develops training practices that are sustainable, effective and aligned with our core competencies. We must continue to partner with other nations. We anticipate an increase in training support and exercises with partners and allies. In the last year, we’ve grown from less than 12 percent NATO training to more than 22 percent. We see this as a major contribution to USAREUR and U.S. European Command’s strategic engagement objectives. Q: What programs or initiatives do you plan on implementing in 2013? A: JMTC has several new systems and training platforms coming on board in 2013. At the heart of our programs, we will continue to focus on blending live, virtual, constructive and gaming environments to meet readiness requirements. In the fall, TSAE received the Dismounted Soldier Training System. This is a significant acquisition in simulations and it is designed to train a squad of up to nine soldiers to perform dismounted tactics in a virtual environment. The only cost is the room they are standing in and the equipment they wear, which is a headset, noisecanceling headphones and body sensors. Trainers are evaluating the feasibility of using the system with our vehicle simulators, Reconfigurable Vehicle Tactical Trainer and the Virtual Battlespace2. We will also open our new convoy live-fire range and unmanned aerial vehicle airfield in November 2013. As requested by units, we can add live, virtual and constructive support systems to our ranges to increase the fidelity of the training environment with minimal costs. Our planners and scenario developers are capable of adding a list of battlefield injects, events and activities that stimulate the surrounding environment. The addition of virtual medical and aviation support, intelligence platforms such as unmanned aerial systems, and constructively adding adjacent units allows a unit to achieve readiness levels normally achieved only through a more costly full-scale maneuver exercise. This translates into substantial savings for the unit. I expect that we will further develop and perfect this capability. Q: What types of technologies are used at the Grafenwoehr and Hohenfels training areas and how do they support the Joint Multinational Readiness Center?

A: The Joint Multinational Readiness Center [JMRC] is Europe’s combat training center. It conducts training up to the brigade combat team level during rotations and mission readiness exercises. At JMRC we use actual operational systems such as CENTRIX, various collaboration and information sharing tools, and digital hardware and software to replicate the Afghan Mission Network. The use of these ‘live’ systems enhances both U.S. and multinational training in Germany. This extension of the operational network allows brigade combat teams and units to better prepare for deployment. Europe’s 2nd Cavalry Regiment was among the first deploying units to use the system in 2010. Training in this manner is intended to reduce reporting friction, and facilitates rapid integration onto the theater networks upon deployment. Replicating the real-world environment is important when preparing for real-world missions and we have an impressive camera suite with thermal cameras on all of our maneuver ranges. We use night vision cameras that have offset IR lights that use a different light spectrum than military night vision goggles to monitor night and in-building activities. Units on the Grafenwoehr training complex can also use a variety of GPS trackers including FBCB2 or Blue Force Tracker depending on the ranges and types of training being conducted. The use of our SMART reactive targetry in our shoot houses, coupled with extensive audio and video capture and play capability, leads the Army in range training support. Q: Can you describe JMTC’s blending of live, virtual, and constructive simulation capabilities? A: The Grafenwoehr Training Area has 44 live-fire ranges, and facilities to support artillery, close air support and bombing training. Additionally, two of our larger ranges are multipurpose range complexes which allow units to train using complex air and ground maneuver scenarios to achieve multi-echeloned training objectives in one live-fire event. What’s unique about JMTC is that under a single command there’s a large, live-fire training complex and a robust simulations center, the Joint Multinational Simulations Center [JMSC]. We’ve been successful at blending these two platforms. This past fall the 2nd Cavalry Regiment conducted squadron level live-fires using six separate ranges linked together. We added simulated and virtual close-air support assets, virtual UAS, live mortars, artillery and constructed-opposing forces [OPFOR] in simulations. The OPFOR moved in the unit’s mission command systems from 80 kilometers away into their immediate battle-space, which quickly transitioned from simulated vehicles to live, direct-fire targetry. This training event was enabled by the close working relationship between our simulations center and our range operations teams. The training allowed the squadrons to see an enemy and friendly picture, through their digital command and control systems, that was much larger than the squadron could physically see on the actual range complex. As the constructed enemy advanced towards the squadron, at a point where it could physically be seen by line of sight or optics, the enemy targets would appear. The ‘blending’ of these environments is currently man-hour intensive, but the expected fielding of the Army’s Integrated Training Environment will greatly reduce the resources necessary to execute a similar combined live/simulation exercise in the future. We’ve also had great success at using gaming technologies, primarily Virtual Battle Space 2. We create replicated real-world terrain, which allows units to rehearse training events in simulation before progressing to live training on the real terrain. This has been a practice used by MT2  18.3 | 17

