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America's Longest Established Simulation & Training Magazine

Special Section:

UAS Training

Aviation Operator Maj. Gen. Kevin W. Mangum Commanding General U.S. Army Aviation Center of Excellence

Tank Training O Aircraft Maintenance Small Arms Training

February 2013 Volume 18, Issue 1

Command Profile:

58th Training Squadron Lieutenant Colonel Regan J. Patrick Deputy Commander of the 58th Operations Group Kirtland Air Force Base United States Air Force

REALVIRTUALLYREAL For more than three decades, Meggitt Training Systems has developed small arms training simulators and live fire field range and indoor solutions based on a fundamental principle – realistic, high quality training is essential for today’s ground forces. Meggitt’s leadership in simulation training solutions has produced numerous technical innovations. Most recently, our patented BlueFire® technology provides the industry’s first wireless, fully sensored simulated weapons, providing enhanced freedom for individual soldiers and teams to shoot, move, and communicate in a realistic training environment.


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February 2013 Volume 18, Issue 1

Cover / Q&A


Special Section: UAS Training Simulators and virtual environments are playing an increasing role in unmanned aerial systems training not only for new trainees, but for UAS operators returning home. By Henry Canaday

I/ITSEC Photo Spread Military Training Technology recognized the winners of our Top Simulation & Training Companies 2012 competition at I/ ITSEC 2012. The featured companies are from around the world and have made a significant impact on the military training industry across the spectrum of technologies and services.

16 Major General Kevin W. Mangum


Tank Training

When conflicts are spread across large areas of land, the armor and speed with which tanks can move makes them valuable. Future threats are likely to be armored, making the use of tanks even more critical. By Karen M. Kroll


Command Profile: 58th Training Squadron

Lieutenant Colonel Regan J. Patrick Deputy Commander of the 58th Operations Group Kirtland Air Force Base United States Air Force

Departments 2 Editor’s Perspective 4 program highlights/People 14 data packets 26 Team orlando 27 Resource Center



When U.S. soldiers deploy to hot spots worldwide, they need to be ready to shoot accurately and know how to use their weapons. Small arms training helps prepare military members for action and keeps their shooting skills current. By Cynthia L. Webb

Aircraft maintenance is crucial for the safety and effectiveness of military missions, and training those responsible for it is critical. However, this is not your father’s maintenance training: Technological advances have revolutionized instruction. By Melanie Scarborough

Shooting the Target

Changing Courses

Industry Interview


Don Ariel Chairman Raydon Corporation

Commanding General U.S. Army Aviation Center of Excellence

Military Training Technology Volume 18, Issue 1 • February 2013

Recognized Leader Covering All Aspects of Military Training Readiness Editorial Editor Brian O’Shea Managing Editor Harrison Donnelly Online Editorial Manager Laura Davis Copy Editor Sean Carmichael Laural Hobbes Correspondents J.B. Bissell • Christian Bourge • Peter Buxbaum Henry Canaday • Erin Flynn Jay • Keren Kroll Kenya McCullum

Art & Design Art Director Jennifer Owers Senior Graphic Designer Jittima Saiwongnuan Graphic Designers Scott Morris Eden Papineau Amanda Paquette Kailey Waring

Advertising Associate Publisher Lindsay Silverberg

KMI Media Group Publisher Kirk Brown Chief Executive Officer Jack Kerrigan Chief Financial Officer Constance Kerrigan Executive Vice President David Leaf Editor-In-Chief Jeff McKaughan Controller Gigi Castro Marketing & Communications Manager Holly Winzler Operations Assistant Casandra Jones Trade Show Coordinator Holly Foster Operations, Circulation & Production Circulation & Marketing Administrator Duane Ebanks Data Specialists Tuesday Johnson Summer Walker Raymer Villanueva

EDITOR’S PERSPECTIVE The extended deadline for Congress to avoid sequestration is fast approaching. Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta and Army General Martin E. Dempsey, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, recently stated their concerns over the impact that sequestration would have on our nation’s military. Sequestration would take effect March 1 and trigger cuts of a half-trillion dollars in defense spending over 10 years, unless Congress acts to stop it. Panetta said if this occurs, it would create a military readiness crisis. “If sequester goes into effect, and we have to do the kind of cuts that will go right at readiness, right at maintenance, right at training, we are going to weaken the United States and make it much more difficult for us to respond to Brian O’Shea Editor the crises in the world,” Panetta said. He added that the Pentagon can plan for such an event, but the effects would be severe. “We’ve got to plan for that possibility ... but I have to tell you, it is irresponsible for [sequestration] to happen,” the secretary added. “I mean, why—why in God’s name—would members of Congress elected by the American people take a step that would badly damage our national defense, but more importantly, undermine the support for our men and women in uniform? Why would you do that?” In Army briefing documents, it was reported that Army Chief of Staff Ray Odierno said military training will suffer severe consequences as a result of sequestration. The documents say, “In the first quarter [of] fiscal year 2014, 78 percent of non-deploying, non-forward deployed brigade combat teams are not ready for contingencies without significant preparation.” The Army will be able to train a small portion of its force including the 82nd Airborne’s Global Response Force paratrooper brigade, units in Korea and troops being deployed to Afghanistan. All other commands will cancel everything beyond squad-level training. With Republicans and Democrats unwilling to address budget deficits in a balanced way, the military will be forced to make its own cuts, one area being military training. Sequestration seems to be a ploy created by Congress in 2011 to scare itself into a debt deal, and the threat of sweeping cuts to spurn action has failed. If you have any questions regarding Military Training Technology, feel free to contact me at any time.

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The new Manned Unmanned Operations Capability Development Laboratory uses MetaVR’s real-time visualization software to simulate Level of Interoperability (LOI) between a simulated helicopter and simulated UAV.

With MetaVR visuals used for simulated UAV camera payload video in Kiowa Warrior, F-16, and A-10 FMTs, and UAV camera payload simulations, users can achieve full terrain correlation during their distributed training exercises. UAV operators, helicopter pilots, and JTAC trainees can use the simulated sensor payload imagery in existing ISR assets with accurate KLV metadata. Real-time scenes from MetaVR’s visualization system and 3D terrain are unedited except as required for printing. The real-time rendering of the 3D virtual world in all images is generated by MetaVR Virtual Reality Scene Generator™ (VRSG™). 3D models and animations are from MetaVR’s 3D content libraries. © 2013 MetaVR, Inc. All rights reserved. MetaVR, Virtual Reality Scene Generator, VRSG, the phrase “Geospecific simulation with game quality graphics”, and the MetaVR logo are trademarks of MetaVR, Inc. US 617-739-2667


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12-Monitor Video Wall in F1 Australian Grand Prix Race Control Room Matrox video wall controller boards capture and display 10 universal inputs and 32 CCTV camera feeds in F1 race control room to let officials easily monitor action. Matrox Graphics recently announced that Matrox Mura MPX Series video wall controller boards were selected to facilitate operations within a highpressure Formula One Grand Prix race control room. The P.A. People, specializing in event communications, supplied the 2012 F1 Australian Grand Prix with a Matrox-validated Trenton TVC4401 video wall controller system that drove a 12-monitor installation. The system was powered by three Matrox Mura MPX-4/4 boards, each featuring four outputs and four inputs, along with two MPX-V16s, which capture up to 16 NTSC/ PAL/SECAM video channels each. Matrox Mura MPX boards captured feeds from 10 universal inputs (including feeds tracking lap times, race position, etc.) and 32 track cameras, managing their display across a 6-by-2 array of Samsung 460UX monitors. The Australian Grand Prix Corporation sought a high-performance video wall to monitor camera feeds and event logistics. Flexibility and cost effectiveness stood out as further differentiating factors in The P.A. People’s decision, and in the end, they selected a Mura-based video wall controller because of how the boards enabled the flawless capture of race action from start to finish.

SeaPort-e Prime Contractor Designation Kitco Fiber Optics has announced that it has been designated as a SeaPort-e prime contractor. Kitco Fiber Optics is a provider of fiber-optic field service support and training services, and distributor of fiber-optic connectorization products, termination and testing kits, and consulting services to the military and commercial communications industry. SeaPort-e is the Navy’s electronic platform for acquiring support services in 22 functional areas including engineering, financial management and program management. The Navy Systems Commands (NAVSEA, NAVAIR, SPAWAR, NAVFAC and NAVSUP), the Office of Naval Research, the United States Marine Corps and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency compete their service requirements among 1,800-plus SeaPort-e IDIQ multiple award contract holders. The SeaPort-e portal provides a standardized, efficient means of soliciting offers from among the diverse population of large and small businesses and their approved team members. All task orders are competitively solicited, awarded and managed using the SeaPort-e platform. Since nearly 85 percent of its contract holders are small businesses, the SeaPort-e approach to acquiring services provides opportunity that fuels the nation’s engine of job growth. Michael R. Joly;

4 | MT2 18.1

“In Mura MPX, we found exactly the type of powerful, yet cost-effective solution that we were looking for,” said The P.A. People managing director Chris Dodds. “We look forward to implementing an equally effective Mura MPX-driven solution at next year’s race.” Stephen Choi;

PEOPLE General Edward A. Rice Jr. tapped Chief Master Sgt. Gerardo Tapia Jr., currently the 12th Air Force command chief at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Ariz., as the Air Education and Training Command’s command chief master sergeant. Ultimate Training Munitions/ Phoenix RBT Solutions recently announced the appointment of James Battaglini, Major General, United States Marine Corps, retired, to director of military and international sales. Aptima Inc. recently announced that Michael J. Paley has been named president. Paley

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

joined Aptima in 1998 and most recently served as executive vice president. In this role he was instrumental in the company’s continued growth and led the efforts to open regional offices in Fairborn, Ohio, and Orlando, Fla. Polhemus recently announced a change in ownership. Polhemus President, Skip Rodgers, added co-owner to his title. Rodgers purchased shares from former co-owner, Ken Jedrzejewski, prompted by Jedrzejewski’s announcement to retire. Jedrzejewski leaves behind 35 years of service to Polhemus, with over 10 years as a company owner.

Finding the right mix of technology and live action.

