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Military Training Technology
August 2012 Volume 17 • Issue 5
Cover / Q&A
Features Virtual Training Update
Virtual training saves warfighters’ lives by training them better and by augmenting their live training. Given budget reductions and the current constraints that are placed on DoD, virtual training allows the U.S. military to stretch their dollars by saving on travel and ammunition costs. By Erin Flynn Jay
5 Training Unmanned Birds
Those tough new birds without pilots in the cockpit are dramatically expanding the coverage and capabilities of U.S. ground, air and naval forces. That has imposed some very different, and sometimes very demanding, new training requirements. By Henry Canaday
Special Section Medical Simulation
For the military, medical simulation is looking up. By using advanced technology and techniques, nurses, medics and doctors are better trained than ever before, having practiced lifesaving procedures repeatedly in highly realistic situations. Medical simulation is increasingly being used in cognitive and decision making training— and not just for the perfection of motor skills. By Hank Hogan
Comprehensive Firearms Training
There is no arguing the fact that technology—and its continuing advancement—is crucial to today’s military. Warfighters make regular use of infrared targeting capabilities, night vision optics and thermal imaging. There are unmanned drones and robots and real-time battlefield video feeds to supplement situational awareness. By J.B. Bissell
Using virtual reality technology, Marines may soon be able to train for a variety of operations using existing infrastructure by injecting role players, effects, vehicles and aircraft into the existing infrastructure. By Brian O’Shea
Colonel Peter K. Eide Chief of Simulators Division Agile Support Directorate Aeronautical Systems Center Air Force Materiel Command
28 Samuel Recine Director of Sales - Americas & Asia Pacific Matrox Graphics
Military Training Technology Volume 17, Issue 5 • August 2012
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EDITOR’S PERSPECTIVE Sequestration is fast approaching unless lawmakers avert the automatic $55 billion in scheduled defense budget cuts looming January 2013. The media and political pundits are using words like “Armageddon” and “catastrophe” while supporters of sequestration claim that the U.S. military will be spending just as much as it was in 2006, despite the automatic cuts. Parts of the defense budget that cannot be cut are overseas contingency operations (OCO), such as operations in Afghanistan and the Persian Gulf, said Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Martin Dempsey recently. He added that the money will have to come from base funds. “There’s talk about exempting manpower ... and you’ve also said, ‘Thou Brian O’Shea Editor shall not BRAC,’” said Dempsey. “So now you’ve limited the places where that money can come from. It can’t come from manpower. It can’t come from infrastructure. And you have to reinvest in OCO. And what’s left is operations, maintenance and training and modernization.” Numbers released by the House Armed Services Committee (HASC), chaired by Howard “Buck” McKeon, say the cuts will potentially come from manpower. “Cuts to spending for the acquisition of military equipment alone would lead to the loss of over 1,000,000 private sector jobs. These cuts could push unemployment back up to 9 percent. Cuts to active-duty and DoD civilian personnel would amount to over 350,000 jobs lost,” says the HASC website. “The impact will be borne disproportionately by some states. The 10 states that will feel the largest pain as a percentage of the state economy are Virginia, Connecticut, Alabama, Arizona, Maryland, Alaska, Hawaii, Wisconsin, Massachusetts and Missouri.” Granted, the loss of jobs is a terrible consequence, but from a strictly financial perspective, the time and money spent training a warfighter is an investment that requires patience to see a return. If you spend six months to two years training a person for a specific job and then cut that program, all of the resources that have gone into training that individual are wasted. It is as yet unclear what Congress will decide to do, but I’m not alone in keeping a watchful eye on the outcome of this critical situation. If you have any questions regarding Military Training Technology, feel free to contact me at any time.
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U.K. Ministry of Defence Broadens Adoption of Simulation Solutions
Boom Operator Simulator Systems Contract Awarded
Ngrain, a provider of interactive 3-D simulation software and solutions for maintenance training and support, recently announced that the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence (MoD) has selected a new Ngrain virtual task trainer (VTT) solution. Deployed by channel partner PulseDefence, the solution will enable the MoD to provide anytime, anywhere access to maintenance and operations training for the 6 ml diesel engine. Along with the 6 ml diesel engine VTT, the U.K. MoD has also selected Ngrain and PulseDefence for inclusion in the MoD Multi-Participant Framework Agreement for Technical Support (FATS/4). This contracting vehicle will enable the MoD to accelerate future procurements of Ngrain products and services. “With reduced budgets, there is less equipment available for training purposes, and the British military is tackling this challenge head-on. By allowing maintainers and operators to practice procedures virtually, the U.K. MoD is providing personnel with the interactive learning opportunities they need to master complex tasks. It is exciting to see our software-based approach continue to play a more central role in helping the U.K. military achieve its training goals,” said Keith Pollock, senior director, global channel and strategic partnerships, Ngrain. The 6 ml diesel engine virtual task trainer will allow royal electrical mechanical engineers to provide more experiential learning opportunities in an introductory diesel engine maintenance course, which covers complex procedures such as changing the starter motor and oil pump. Students will interact with the simulated equipment in real time, increasing their understanding of the engine’s internal components and operations. Used as a classroom tool and deployed on the Defence Learning Portal, the VTT will reduce the requirement for hard trainers and provide more distance learning opportunities. “As a result of economic pressures, maintenance professionals will be required to maintain a wider variety of equipment with fewer expert instructors and resources available to them. At the same time, it will be necessary to deliver training in the same volumes and quality as before, but in a way that costs less and has a smaller administrative burden. Adopting a flexible learning solution—one that can be easily delivered online—allows the MoD to deliver instruction in a way that reduces the need for travel, provides effective self-paced learning, and allows training resources to be diverted to more complex requirements. But most important, these solutions increase speed to competency,” said Richard Marshall, director of sales, defence learning & simulation, PulseDefence.