both U.S. and multinational forces that train here during the past few years. Units enter the live training with an elevated level of proficiency. This adds greatly to the value of the live-training, while mitigating the cost of achieving higher proficiency levels. Q: What is your strategy to be a more cost-effective training center? A: I have described how this training command has the ability to fuse simulations and gaming technologies into preparation and execution of field training events. This capability allows units that come to our facilities to have cost-saving options as they plan their training events. You don’t expend live bullets and fuel when you practice in simulations. Another example of how we make training events more economical is by bringing any number of different units and countries to train at the same time during training events. This practice allows for cost sharing, and also increases the fidelity of the training environment. Q: What do you foresee are the most significant technological advancements to have an impact on JMTC in 2013? A: The fielding of training systems will add to our repertoire of training devices, and provide new opportunities to blend training environments. JMSC and TSAE are working to link the new Dismounted Soldier Training System virtual simulations with our VBS2 tactical gaming suites. We hope to create an integrated training environment and provide a more seamless link between the live, virtual and constructive training domains. We’ll also increase use of the Virtual Clearance Training Suite, which provides realistic and tailored training for units and soldiers tasked with route clearance. The system allows soldiers to train with the Husky, Talon, Buffalo and the RG-31 Charger, the mine protected carrier, and RG-33, mine resistant ambush protected vehicle in a virtual environment. These classes can be adjusted to meet the unit’s training needs. Additionally, the increase in digital media sharing and storage has increased our ability to create near real-time after-action reviews that give the unit commander an ability to really see how his unit is performing, and make immediate corrections during training. The Grafenwoehr Training Area is increasing its ‘digital reach’ through the development of the JMTC portal and chat tools that link our training unit to the training area staff, as well as other operations like the garrison emergency response team, building a rapid ability to respond to events on the ranges. Lastly, improved digital-video systems and enhancements in visual information capabilities will increase JMTC’s ability to access and deposit products to Department of Defense archives. Q: What types of training does the JMTC export to train other nations’ forces? A: JMTC uses all available resources to train individuals to 3-star headquarters, and as such, we are a frequent choice by multiple combatant commands, the COCOMs, to provide needed training and to foster partnerships. We regularly ship personnel and equipment throughout Europe, Asia and Africa. We are an integral partner in forecasting, planning and coordinating training support to multiple nations within European Command and Africa Command areas of operation. This support includes exporting our observer, controller and trainer teams, training aids and devices, simulation capabilities, counter-IED training support packages, and deployable-range packages, just to name a few. 18 | MT2 18.3

We often combine several of our capabilities to meet the desired training objectives of our customers. And, as with most training exercises, our simulation center provides simulator capabilities that enhance training at all levels. All members of the JMTC team ensure world-class training and support is available and provided to all of our multinational partners. We want to be the COCOM’s first choice to meet their training and partnership needs. Q: How does JMTC tailor multinational training for downrange mission requirements? A: JMTC tailors each training exercise based on a units training requirements. For example, every six months, the Polish Land Forces rotate a brigade to Ghazni Province, Afghanistan, in support of the ISAF mission. Before the brigade deploys it must undergo a multilevel certification process from platoon to the brigade headquarters. The brigade certification event is a command-post exercise called BAGRAM. The Polish brigade serves under the command and control of Regional Command–East, a United States 2-star headquarters. Interoperability between U.S. forces and coalition partners is paramount to ISAF’s success. Initially, the Polish Land Forces had no simulation capability or simulation center, so our Joint Multinational Simulations Center helped establish a temporary simulation center at the Kielce Military Training Center [KMTC] for each exercise. What this really means is that between three different locations at the KMTC, more than 20,000 feet of network cable was laid and mission command systems emplaced. Simulation databases were built and tested. Our JMSC provided the joint conflict and tactical simulation, an unmanned aerial system simulation and a tactical interface called Joint Exercise Control Suite, which converts certain simulation messages to a tactical message format that is received and parsed by Army Mission Command Systems. During the BAGRAM exercise our Army Mission Command Systems team provided the same type of command and control equipment to our Polish partners that they would operate with in Afghanistan; the list included command post of the future systems, Blue Force Tracking systems, and a Global Command and Control System–Army. With JMTC’s assistance, Polish forces have developed their own capability to train units for deployments, thus reducing the amount and type of support the U.S. provides. As another example, last year, our integrated training area management team built a replicated agricultural terrain training site that is modeled after an Afghan farm. It includes a walled compound with multiple structures and several tiered fields, which allows units to get the feel for the agricultural based countryside in theater. A final example is our detailed use of numerous civilians on the battlefield, or COBs, which are human-role players that replicate passive, insurgent and criminal activities during all of our major training events at our maneuver training center. These replicators provide a series of language and cultural barriers to soldiers similar to those they face during operations. Q: How does the JMTC measure success? A: The ultimate measure of success is in providing the best training possible, which pays dividends in lives saved. Thousands of soldiers from the U.S. and many from allied and partner nations have come here for collective and individual training events, or received training

at their home-station location hosted by this command during the past several years. All of these units have performed magnificently. The units return annually to prepare for the next mission. Or they develop their own training facilities in their countries. The partnership and camaraderie formed here helps to prevent future conflict. Most days, nations that were once estranged, post-WWII and during the Cold War, come together to train here. As we enter a postAfghanistan era, we believe we’ll continue to be the training center of choice for our NATO allies and multinational partners. We believe we’re the glue that maintains a strong and interoperable group of nations prepared to fight as a coalition. Additionally we’ve seen an increase in training with our partners from Africa. Certainly having strong, well trained and interoperable partners presents a hindrance to potential enemies and deters competitors in the future. Q: What technologies does Training Support Activity Europe leverage when training soldiers in Europe?