By Karen M. Kroll

MT2 Correspondent

When it comes to training servicemembers, the goal is to to provide disaster relief or to engage in combat in an enviensure all “experience a realistic, robust adversarial training ronment in which civilians are present. The training systems environment” before they head into actual conflicts, said Frank and approaches need to prepare soldiers for all these types DiGiovanni, director of training readiness and strategy with Of- of engagements. That’s not to say that tanks are no longer fice of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense needed. They can play a significant role in sup(Readiness). Doing this should boost the “misporting and protecting infantry soldiers, said sion performance and survivability of the forces,” Captain Daniel Grazier of the Marine Corps. he added. “Tanks do a good job of convincing the enemy to At the same time, several challenges make stay away.” achieving these goals difficult, both for soldiers In addition, when conflicts are spread across who will be members of tank crews, as well as large areas of land, the armor and speed with for those who serve in other functions. For startwhich tanks can move make them valuable, said ers, the instruction offered to new soldiers often Staff Sergeant Kevin J. Cook with the U.S. Maneeds to cover an expanding range of topics, noted rine Corps. Master Sergeant Christopher J. WilJim Cimino, director of technical innovation with Jim Cimino lenbacher, also with the Marine Corps, added that D2 Team-Sim, a developer of interactive future threats are likely to be armored, making dia instruction for the U.S. government and Department of Defense. One example: Along with learning about the use of tanks even more critical. Budgetary and logistical concerns present another set of the tanks and the systems that run them, many soldiers need to challenges, especially when servicemembers are learning how learn about the culture of the country to which they’re headed. Moreover, some skills, including those required to maneu- to operate larger pieces of equipment, such as tanks. While the ver and shoot from a tank, are “perishable,” said Lieutenant training needs to be realistic, it also needs to take place as costColonel Scott Fowler, branch chief, Army. Soldiers that don’t effectively as possible. Achieving the objectives established for military training regularly practice these skills risk losing them. In addition, as the nature of conflict changes, soldiers’ programs while working within these constraints has made training needs to adapt. Twenty-five to 30 years ago, most con- technical training systems, such as computer instruction and flicts were “tank against tank, division against division,” said simulators, increasingly critical components of the military’s Ofer Segal, senior director of land forces training and simu- learning environment. The goal is to find the optimal mix of lation with Elbit Systems, an international defense electron- computer, simulation and live training, each of which has adics company. Today, however, soldiers also may be called upon vantages and costs, DiGiovanni noted.

MT2  18.1 | 5

Computer Training

using feedback from the system, the instructor can allow students who’ve mastered the material to move on to the live equipment, while have those For servicemembers just becoming familiar with who need more review continue working on the a tank or other new piece of equipment, as well as computer. those in need of refresher training, computer-based Computer-based training offered over a secure training provides a logical starting point, Cimino network also allows servicemembers to learn no said. “One of the strongest uses of computer-based matter where they are, said Sebastien Loze, directraining will always be to teach students the vocabutor of marketing and partnerships with CM Labs lary of the particular weapons systems being trained.” Simulations Inc., a company creating visualization Indeed, the foreword to the Army Learning and simulation based solutions for those who train Concept 2015 (ALC 2015), written by General MarSebastien Loze crews for vehicles. tin E. Dempsey, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of And the cost of this training can be a fraction of Staff, noted “the opportunities presented by dynamic the price tag for live or simulated training. “We can train at less virtual environments, by online gaming and by mobile learning.” cost to the government and taxpayers,” said Willenbacher. For instance, computer-based training might be used to help a student learn the vocabulary associated with the calibration tools that are part of the equipment they’ll be using. If students can gain Not a Panacea this understanding on their own, the classroom instructor can spend more time showing them how the tools actually work, focusDespite the advantages of computer training, it alone can’t ing on “the parts of training that require finesse,” Cimino said. fully train servicemembers. Because the training cannot be only DiGiovanni added that virtual training can cost-effectively aldone individually, one of the challenging trends we solve in the use low military members to hone rote skills. That way, they’re more of the simulators is to replicate an environment in which the pilot, efficient when they go into live training situations. gunner and other members of tank crews work together, Loze said. Another advantage of computer-based training: An instrucOne solution is the use of simulators. While a simulator typically tor can more precisely adjust his or her lessons to account for looks like an enormous box from the outside, its interior mimstudents’ understanding of the material, Cimino said. For instance, ics the inside of a tank, said Army Sergeant Major Gregory Proft. Simulators allow soldiers to learn how to maneuver and shoot from the tanks they’ll be using, but at less cost than actually using the tanks. “Simulation is pennies on the dollar,” said Fowler, as simulators don’t consume gas or require the use of real bullets; instead, it’s just the cost of electricity. Practicing with the simulator enables a crew to have a good idea of what they’re supposed to do by the time they get out on the field, he added. The simulators also incorporate computer systems that allow the instructors to track the progression of the soldiers operating them, and to point out where they may have made mistakes. And, as with many technical tools, the simulators continue to advance, Proft said. He compared the clarity and level of detail of the simulators used in the early 1980s to those today as similar to “going from a black and white TV with rabbit ears to HDTV.” The advances are more than just a matter of aesthetics. If a trainee doesn’t consider the instruction realistic, he or she is likely to discount its value, Loze said. “They lose confidence and involvement in the training.” Moreover, in order to train servicemembers for conflicts that require distinguishing between combatants and civilians, the resolution and fidelity of the simulation is important, Segal said.

Tank-based Simulators While simulators can mimic many of the attributes of an actual tank, they still don’t offer the same experience as actually rolling down the road in a crowded tank, with the noise and dirt a soldier is likely to encounter on a real mission, said Brian Domian, director of business development with Saab Training USA, a developer of military training systems. This is where simulation solutions that servicemembers can use with actual tanks and in outdoor training environments come 6 | MT2 18.1

Although tank training exercises are critical, they need to be into play. Combat vehicle tactical simulation systems (CVTESS) used judiciously, as they can be costly, DiGiovanni noted. The exerinterface with actual tanks, Domian said. So a soldier who pulls a cises can consume large quantities of fuel and most require observtrigger on a simulation system affixed to a tank still fires a weapers and safety personnel, along with the servicemembers actually on, although he or she will shoot off a laser pulse rather than engaged in the simulation, Domian noted. a bullet. Finding the optimal mix of virtual, simulated Today’s CVTESS work with a tank’s electronics to and live training is “the million-dollar question,” Dimake the exercise as realistic as possible. The trainGiovanni said. Moreover, no single right answer exing can take place outdoors so servicemembers expeists, he added. Instead, the best solution will depend rience the noise and crowding from other vehicles. on the complexity of the task, the maturity of the The soldiers use the same switches and levers they technology being used and whether the operation rewould use in actual combat. And they need to know, quires individual or collective capabilities. He added, for instance, which direction the turret is pointed in however, that as the technology matures, the bar order to determine where they’re aiming. “The goal slides to greater use of virtual and blended training. is 100 percent reality,” Domian said. “You don’t want What’s more, the systems continue to improve. the soldiers to take any action they wouldn’t take opBrian Domian For instance, future CVTESS will be designed witherating the tank in battle.” In addition, some simulation systems can re- in the tanks and vehicles themselves, Domian said, eliminating the time required to install them. cord whether the shots fired hit their targets and then transmit Even as the systems advance, the goal remains the same: “to this information to a command center, Domian said. The instructor ensure the finest-trained, most capable military in the world,” can access the information in real time and immediately assess the DiGiovanni said. O trainees’ performance. The upcoming generation of some tank simulation systems will be primarily wireless, Domian said. Previous systems have required For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea the use of large belts attached to the outside of the vehicle. These at or search our online archives are vulnerable to tearing during the exercises, and repairing them for related stories at takes time and increases costs.

Be prepared! Practice to improve skills.

RUAG Schweiz AG | RUAG Defence Allmendstrasse 86 | 3602 Thun | Switzerland | Phone +41 33 228 22 65 |

MT2  18.1 | 7


58th Training Squadron Optimizing training effectiveness, student throughput and cost reduction. Lieutenant Colonel Regan J. Patrick Deputy Commander of the 58th Operations Group Kirtland Air Force Base United States Air Force The 58th Training Squadron (TRS), Kirtland AFB, is providing thought leadership in creating a new training system design for the UH-1N Huey, HH-60G Pave Hawk and MC-130H Talon II Initial and Upgrade Qualification programs. Our goal is to optimize training effectiveness, efficiency and cost, consistent with the Air Education and Training Command (AETC) goal of realizing training transformation within a culture of cost consciousness. We sought to effectively blend the capabilities and benefits of advanced training technologies, the latest applied scientific thinking in adult learning and human performance, and principles of crew resource management. A 58 TRS white paper, titled “UH-1N/HH-60G Training Transformation,” described these requirements as we undertook a complete training system rebuild. We used the development of two brand full-motion simulators and a custom-built ground-based fuselage trainer new as catalysts to conduct this review and revision. A training system analysis (TSA) was selected as the primary strategy for rapidly defining and assessing training system effectiveness and efficiency variables to meet a targeted minimum training ratio of 70 percent academic/simulator to 30 percent live flying. The TSA approach offered a way for us to improve and update our overall training strategy and delivery methodologies, as well as helped us leverage blended learning approaches for enhanced student performance. For the UH-1N and HH-60G, a syllabus of instruction (SOI) was defined that rebalances how current training assets are used and showed how we could develop and employ interactive courseware and part-task training (an array of inexpensive, high-fidelity static trainers). The 58 TRS designed and developed the world’s first full-crew tactical helicopter simulator, blending pilot and gunner stations into a common full-motion frame. Our TSA allowed us to clearly define what and how we would train in the device before it was delivered. When we discovered a retiring U.S. Marine Corps UH-1N maintenance trainer at Camp Pendleton, we sought and received approval to bring it to Kirtland AFB and reconfigured it as a preflight trainer to relieve the burden on our heavily used flyable aircraft. For the MC-130H, SOIs were developed for all qualification and upgrade courses that sustain a high level of training effectiveness using current resources. Additionally, to support this transformational training initiative, USSCOM and Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) provided $500,000 to acquire a retiring MC-130E and convert the cargo compartment to an MC-130H configuration for loadmaster and flight engineer training. Using on-site fabrication facilities, we were able to create a custom-built ground-based fuselage trainer that will prove indispensable in 8 | MT2 18.1

Top: The 58 TRS developed the world’s first full-crew tactical helicopter training system. Pilot and Gunner positions are joined together on a common motion platform to synthesize crew-based training and reinforce CRM principles during the most demanding combat training scenarios. Gunner “domes” are right and left, adjacent to the red fire extinguishers. Pilots are seated forward in the same orientation as the actual aircraft to provide common sight pictures. [Photo courtesy of 58th Training Squadron] Bottom: Forward cockpit, using state-of-the-art Vital X visual displays and electronic control loading. HD graphics, excellent aero modeling, and outstanding simulator-aircraft concurrency ensure extremely high training fidelity. [Photo courtesy of 58th Training Squadron]

meeting growing aircrew production requirements despite reduced aircraft availability. A major outcome of this process re-engineering effort includes clearly defining a need for improved instructional methods.