FAAC Inc., part of Arotech Corporation’s Training and Simulation Division, has received a $25.3 million contract award for the design, development, production and delivery of 17 boom operator simulator systems (BOSS). This award, from the U.S. Army Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training & Instrumentation (PEO STRI), is a competitive small-business delivery order under the STRI Omnibus Contract known as STOC II. The initial award has funded $4.3 million for design and development of a first article with the remaining $21 million in options expected to be exercised for the production of 16 additional units and up to four years of initial contractor logistical support of the installed systems. The period of performance for the production of the first article and 16 additional units including logistical support is estimated to be 60 months. The BOSS is a high fidelity trainer for the Air National Guard boom operators that replicates the KC-135R Block 40 boom pod. The BOSS provides an immersive simulation environment that utilizes realistic computer generated images with an emulation of the actual aircraft boom controls. The BOSS is intended for squadron level training to be co-located with operational KC-135 air refueling wings. “When Air National Guard boom operators leave their civilian jobs, don their uniforms and arrive at base for a training session, they need a system that is easy to power up, loaded with meaningful missions that are easily selectable, and has a reliability that produces the utmost confidence that they will receive effective training,” said Kurt Flosky, FAAC executive vice president. “Our BOSS solution will provide a safe simulated environment designed for operators to learn and train proper procedures with the right fidelity to ensure their skills will transfer to the actual equipment.”
$4 Million Contract to Support NAWCTSD The U.S. Navy has awarded Aya Associates Inc. (Aya) a $4 million contract to support the Navy Air Warfare Center Training System Division (NAWCTSD). “The Navy continues to do exciting things in the training arena, and we are proud to support their training missions,” said Edgar Aya, president of Aya Associates Inc. “Our expanding capabilities, coupled with the Navy’s commitment to superior training products, make this a tremendous opportunity.” Aya will provide planning, assessment, design, networking, modeling, simulation, training, education and coaching solutions including field support and site installations. The team will
also be responsible for providing program management and staff support. “As one of the leading providers of creative and technologybased products and services, Aya is proud to partner with the Navy as they proceed toward more innovative and technologybased solutions,” said Alex Aya, vice president of Aya. “Our passion for a leading edge and pioneering approach to support training is critical to providing our sailors with the most effective, affordable and best value training solutions available,” said Dave Miller, vice president, Aya Government Systems Division.
MT2 17.5 | 3
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS Proposal for KC-46 Aircrew Training System Lockheed Martin submitted its proposal recently to the U.S. Air Force for the KC-46 Aircrew Training System, a program that will prepare pilots, boom operators and other on-board personnel for air refueling, cargo transport and medical evacuation. The KC-46 Aircrew Training System supports the Air Force’s strategy for global mobility. Aircrews will refuel fixed wing receiver-capable aircraft for the Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps and coalition forces. The first aircrews are expected to begin training with the system in 2016. “Lockheed Martin’s solution for the KC-46 Aircrew Training System minimizes cost and training time while providing each airman with a customized learning environment,” said Jim Weitzel, vice president of training solutions at Lockheed Martin’s Global Training and Logistics business. “The design builds on our proven methodologies that prepare 35,000 airmen on 36 aircraft variants each year.” The KC-46 Aircrew Training System includes training devices, courseware, instructors and logistics support. Lockheed Martin has assembled an industry team of large and small businesses that bring fielded, affordable technologies to the program. Lockheed Martin and Thales Group provide Level D-certified simulators that use off-the-shelf components. Small business ACME Worldwide Inc. of Albuquerque, N.M., will provide the boom operator trainers for remote air refueling.
Compiled by KMI Media Group staff
UAS Simulation Systems MetaVR Inc. announced it recently delivered over 60 Virtual Reality Scene Generator (VRSG) licenses for use in unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) simulation. AAI Corporation recently purchased 51 new MetaVR VRSG licenses to provide the desktop and embedded 3-D synthetic payload visualization for training UAS operators with its universal ground control system. Since 2002, AAI has purchased over 450 VRSG licenses for ongoing fielding in its embedded Shadow Crew Trainer One System Ground Control Station. These licenses support embedded trainers in Hunter, Shadow TUAS, Aerosonde and Grey Eagle unmanned aerial systems, which are used by U.S. Army and Army National Guard units. MetaVR delivered with the new VRSG licenses a brand new 3-D model of the Shadow RQ-7B Increased Endurance UAS, which is available to MetaVR customers at no charge to users on active maintenance. Sandia Research has purchased multiple MetaVR VRSG licenses to simulate the UAV camera payload in its UAS research project. Using a combined VRSG and Battlespace Simulations (BSI) Modern Air Combat Environment (MACE) solution,
Sandia Research engineers recently built a research test bed, called SimSystem, which monitors the behavior of participants in the roles of pilot, sensor operator and data exploiter (navigator) as they fly missions in a shared virtual environment via DIS. SimSystem’s high-fidelity 3-D simulation workstations are used by participants and their observers for a behavioral research study to evaluate human effectiveness factors associated with user interface tools used to communicate between multiple crews operating in the same battlespace. The results of this research will be used to steer the development of real-world nextgeneration UAS interface tools used by the U.S. armed forces and DoD organizations. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) is building a new UAS simulation and training lab at its Prescott, Ariz., campus. Recently the lab purchased VRSG licenses (to be used with BSI MACE) for its UAS simulation system, which will be unveiled in classes to be offered in the fall 2012 curriculum. Following in the footsteps of the ERAU Daytona Beach campus, which offers a BA in UAS and built a UAS simulation lab a few years ago, the ERAU Prescott campus currently offers a UAS minor and plans to offer it as a major in a few years.
Compiled by KMI Media Group staff
Systems Command, Patuxent River, Md. Dunaway is currently serving as commander, Operational Test and Evaluation Force, Norfolk, Va. Rear Adm. David A. Dunaway
Navy Rear Admiral David A. Dunaway has been appointed to the rank of vice admiral and for assignment as commander, Naval Air
4 | MT2 17.5
Captain Eric C. Young, who has been selected for the rank of rear admiral (lower half), will be assigned as deputy chief of Navy Reserve, N095, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, D.C. Young
is currently serving as deputy director, training, transformation and technology, assistant secretary of defense, reserve affairs, Washington, D.C. Navy Captain Paul A. Sohl has been nominated for appointment to the rank of rear admiral (lower half). Sohl is currently serving as commanding officer, Naval Test Wing Pacific, Pt. Mugu, Calif.
CAE announced the appointment of Gene Colabatistto as its new group president, Military Simulation Products, Training and Services. He will be replacing Martin Gagné who, after 16 years of service with CAE, has decided to retire. Gagné has agreed to stay on as a consultant in order to ensure a smooth transition and support a number of key strategic initiatives.