reset scenarios to reinforce positive training outcomes and validate tactics techniques and procedures. Time, personnel, fuel, ammunition and additional support resources are the immediate savings with these simulation devices. Each virtual simulator teaches a particular skill and focus with its own modality and technology behind the system. While these systems don’t completely replace the real thing, they certainly allow for our soldiers in Europe to get more bang for its training buck. Virtual simulators provide portable, configurable training platforms that enable indefinite training opportunities. Soldiers can employ these simulators to enhance basic skills, practice standard operations and procedures, and develop teams and cohesion before they engage in live training. Leaders may define challenges and goals while achieving basic levels of proficiency and perfecting troop leading procedures. The use of the simulators minimizes costly down time, corrections and mishaps before attempting a live iteration. Q: Is there anything else you would like to say?

A: The TSAE provides some high-impact simulators and enablers that are an alternative to more costly live training venues. Simulators such as the Reconfigurable Virtual Tactical Trainer, Engagement Skills Trainer, Call for Fire Trainer, and the Virtual Convoy Combat Training System all provide realistic training that can be configured to meet the unit’s training goals. The training audience can direct the context of the scenarios they use and leaders can easily

A: I would like to share our latest online publication, the JMTC’s Training Journal, with your reading audience. This journal is a great way for anyone to get to know more about the Joint Multinational Training Command. It can be found as a direct link from our commands homepage: I think you’ll find it an interesting and easy read. O

MT2  18.3 | 19

Blending In Cultural training gains ground. By Karen Kroll MT2 Correspondent

20 | MT2 18.3

A little over a decade ago, helping soldiers understand the cultures into which they might be deployed generally wasn’t at the top of the military’s list of priorities. After all, most soldiers already had full training schedules learning battlefield tactics, weaponry skills and other subjects more directly related to waging a war. This thinking has gradually shifted, however, as it became clear that some early missteps in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan stemmed, at least in part, from a lack of understanding of the cultures there, said John Bird, director of the TRADOC (U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command) Culture Center at Fort Huachuca, Ariz. “The Army looked at itself and asked what it could be doing to better train and educate soldiers to get a deeper understanding of the operating environment they were in, and to build a better, more effective connection with the local population.” The result was the formation of the TRADOC Culture Center (TCC). For instance, when soldiers are stationed at a roadside checkpoint, it can be helpful to know what words might be offensive or upsetting to the individuals in the cars that stop, said Pete Schrider, manager of customer support with Alelo, a Los Angeles-based provider of language and culture training software to the Department of Defense, among other organizations. “You can really enhance your ability to do your job, while minimizing the negative impact associated with bad decisions, if you learn the culture and some of the language of the region.” At the TCC, the focus is on cross-cultural competency, said Bird. The idea is to provide soldiers with basic foundational knowledge about culture that they can apply in any operational environment around the world. The overarching goal is to enhance soldiers’ empathy, adaptability and ability to build rapport with the other military members and civilians with whom they interact. This is done by focusing on four building blocks of any culture: values, beliefs, behaviors and norms. “What we try to do is to sensitize soldiers to different frameworks they can apply to any culture,” Bird said. Once soldiers have an understanding of what culture means, they can learn more about specific cultures, Bird said. “Culture training is like map training”; that is, once someone knows how to read one map, he or she probably can read any map using the same principles. Similarly, once a soldier understands the elements that make up a culture, he or she can better analyze any culture.

Within the Marine Corps, cultural trainhas to decide how to handle the civilians in ing is broken into general and specific culture the car. If he or she is able to enlist the civiltraining, said Major Thomas Ross, coordinaians’ cooperation, the program will allow the tor of the Regional, Cultural and Language convoy to move the car and then proceed. Familiarization (RCLF) program. RCLF is However, if the soldier comes across as, the flagship program within the Center for say, heavy-handed or disrespectful, the proAdvanced Operational Culture Learning (CAgram may evolve to a more confrontational OCL). scenario. Underlying the responses of the As the titles suggest, culture general characters in the scene “is a body of ethtraining provides concepts and skills Manographic and anthropological research,” rines can use across a range of engagements Johnson said. “That’s critical to ensuring and multiple cultures. “These the quality and validity of the are concepts you see across training.” cultures, although they may Another company, Womanifest themselves differentburn, Mass.-based Aptima ly [in different cultures],” Ross Inc., is working with the said. Instilling this knowledge Marines to develop CAMO, is key, given that Marines are or Cultural Awareness for called to all regions of the Military Operations systems. globe. This is a computer-based inAt the same time, the teractive training software RCLF program also includes that prepares Marines to Lewis Johnson training in specific key culunderstand the culture(s) to tures. In addition to RCLF, the which they’re deployed. It CAOCL routinely conducts might be used before a Maculture-specific training, such rine deploys, or as a refresher as pre-deployment training in course. Afghan culture for Marines The idea is to translate headed to that country. Marines’ training in general The RCLF program, cultural skills and compewhich has become one of the tency to a computerized and Marines’ requirements for automated tool. Aptima’s professional military educasolutions will do this by intion, “gives Marines the skills corporating case studies, and concepts they’ll need to role-playing and different Alex Walker interact with our partners, scenarios, said Alex Walker, both military and civilian,” lead for decision skills trainRoss said. ing and education with the company. The goal is to enable soldiers to wrestle with a range of situations and deciRole of technology sion-making; often, the situations may lack an obviously right answer, as any solution Given the time and budget constraints may be less than perfect. facing the U.S. military, technology can be a One example: deciding where to locate a cost-effective tool soldiers can use to undergo clean water well. On the surface, this might cultural training when they have time availappear to be exclusively a hydro-geological able, often from wherever they are located. challenge: The well would go where the waAlelo’s solutions, for instance, offer social ter is. While that’s certainly true, it’s not the simulation exercises that can be accessed only consideration. As Aptima notes, locatfrom PCs and mobile devices. What’s key ing the well closer to one ethnic group than about the solutions is their “mission focus another might contribute to hostilities in and mission imperative,” said Lewis Johnson, the area. Additionally, its location may imPh.D., co-founder, chief executive officer and pact those who depend on carrying water chief scientist at Alelo. Soldiers are “learning for their livelihoods. skills they can apply in the tasks and missions By prompting Marines to think through they’re undertaking overseas,” Johnson said. the multiple implications of the decision, He provides an example: One program the tool can “promote learning of complex may show the soldier moving a convoy principles and their application to operathrough an area, when it comes upon a car tionally relevant situations,” Walker said. stuck in the middle of the road. The soldier MT2  18.3 | 21