Gunner Dome. 180-degree horizontal, 110-degree vertical display provided by three projectors and dedicated image generator. Weapons are reconfigurable for either .50cal or 7.62mm speedsensitive, ballistically accurate gun emulators. Tactical scanning procedures and weapons employment training tasks can now be accurately rehearsed in the simulator. [Photo courtesy of 58th Training Squadron]

We achieved training retention and learning performance improvements by using recognition-primed, cognitive decision-making training approaches. Problem-solving learning improvements have been gained by leveraging advanced ICW to inspire learner motivation and goal-orientation. Higher-order affective skills development has been enhanced by integrating CRM tasks and performance criteria across relevant lesson objectives. A consolidated performance assessment strategy has been accomplished to control lesson progression only after criterion-based demonstration of objectives. The TSA results have exposed gaps between the enterprise strategy, overall learning requirements and technology utilization approaches. A phased three-year roadmap has been defined for achieving the desired level of training transformation for these training programs. This includes incremental development of new courseware capabilities, newly-integrated partial task- and simulation-based learning technologies, and improved CRM-based performance objectives and metrics. Through our TSA efforts, the 58 TRS has created an optimized training system strategy and an innovative set of integrated training system design methods for improved resource and technology utilization that can be applied enterprise-wide at the 58th Special Operations Wing (SOW). We have realized three primary benefits from this training systems re-engineering effort. First, we created an improved instructional strategy that assures training effectiveness guided by informed management decision-making. Our results are data based and give us high confidence of success relying on fact, not opinion. Second, we defined and implemented an improved problem-solving learning approach using multiple levels of interactive courseware to inspire learner motivation and goal-orientation. Third, by using integrated CRM tasks and performance standards to develop higher-order decision-making capabilities, we have improved cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills development in response to high customer-student production demands.

An improved strategy and re-balanced approach for achieving reductions in overall costs to train is now a critical element in syllabus restructuring and optimization across the 58 SOW. When fully realized, these and additional outcomes will gain an improvement of over 12 percent in training effectiveness, greater than 17 percent in training operations efficiency, and a $27.2 million reduction in training costs per year as compared to the legacy training systems. Further, a repeatable process has been created that is applicable to all current and future weapons systems in the 58 SOW. The TSA process developed and refined by the 58 TRS has been briefed to senior AF leaders, and a comprehensive presentation was delivered at the 2012 AETC Training Symposium. The 58 TRS is helping to define the culture of cost consciousness for AETC while preserving and expanding excellence in aircrew training and education for the U.S. Air Force. Our TSA effort has established an innovative approach for applying current and accepted learning methodologies to ensure we are delivering the highest quality and quantity of students to our customers at the lowest possible cost. They expect nothing less. O For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea at or search our online archives for related stories at

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MT2  18.1 | 9

Preparing the warfighter for small arms combat. When U.S. soldiers deploy to hot spots worldwide, they need to be ready to shoot accurately and know how to use their weapons. Small arms training helps prepare military members for action and keep their shooting skills current. The USMC’s weapons training battalion in Quantico, Va., has 55 Marines in the company who train roughly 1,800 new Marine officers on rifle marksmanship during a three-week course. “Our goal is to prepare Marines for combat,” said Captain Jonathan Bass, company commander for the Marksmanship Training Company. The course, which teaches the fundamentals of marksmanship, offers live-fire training and helps fine-tune shooting skills with simulators. Training includes straight-line shooting, night shooting exercises and shooting in full combat gear. Recently, the course has incorporated rifle combat optic technology, a fixed aiming scope that improves accuracy. Future training trends include adopting a Combat Pistol Program in the next few years, Bass said. It would require shooting more rounds and boost pistol training requirements. With ongoing missions in Afghanistan and Iraq, small arms training has become “more combat focused,” Bass said. Training includes more “drawing from the holster firing” and exercises with combat-like shooting at moving targets. “In combat, our targets don’t stay put,” said Sergeant Daniel Limauge, chief instructor of the Marksmanship Training Company. “We have to get better at [marksmanship]. The question is how do we do that.” While virtual reality programs are part of the solution, some technology can’t replace the fundamentals of range shooting. Static ranges are important to build skills, teach the ergonomics of moving with a rifle and work on muscle memory, said the battalion’s gunner Thom Layou. The “jury is still out” on adopting an all-virtual environment. Virtual training can target specific problems and save money from spent rounds and other costs of operating live-fire ranges, Limauge said. The Air Force’s combat arms training at MacDill Air Force Base in Florida combines live-fire and simulator exercises to train Air Force members and Army, Navy and Marine personnel assigned to U.S. Central Command. 10 | MT2 18.1

By Cynthia L. Webb, MT2 Correspondent

About 500 servicemembers a month are trained in combat arms on different weapons, including the M-4, M-9, M-16, M-240 and M-249, according to Technical Sergeant Richard Tovar, NCOIC of MacDill’s combat arms, part of MacDill’s Security Forces Squadron. The Air Force qualifies students on live-fire shooting on their prospective weapons systems before deployment. Training has shifted in the past year from Cold War-era coursework—primarily lying down and shooting at silhouettes—to an all-day advanced course where trainees shoot from multiple positions and do quick-reaction drills, Tovar said. It has been a “drastic change” in training, helped by information from actual combat. “The new course is pretty intense,” Tovar said. “They are moving and firing and they are yelling commands and they are changing positions.” The biggest challenge with small arms training, according to Tovar, is often working with the individual trainees. “We have to adapt as instructors to how different people learn certain information. Some people are hands on. Some people are visual,” he said. Another hurdle is teaching confidence. “Our job is to ensure that a person who comes into our class that has never touched a weapon before can walk out the door 100 percent confident,” he said. Army instructors can relate. Their Bravo Company 2-29 Infantry Battalion in the 197th Infantry Regiment at Fort Benning trains soldiers on small arms through live-fire training. They also train in medium and heavy weaponry. About 200 students at a time attend a rigorous 13-week course to become infantrymen and learn various weapons systems, including the M-4 and M-240. They also train in full combat gear. “The majority of the soldiers coming through now are fresh out of high school. A lot of them have never touched a gun,” said Sergeant 1st Class Donald Mullins, a senior instructor with platoon sergeant experience and several deployments. “Our biggest obstacle is soldiers not touching [weapons] and not having the concept of how weapons work,” Mullins said. Instructor 1st Sergeant Robert Lucas, the company first sergeant, who has served as a platoon sergeant and deployed seven times, said: “What we have noticed from the start of the war until now is actually that the number of soldiers who have any type of experience using weapons has reduced.”

it’s pretty visible,” said senior firearms instructor Bran“The training we provide gives the soldiers the tools don Wright. The training helps with accuracy and that they can take with them,” Mullins said. shooting faster. Many training advances are coming directly from Former Navy SEAL Rick Abbott, a G4SITI instrucbattlefield scenarios to keep training realistic, he said. tor, said integration is the wave of the future. “You are Other new tools include .50 caliber virtual training, engoing to see the services working together in terms of abling qualification without firing a live round. trying to coordinate their efforts and trying to standardVirtual training is “always a good approach, but ize their training,” Abbott said, noting that another there is nothing like having those rounds going downtrend is smart munitions, where troops are outfitrange and hearing the steel-on-steel,” Mullins said. “You ted with weaponized cameras or helmets able to feed are actually experiencing the full concept when you real-time data back to commanders to help coordinate are firing live ammunition. You can’t replicate that in Ray Oliver from afar. any way.” Darren Shavers, a 20-year Army veteran with MegThe instructors still see a place for virtual traingitt Training Systems, said funding cuts are shifting liveing. Computers can help track details that are harder fire training into more simulation. to see. Virtual training for new privates before live-fire But the cuts can only go so far. “It is hard to justify training would help familiarize them with basic concutting training, because you always have to do it,” said cepts, according to senior instructor Sergeant 1st Class former Marine Eric Perez, director of Meggitt’s virtual Kevin Dodson. sales for the Americas. Meggitt outfits military clients Ray Oliver, accounts program manager at Cubic with a simulated training system featuring a fully senSimulations Systems Inc. in Orlando, manages Cubic’s sored converted weapon. Engagement Skills Trainer (EST 2000), a virtual verSimulation helps save money. Instead of Marines sion of a firing range used by the Army and military. shooting just a few rounds of mortars, they are firing The system has digital video projection, 3-D effects and 50-100 rounds of simulated mortars, Perez said. large screen-based video-game-style computer graphics. Eric Seto Simulation is being used more for stand-alone trainTrainees shoot laser bullets from modified weapons. The ing. “That means the fidelity in the simulation needs EST can replicate live-fire ranges and terrain in comto be stepped up to what they are doing in the live-fire bat zones and send scores and feedback before live-fire world,” Perez said. exercises, allowing soldiers to rehearse in a virtual enviShavers noted the Army has night fire and NBC firronment, said Oliver, who is a retired Army command ing range qualifications once a year. They can now do sergeant major. those two courses using only a simulator. While defense budgets are lean, companies have Soldiers still resist. “They have never liked simulaa role to meet ongoing training needs. Oliver said clition. They say, ‘I am a soldier. I like to shoot bullets,’” ents increasingly want products they can combine with Shavers said. “We need to show them the realism that existing systems. we are bringing and some of the instructional feedback “Customers are wanting to do more with less and that we can give.” we are trying to get creative with that,” Oliver said. “The Darren Shavers Meggitt can project a range on a large screen and market is very competitive. You have to stay on the set up weapons used in combat for shooters to engage leading edge.” a target in simulation just like in live-fire, Perez said. Eric Seto, a retired Army Ranger, is military trainThey can replicate wind, smoke, the sound of bullets and ing manager for Ultimate Training Munitions. UTM sells night fire as well as change the ballistics. weapon conversion systems and training ammunition Meggitt says its wireless, sensored Bluefire weapon to the military and law enforcement. It converts existing has the same feel and fit as a live-fire weapon. The weapweapons with a UTM bolt conversion and blue magazine on senses if a shooter is canting or not squeezing the that locks it from firing a live round. trigger properly. The technology tracks shooting and movements and “You can put them in Afghanistan or Iraq in a realreplicates live-fire training but is safer, more accurate world scenario and bring them up to a level of realism and cheaper since it does not waste rounds and saves they might see,” Perez said. The next step for the indusresources from going to a physical range, Seto said. try is matching the visuals of some of the popular games The military’s small arms training scope is growing, Eric Perez for simulation while still behaving in the correct way for Seto said, as all career fields might face danger. Everyone training, he said. “needs to know how to use the weapon correctly, safely Shavers said they tell soldiers the way they train is and more effectively,” he said. UTM’s product helps train the way they are going to react in the field. “The fundamentals they do to prepare for these scenarios, he said. in marksmanship, we make them do in simulation. When they leave, G4S ITI uses “simunitions” training to teach shooting to trainees in they are confident they can do the same thing [in the field],” he said. O full gear using facilities and paint rounds that replicate live-fire shooting. The company can set up fake cities, roads, and terrain and obstacles for training. It has several firearms ranges and trains several thousand For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea military members and civilians a year. “They have the opportunity to at or search our online archives for related stories at engage live targets. They take and receive fire. If they make mistakes,

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Military Training Technology recognized the winners of our Top Simulation & Training Companies 2012 competition at I/ITSEC 2012. The featured companies are from around the world and have made a significant impact on the military training industry across the spectrum of technologies and services. These companies’ products and services allow U.S. airmen, Marines, sailors, soldiers and Coast Guardsmen to train and rehearse for missions in theater or to prepare for deployment at home station. Those that made the most significant contributions to the training community are recognized with one of the following ribbons: Best Program, High Revenue, Innovation, and Up and Coming. Below are photos from I/ITSEC. For the complete list of winners, visit






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1. 2. 3. 4.