Dave Schmitz has been named for the newly created position of chief operating officer. Schmitz will be responsible for all facets of Cubic Defense Applications’ worldwide operations, engineering and product line day-today performance, and will directly support business development initiatives.
Enriching the virtual world with more information and expanding the system. Given budget reductions and the current constraints that are placed on the DoD, virtual training allows the U.S. military to stretch their dollars by saving on travel and ammunition costs. John Foster, assistant project manager for the U.S. Army’s Close Combat Tactical Trainer, said the Dismounted Soldier Training System (DSTS) is a virtual collective training system that supports individual to company level training in unified land operations. “DSTS is a component of the CCTT family of virtual simulators and consists of: nine virtual soldier manned modules (VSMM); five virtual soldier multi-functional workstations; one exercise control workstation; one semi-automated forces (SAF) workstation; and one after action review (AAR) station,” he said. “DSTS will enable dismounted units to train as part of an LVC [live, virtual, constructive] and integrated training environment. The VSMM is an untethered fully immersive system allowing soldiers to move, shoot and communicate. The VSMM enables expansion of the training audience up to company level exercises.” The DSTS can support training interoperability with CCTT/ AVCATT/RVTT/OneSAF software and SECORE databases. DSTS operating software is Virtual Battle Space 2, Foster added. What is down the road in the next three-to-five years to enhance this training? Foster said bringing DSTS to be interoperable with the CCTT and AVCATT; enriching the virtual world with more information; the capability to give orders at the unit level up to Company; bringing more of the environment to life with the activities of the people in the region being trained; and expanding the system to be able to train an entire company of soldiers. www.MT2-kmi.com
By Erin Flynn Jay MT2 Correspondent
What technology shortfalls and gaps does PEO STRI need industry’s help to address? According to Foster, natural movement through the virtual world, increased capability to interact with the virtual world, delivery of the virtual world through wireless technology to increase the graphics rendering process, and capability to give orders at the unit level up to company could be improved. There are not any RFPs currently out from PEO STRI in this area.
Virtual Training Advantages Virtual training has become increasingly important in military training because of several inherent advantages. “It avoids issues with requiring large amounts of physical space and offers the ability to avoid weather issues while offering the ability to train in any desired environmental condition or location. Additionally, it offers the flexibility of training individual military members without requiring large numbers of additional resources to carry out the training,” said Brian Domian, director of business development at Saab Training USA. “Virtual training also offers the ability to tailor a training program to the specific level of experience of the trainee and the ability to focus on skill areas requiring particular emphasis.” Virtual training also offers significant savings on vehicle and aircraft maintenance costs, fuel and ammunition, etc., while allowing training to be conducted extremely realistically, added Domian. Finally, it includes the ability to conduct AARs containing all aspects of the training event. MT2 17.5 | 5
Army—all have aviation trainers that are virtual simulator trainers, The Air Force was probably the first military service to put everything from F16s to UH60s. On the armor side you have tank emphasis on virtual training through the use of flight simulators. trainers with programs like CCTT and AGTS, which allow tankers “Originally, early simulators taught not only routine flight operaand tank gunners to train in a virtual environment and replicate tions but allowed the trainee to be placed into situations that could that environment as closely as possible and the inside of a tank as be hazardous in flight or which by their nature could not be perclosely as possible,” he said. “With our most recent program—the formed in actual flight, such as aircraft component failures, which Dismounted Soldier Training System—this is something that is not only could not be induced on command in flight but which unique and first ever for the military branches, and in this case would be extremely dangerous,” Domian said. “As the fidelity of specifically for the Army because aviators and tankers have been simulators has increased, so have the ways in which they can and using virtual simulation for 20-plus years. The boots on the ground are being utilized. Virtual training now is the backbone of all the guys—the dismounted infantry and soldiers—haven’t had a virtual services for training on a wide variety of systems. Virtual training is training device to be able to allow them to train as they would fight. used for many facets of the training process including maintenance So that is the uniqueness of the dismounted soldier training on specific systems, small arms training, training system.” vehicle operation, emergency procedures, mission The U.S. military has covered everything from rehearsal, tank gunnery, missile operation and many part-task trainers to full mission rehearsal trainers, others.” individual trainers to fully collective trainers. “Some One area that currently is receiving much attenof the challenges are the reduced budget: ‘How do tion is in the training of call for fire, such as the they stretch those dollars, how do they better use JFIST system. “This allows the student to call for those dollars?’ And some of it is by the virtual traineither artillery or aircraft weapons support without ing we talked about,” said West. “Other ways they requiring actual artillery or air assets and allows the are looking to do that is ‘How do we automate more, scenario to be easily adjusted for location, target type, how do we reduce the operational cost and mainteweather conditions, asset availability, etc., ensuring Brian Domian nance cost of these systems?’ And in the case of a extremely realistic training offering a complete AAR capability,” said Domian. “Of particular importance email@example.com dismounted solder, one of the challenges DoD was facing was they didn’t have a way of training the to the special operations community, virtual traindismounted soldier in a virtual environment.” ing allows highly classified scenarios to be rehearsed DoD had live training for years but they did not with multiple options in a totally protected environhave a virtual training device. They are now able to ment.” do that. “The other challenge they face is they have One of the largest challenges to both the military live training devices, virtual training devices, and and industry is a cost-effective method of keepconstructive training devices, so getting those in ing up with advances in technology and interopera fully integrated environment is key. The governability between systems and subsystems, concluded ment has poured millions of dollars into each of Domian. This is fairly easy to address through the those areas,” said West. “So how do we get the best use of consistent standard open interfaces, so that as of all of that and get them in an integrated common the technology improves individual components or environment so we can link up the live, virtual and subsystems can be easily and quickly upgraded. Floyd West constructive?” firstname.lastname@example.org The dismounted soldier training system “allows Virtual Training Saves Lives them to augment their live training, supplement that live training so now they can, for example, go train that squad Virtual training saves lives by training our warfighters better in the virtual environment, replicating as close to possible as their and augmenting their live training. It ultimately saves lives, said common operating environment,” concluded West. “And then they Floyd West, director of strategic programs at Intelligent Decisions. can go and augment that live training. They can do additional “You have a lot of live training going on today; that will never go live training or, for example, if they don’t have access to that live away completely. But on the virtual side, you are able to reduce training, now they have a virtual device and system that they can costs. So when you look at the climate we’re in with budget reducmaintain those skills on. From an integrated standpoint, we’re part tions and the constraints that are placed on DoD, virtual training of that live, virtual, constructive and will be able through the DIS allows them to stretch these dollars,” he told MT2. “So whereas in standards to integrate into that LVC construct. So if you have live live training they may be using real bullets, they may be having to participants or perhaps you have live systems (C4I systems), you can take their unit out to a combat training center (JRTC or NTC). Virintegrate those into the dismounted soldier training system as well tual training allows them to stay at their home station and maintain as the constructive simulations that may provide that wrap-around that training, and do it in a cheaper way because they are saving or additional support forces.” O on travel costs and ammunition costs. They are essentially using commercial off-the-shelf type equipment so they are able to stretch those dollars and maintain that training.” Virtual training has been used across all the branches. West said they have done a great job of getting this technology and For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea at email@example.com or search our online archives supplementing this training for the warfighters. “So you have for related stories at www.mt2-kmi.com. everything from aviation training, Air Force, Navy, Marines and 6 | MT2 17.5
g n i n Trai
s d r i B d e n n a nm U
Expanding capabilities of aircraft without pilots. By Henry Canaday MT2 Correspondent
Those tough new birds without pilots in the cockpit are dramatically expanding the coverage and capabilities of U.S. ground, air and naval forces. That has imposed some very different, and sometimes very demanding, new training requirements. Training for Army unmanned aerial systems (UASs) is managed by the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Capabilities Manager in Fort Rucker, Ala. Jack Wallin, logistician in the product office for the systems at Redstone Arsenal, said there are two types of training for operators of small unmanned aircraft systems such as the RQ-11B Raven and the Puma All Environment (AE): initial qualification, and sustainment when an operator is out of currency or a system is upgraded. The Army does small UAS training for maneuver brigades, military police, engineering units and other small units. It also trains Marines and Army special operations units. www.MT2-kmi.com
“We try to train brigades at home stations on their ranges,” Wallin said. “For small units, it makes more sense to bring them to Redstone.” The Army also trains at fixed locations in Afghanistan. The Army is surging Ravens into Afghanistan and needs 70 operators per brigade. It aims for 2,358 Ravens in the Army by 2015, with three aircraft per system. There are now 288 Puma systems, again with three aircraft per system. “This is just the Army,” Wallin emphasized. “There are more in the Marines and special operations.” Marines have 50 Puma systems. A major training challenge is sheer volume. Small UASs are primarily used by Military Occupation Specialty 11B infantry as an additional duty, not by full-time UAS specialists. “We had to do it differently,” Wallin said. Schoolhouse training would not enable the Army to deploy small UASs quickly. AeroVironment, the manufacturer, originally did all training for Puma and
Raven. Rally Point Management now trains for Raven. Initial training for both UASs takes 80 hours over a 10-day span. Small UASs need less airspace than larger models, so it is easier to train where needed. There are now six small UAS training stations across the U.S., Europe and Afghanistan. At first, the Army lacked a system for telling commanders who was trained on UASs. “We now have software that lets commanders know which and how many have been trained,” Wallin said. The software tracks operator qualifications and possible shortfalls that should be remedied. New equipment will bring more challenges. Puma, with a gimbaled payload, can fly a straight line and look in any direction at targets. Raven, originally fielded with fixed payloads requiring aircraft to be maneuvered to point cameras, will soon also have gimbaled payloads. Furthermore, the Army wants short-, medium- and long-range UASs. Raven and Puma handle MT2 17.5 | 7
medium- and long-range, but the Army still needs a short-range, backpackable UAS for platoons. Ground control stations that now handle Pumas and Ravens will then fly three UASs, which Wallin said is feasible. However, “if we add new capabilities, we will have to add new training.” At Fort Huachuca, Ariz., the 2-13th Aviation Regiment, 1st Aviation Brigade, U.S. Army Aviation Center of Excellence, conducts training on the RQ-7B Shadow, MQ-5 Hunter, MC-1 Warrior-A and MQ-1C Gray Eagle. 2-13th commander Lieutenant Colonel Victor Hamilton said this includes courses for operators, such as ground school, simulations and flight operations, as well as maintenance and courses for UAS leaders. Length varies by course: 18 weeks for Shadow operators, 12 weeks for Hunter operators and 25 weeks for Gray Eagle operators. Maintenance courses are roughly the same length. The 2-13th trains approximately 2,500 soldiers in various disciplines a year, Hamilton noted. “For the Shadow, for fiscal year 2012 we’re looking at more than 800 operator students and more than 800 maintainers.” One challenge is increasing personnel training for new UAS units while maintaining existing UAS units. The Army is now defining the role of simulated UAS training to augment actual flight operations. “Simulation will play a key role, not only in operator flight training, but also in preparing support staff,” Hamilton said. Aegis Technologies produces the VAMPIRE (Visualization and Mission Planning Integrated Rehearsal Environment) embedded simulation system for AeroVironment’s Raven, Puma and Wasp AE, explained Del Beilstein, director of business development. Aegis has fielded 3,000 of these 3-by-4-inch boxes that plug in to replace antennas to train where airspace is unavailable or weather too rough for training with real vehicles. “It is used across the Army and Marines and by Navy and Air Force special operations,” Beilstein said. He sees a push to get VAMPIRE training out to Army units wherever they go. Aegis will deliver a classroom trainer for these small UASs in September and a trainer for the One System Remote Video Terminal (OSRVT) in spring of 2013. OSRVT is similar to other UAS control stations, but it allows users to pull intelligence from UASs flown by other teams. 8 | MT2 17.5