Immersion Training Along with virtual solutions, some soldiers also may participate in more elaborate exercises in which they’re immersed in a mock environment—say, a village in the Middle East—for anywhere from several days to several weeks. Through this exercise, they can gain experience talking and working with individuals portraying village elders, religious leaders and other civilians, as well as members of other military forces. While this sort of exercise obviously requires a greater investment of time and money, it also helps soldiers gain an enhanced understanding of the culture in which they’ll be deployed. As a result, they should be able to more effectively work within it. One provider of immersion solutions is Allied Container Systems, based in Walnut Creek, Calif., which re-fabricates containers Vehicle Checkpoint scenario from Alelo’s Tactical Action (T.I.) Simulator. The Tetum (language of East Timor) course was developed for the Australian Defence Force School of Languages. [Photo courtesy of Alelo] into training and habitable structures that replicate the buildings soldiers are likely to area and then recreate it as authentically as Other scenarios are impromptu. For insee while deployed. These include the buildpossible. The goal is to prompt “the willing stance, the soldiers might talk with villagers ings typically found in a village, such as suspension of disbelief” within soldiers who while on patrol. Their converhomes, government buildare going through the training, Lavell said. sations can naturally evolve. ings and places of worship. While participating in village stability Because the training is One set may encompass up operations training, soldiers could engage in designed to be as realistic as to 40 or 50 different buildings both military and humanitarian exercises, possible—as Bradley said, in a village. Each is outfitLavell noted. For instance, they might meet “We brought Hollywood to ted with rugs, furniture and with village leaders to discuss the presence of Army training—it becomes other items appropriate to any insurgents in the area. They also might easier for the soldiers to susthe culture and the function discuss more mundane issues, such as whethpend their disbelief and feel of the building. er the children in the village are able to go to like they’re actually living in Along with the buildings, school, and if the villagers have been able to the setting. Allied brings in role-players Chris Bradley access the water they need. The goal is to ensure, as who can credibly portray the As the training, which can range from a much as possible, that the civilians, host nation soldiers, day or two to several weeks, is underway, the soldier being trained has his NGO members and other soldiers and their superiors can review each or her worst day before even individuals that a soldier day’s results, and use the feedback to improve being deployed, Bradley added. deployed to the area might the soldiers’ handling of any incidents that Any mistakes are best made in have to work with, said Chris come up the following day. practice, rather than in real Bradley, managing director of By making mistakes in training, soldiers life, when the consequences government and military proare better prepared for threats and are better are more severe. grams with Allied. The aim able to provide security, Lavell said. Another company offering is to engage individuals who Of course, replicating an entire village immersion solutions is San Diactually speak the language of and immersing soldiers within it for any peego-based Strategic Operations the host country and can play Kit Lavell riod of time requires a commitment of money Inc., a company that “uses the roles like the local popuand other resources. As Bradley pointed out, movie-making techniques to lation would. For an exercise, however, the Army also incurs a cost when it make live training ‘hyper-reAllied might hire several hundoesn’t train. Moreover, when soldiers make alistic,’” said Kit Lavell, executive vice presidred role-players to portray different citizens mistakes on the job, the cost can be both fident. The company might create an Afghan within a village. nancial and human. O village, or any other worldwide contemporary Some of the scenarios in which the soloperating environment, using Afghan-Ameridiers are involved may be scripted, such as a cans to take on the roles of villagers, speaking suicide bombing at the local market or a poFor more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea in the language native to the region. litical rally. “Those are more choreographed, at or search our online The company also works with movie probecause there’s a specific training intent that archives for related stories at fessionals who study the architecture of an the military is trying to meet,” Bradley said. 22 | MT2 18.3


Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

Joint Multinational Simulations Center Implications for future training By Lieutenant Colonel J.D. Koch

In Europe, the 2nd Cavalry Regiment (2CR) recently conducted a live-fire exercise (LFX) which blended live, virtual and constructive training domains resulting in a synchronized exercise environment that supported training from the individual soldier up to squadron-level. “The LFX demonstrated our capability to leverage the Joint Multinational Training Command’s [JMTC] live, virtual, constructive and gaming [LVC-G] capabilities to support multi-echelon home-station training,” said Lieutenant Colonel Andrew Green, chief of live fire training at JMTC. “This becomes extremely important as we transition to a home-station deployment master training plan with less funding.” Bradley Joy, the Joint Multination Simulation Center (JMSC) federation manager, added, “It’s the first step toward an integrated architecture, and provides a more engaging and challenging training environment than a traditional LFX gunnery. It is not a replacement for live training, but a way to enhance it that helps commanders and staffs achieve a higher level of proficiency.” JMTC is a unique organization in the U.S. Army, in that all LVC-G enablers are controlled by the JMTC commander, and its commander can direct the resources inherent within the JMSC, the Training Support Activity-Europe, the Joint Multinational Readiness Center (JMRC) and the Grafenwoehr/Hohenfels training complexes to quickly design, plan and execute exercises for units based in Europe, but also export these capabilities abroad. 2CR’s latest LFX is a perfect example of the synergistic effects of a unified Training Command. In August 2012, the JMTC commander, Colonel Bryan Rudacille, concurred with a concept to support 2CR using previously orchestrated maneuvers

from Europe’s Decisive Action Training Environment scenario, which were developed by the JMRC staff at Hohenfels, Germany. The 2CR training objectives were based on the lessons learned from previous training rotations, and in conjunction with JMSC and JMTC planners, developed a four-day event incorporating JMSC virtual, constructive and gaming simulators “stimulating” the squadron and regimental mission command systems. The four-day event started with troopleading procedures on day one. Day two, “sim day,” allowed squadron leadership, vehicle commanders, drivers and gunners to rehearse the LFX scenario using Virtual Battle Space 2 (VBS2) in JMSC’s Tactical Gaming Suite. Day three, the “dry day,” consisted of a full squadron rehearsal with all squadron soldiers executing their tasks on the range complex, but without live ammunition. On the final day, each squadron completed the LFX with live ammunition, ending the day with a troop and squadronlevel after-action review. The integration of LVC enablers ensured the replicated training environment met the commander’s training objectives. The enhanced wrap-around simulation provided 2CR with an expanded operating environment that ensured higher, adjacent, supporting and supported roles were addressed within the exercise, which improved the commander’s and staff’s understanding of the tactical picture using their assigned mission command systems. Creating the right training environment for 2CR began with a simulation rehearsal with Army Games for Training enablers. Over the course of the LFX simulation days, 571 2CR soldiers from 12 troops utilized JMSC’s Virtual Battle Space 2 suite to rehearse actions they would later execute on the Grafenwoehr range complex.

JMSC used the constructive Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS) to shape a high-fidelity expanded wraparound scenario depicting both friendly and enemy forces, which “stimulated” the squadron’s organic tactical battle command clients and Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below systems. JMSC simulated intelligence feeds using chat services and a virtual Shadow unmanned aerial system, allowing soldiers from the UAS platoon to control the flight plan and payload of the virtual Shadow UAS. Grafenwoehr range targetry was hand-selected to match the enemy situation and ensure multi-range safety. The selection and proofing of firing positions for each squadron’s weapons, targetry control and synchronization required two months from conception to final plan. These targets were then given to JMSC to link the VBS2 gaming rehearsal to the actual terrain and enemy situation template. Finally, an execution matrix allowed the exercise control cell to not only control movement of enemy forces, but also make adjustments within the JCATS simulation and live target presentation sequence based on 2CR actions and reactions using the Range Net. The effect for the training unit was a seamless transition from digitally tracked enemy to visually observable targets for the live fire. O Lieutenant Colonel John D. Koch is Deputy Director of Simulations for the Joint Multinational Simulation Center.

For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea at or search our online archives for related stories at

MT2  18.3 | 23

Game developers supporting industry continue strong gaming program. by

In the midst of travel restrictions and budget limitations, GameTech 2013 Thrills to Skills offered a compelling program for developers, users and supporting industry who attended the 2013 conference. “GameTech 2013 was a huge success,” stated Tom Baptiste, president/executive director of the National Center for Simulation and host for the GameTech Conference. “We are probably facing several years of declining Department of Defense budgets, but as we continue moving gaming and other technologies forward, we believe there will continue to be a need to bring the community together to collaborate and learn how serious games, virtual world technologies and mobile delivery platforms are evolving and how they can contribute to other market sectors such as health care, education, transportation and more. Our goal will be to meet this need and continue to offer a high-quality conference program.” GameTech, held annually in Orlando, Fla., just ran its sixth year, a year where attendance significantly dropped due to restrictions on government conference participation. “We anticipated this drop,” said Baptiste, “but our program and message is so important that we made a conscious decision to go ahead with the 2013 conference. Our hope was to attract the right audience and offer the same quality program we offered in previous years, and we exceeded our expectations by every measure.” GameTech brings together gaming professionals who share ideas and talk about their latest successes and failures. This year’s scaled back attendance exposed the die-hards, the people who really wanted to be there, and thus opened intimate forums of productive conversation. In addition to the dedicated conference attendees, the quality of speakers/panelists has been a consistent draw for GameTech. “The 2013 program lineup was as strong as it’s ever been,” said Brent Smith, conference chair. “Our speakers have significant knowledge and expertise in the gaming industry and they shared their fresh insight about the future of gaming, whether mobile, virtual worlds, or other areas.” Government keynote, Frank DiGiovanni, director, Training Readiness and Strategy, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of 24 | MT2 18.3