Kratos: Jason Rizzo and Brian O’Shea Raydon: Cory McAndrew and David Robinson Mymic: Thomas Mastiglio and Brian O’Shea Northrop Grumman: Lindsay Silverberg, John Seaberg, and Randall Garrett 5. Saab: Henrik Hojer, Brian Domian and Brian O’Shea 6. Lockheed Martin Global Training and Logistics: Samantha Acosta, Heather Kelly, Lindsay Silverberg, Kenneth Ross, Chester Kennedy, Kathryn Glynn, and Sharon Parsley 7. CAE: Gene Colabatistto and Brian O’Shea 8. MetaVR: Richard Rybacki 9. Aechelon Technology: Nacho Sanz Pastor and Javier Castellar 10. Disti: Darren Humphrey and Scott Ariotti 11. Presagis: Brian O’Shea and Jean Michel Briere 12. Design Interactive: Matt Archer, Kay Stanney, Luke DeVore, and Jared Shellhorn

13. The Tatitlek Corporation: Back row: Steve Hesseltine, Brian Cecil, Mary Tesch, Martin Hanofee, Mike Sovocool (hidden), Tim Crawley (Hidden), Jimmie Blackwood, Eric Black, Front row: Brian Meredith, Lloyd Allen, Roy Totemoff, Tiffany Flowers, Carolyn Jackson 14. Ngrain: Graham Smith, Andrew Woo, Josie Sutcliffe, Lindsay Silverberg, Gabe Batstone 15. DI Guy: Bill Blank, Alex Broadbent, and Gedalia Pasternak

16. Simthetiq: Vincent Cloutier and Brian O’Shea 17. L-3 Link Simulation & Training: Brian O’Shea and Jeff Schram 18. Diamond Visionics: David Gdovin, Jack Kerrigan, Judith Pafford and David Peters 19. Simetri: Angela Salva, Thomas Baptiste and Brian O’Shea 20. Bohemia Interactive (Quantum3D and Intelligent Decisions): Michael Sivret, Peter Morrison and Mark Dzulko







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DATA PACKETS More Realism to Military Training Simulation Boeing recently demonstrated new technology with its Constant Resolution Visual System (CRVS) that allows the system to deliver almost four times the resolution of high definition for more realistic and effective military training. JVC’s new e-Shift 8K projection technology brings CRVS’ visual acuity closer to 20/20 while keeping the system’s projector small and affordable. It nearly doubles a projector’s resolution horizontally and vertically, approaching 8K performance from a 4K device. “CRVS previously provided the highest-resolution, lowest-cost solution on the market,” said

Augmented Reality in Training and Maintenance Augmented reality (AR) has evolved from a hobbyist’s technology into the marketing and advertising world, and now into the practical applications of training, maintenance and safety, resulting from the work by Scope Technologies. Scope Technologies, over the last 18 months, has been become a leader in developing practical AR solutions specific to industrial applications of training and maintenance. Scope Technologies’ solutions provide clients with a user-controlled step-by-step process to disassembling, servicing and re-assembling any piece of equipment. The AR application overlays each step in the maintenance sequence with a full 3-D graphic animated overlay that can be viewed from any location around the equipment in 3-D space. The user can watch the animation from any angle to ensure they fully understand the step before proceeding with the actual work. The solution can also include a variety of unique features such as recording, data storage and a UI interface designed with specific maintenance details and notes. Scope Technologies’ solutions have integrated a combination of tracking systems with the most current developments revolving around design of 3-D object based recognition.  The jump from 2-D image based recognition to 3-D markers opens the door to a whole new set of applications for augmented reality specific to maintenance that can be deployed right into the field. For the purpose of training solutions, however, Scope Technologies believes that a combination of 2-D and 3-D markers will both continue to have value in different applications. David Nedohin;

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Barry Kuhlmann, visual systems engineering manager at Boeing. “Now, with JVC e-Shift 8K projectors, CRVS has taken another leap forward in visual performance and fidelity to better prepare military pilots by allowing them to train in a more realistic yet safe environment.” “We believe that image quality counts, whether it’s for entertainment, education or nextgeneration flight training,” said Rod Sterling, chief engineer, JVC Technology Center. “We designed our e-Shift 8K projector to register down to 1/16th pixel accuracy to provide the unparalleled clarity and sharpness that Boeing customers demand.”

CRVS provides constant target visibility throughout the entire field of vision by surrounding the pilot and cockpit in an eggshell-like environment that visually transforms into cities, landscapes and complex combat scenarios. JVC e-Shift 8K projectors further enhance the training experience and enable pilots to identify targets at real-world ranges. CRVS is compatible with a wide range of fast jet and rotary wing cockpits and aviator night vision goggles, and easily integrates with current and future head-mounted displays. Existing CRVS customers can upgrade to JVC e-Shift 8K without modifying screens or structure.

New Capability to Transform Maintenance Training Ngrain, a provider of interactive 3-D simulation software and solutions for maintenance training and support, unveiled its new augmented reality capability. This new capability enables maintainers to perform tasks viewing a piece of live equipment through the “window” of an Apple tablet that displays 2-D/3-D graphical overlays, video and text augmentations. “We cannot rest on yesterday’s accomplishments. Innovation will always drive us to challenge the status quo as we strive to transform the way people share knowledge. With the new Ngrain augmented reality experience, we are not only deploying our unique 3-D graphics engine in new ways, but empowering people to deliver real results,” said Andrew Woo, chief technology officer, Ngrain. Ngrain’s innovation removes a number of technical barriers associated with augmented reality by enhancing realism, increasing scalability, and accelerating content development and re-use. The technology can be used to give maintainers immediate access to system parts information, repair history and critical system functions, such as fluid flows. They can also receive guidance about remove and install procedures through animations and interactive task steps. The interactive experience in the augmented reality application is based on Ngrain volume graphics technology, which

uses voxels to store and represent both the geometry of complex systems and any number of associated equipment attributes. Ngrain voxel technology is unique in its ability to enable the user to visualize dynamic 3-D annotations over a live model in real time. Unlike surface graphics—the method most commonly used in movies, games and virtual worlds—voxels contain volume: voxel models have both a surface and a core, and each voxel can contain virtually unlimited attributes. Ngrain’s Constructor, a software development kit that forms the basis for the augmented reality experience, enables developers to create interactive visualization and simulation applications based on Ngrain technology. Already in use by a number of companies spanning the aerospace and defense, mining and 3-D imaging industries, Constructor can be leveraged for a broad range of applications, including intelligence gathering, mission rehearsal, medical diagnostics and emergency preparedness. Andrew Woo;

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

Scenario Generation Software Upgraded MÄK recently released VR-Forces 4.1. This release introduces significant changes in the way people will use VR-Forces; specifically, it raises the bar on the type and complexity of the scenarios users can create. Like most VR-Forces releases, changes include tactical graphics, which work in both 2-D and 3-D view modes allowing users to understand their tactical environment quickly and easily. New models have been added such as mortar teams and bombs, both smart JDAM GBUs and CBUs. There are also new camera effects view modes so that in-set views can mimic IR or NVG sensor views as the user creates and plays scenarios. The fidelity of the artillery model has been increased so that users can enable the simulation of individual rounds from both mortars and other artillery units. By simulating individual rounds, simulations that are using radar to detect incoming rounds can now use VR-Forces to stimulate their virtual environments. There are also significant changes in the way entities are created in VR-Forces. This is necessary to increase the simulation model set content in

Motion System for Reality H Helicopter Simulator Thales recently unveiled its latest-generation Reality H helicopter simulator equipped with the all-new, all-electric Hexaline high-fidelity, six-axis linear motion system. Hexaline harnesses the latest technological innovations to bring users major benefits in terms of life cycle cost and usability. Delivering greatly enhanced performance, the new motion system offers a unique level of flexibility for unmatched pilot perception. The Reality H simulator was developed in partnership with helicopter operators and is designed to maximize training capacity and availability while ensuring easy set-up, implementation and maintenance. With multiple reconfiguration possibilities for different helicopter types, the modular Reality H simulator comprises a docking station and a dome-mounted visual system coupled to a six-axis electrically operated motion system. Interchangeable modules representing the cockpit of each simulated helicopter are then slotted into the docking station. The instructor station module provides an optimized forward-facing view of the crew undergoing training. The direct-projection visual system offers a wide 210-degree by 70-degree field of view combined with high-resolution geo-specific imagery from the ThalesView image generator. The instrument panel and flight controls support different helicopter configurations using highly realistic simulated instruments or graphic displays and simulation models derived from real helicopter data. As well as helicopter flight training and recurrent proficiency training, the simulator will be used for specific missions such as search and rescue, helicopter emergency medical services, and offshore oil and gas operations. The Reality H helicopter simulator has achieved dual FTD level three and FFS level B certification by the French civil aviation authority (DGAC) in line with the European Air Safety Agency’s CS-FSTD(H) standards. David Silvestre;

VR-Forces. The 4.1 release will add 50 more simulation models and will add hundreds more throughout the coming year. All entity types can now be assigned to any force type on creation. Additionally, users can search for model types by model name, country or category simply by typing a few characters. Entities can now be tagged in VR-Forces as favorites, which will then show up on the right click menu for fast future reference. Another change to VR-Forces 4.1 is the addition of Lua scripted tasks. This feature allows users to quickly script tasks that are significantly more complex than previously possible. Lua is a lightweight and relatively simple scripting language used widely in the commercial video game industry. What’s significant about Lua scripting is that both MÄK and their customers will be able to generate higher-level state machine-based tasks, complete with an automatically generated task GUI, in a record amount of time. Ben Lubetsky;

All-in-One Mobile Performance Measurement An instructor watches an infantry exercise with an expert’s practiced eye, but in trying to capture vital training feedback misses the action itself. To solve this problem, Aptima has created the Scenario-based Performance Observation Tool for Learning in Team Environments (SPOTLITE), performance measurement software for mobile devices that allows instructors to collect, analyze and visualize human performance data for immediate debrief and trend analysis. The SPOTLITE app, which runs on Android-based tablets and smartphones, gives observers an all-in-one, handheld tool for easily and precisely measuring individuals and teams during live and simulated training exercises. Marrying robust performance measurement software with the intuitive interface of touchscreen devices, instructors can uninterruptedly rate, video and tag trainee performance in real time, then with single-button control, deliver thorough feedback and after-action reviews. “Observers play an essential role because they see the skills in action that are most relevant to a soldier’s readiness. The friction occurs in trying to capture and revisit the details of an exercise to impart improvement,” said Davey Lind, senior military analyst with Aptima and master sergeant (Ret.), U.S. Marine Corps. “You don’t want to be looking down to take notes or try to recall from memory the nuanced behavior of trainees negotiating with a crowd of hostile nationals. If we can give instructors a tool to streamline measurement, to better show and tell their feedback, and help keep their eyes on the exercise, we’ll improve training.” Whether evaluating team collaboration in an air operations center or a live field exercise, using SPOTLITE is as simple as thumb-tapping preconfigured menu buttons. Holding a tablet like a game controller, the observer can rate key performance variables, shoot photo or video, and make annotations, all while staying focused on the scenario, without juggling tasks or looking down to take notes. Ryan Marceau;