The Army’s unmanned aircraft fleet is comprised of various numbers these aircraft. Shown above are the Raven (front right), Puma (front middle), Shadow (front left), Hunter (back right) and Gray Eagle (back left). [Photo courtesy of the U.S. Army]
Unlike the standalone VAMPIRE, the classroom version will be an Institutional Training System (ITS), enabling a single trainer to train up to 10 teams. “He will control the lessons, making them more challenging with multiple scenarios,” Beilstein said. “The ITS will score students and document training.” Since 2002, General Dynamics Information Technology has provided UAS operator and maintenance instruction for the Shadow, Hunter, Warrior-A and Gray Eagle at Fort Huachuca. “Our instructors provide the Army, Navy and Marine Corps military operational specialty training and initial entry training in unmanned aircraft operations, mission payload operations, system, airframe, power plant and electronics maintenance,” explained Ross Miller, business development for unmanned systems training at GDIT. The company is also involved in small UAS training under contract with the Army UAS Program Office in Huntsville, Ala., and is prime contractor supporting the Air Force UAS Safety Center at Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, N.M. All GDIT instructors and curriculum developers graduate from the TRADOCapproved Army Basic Instructor Course and the Support Cadre Training Course. “More than 75 percent of the staff at our UAS Training Center are also certified in other TRADOC staff and faculty curriculum, including Army Systems Approach to
Training, Test Development, Small Group Instruction, and other master-level, instructional methodology courses,” Miller said. GDIT has certified, experienced instructors in a variety of UAS skills, including unmanned scout operations, imagery analysis, unmanned aircraft ground school, mission systems, flight simulation, flight operations, maintenance, basic electronics and the UAS Leaders Course. GDIT is heavily involved in TRADOC initiatives, such as the effort to develop virtual and computer-interfaced instruction. It works with software developers to bring the latest training technologies to customers. Miller said GDIT can work with any UAS platform, whether an aircraft or a sensor payload. Disti makes graphical software for training. Its software tool GL Studio is used to develop cockpit instrument displays for all sizes of aircraft and can also be used for UAS training. “UASs just have a different kind of cockpit,” noted Scott Ariotti, director of global marketing. Disti software has been used for UAS ground stations by L-3 and Northrop Grumman, and DreamHammer is using the software to develop common ground-control stations. “Our customers are typically the Tier 1 integrators like L-3,” Ariotti said. Ariotti said his firm’s major advantage in this field is the realism with which its software can be integrated into UAS systems. “We make it very easy to match exactly what they envision on the display.” www.MT2-kmi.com
L-3 Link Simulation and Training’s Predator Mission Aircrew Training System (PMATS) supports Air Force MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper crew training. The company also has partnered with the University of North Dakota to establish the first non-military UAS educational institution in the U.S. for Predators and Reapers and has collaborated with Sinclair Community College to provide a UAS classroom training suite. PMATS was the first high-fidelity simulation system provided to U.S. forces, according to Jeff Schram, director of business development, and 26 have been delivered. PMATS supports initial qualification, mission qualification, continuation and mission rehearsal training. It simulates aircraft performance, weapons, sensors, communications, data-link, emergencies, degraded video feeds and environmental effects. Success has validated high-fidelity, immersive simulation for UASs, just as for manned aircraft. PMATS combines General Atomics ground-control hardware with L-3 Link
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simulation software and visual-system databases, supported by L-3’s HD World simulation products. HD World integrates high-definition visual system databases, high-definition image generators and physics-based processing technology. “L-3 Link is able to rapidly build databases that provide the needed level of complexity and clutter, while simulating intelligent human behaviors and interactions between large numbers of entities,” Schram said. Thus a higher portion of UAS training is simulated, rather than live, than is the case for manned aircraft. L-3 provides software for trainers that parallels software flown in aircraft and updates software every six months. L-3 thus enables operators to train on both existing aircraft and those about to be introduced. MetaVR supplies UAS commercial 3-D visualization software for U.S. forces with over 1,000 Virtual Reality Scene Generator (VRSG) licenses in the field. Its systems are used in several UAS programs, including the Shadow, Hunter, Aerosonde and
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Gray Eagle. Insitu uses VRSG for training of one of its UASs. VRSG capabilities include capturing high-resolution virtual world screen images remotely, using VRSG as a simulated, live virtual video feed from a UAV, streaming real-time UAV metadata multiplexed into a transport stream and coupling VRSG with remotely operated video-enhanced receivers. MetaVR recently delivered another 60 VRSG licenses for UAS simulation. AAI purchased 51 new licenses for training UAS operators on its Universal Ground Control System. Sandia Research purchased several licenses to simulate camera payload in UAS research. And Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University purchased VRSG licenses for UAS simulation in classes to be offered in fall 2012. O
For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea at firstname.lastname@example.org or search our online archives for related stories at www.mt2-kmi.com.
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december 3-6, 2012
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CAE Healthcare’s rugged Caesar patient simulator was developed for military field and disaster response training.