Defense (Readiness), opened GameTech addressing two topics. He spoke about the fiscal environment within DoD and encouraged less focus on the cuts that are coming and more focus on efforts of leveraging what we have. “We are on the verge of a major breakthrough, but we need to keep prospecting,” he stated. “I encourage everyone to look strategically at how to take your technologies to non-defense sectors such as energy, robotics and automation, telecommunications, production technologies and medical.” DiGiovanni also spoke about the virtual framework, stressing the importance of innovation while keeping a focus on the user. “I challenge you to look at successful programs. An interesting business model is mobile apps. Why? Because the most popular app is what consumers are using the most,” he said. DiGiovanni talked about the mindset of learning in young recruits and the veterans of the recent wars—their resilient comfort level with gaming. “We have men and women ages 1830 that have been in the barracks for over 11 years; how can we capture what they learned? What if we had the capability to develop a vignette that documents what they have retained and teach them about programming?” Industry keynote speaker and legend, Nolan Bushnell, Atari founder, shared tech innovations in the gaming industry and what to look for when hiring employees. “What you really want to see is that intense passion, the overwhelming ability to just go for it.” He pointed out that often we try and fit people in a box. “Try new things. Give it room to grow. Be committed to making the world a better place. Ask how can you fit in and make it better,” he said. Bushnell encouraged the audience to challenge the norm. He spoke of new technology that is upending traditional learning. Later, in a private session with college and university student volunteers, he expanded on his presentation and encouraged the students towards entrepreneurship. GameTech’s mobile learning keynoter, Dan O’Leary, n-Space, enlightened the audience about embracing the impossible. “I can’t stress enough the importance of what we do [simulation and training],” he said. “For example, the success of our first responders [and the role our technologies play in their

Terri Bernhardt

mission execution] demands that we get it right.” O’Leary pointed out that many people in this industry are ingenious and young. “They have high expectations as consumers so we have to make engagement fun. There is only room for a few top hits.” Virtual Worlds keynote speaker, Bruce Joy, Vastpark, asked the question, “Why is the virtual world important now?” Joy went through a timeline starting with virtual worlds portrayed as an adventure. “In 2007, investment in virtual worlds went crazy,” he said. “With Skype, YouTube, Facebook and a universe where everyone has access to one other.” The next chapter in the virtual world story has yet to be written, and Joy challenged the audience to continue to explore and develop valuable use cases. During lunch on the second day of the conference, the Army Research Lab announced the winners of the 4th annual Federal Virtual Challenge. This year’s contest had two focus areas. Developers were asked to demonstrate critical thinking or adaptability training within an immersive virtual environment while tracking individual progress. The second category was seeking low-cost, multiuser navigation interfaces for virtual worlds. GameTech’s last day supplied a succession of panels and tutorials about virtual reality, different simulations and the sharing of technologies, bringing home the message of this year’s theme: Thrills to Skills. “GameTech continued to be the place where the leading companies show how gaming technology can help support the warfighter,” stated Scott Hooper, 2013 GameTech program chair. “We provided a venue where industry leaders gathered face-to-face to explore current capabilities related to games, mobile technologies and virtual worlds. It was especially exciting to preview the newest technologies, moving game technology, which has expanded into worldwide gaming for all types of air, land and sea training.” O Terri Bernhardt is the Public Relations Outreach, GameTech 2013. For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea at or search our online archives for related stories at