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Requirements Developer

Q& A

Training the Army’s Aviators for the Future Major General Kevin W. Mangum Commanding General U.S. Army Aviation Center of Excellence Major General Kevin W. Mangum graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., in May 1982, where he was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant of Armor. Highlights of Mangum’s career include tours with 8th Army, the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), 2nd Infantry Division and 10th Mountain Division as well as two Joint tours. He has commanded at every level from platoon to Senior Commander of Fort Drum, N.Y. After his initial tour in the 128th Aviation Company (Assault Helicopter) at Camp Page, Korea, he was selected for assignment with Task Force 160. He has since served four tours with the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment with duties ranging from section leader, battalion S-3 to command at company and regiment levels. Mangum also commanded A Company, 4th Battalion, 101st Aviation Regiment and 2nd Aviation Battalion, 2nd Aviation Regiment at Camp Stanley, Korea. Mangum’s joint service includes tours at the Joint Electronic Warfare Center, Kelly Air Force Base, Texas and Joint Special Operations Command at Fort Bragg. In May 2008, he was assigned to his first post as a general officer, serving as the senior commander of Fort Drum and division rear commander of the 10th Mountain Division. He served as Deputy Commanding General of 1st Armor Division and United States Division-Center, Operation Iraqi Freedom, Iraq. Mangum commanded the U.S. Army Special Operations Aviation Command upon its provisional activation on March 25, 2011, prior to assuming command of the United States Army Aviation Center of Excellence, Fort Rucker, Ala. His numerous deployments include duty in the Republic of Korea, Honduras, Persian Gulf, Turkey, Bosnia, Afghanistan and Iraq. Mangum also served as a U.S. Army War College Fellow at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. He holds a Master of Business Administration from Webster University. His military awards and decorations include the Defense Superior Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross, Combat Action Badge, Parachutist Badge, Air Assault Badge and the Master Army Aviator Badge. Q: What are the roles and responsibilities of the U.S. Army Aviation Center of Excellence?

and soldiers on the ground. The Aviation branch was born from the need for very close and seamless integration of Army Aviation and commanders we support. To that end, we must remain relentlessly focused on the sacred trust between us and the ground force commander. At Fort Rucker, Ala., the home of our branch, we continue to produce the most professional, proficient, competent and confident Aviation soldiers. But our branch footprint is so much larger than that. We train our Unmanned Aircraft Systems operators and maintainers at Fort Huachuca, Ariz.; and we train our aviation maintainers at Joint Base Langley-Eustis in Virginia. We also provide training and standardization oversight to four National Guard training sites located across the country. While training our pilots, operators and maintainers is the primary role of our branch, we also drive the requirements and doctrine to shape Army Aviation for the future. Our great Aviation soldiers deserve the very best equipment and training properly organized to support the force. Q: What are the greatest challenges USAACE will face in 2013?

A: The Aviation Center of Excellence plays two critical and equally important roles. We train aviation soldiers and also serve as the proponent for Army Aviation, representing the user as we develop requirements for the future. The most important thing we do is support and enable those focused on supporting commanders 16 | MT2 18.1

A: Our biggest challenge will be transitioning from an Army at war to an Army preparing for war as we draw down our force in Afghanistan. We must get our training requirements just right to ensure we sustain the very capable force we have today and can reset

our aircraft which have been worked so very hard these past 12 years of sustained combat. Part of that transition is getting future force structure and aircraft requirements just right. Aviation has proven its critical role in nearly everything our Army does and we must ensure we have enough capability but can’t afford more than we need. We take an enterprise approach in all we do. The Army Aviation team is very tightly integrated and our collaborative approach allows us to tackle and solve very complex problems. We rely on our great teammates on the Army staff and in the acquisition, special operations and sustainment communities to help us with the heavy lifting. We also collaborate with other Training and Doctrine Command Centers of Excellence to ensure our requirements support their emerging needs. Our focus is to sustain our current capability while building the right capability for the future force. The future force will require increased speed, Lt. Col. Bob Rugg, assistant program manager for Flight School XXI, tests out the new CH-47F Chinook flight simulator at Warrior Hall as Kevin Hottell, Directorate of Simulations FSXXI simulations program manager, looks on. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Army Aviation Center of Excellence] range and payload necessary to support The Chief of Staff of the Army asked us to look at joint sea soldiers distributed over a large footprint on a non-contiguous basing options for Army Aviation. We continue to develop tactics, operating environment. techniques and procedures to do so and will assist a pilot program in the near future. Q: Will conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan coming to a close affect how USAACE operates? Q: In an era of tightening funds, how will USAACE adapt to a limited budget in 2013? A: In short, no. But we will continue to integrate lessons learned from over a decade of war into both our training and requirements A: Sustainment and readiness at best value are themes heard processes. And as we transition to a force preparing for war, we across Army Aviation. We must squeeze every bit of readiness, cawill need to make adjustments to how we train our young leadpability and effectiveness out of every dollar we spend. At USAACE, ers for full-spectrum and decisive-action operations. As an Army we constantly pursue optimizing the mix of simulation and live and branch, we do need focus on building agile and tailorable extraining and have been working hard for over a year to gain efpeditionary capabilities. We’ll need to train and focus our leaders ficiencies in programs and processes. We think we have the liveon deploying to and employing from undeveloped and immature virtual mix just about right, but there are still areas where we can operating environments. train smarter, not harder and, again, maximize the benefit of every training dollar. Q: Are there any new programs or initiatives set to be implemented There are no plans to change the standard or the quality of our in 2013? training. As resources decline, we will need to adjust our student load to fit the resources. A: We are in step with initiatives our Army is undertaking in the Army Profession Campaign to reinforce the values, standards Q: How does the Directorate of Simulation enable aviation training and discipline that have made our Army great. We’re also worksupport for Army, Joint and Coalition air/ground operations through ing very hard to fully implement the Army Learning Model to capsimulations for flight training? ture our soldiers’ attention with cutting-edge tools to train and inspire them. A: Our Directorate of Simulation is leading the way on a variety We are also working closely with our teammates at the Maneuof live, virtual, constructive and gaming tools to enhance trainver and Fires Centers of Excellence to enhance our collaboration to ing. Simulations have absolutely revolutionized the way we train, ensure we stay linked together on current/future training, simulawhether it’s a new pilot or when an aviation brigade comes to do tions and emerging doctrine. Air-ground integration is a core comtheir collective training before they deploy. I’ve talked with our petency we must master and sustain. Teaming with our partners at Combat Aviation Brigade commanders and the feedback I’ve reFort Benning and Fort Sill will ensure our leaders maintain these ceived is consistent—we are turning out new aviators that are critical skills.

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much more proficient in their advanced aircraft and can achieve mission-readiness standards faster. By training our newest pilots in their go-to-war aircraft in these state-of-the-art simulators, it increases the experience levels of new graduates and decreases the amount of individual training required for them upon arrival in their units. This is especially critical given the compressed reset and train-up windows our units are operating within prior to redeployment. One other way we are utilizing simulations, and this gets back to your question about new programs this year, we have started an initiative with the Maneuver Center of Excellence and Fires Center of Excellence to generate more opportunities for air-ground integration training between our respective Initial Military Training and Professional Military Education courses. Using common terrain data bases, common scenarios and common orders, we will network with those Sgt. 1st Class Paul Gentry (middle), senior UAS maintainer, instructs Staff Sgts. Christopher Duhe and Chris Bunten on UAS maintenance during centers to provide our young sol- the 15E course at the U.S. Army Aviation Center of Excellence NCO. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Army Aviation Center of Excellence] A: The top three things our NCO Academy is getting after now diers and leaders the opportunity to work together virtually. This is are leadership skills, re-emphasizing ‘back to basics’ standards, and an exciting initiative with great potential to build upon the lessons providing professional networking. learned over the past decade. We are looking to conduct this trainSince we have been a nation at war for more than a decade, ing across our common live-virtual-constructive-gaming training our soldiers have gotten very good at deploying and redeploying, and mission command capabilities. and that’s exactly what we’ve asked them to do. Now that we are transitioning out of that kind of operational tempo we have to get Q: What are the top three things a student can take away from the back to the basics of soldiering. NCO (non-commissioned officer) Academy?

Highly realistic tank simulation born from real tank expertise MBT as well as IFV Embedded training Virtual and live training

Highly precise vehicle logic and dynamic Use of NATO ballistic kernel for weapon simulation | |

The training is tough, realistic, relevant and demanding, which develops adaptive, self-confident and resilient leaders, who can then solve complex problems as they conduct missions in any operational environment. The NCO Academy also provides a means of professional networking within the Aviation career field. We’ve got about a dozen military occupation specialties that have a chance to train by specialty and also collaboratively to allow them to forge professional relationships across the Aviation NCO Corps. Q: How does Doctrine 2015 affect the USAACE? A: We are taking the lead our Army leadership has given us to look at how we can streamline Aviation doctrine. Our goal would be to have fewer, lessredundant manuals that are designed to capture best practices from the past decade of combat op- U.S. Army Major looks out of the cabin of a UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter during a leaflet drop mission over northern Iraq. [Photo by Petty Officer 1st Class Carmichael Yepez, courtesy of the Department of Defense] erations, while continuing to provide guidance for I recently asked our staff to define USAACE’s core competenenduring capabilities. Over the next year or so, we will update many cies, what we are doing to support them, what we’re doing that of our doctrinal publications. And we will use new techniques and doesn’t support them, and finally what we need to do to support technologies as other TRADOC organizations are doing. MilWiki them. We started with “why” Army Aviation exists to frame why gives soldiers and commanders in the field the ability to influence USAACE exists and to define our focus. A senior non-commisdoctrine from the start. Their input and insight informed by their sioned officer, who is not an aviator, was asked what Army Aviation experiences in the fight is critical to publishing relevant and useful meant to him. He shared an experience in Iraq in 2003 when a doctrine. And, of course, we staff our doctrinal publications with convoy he was leading was decisively engaged by the enemy and Centers of Excellence to ensure ours fits in the larger scheme and he had three critically wounded soldiers. He became emotional as complements doctrine across war fighting functions. he described the sound of approaching helicopters and the knowledge that medevac was coming to evacuate his soldiers and attack Q: Is there anything else you’d like to add about Army Aviation? helicopters were coming to engage and eliminate the enemy. That trust is precious. For that reason, we must remain dedicated to and A: At this moment, Army Aviation soldiers are in harm’s way doing relentlessly focused on honoring that sacred trust with commandour nation’s business. What we do and how we do it is focused on ers and soldiers on the ground! That is our challenge and that is them and what they’ll need now and in the future. They, and the our task. O soldiers they support, are our focus!