Practicing to save lives with technology. By Hank Hogan MT2 Correspondent For the military, medical simulation is looking up—both figuratively and literally. By using advanced technology and techniques—some of which are borrowed from aviation—nurses, medics and doctors are better trained than ever before, having practiced lifesaving procedures repeatedly in highly realistic situations. Increasingly, medical simulation is also being used in cognitive and decision making training, and not just for the perfection of motor skills. One result has been a 95 percent survival rate of those wounded in the field, said Lieutenant Colonel Wilson Ariza, the U.S. Army’s program manager for medical simulation. “They enter combat knowing that if they become a casualty, they will get the 10 | MT2 17.5
is cost effectively possible, Ariza said. This very best combat medical care known in allows anyone receiving medical training to the history of warfare. That knowledge practice and make mistakes without endanalone enables the soldier, sailor or Marine gering patients. to accomplish truly difficult Captain Rodney Noe is missions under extraordinary chief nurse and officer in circumstances,” Ariza said. charge of the emergency The Army has 23 medical room section in the Army simulation training centers Reserve’s 945th Forward established worldwide, with a Surgical Team. After traingoal of 34. The current sites ing at the Mayo Clinic Multrain 120,000 people a year, tidisciplinary Simulation putting them in situations Center in Rochester, Minn., that recreate the sight, feel, he noted that high fidelsound and smell encountered ity is easier to attain now on the battlefield or in the Capt. Rodney Noe because medical simulators clinic. have come a long way since the first ones The key to success is achieving the appeared years ago. highest fidelity of simulation to reality as www.MT2-kmi.com
Chief Master Sergeant Adam Reading (932d MDS, Scott AFB, Ill.) instructs a medical team with METIman. [Courtesy of CAE Healthcare]
“The manikins can verbalize to you. You can feel their pulse. They have pain response,” he said. Montreal-based CAE Healthcare supplies high fidelity simulators, including manikins. These constitute the biggest part of the company’s simulation business, and the largest customer for such lifelike simulators has been the U.S. military, according to Michael Bernstein, company president. However, he also noted that the company’s parent, CAE, has a long history in aviation simulation. CAE Healthcare makes a range of simulators, some of which employ the visual-based virtual reality technology developed for aviation. “In our surgical simulators, we have haptic force feedback. Those simulators www.MT2-kmi.com
simulate the feel and the visual screen shows what you would see through the scope in a laparoscopic or endoscopic procedure,” Bernstein said. There is one difference between aviation and health care, he added. The use of simulators is mandatory in the former but not the latter. That may be changing, though, as regulatory and accrediting bodies begin to hammer out standards governing medical practice as they relate to the use of simulation. Medical simulation products and services also come courtesy of Lockheed Martin, of Bethesda, Md. According to Jeff Bergenthal, director of advanced programs, the defense contractor entered this space in part because it saw an
opportunity to apply experience it had developed using simulators to train pilots and air crews. Lockheed Martin focuses on training reservists, doing so at three sites and also via mobile setups. All locations conduct exercises for small and large teams. Some of these efforts are intended to improve communication and not clinical skills. Currently, the company is turning to gaming technology to build virtual representations of emergency rooms, operating theaters and other clinical environments. That allows simulation of actual and proposed workflows, leading to improved training and perhaps more cost-effective purchasing decisions. MT2 17.5 | 11
“You can assess a medical device and how it would work with the rest of the equipment that you have before you actually buy the device,” Bergenthal said. Ngrain, of Vancouver, British Columbia, is another simulation firm that has worked closely with the defense and aerospace communities, supplying 3-D interactive software to enable the construction of virtual task training tools. In the medical field, Ngrain’s software has been used to develop a trainer for U.S. Air Force surgical nurses. These nurses have to identify, locate and handle over 80 different instruments that are found on a surgical tray. Since nurses are not provided with an individual set for training, their handson experience can be somewhat limited. The virtual training tool helps overcome this hurdle. When used in a simulation, the Ngrain software allows interaction with the 3-D instrument models or even the human body, said CEO Gabe Batstone. Such experiential moments create significant advantages when it comes to knowledge retention and operational effectiveness, he added. Modeling and simulation specialist Mymic, of Portsmouth, Va., is working on systems for complex incident response training. A potential application would be training in the decision making about when—and when not—to apply a 12 | MT2 17.5
tourniquet. Phillip Jones, vice president of human solutions, said the technology was originally developed for the military. It now forms the basis for a product that the company will be marketing to civilian emergency medical services. As for those learning how to apply a tourniquet, they could benefit from Fort Washington, Penn.-based Chi Systems’ HapMed, according to Benjamin Bell, company president and CEO. The device provides automated and real-time feedback on application techniques, using data from a practice manikin to gauge such performance measures as how long it took to stop the bleeding. In developing the product, the company had to make choices, given the need to hit cost targets. It opted to balance fidelity with training effectiveness, having concluded that blinking LEDs could effectively replace more costly indicators. Many tourniquet training devices, for instance, spurt fake blood. “So the question comes up, is that really critical in training someone to apply a tourniquet?” Bell said. At the extreme end of the fidelity scale sits San Diego-based Strategic Operations. It comes at medical simulation from a movie-making perspective and strives for the utmost simulated realism. The company’s product known as a “Cut Suit” is designed to be worn by live actors.
It allows medical trainees to apply tourniquets, clamp hemorrhaging arteries, insert tubes and make incisions, all while interacting with a living person. The company also has a simulator suitable for surgery, with a full suite of organs. These devices are user repairable, which cuts ongoing costs and ensures that inserting a tube isn’t made easier because it’s been done before. The suit and simulator are only part of the total picture. Strategic Operations stages exercises with the Cut Suit in realistic tactical settings that are complete with buildings, people and explosions. There is a payoff for such a production. “It helps desensitize the person so that when they do it in real life the first time, they don’t freeze. If they’re going to freeze, they’re going to freeze during this training,” said Steve Markham, director of medical services and products. There are limits, of course, to simulation technology. For example, SimuLab of Seattle manufactures a variety of simulators and soft tissue models, constructs that replicate the properties of different tissues. These products are intended to assist training for specific tasks, such as clearing airways and inserting tubes. They are not intended to be a complete replacement for a human cadaver, the construction of which would be very expensive, noted Doug Beighle, company president. www.MT2-kmi.com
4 1. A training exercise done by the Army Reserve’s 945th Forward Surgical Team held at Mayo Clinic’s Multidisciplinary Simulation Center in Rochester, Minn. [Photo courtesy of the Mayo Clinic] 2. Lockheed Martin has designed a nurse professional development training program, which uses simulation to make nurses patient-ready faster than traditional programs. [Photo courtesy of Lockheed Martin] 3. A combat medic administers a tourniquet to a simulated leg injury, part of the lane validation portion training combat medics go through as part of an annual sustainment requirement. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Army PEO STRI] 4. A collection of virtual surgical instruments allows nurses to train to identify, locate and handle over 80 different instruments, minimizing the need to provide each with an individual physical training set. [Photo courtesy of Ngrain Software]