PM TRASYS Collaborating with PM CATT on Trainer By Dolly Rairigh Glass

The Marine Corps Systems Command, Program Manager Training Systems (PMTRASYS), is currently working in partnership with the Project Manager for Combined Arms Tactical Trainers (CATT), Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation, on the Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT) program. The CCTT is a system of manned modules and workstations that allow tank units to train armor collective tasks at the platoon through battalion task force level. Annette Pike, product manager collective training systems, PMTRASYS, said that the U.S. Army provided the Marine Corps the M1A1-D CCTT variants as government furnished equipment and the Marine Corps is incorporating the Marine unique characteristics, the firepower enhancement package (FEP), into the CCTT training systems to replicate the individual crew stations of the USMC Main Battle Tank. “PM CATT is involved in the Marine Corps’ CCTT procurement as they provided the CCTT equipment to the USMC; the USMC is utilizing their competitively awarded contract, called CCTT concurrency contract, for the Marine specific development and fielding of CCTT; and utilizing their warfighter focus contract for sustainment of the training systems, once fielded, throughout their lifecycle,” explained Pike. Fielding is planned for March 2014 for 14 M1A1 modules to the 2nd Tank Battalion at Camp Lejeune, N.C. The 14 M1A1 FEP CCTT modules consist of the following: seven mobile trailers containing 14 M1A1 FEP modules, three mobile operation center trailers, one mobile theater after action review trailer, and three portable power system trailers. “While CCTT is not considered a comparable replacement to conducting Unit Deployment for Training exercises, the CCTT will overcome the lack of maneuver space aboard Camp Lejeune, and by providing a virtual training environment, allow 2nd Tank Battalion the ability to conduct training tasks it otherwise would not be able to conduct,” said Pike. Currently, 2nd Tank Battalion can only train to 42 percent of the 6000 and 7000 level standards associated with the battalion’s evaluation coded training tasks. The CCTT will help fill this identified training gap. PM TRASYS is leveraging PM CATT’s CCTT software baseline, which will allow the two parties to collaborate in the future, ultimately increasing the capabilities for both services and at the same time reducing life cycle costs and saving taxpayer’s money. “In a true IPT fashion, PM TRASYS and PM CATT are working together,” said Colonel Michael Coolican, PM TRASYS. “The Marine Corps has a Marine infantry captain managing from the PM TRASYS side, along with a chief engineer and Project Engineer bringing the Marine technical requirements to the table,” said Coolican. “We are also utilizing subject matter experts from Camp Lejuene for the critical review meetings to ensure the Marine capability is

The Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT) will allow the 2nd Tank Battalion the ability to conduct training tasks it otherwise would not be able to conduct. [Photo courtesy of PM TRASYS/PM CATT]

matching the weapons platform,” said Coolican. “Likewise, PM CATT is utilizing their CCTT team to support the USMC in delivering this needed capability to the fleet. This is truly a successful partnership between PM CATT and PM TRASYS.” PM TRASYS and PEO STRI are not strangers to collaborating and working together. Just about one year ago, a memorandum of agreement (MOA) was signed on May 22, 2012, to officially recognize the two organizations’ working partnership. That MOA outlined the goals, objective, and responsibilities between PM TRASYS and PM CATT in their efforts toward increasing partnership through synergistic capability development, with the primary focus of the MOA to drive down development, procurement and sustainment costs for similar Army and Marine Corps training requirements. And one year prior to that, in 2011, PM TRASYS also signed an MOU with PM TRADE to document their commitment to maintaining a partnership to work together on similar individual and soldier and Marine training devices. These partnerships also help improve technology developments by industry because when the requirements are combined and presented to industry, it is much more powerful. With the Marines and the Army working more closely together on common training requirements, specifically to approaches to collective and virtual training systems, the industry partners can better leverage their internal resources. No matter who is working with whom, whether it’s PM TRASYS, PEO STRI, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Division) or Air Force Agency for Modeling and Simulatio), the partnerships are strong. These organizations’ efforts, along with the resources and support of industry, academia and government organizations, make up Team Orlando, and together they are working to accomplish their single goal of improving human performance through simulation. O MT2  18.3 | 25


The Navy’s shift to the Pacific inspires our twelfth title and website...


will support the Navy with the latest program developments in air and sea for Congress, the executive branch, other services and industry.





Cover Q&A:

Cover Q&A:

Cover Q&A:

Cover Q&A:

Rear Adm. Thomas Moore, PEO Aircraft Carriers

Rear Adm. Donald Gaddis, PEO Tactical Air Programs

Rear Adm. David Lewis, PEO Ships

Special Section:

Special Section:

Special Section:

Rear Adm. Paul Grosklags, PEO Air ASW, Assault and Special Mission Programs

Carrier Onboard Delivery Replacement

Mine Warfare

Special Section:


Airborne ISR

USV/UUV Systems and Launch and Recovery Technologies

Shipboard Fire Alarms and Control Systems




Modeling & Simulation in Ship Design

Ship Self-Defense Riverine Patrol Craft Precision Guided Munitions Program Spotlight: Presidential Helicopter

Features: Vibration Control Ship Life Cycle Management Program Spotlight: LCS

Maritime ISR Capabilities Asia Focus Program Spotlight: F-35

Fleet At-Sea Replenishment Corrosion Control Program Spotlight: DDG1000

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The advertisers index is provided as a service to our readers. KMI cannot be held responsible for discrepancies due to last-minute changes or alterations.

MT2 RESOURCE CENTER Advertisers Index

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Training Solutions Support Contract Awarded Page 4

Senior Airman Justus Bosquez L-3 Link Simulation & Training is proud to salute Senior Airman Justus Bosquez for his service to our nation. Bosquez is an air surveillance technician with the 956th Airborne Air Control Squadron flying E-3s and was the victim of a hit-andrun accident in 2011, resulting in the amputation of his left leg below his calf. After 11 surgeries and extensive rehab, Bosquez returned to active duty flying in March, approximately two years after his accident. “It’s my job, I have a passion for it and I want to fly,” said Bosquez. While in rehab, Bosquez volunteered at a local soup kitchen feeding the homeless, as well as volunteering for Habitat for Humanity. Bosquez is also currently pursuing his degree in energy management. We salute Senior Airman Bosquez and all of the brave men and women who are helping to keep our nation free. Sponsored by:

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Military Training Technology

Lars Borgwing President and CEO Saab Training USA A: Located in Orlando, the center of military simulation and training, allows us to be an integral part of the training and simulation community. As a highly respected partner in the defense industry, we focus on strategic growth with other complementary companies, particularly in the virtual and constructive simulation areas where we are working hard to introduce our new products.