TRAINING & SIMULATION Wegmann USA, Inc., Training & Simulation mailto: Krauss-Maffei Wegmann GmbH & Co. KG, Training & Simulation mailto:

As virtual technology advances, so does the efficiency of aircraft maintenance training. By Melanie Scarborough, MT2 Correspondent

Aircraft maintenance is crucial for the safety has been found to accelerate training by as much and effectiveness of military missions and trainas 60 percent. Josie Sutcliffe, vice president of ing those responsible for it is critical. However, marketing, said the Canadian Air Force discovthis is not your father’s maintenance training: ered it could reduce course time from five days to Technological advances have revolutionized intwo days using VTT—and test scores increased. struction. Today’s computer-generated 3-D imIn a class being taught propeller maintenance, ages allow tasks such as aircraft wiring to be the group using virtual technology performed the learned and practiced through virtual models. task correctly 96 percent the first time; the group Hardware training is still necessary, but the using a technical manual got it right only 76 peramount needed to gain proficiency is greatly cent the first time. reduced, which lowers costs. The result is a This is partly because virtual technology alJosie Sutcliffe training process more efficient and effective than lows each student to get more practice. traditional methods. “Without VTT, actual training time is limitNgrain Virtual Task Trainer (VTT), an Internet-based 3-D ed,” said Sutcliffe. “In a class, how many actually get to work simulation used by all arms of the U.S. and Canadian militaries, on the brakes?” 20 | MT2 18.1

It is also because the latest generation is geared toward computer learning. “Younger technicians and trainers didn’t grow up working on cars in their garage; they grew up playing video games,” she said. Lockheed Martin Global Training and Logistics has a number of programs to support aircraft maintenance training, including first-of-their-kind C-5 maintenance simulators that replicate more than 300 malfunctions, according to Sharon Parsley with communications and public affairs. Recognizing the changing mentality of students, it analyzes and applies learning science. “We have a group of folks here—Ph.D.s, educators—who understand the science of learning and how we can accelerate mastery,” said Parsley. “They study that here and apply that human performance engineering into the training.”

Advantage: Students Three-dimensional virtual technology yields multi-dimensional advantages. For one, it enables maintenance training to stay up to date more easily. “What it brings is quicker concurrence to the platform, because it’s a lot quicker to upgrade a virtual system than a hands-on model,” said Jose Diaz, senior vice president for Kratos Training Solutions. Jose Diaz Additionally, virtual training can be adopted to suit the needs of the schoolhouse. Orlando-based Disti recently developed a new tool, Replic8, which allows instructional designers or graphic artists to produce 3-D interactive courseware without programming. “It fit the bill nicely for schoolhouses where they have graphic artists but not a lot of programmers,” said Scott Ariotti, director of global marketing at Disti. Another advantage is portabilScott Ariotti ity. With maintenance training able on Internet Explorer and tablet computers, students can study, practice and refresh their skills almost anywhere, anytime. “Virtual technology means training isn’t someplace you go, it’s something you do,” Ariotti said. Computers even allow students to practice teamwork while working alone, because virtual technology can create avatars representing maintainers on different sides of an aircraft. Yoshi Tanaka “From a safety perspective, we hear from customers that that’s very able,” said Yoshi Tanaka, Training Systems and Government Services Mesa site manager for Boeing. “If the students are well-taught in theory and procedure but then go on a flight line and are actually

Chinook platform for Virtual Management Training images. [Photo courtesy of Boeing]

climbing on top of a 20- to 30-foot platform trying to move things around for the first time but haven’t worked as a team, there’s always the possibility that someone could get hurt.” Moreover, virtual technology presents an alternative to pulling valuable hardware offline. “If you’re actually using aircraft,” Tanaka said, “when it’s not flying, it’s not able to complete its mission.” With virtual technology, instructors can see clearly where students are progressing and which points they might be missing. Replic8 allows trainees to record their work session as they move through a series of steps. “Anything the student is doing can be time-stamped so an instructor assessing the work can see how far down the rabbit hole they went,” Ariotti said. Of course, flight-line experience remains essential. “The feel of how much torque you’re actually putting on a wrench—those things we can’t re-create in a virtual environment,” Tanaka said. “You still need the physical model for final evaluation when you have a maintenance trainer—to take him out on a flight line or a complete mock-up and have him prove he can do those maintenance tasks.” However, the time needed for hands-on training is greatly reduced now that 85 to 95 percent of maintenance training can be achieved virtually.

Softer Landings in Hardware Training “What it brings is quicker concurrence to the platform because it’s a lot quicker to upgrade a virtual system than a hands-on model,” said Diaz. Diaz said his company is developing the best blend of the virtual technology world with real life—using 3-D technology to cover the bulk of the curriculum, while recognizing that computers can’t teach how hard it is to retrieve a wrench dropped behind a generator. Eglin AFB in Florida has also developed a blended process, using a four-step training program [see sidebar]. Training that embeds virtual technology into a hardware device is cutting edge. MT2  18.1 | 21

A Four-Step Program The mission of the 33rd Fighter Wing at Eglin AFB is to train Air Force, Marine, Navy and international partner operators and maintainers of the F-35 Lightning II. Aircraft maintenance trainees follow a process that incorporates traditional classroom instruction, virtual learning and hands-on hardware training. As Major Karen L. Roganov explained: “We have a four-step approach to producing F-35 maintainers. When a student comes to Eglin to train on the F-35, they start in an academic training center that’s a schoolhouse megacenter with state-of-the-art trainers. Besides the trainers themselves, what also is unique is that this environment was built with the next 50 years in mind. It mimics an Ivy League campus—lovely dormitories with all the amenities. “The first process for maintainers is foundational knowledge, where they get acquainted with what they’re going to learn. It’s a lot of overview—blackboard-type work, but with electronics. “The second tier is working in the aircraft system maintenance trainer, which means sitting at a computer console with two screens: one representing the aircraft, and the other representing virtual tools and tech manuals. The trainer has an avatar that the student moves around. They get a task for a day—say it’s to change some hydraulic line—so they check out the virtual tool they need and review the data in the virtual instruction manual.

Kratos uses Augmented Reality, which combines 3-D technology with physical elements of the real world. For example, if a student is being trained on the various components of a UH-60 transmission, he will be able to hold a tablet computer up to the aircraft, as if taking a picture of it. Once the camera recognizes the shape of the specific platform, a 3-D overlay of the transmission components would appear on the tablet screen in the exact location it would be on the aircraft. This simulation provides the students a better understanding of the physical size and location of the components without having to actually remove any parts. “The tablet has simulation built in that replicates everything in the aircraft,” Diaz explained. “The maintainer wants to be able to locate a certain component in the entire flight system, and the tablet allows him to do that.” Training that embeds virtual technology into a hardware device is cutting edge. With tablet computers, students working on an airplane can see what the eye might not be able to see unless 30 percent of the plane was removed. “The tablet has simulation built in that replicates everything in the aircraft,” Diaz explained. “The maintainer wants to be able to locate a certain component in the entire flight system, and the tablet allows him to do that.” Despite its clear benefits, virtual technology has not been universally embraced. “Most militaries are well aware of the economic and training benefits of simulation for flight training; it is less expensive, safer and offers the ability to practice and rehearse situations that cannot be done in the real aircraft,” said Denice Guimond, senior manager, maintenance training business development, CAE. “Some of these same benefits, though, can be applied to maintenance training.” Ariotti suspects that point will become clearer as virtual technology solves more dilemmas such as the one Disti’s customer Oshkosh 22 | MT2 18.1

“Virtual learning requires 100 percent compliance. You don’t move on to the next task until you learn how to do it all correctly; you can’t skip a step. Each classroom has 12 students and two instructors wearing headsets—one at the front where he can see what everyone is doing, and the other roving around to answer questions. The environment is very learner-centric. It’s not one guy at the front of the room waving his arms and talking a lot. “After they finish virtual practice in the maintenance trainer, they go on to the third step, which is life-sized trainers. We have big bays the size of aircraft hangars where they work on a weapons load trainer or an ejection seat maintenance trainer, or practice tasks like removing a seat from the cockpit. The benefits of being in these big bays are that you don’t have to take aircraft off the flying schedule, and you don’t have to cancel training when there’s thunder and lightning on the runway. Also, we have training 24/7, with two shifts to accommodate students. Working in bays gives a lot more accessibility without being on the flight line. “The fourth step is aircraft hands-on training, where students work on a live flight line. Because, after all, every maintainer is going to tell you that [simulator] trainers are excellent, but the students need to touch a jet.”

Developed by Disti for the Oshkosh Corporation’s Training Center, the M978 Fuel Trainer teaches fueling and defueling procedures in a safe and effective manner. This virtual trainer replaced over 300 PowerPoint slides, giving the instructors a powerful interactive teaching tool. [Photo courtesy of Disti]

encountered in how to train gas-pumpers on one of its tanker trucks. The initial 300-slide PowerPoint presentation was “mind-numbing,” Ariotti said. Practicing fuel transfer in a classroom was dangerous, and practicing with water would have been destructive to the fuel lines. “They were really stuck on a good way to do training, so along came this technology and our solution,” he said. Judging from experiences such as those, Ariotti, like others, has no doubt that virtual technology represents the future of maintenance training. “The folks who haven’t seen it before are getting exposed and want more,” he said. “The market is going to have a hard time keeping up with the demand as it becomes more prevalent.” O For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea at or search our online archives for related stories at

Maintaining high readiness levels among UAS operators.