Another medical simulation consideration is that people aren’t machines. There is a significant training benefit to working with simulators, but people do differ from one another. “Everybody is going to be very, very different, from the amount of fat you have when you cut into the tissue to the size and location of organs and vessels,” Beighle said. Finally, medical simulation technology is being leveraged in a number of ways. The Army Reserve, for instance, has made use of the simulator found at the Mayo Clinic. The primary goal was to train in patient flow and the decision making
process in a team environment. Experience in Iraq had shown that trauma training did not integrate all patient care sections. There also was a need to test and evaluate how critical decisions were made during trauma care. “This is very important when it comes to the ancillary services that Harry Robinson might be needed, such as helicopter evacuations to other hospitals or to obtain blood supplies when it was needed,” said Colonel Joaquin Cortiella. Clinical exercise director at the Army Reserve’s Medical Readiness and Training Command, Cortiella noted that the simulator at the Mayo Clinic is one of the most sophisticated in the nation. Therefore, it has the needed capabilities to realistically depict complex and changing situations. Another example of leveraging expertise can be found at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), which is teaming up with the Army’s training systems acquisition resources to provide cutting-edge CAE Healthcare’s LapVR surgical simulator employs virtual reality and haptic force feedback for training in essential skills and laparoscopic procedures. [Photo courtesy of CAE Healthcare]
simulation-based training for VA medical staff. The SimLearn program, which started in 2009, will involve webbased and local training. There also will be a fully immersive and state-of-the-art instructional center in Orlando, Fla., which is expected to go live in 2014. This tiered approach ensures simulation is cost effective yet as lifelike as needed. If appropriate fidelity is not achieved, say by having the simulators feel wrong, that may lead to learning the wrong response. The situation is similar to a flight simulator with a response lag, said SimLearn national program manager Harry Robinson. Such imperfect practice leads to imperfection, and that works against the reason for medical simulation in the first place. As Robinson said, “The bottom line is increasing the quality and safety of delivered health care in improving patient outcomes.” O
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DATA PACKETS Dual Control Helicopter Simulator Controls Ryan Aerospace launched the brand new Helicrew, a commercial off-the-shelf dual control helicopter simulator control system that can be used with VBS2, Lockheed Martin’s Prepar3D, X-Plane, Simigon’s SIMbox and virtually any other system that can accept a USB ‘plug and play’ Windows Joystick. The Helicrew is modular and reconfigurable. Users can add their choice of high fidelity instrument panels, cyclics and collectives, positioned exactly where they are in the real aircraft. Real buttons, knobs and switches give a realistic and immersive experience that includes switchology, motor skill/muscle memory development, instrument scans, avionics operation and much more. The Helicrew has a Kiowa panel attached and is using Lockheed Martin’s Prepar3D with a scenery enhancement kit from ORBX simulation systems. The Helicrew comes standard as a dual control unit but its modular nature means that instrument panels, cyclics, collectives and pedals can be added to the system or interchanged to suit your requirements. Users can interchange aircraft-specific modules by loosening off just four bolts and sliding the unit straight off. All of the electronics are self-contained in the instrument panel and are completely independent of the main unit with their own power supplies and USB ‘plug and play’ connectors.
New Cyber Simulator Elbit Systems’ cyber simulator was developed specifically for the training of government, military and critical civilian infrastructure cyber defense agencies, to enable personal and group training of different users in locating, handling and managing various cyber warfare events and attacks. The simulator also offers training in prevention of cyber warfare events, by simulating network protection scenarios. It includes various network protection scenarios and allows debriefing and evaluation sessions in order to draw conclusions from the trainees’ training performance. Bezhalel (Butzi) Machlis, general manager, Elbit Systems land and C4I division, noted that various versions of the cyber simulator have already been supplied to an international customer of Elbit Systems. According to Machlis, Elbit Systems has significantly invested in recent years in the development of new cyber technologies and has been active in the fields of network and system protection, cyber command and control systems, cyber protection of critical civilian infrastructure and the development of special algorithms designated to identify various cyber warfare attacks. Dalia Rosen; firstname.lastname@example.org
Advanced Tool for Rapid, Cost-Effective Creation of 3-D Applications Ngrain, a provider of interactive 3-D simulation software and solutions for maintenance training and support, recently announced the introduction of Ngrain Producer Pro to the maintenance training and support community. Delivered as part of the Ngrain Production Suite—a platform enabling organizations to rapidly produce powerful 3-D task training and support applications—Producer Pro is an advanced authoring tool for the creation of 3D Knowledge Object (3KO) simulations. “In this era of austerity and shrinking defense budgets, it’s important that we provide users with a way to create the most powerful solutions at the lowest possible cost,” said Gabe Batstone, chief executive officer, Ngrain. “With Producer Pro and our development platform, organizations can create virtual task training and support applications that make the process of sharing knowledge richer and more effective—at a much lower cost than before.” Designed for multi-media developers, Producer Pro can also be used by subject matter experts with no programming experience. It includes all the feature sets of Ngrain’s flagship authoring tool, Producer, with the following additional capabilities: Fluid Flows: Developing an understanding of fluid flows is a critical part of maintenance training. It can make the difference between correctly or incorrectly troubleshooting an equipment failure. With Producer Pro, users can set flow options such as the color, speed and size of the flow
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indicators. The flows can then be included in animations, real-time practice tasks and tests. A flow that takes two weeks for an experienced 3-D animator to create using a traditional tool can take two days to create using Producer Pro. Callout Hotspots: Callouts enrich training experiences and improve on-the-job support by providing end-users with more contextual information. With Producer Pro, animators can insert linked callouts containing hotspots that trigger an action (such as playing an animation or opening another Ngrain 3KO) when clicked. Animators can link these callouts to any file, network location, or animations within the current 3KO. Inverse Kinematic Animations: In cycle of operations training, it is often a requirement to show how mechanical parts interact with each other. For example, instructors often need to demonstrate how the pistons in an engine move or how the flight controls in a helicopter operate the rotor head. Previously, only experienced 3-D animators using high-end 3-D tools have been able to simulate these complex part relationships, called inverse kinematics. With Producer Pro, animators can now follow the steps in a wizard and select the animation on which they want to base the movements, enabling them to simulate inverse kinematics. Production Suite 5.0 also includes an updated Virtual Task Refresher Builder, which allows users to create Virtual Task Refresher applications in minutes.
Compiled by KMI Media Group staff
New Auto-Alignment Technology Two leading players in the display technology industry have joined forces to produce an innovative integrated solution system which generates a screen image within one arc minute of accuracy. Norway-based 3D perception and RPA Electronic Solutions of the U.S. have combined to integrate RPA’s automated alignment scanner with 3D perception’s image processing solutions to provide a world class complete visual alignment solution. StarScan uses high-resolution optical sensors to perform 360-degree, three-dimensional screen measurements resulting in a precise 3-D map of the screen surface. This is live-linked to 3DP’s nBox display processor, where the measurement data is processed and geometric warping and blending is applied to raw source visuals. The result is a precision-aligned seamless image, projected onto any screen shape or size. The system can also act as an installation aid, providing real-time measurements of distance to various points on the screen in order to ensure accurate placement.