Q: Can you describe Saab’s history and evolution? A: Saab Training USA is a U.S. company based in Orlando. We delivered our first armored targets to the U.S. Army in 1978 and we estimate that well over 500,000 U.S. soldiers and Marines have been trained on Saab products during the last decade. We have continuously improved and expanded our product line to cover the live, virtual and constructive training domains. Q: What are some of your key products in the DoD training and simulation industry? A: Our key products in the live domain are laser simulators and instrumented ranges. One of our first successes with the U.S. military was the PGS [precision gunnery system] for the M2 Bradley fighting vehicle in 1995. The PGS has remained a part of Bradley crew training and was recently updated for the Bradley SA. We are currently producing the new generation of force-on-force systems for the M1 Abrams, M2 Bradleys and OPFOR vehicles, which will be delivered under the Army’s IMILES CVTESS [Combat Vehicle Tactical Engagement Simulation System] program. For the virtual domains, we have engagement skills trainers for direct-fire small arms, and call-for-fire trainers which are gaining increased worldwide interest. The constructive domain is supported with command and control trainers and interfaces between live training sites and constructive simulations. Q: What are some of the new training/simulation technologies Saab is developing? A: We are continuing to evolve our core offerings of laser-based simulators by making them lighter and smaller to lessen the burden placed on the individual user as well as adding capabilities, such as tactile feedback. Our instrumentation systems continue to evolve, allowing flexibility through features such as software defined radios, encryption and more user-friendly 28 | MT2 18.3

software. For live-fire training continue to refine our LOMAH [location of miss and hit] sensors to meet the needs of the users. Our virtual trainers recreate the modern battlespace with computer-generated forces for trainers such as the JFIST [joint fires synthetic trainer]. Q: How are you positioned for the future within the military? A: We believe that our currently fielded LT2-IRS [Live Training Transformation Interim Range System], is a foundation on which the Army can build on to meet the requirements of the future such as those of AMITS [Army Mobile Instrumented Training System]. Our CVTESS will be used to train large numbers of soldiers and can easily adapt for use on future vehicles. Saab has a strong independent research and development program that feeds an active product line with products and components that can be rapidly fielded. Saab has a strong belief in the virtual training domain. With less access to live vehicle assets for training and their increasing operational cost, the use of virtual training will increase. Our Joint Fires offering is is a complete solution for training of joint fires—from basic training of JTACs [joint terminal attack controllers] to mission rehearsal. It involves all roles of a joint fires mission, such as JTACs, JFOs, pilots, ASOC/joint fires TOC personnel, etc. This Saab product is an off-theshelf solution,which can deliver valuable training from day one. Q: What is Saab’s connection with the defense community?

Q: What is an example of your success in the military, and what are some of your goals over the next year? A: We have successfully fielded our LT2IRS system to [Forts Hood and Bliss] and are engaged in two additional sites. A fifth is soon to be contracted. This state-of-theart system meets or exceeds all contractual requirements and is providing training to soldiers. Our goals for this year are to extend our experience with LT2-IRS into other homestation solutions. Additionally, we intend to stay involved in the next generation of training devices by supporting areas such as the standardization of interfaces and future areas such as ATESS. Q: How do customers benefit from Saab’s varied resources and expertise? A: The experience gained from Saab’s worldwide presence in training and simulation benefits our entire customer base with lessons learned. These experiences allow us to tap into a deep well of customer experiences and feedback, which drivs product improvements, and to offer worldwide capabilities coupled with local focus. Additionally, it allows our customers easy access to support and services around the globe. Q: How do you measure success? A: We measure success as being a respected member of the training and simulation community and by providing effective and complete training solutions which meet or exceed all requirements on schedule. O

Preparing for front line operations

AgustaWestland provides fully-integrated military training worldwide. Proven comprehensive flying training is delivered in high performance aircraft with advanced digital cockpits. Integrated training systems incorporating mission planning and logistic support systems complete the solution to deliver effective operational capability. Bringing best-in-class training from Ab Initio to the front line. See us at ITEC, Stand FNM D100 LEADING THE FUTURE



When it comes to training, we know how to deliver integrated solutions that improve proficiency, promote self-sufficiency and increase mission readiness. At DynCorp International, we design, build and execute sophisticated training solutions to fit the world’s most complex training needs. Whether it’s delivering global training solutions for military, government, intelligence or foreign government customers or providing specialized training as part of a logistics or aviation solution, we help our customers reduce costs and achieve new levels of performance and productivity. DynCorp International provides our customers with unique, tailored training solutions for an ever-changing world.

MT2 18-3 (May 2013)  

Military Training Technology, Volume 18 Issue 3, May 2013