By Henry Canaday, MT2 Correspondent

operators and 25 weeks for Grey Eagle operators. Maintenance courses Simulators and virtual environments are playing an increasing are similar in length. About 2,500 soldiers in various specialties have role in unmanned aerial systems (UAS) training not only for new trainbeen trained each year. ees, but for UAS operators returning home. As units draw down from Commercial firms have helped significantly, both with training Iraq and Afghanistan, there will be more emphasis on home station itself and with simulation systems to improve it. Since 2002, General training to maintain the readiness levels of UAS operators returning Dynamics Information Technology has provided UAS from the field. To maintain their flight qualification operator and maintenance instruction for the Army’s and readiness, UAS operators must either have flight Shadow, Hunter, Warrior A and Grey Eagle at Fort time with the UAS or time on an accredited simulation. Huachuca. MetaVR’s Virtual Reality Scene Generator Training for Army UASs is managed by the U.S. (VRSG) provides the real-time simulated UAS camera Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). feed for UAS simulators at Fort Huachuca. Historically, the Army conducts small UAS training GDIT instructors train Army, Navy and Marine peron the actual RQ-20 Puma and RQ-11 Raven platforms sonnel in UAS operation, payload operation and system, for maneuver brigades, military police, engineering airframe, power plant and electronics maintenance, exunits and other small units. It also trains Marines and plained Howard Phelps, vice president for unmanned Army special operations units. One training challenge aerial vehicle training and simulation efforts. is sheer volume. For example, the Army is aiming for Christy McBride All GDIT instructors and curriculum developers are well over 2,000 Ravens in by 2015, with three aircraft graduates of the support cadre training Course and the per system. The Army tries to train operators of small TRADOC-approved Army basic instructor Course. Many UASs on ranges at brigade home stations, but it has are master instructors. When not actually training, inalso trained in Afghanistan. However, with the increase structors help ensure that more than 600 lesson plans in demand for training, the Army has developed simumeet warfighter needs. lated training for small UASs. GDIT can work with any aircraft or sensor system. Aegis Technologies offers embedded UAS training The firm is heavily involved in TRADOC initiatives, inwith its Visualization and Mission-Planning Integrated cluding evolving training toward virtual and computerRehearsal Environment (VAMPIRE) for small UASs interface instruction. It works with software developers like the RQ-11 Raven, Wasp and RQ-20 Puma manuto integrate real-world scenarios and uses learning manfactured by AeroVironment. “Aegis also provides onsite agement systems to improve student performance. training services,” noted Product Manager Christy Mc“We provide air-crew training and courseware deBride. Over 3,000 VAMPIRE licenses have been fielded Robert Cushing velopment for Air Force flight training units for the to multiple branches of Department of Defense MQ-1 [Predator] and MQ-9 [Reaper],” explained Robert cies, with the largest user being the U.S. Army. Cushing, managing director of MQ operations for Crew Training Inter“A distinct feature of VAMPIRE is that it is truly embedded,” national. “We share the load equally with the Air Force for flying and McBride said. “It requires no additional hardware and runs on the simulator instructors.” Panasonic Toughbook and ground control station, allowing soldiers For years, only graduates of fixed wing pilot training could go into to train as they fight and fight as they train.” VAMPIRE is integrated training to fly the large Air Force UAS. That is no longer the case. “Sevwith FalconView, a flight-planning software used by UAS operators for eral years ago, we started an undergraduate RPA [remotely piloted airmission planning and rehearsal. It can customize scenarios for specific craft] training program,” Cushing said. training needs. Candidates go through an approximately four-month course conMcBride said the success of VAMPIRE prompted Aegis’ developtaining three phases: initial flight screening, instrument training and ment of an institutional training system (ITS) for classroom training general UAS training. They are then enrolled in MQ-1 or MQ-9 training of multiple users with an instructor operator station for control and at Holloman Air Force Base for an additional four months. automatic scoring. “This enhances the training environment and alThe whole program, which awards RPA pilot wings, takes about lows for replay of scenarios to rapidly correct operator errors and imnine months. Cushing explained, “We can get two RPA pilots through prove their performance.” The first ITS will be fielded in early 2013. in the time it takes to get one pilot candidate through the entire fixed For larger UAS platforms, the U.S. Army has established a UAV wing pilot course.” school at Fort Huachuca, Ariz. Here, the 2-13th Aviation Regiment, The Air Force still does it the old-fashioned way, taking graduates 1st Aviation Brigade, U.S. Army Aviation Center of Excellence, conof fixed wing training, but increasingly the RPA-only approach is used. ducts training on the RQ-7 Shadow, MQ-5 Hunter, MC-1 WarriorCushing believes this will train the majority of UAS pilots in the future. A and MC-1 Grey Eagle. Training duration varies by course at Fort “We have hit our stride and are doing it well,” Cushing said. Huachuca, with 18 weeks for Shadow operators, 12 weeks for Hunter

MT2  18.1 | 23

Elbit Systems Advanced UAS Mission Simulation and Training system. [Photo courtesy of Elbit Systems]

An RQ 1B from 1998-2000 with a synthetic aperture radar (the “chin”) small camera (versatron ball) and a C-band satellite (the hump on top middle) along with the other KU apparatus. The GCS is in the background with the LOS antenna mounted on top. It’s parked at Creech AFB (then Indian Springs Auxiliary Air Field) on the south ramp. [Photo courtesy of CTI]

at Redstone Arsenal, Ala. This is an important step, as Elbit Systems offers an advanced UAS mission simusometime in the future, a trainee might be able to aclation and training (MST) system for the Israeli Defense crue accredited UAS training hours on the simulators Force and international customers. The new MST is the that will supplant a portion of use of the real system. latest in a line of UAS training systems developed by VRSG also generates the visuals for the OH-58 Elbit, which itself makes UAS. Kiowa Warrior at Bell Helicopter’s new Manned UnMST can be used to simulate all UASs and all mismanned Operations (MUMO) laboratory in Huntsville, sion phases, from planning to debriefing, said Eli Dotan, Ala. MUMO provides an interoperable simulation envisenior business development director at Elbit Systems’ ronment for operators of UASs and the OH-58 Kiowa UAS Division. MST’s 3-D geographic high-resolution daWarrior. The Kiowa Warrior simulator interoperates tabase offers highly realistic training. with AAI’s nearby UAS laboratory base Shadow UAS For operators, MST simulates UAS behavior, flight W. Garth Smith simulator, which also uses MetaVR visuals. The lab’s modes, emergency procedures, payload behavior and purpose is to support the U.S. Army objectives for data from sensors. It realistically simulates day-andMUMO UAS operations by advancing the manned-unnight imagery, including physically-based sensor modmanned capability from inside the helicopter cockpit. els, terrain, objects, targets, battlefield and weather AAI Corporation recently purchased 176 more VRSG effects, and sensor-specific effects. Special attention is licenses for training on its UGCS. AAI has purchased given to emergency and malfunction training, which over 600 VRSG licenses for its Shadow Crew Trainer, can normally be trained for only in simulators. which supports training for the Hunter, Shadow and The MST can be used for initial training, improving Grey Eagle. AAI uses 109 VRSG licenses for its Shadskills and maintaining competency. It can also be used ow training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations to rehearse planned missions. Operators work at the desktop training suite developed for training the Nasame ground-control station consoles as in real UASs, tional Guard as part of a PEO STRI program. getting a real “touch-and-feel.” The same Windows huAAI offers the Shadow crew trainer for the Army man machine interface is used. John Hayward National Guard, explained John Hayward, director of MetaVR’s VRSG generates real-time simulated UAS training systems at AAI Logistics & Technical Services. video feed payload used in UAS training. “The company “It’s a high-fidelity simulator that allows training two is one of the largest suppliers of UAS commercially licrews at the same time, independently or on the same censed 3-D visualization software for the U.S. military,” problem scenario,” Hayward noted. The system trains noted W. Garth Smith, chief executive officer and coaircraft and payload operators and, with launch-andfounder of MetaVR. VRSG’s simulated sensor video feed recovery functions, crew chiefs. plays a crucial role in training for a number of UASs by “It offers all the elements a Shadow operator will both military and commercial organizations. Much of see in real life,” Hayward emphasized. This includes VRSG’s installed base is through the Multiple Unified visual responses, sensor video and graphical control Simulation Environment/Air Force Synthetic Environsystems. It can simulate people, vehicles and aircraft, ment for Reconnaissance and Surveillance (MUSE/AFfriend, foe or neutral, all behaving realistically. “If it’s SERS) simulation system. VRSG drives the visuals for Mark Hitch a person, it walks,” Hayward said. In the future, simuMUSE/AFSERS, which is the primary UAS training and lated UAS environments will look just like real environments. “We are simulation system used in the Department of Defense for commandalmost there; we are very close.” and staff-level joint services training. AAI has delivered 28 Shadow crew trainers to the Army National VRSG provides the visuals in the Army’s new universal mission Guard. Training Guard UAS crews takes several months, according to simulators, a next-generation simulator to support the universal Mark Hitch, senior director of business development for AAI Logistics ground control system (UGCS), developed by AAI, which the Army & Technical Services. will begin fielding in fiscal 2013. This simulator will train operators of Shadow crew trainers are used for training in the United States the Shadow, Grey Eagle and Hunter. The Army’s universal mission before deployment. “This helps the National Guard meet unique trainsimulator just went through its first accreditation evaluation in ing needs,” Hitch noted. “They do not have as much airspace as the January at the Joint Technology Center/System Integration Laboratory 24 | MT2 18.1

CAE’s UAS mission trainer is an open, integrated, platform-agnostic product solution designed to meet the mission training requirements in a growing unmanned systems market. [Photo courtesy of CAE]

L-3 Link has delivered 26 Predator Mission Aircrew Training Systems to the U.S. Air Force that today are being used to support basic and advanced crew training. [Photo courtesy of L-3 Link]

AAI Logistics & Technical Services’ Shadow Crew Trainer provides the National Guard high-fidelity training for their Shadow tactical unmanned aircraft system air vehicle operators, mission payload operators and maintainers. [Photo courtesy of Textron]

More tools and suppliers are on the way. CAE has launched a UAS Army does at Fort Huachuca to fly the real things, and they meet on mission trainer and installed it at the UAS Center of Excellence in weekends and two weeks a year.” Alma, Quebec. Open architecture and commercial off-the-shelf hardThe Shadow crew trainer was recently certified by the Army Direcware and simulation software make the CAE system platform-agnostorate of Simulations as having both performance that matches that tic. Based on modular technology, it can be adapted to train operators of the aircraft and accurate sensor views, so that every hour of instrucof simple, tactical UASs as well as highly complex, medium-altitude tion taken on the simulator counts as an hour on the aircraft. long-endurance platforms such as Predator or high-altitude long enAAI also trains National Guard Shadow trainers. The company is durance platforms such as Global Hawk. now offering an operations and maintenance trainer for the Shadow The CAE trainer can be configured to replicate behavior of specific to train crew chiefs and maintenance crews. This new product is a UASs or sensor packages, including infrared, low-light TV, laser range mockup of the aircraft, while the Shadow crew trainer is configured finder, laser target designator and synthetic aperture radar. The trainlike dual ground-control stations to mimic operational use. er also simulates signals, communication and electronic intelligence AAI also provides instruction for platforms, including the Gray tasks. CAE can expand the system to train in electronic warfare and Eagle, as well as fee-for-service operations on its Aerosonde. anti-submarine defense. Hayward noted that the Army is moving toward fielding a UGCS The CAE system can train pilots, sensor operators and mission for all UASs. “We expect the Army to transition to a universal mission commanders. Its ground control station can switch between real and simulator that simulates the UGCS, which is able to operate a number virtual environments. An instructor station supports briefings. of unmanned platforms. We expect that the universal mission simula“Military forces are looking to leverage virtual simulation for more tor will have much of the functionality of a Shadow crew trainer and mission training because of the inherent economic benefits, but also are interested in pursuing that opportunity.” because virtual training provides the ability to train and rehearse just It is important to note that AAI’s UGCS and its One System ground like you will operate on the battlefield,” said Martin Daigle, CAE’s UAS control station are delivered with an embedded simulation training strategy and business development manager. “We’ve focused on makcomponent. As has been delivered to the Army for a number of years, ing our UAS mission trainer open and interoperable because UASs typAAI’s ground control stations enable operators to train on the same ically operate in support of joint and coalition forces, so systems that are used to control actual UASs. When the mission training environment should be integrated they are not operating an actual UAS, payload operator with other training assets.” trainees can simply switch over to the embedded simuThe CAE UAS mission trainer includes the ground lation system. MetaVR VRSG has generated the simucontrol station, high-fidelity simulation software for lated sensor video feed in these ground control stations sensors, simulated communication, simulation software for nearly 10 years. for generating training scenarios, a CAE Medallion-6000 Since 2005, L-3 Link Simulation and Training’s image generator, a synthetic environment and computprogram of record has been the Predator Mission Airer-generated maritime, ground and air forces, an increw Training System (PMATS), of which 26 systems structor operator station and weather simulation. are installed with the Air Force and Air National Guard. Simulation software populates the high-fidelity “It’s immersive and high-fidelity,” explained DirecJeff Schram synthetic environment with friendly, hostile and neutor of Business Development Jeff Schram. “We also do tral forces. The CAE UAS mission trainer allows inF-16 training and have used that experience to provide structors to define scenarios and control and monitor a more immersive environment for PMATS.” entities in the tactical environment in real time. With a ground control station from General Atomics and simulaThe Air Force is currently re-competing PMATS; two of the bidders tion from L-3, PMATS can do both initial and mission training and include the incumbent L-3 Link and CAE. O train pilots and sensor operators on both the Reaper and Predator. “We stay current with the aircraft as they are developed,” Schram noted.  The Air Force’s goal is to do 100 percent of training by simulation, and the service is well past the halfway mark, Schram estimated. The Air Force also wants to make simulation more realistic and work for For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea more missions. “In five years, it will not be possible to tell if it is real at or search our online archives for related stories at or simulated.”

MT2  18.1 | 25

The Future of Training How live, virtual and constructive domains work together to serve a vital role. By Terri Bernhardt After a two-year development and testing period, PEO STRI’s Live, Virtual, and Constructive Integrating Architecture (LVC-IA) system is up and running. LVC-IA is the Army’s program of record which achieves persistent interoperability among the live, virtual and constructive domains, and stimulates Mission Command systems, thus enabling an integrating training environment (ITE) for commanders and their staff to train. The LVC-IA is currently fielded at Fort Hood and Fort Bliss and several home stations are on the schedule to receive this critical training capability. Army Lieutenant Colonel Freddie King, Product Manager for Warrior Training Integration, PEO STRI, assumed command of the LVC-IA team in 2010, and manages the day-to-day aspects of the program. King brings to the program a strong portfolio of acquisition experience and has vastly expanded her knowledge in modeling and simulation since her first assignment to PEO STRI in 2005. “Soldiers and leaders can use LVC-IA to train for real-world missions,” King stated. “They see the system as an enhancement to training for mission planning and mission rehearsal.” When delivered to an Army base, the LVC-IA system footprint consists mainly of a mobile video wall, two computer racks, 10 dualscreen computer workstations and associated software. The LVC-IA system uses this hardware and software to pass data among classified and unclassified systems via a cross-domain solution, which is critical in stimulating Mission Command systems and providing commanders a common operating picture. LVC-IA is expected to be fielded at 18 different sites. Fort Hood was the first home station to use the system and Fort Bliss is scheduled to have the system ready for use by January 2013. Three additional sites will receive Version 1 (V1) by the end of fiscal year 2013. “Version 2 development is also underway,” King stated. “Lessons learned from every training exercise will be used to improve the V1 capability, enhance the user’s training experience, and meet the commander’s training objective.” As PEO STRI continues to evolve LVC-IA, they will eventually develop and field four different versions. With LVC-IA now being utilized as a validated system to train soldiers, it is becoming evident the system can provide a very effective and realistic training experience, which is facilitated by having a consistent and persistent training capability at most home stations. The system is developed to meet user requirements and fulfill commanders’ training needs while achieving the most effective use of resources. “Trainers and LVC-IA users are already acknowledging LVC-IA as a training enhancement to what they already do. Use of the system is integrated into a unit’s normal planning cycle and the 26 | MT2 18.1

Soldiers at Fort Hood, Texas, prepare to participate in the “live” portion of the testing of the Live, Virtual and Constructive Integrating Architecture. The soldiers are from the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division. [Photo courtesy of Team Orlando]

LVC-IA provides the tools for commanders to conduct critical after action reviews,” King said. When asked about collaborative partners within Team Orlando, King explained they have engaged in discussions between the services. “LVC-IA is the Army’s formal program, but we have conducted briefing sessions and demonstrations for other services who express interest,” she explained. “We share our lessons learned with one another to make training across the services more effective.” Work is being done with the Army Research Laboratory Human Research and Engineering Directorate and Simulation and Training Technology Center on an initiative called the PM ConSim Risk Reduction Test Bed to perform research in areas that address ConSim Program of record capability gaps. This research is focusing on using emerging technologies and maturing the technical maturity level of various solution sets to transition seamlessly into the PORs without impacting ongoing development and fielding efforts. Although King oversees the day-to-day operation of the LVC-IA program, she emphasized the dedicated efforts of others at PEO STRI. “The achievements that have made this ITE system of systems a reality are the result of many people here at PEO STRI,” she stated. Many PEO STRI employees, along with our defense contractors, have worked diligently to ensure PEO STRI delivers the best products and solutions possible to bridge current capability gaps and meet training needs.” O

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MT2  18.1 | 27


Military Training Technology

Don Ariel Chairman Raydon Corporation Don Ariel is the chairman and visionary for Raydon Corporation in Port Orange, Fla., which he founded along with Ray Hockney and Dave Donovan in 1988. In its 25-year history, Raydon has been a thought leader and force for positive, disruptive change. He has oriented his company to quickly embrace new technology to lower the cost and time to combat proficiency and to distribute that technology to the soldier wherever they may be. Q: Can you describe Raydon’s history and evolution? A: We have been a leading developer of innovative simulation-based training products and solutions for the last 25 years. Most people don’t know the backstory. Although the three founders of Raydon were engineers, we were also logisticians. The majority of our most compelling innovation sprang from a search for more logistically sound methods of distributing effective and affordable training. We have learned many great lessons on how to do that well over the last 25 years. Our first customer was the Army National Guard. They had unique challenges; a geographicallydispersed force with little time and little money to train. Meeting these challenges created more cost-effective, agile technologies. As a result, we supplied more, higher-fidelity training seats and content for OIF and OEF than any other company. Q: What are some of your key products in the DoD training and simulation industry? A: That depends on what you mean by a product. When you look at it from a distribution point of view, your question always starts with the audience. Who are they? Where are they? What do they need most? When you think in terms of distribution you need two things: seats and titles. Using the movie industry as an analogy, it has many differing seats for title distribution. Theaters, HDTVs, computers and mobile devices can each show any number of movie titles and genres in any of those seats. Virtual training should be no different. We see many new gaps. Right now unstabilized gunnery is huge. We already have seats that can develop these skills this because of 28 | MT2 18.1

down, but either way we are all going to end up at the bottom of the crater.” We recently formed a common industry standards group, inviting companies to discuss common hardware and software interfaces that would allow a more commercial approach to the distribution of proficiency to our audiences at far less cost to the customer. prior convoy and route clearance gaps. Distribution, however, remains a problem. Traditional trainers required huge investments in buildings for static capability, but if you make training mobile, you can buy less and get much better utilization. Q: What are some of the new training/ simulation technologies Raydon is developing? A: We are working with our competitors and partners to establish commercial standards that will allow all of our mutual customers to access any available training content on any available training seat. Frankly, we’d like to see the equivalent of an app store for training titles. Also, we advocate use of a new measure of cost effectiveness—the cost per soldier training hour—as the best measure of training efficiency. Q: How are you positioned for the future within the military? A: This market is historically countercyclical. When live training dollars shrink and procurement funds dwindle, virtual training must pick up the slack. Raydon’s fleet of over 50 trailers can train mounted maneuver, convoy, route clearance, gunnery, combined arms and mission rehearsal using the same assets. Providing this capability on an “as needed” basis to our customers gives us a distribution advantage and eliminates the need for procurement dollars. Q: What is Raydon’s connection with the defense community? A: We are all connected to each other. As a friend recently said, “We are all standing at the edge of the same budget crater. We can either push each other down or help each other

Q: What is an example of your success in the military, and what are some of your goals [specific to the training/simulation industry] over the next year? A: Raydon was first to market with its Virtual Convoy Operations Trainer, Virtual Combat Convoy Trainer, Virtual Route Clearance Trainer and the Unstabilized Gunner Trainers. Some of these were developed and fielded in as little as 90 days, which is remarkable considering it took three to five years for the program of record to come out. For the future, our rental program is growing in popularity, but finding training gaps and training relevant and rapid solutions to the soldier will always be our number one goal. Q: How do customers benefit from Raydon’s varied resources and expertise? A: Our customers directly benefit from our assuming the risk. We recently invested in a capability for unstabilized gunnery training. There was no requirements document, no RFP, no budget, only a need. We configured a trailer that had eight individual gunnery trainers to support a brigade’s unstabilized gunnery live fire qualification. It yielded a 95 percent first run qualification rate—double their previous rate! Q: How do you measure success? A: Logistical efficiency must be measured to understand training success. We believe our products must reduce the cost, shorten trainup time, reduce the frequency of refresher training. Those measures tell us if we are succeeding, but a soldier or commander telling us our equipment made a real difference in their training and combat readiness is priceless. O


April 2013 Vol. 18, Issue 2

America's Longest Established Simulation & Training Magazine

Cover and In-Depth Interview with:

Rear Adm. Donald P. Quinn Commander Naval Education and Training Command Special Section PEO STRI Who’s Who Insight from all of PEO STRI’s project managers, focused on a look ahead and upcoming programs and initiatives.

Features Image Generators Creating high-fidelity images is crucial to warfighter training, and industry is consistently creating new and innovative technology to give all military branches an edge in the field. Military Police Training MPs need to be trained even more than public safety officials to maintain a secure location, sometimes in remote and hostile areas.

Team Orlando

Ground Vehicle Training Driving an HMMWV at top speed is not something one learns in driver’s education in high school; these drivers need extensive training to hone their skills behind the wheel.

Command Profile

GameTech: Focusing on topics of mobile and virtual worlds.


Insertion Order Deadline: March 13, 2013 • Ad Materials Deadline: March 20, 2013

BuILdIng sKILLs For todAy And tomorroW

AAI LogIstIcs & technIcAL servIces’ trAInIng And sImuLAtIon expertIse creAtes mIssIon-reAdy trAInees Comprehensive training enables aircrew, maintainers, sensor operators and unmanned aircraft systems personnel to do their jobs with skill and confidence. AAI Logistics & Technical Services delivers affordable, comprehensive training and simulation solutions including: • Training system requirements analysis • Curricula and courseware • Classroom and hands-on instruction • Training system design, development and production • Contractor logistics support, modifications and upgrades for mission-critical training devices All of this capability is backed by decades of experience and a proven record of customer satisfaction. Our training and simulation solutions create and maintain mission readiness for today’s fight and the future force. Call 800-655-3964 or email to learn more. © 2012 AAI Corporation. All rights reserved. AAI Logistics & Technical Services is an operating unit of Textron Systems, a Textron Inc. (NYSE: TXT) company. AAI and design is a registered trademark of AAI Corporation.

MT2 18-1 (Feb. 2013)  

Military Training Technology, Volume 18, Issue 1, February 2013

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