Visual sensors include a high resolution optics system which measures test points to better than one arc minute of accuracy as well as optional color sensing devices to perform color matching across all display devices within the visual system. A visible spectrum laser rangefinder provides screen surface scanning and measurement to produce 3-D screen maps. “The 3D perception and RPA systems merge perfectly with one another, playing upon the strengths of both designs, providing the most accurate automated alignment system available for critical applications where absolute placement of visual imagery is required,” said Knut Krogstad, CEO of 3D perception. “Three-dimensional maps produced by the system can be used for alignment as well as display specification verification.” “We are delighted to have been able to work with 3D perception to produce this exciting new visualization automatic calibration system,” said Rick Pray, CEO of RPA. “The alignment system can also act as an installation aid, providing real time measurements of distance to various points on the screen size and shape in order to ensure accurate placement.”
SimuSphere HD-9 Achieves Ready-for-Training Status L-3 Link Simulation & Training (L-3 Link) recently announced that the first two U.S. Navy F/A-18C Tactical Operational Flight Trainers (TOFTs) integrated with the company’s advanced SimuSphere HD-9 high-definition visual display solution have achieved ready-for-training status. The two trainers are installed at Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana, Va. The U.S. Navy became L-3 Link’s initial customer for SimuSphere HD-9 during the fourth quarter of 2011 when it purchased four upgrade kits to integrate with currently fielded F/A-18C TOFTs at NAS Oceana. During the first quarter of 2012, L-3 Link announced additional sales of its SimuSphere HD-9 visual solution, including orders for the system to be used on a Royal Malaysian Air Force F/A-18D TOFT and two F-16C Block 52 aircrew training devices for the Pakistan Air Force. “SimuSphere HD-9 provides fast jet simulators with fully immersive training capabilities supported by L-3 Link’s HD World simulation product line,” said Frank Casano, L-3 Link’s acting vice president for Navy programs. “By combining four advanced technologies—high-definition databases, image generation systems, physics-based processing and a visual system display— SimuSphere HD-9 offers a low-cost, fully integrated solution that delivers highly realistic and relevant fighter training environments.” The F/A-18C TOFTs integrated with SimuSphere HD-9 will support a full range of tactical training capabilities, including enabling aircrews to identify targets with unprecedented realism. Aircrews are also able to use their actual flight night vision goggles and experience real-world performance over an immersive 360-degree field-of-regard. SimuSphere HD-9 has the same physical footprint and image generator interface as currently fielded SimuSphere systems. This commonality enables SimuSphere HD-9 upgrades to be achieved at low cost and low risk with minimal simulator downtime.
Human Simulation Software Suite Di-Guy, a supplier of software tools for real-time human simulation, announced that Version 12 is released and shipping. Di-Guy 12 is an integrated suite of real-time human simulation products and tools that includes Di-Guy SDK, Di-Guy Scenario and Di-Guy AI. Version 12 highlights include: • Next generation character visualization and models including normal maps for enhanced high performance visual realism, reference shaders and infrastructure to support end application lighting and sensor environments, and multi-layer textures enabling customizable and extensible materials. • Multi-threaded and multi-core processing for high performance visualization and AI path planning performance. • Upgrade of Di-Guy Expressive Faces to the industry leading, FaceFX advanced facial animation solution. The FaceFX Studio Professional tool provides unprecedented facial authoring capabilities, including lip synching, gestures and emotions that enable easy creation of realistic, animated dialogues. “Di-Guy Version 12 addresses the real-time human character performance and visualization requirements identified by our customers,” said Marc Schlackman, vice president of sales and marketing. “Our next generation soldier model has the detail look of a million polygons, while retaining high performance. Di-Guy combines these models with an extensive API, a deep set of behaviors and a powerful motion engine that provides our customers with the most robust and flexible human character solution in the industry.” “We’re focused on making the out-of-the-box Di-Guy experience easy and powerful,” added Product Manager Bill Blank. “For customers looking for human visuals, that means sophisticated high-end graphics and advanced shading coupled with our large library of realistic character models and motions. For customers looking for constructive solutions, we offer a range of authoring techniques from straightforward pathing through highly intelligent autonomous agents and crowds. Users can author these scenarios directly in their applications, off-line, in code, or via our DiS/HLA Lifeform Server.” Di-Guy’s commercial software product offerings include: • Di-Guy SDK: Software library and API of human characters, motions and high-level behaviors • Di-Guy Scenario: 3-D visual application for easily creating human-based scenarios • Di-Guy AI: Human AI focused on quickly generating hundreds or thousands of autonomous, terrain-aware human characters. Marc Schlackman; email@example.com MT2 17.5 | 15
Creating Acquisition Strategy for Mission Operations Colonel Peter K. Eide Chief of Simulators Division Agile Support Directorate Aeronautical Systems Center Air Force Materiel Command Colonel Peter K. Eide is chief of the Simulators Division, Agile Combat Support Directorate, Life Cycle Management Center, Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The Simulators Division directs 300 employees in research, acquisition and sustainment for more than 40 USAF and 10 foreign air force aircraft training systems. Eide leads multi-command industry teams in creating the acquisition strategy for distributed mission operations. Eide entered the Air Force in 1989 as a graduate from the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps program at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The career acquisition professional began his career as an electronic warfare systems engineer at Warner Robins Air Logistics Center at Robins AFB, Ga. After graduating from the Air Force Institute of Technology in 1994, he spent the next three assignments at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio working in the Wright Laboratory as a flight control systems engineer and at the Air Force Research Laboratory as the deputy of the commander’s action group. Then, it was three years spent at Eglin AFB, Fla., where he worked as a program manager for Test and Training Instrumentation, Air Armament Center, then as the deputy branch chief for the production program in the Range Instrumentation System Program Office, Air Armament Center and again as the program manager for the BRU-57 Bomb Rack in the Area Attack System Office, Air Armament Center. After a year at Air Command and Staff College, Eide spent a tour at the Pentagon, including time as the program element monitor for the Ranges and Targets Program, Headquarters Air Force and as the chief of Congressional Issues in the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition Office. In 2005, Colonel Eide returned to Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio to serve as the Sensors Squadron deputy commander in the reconnaissance wing, Aeronautical Systems Center. In 2006, he moved to the MQ-9 Program as the program manager in the 658th Aeronautical Systems Squadron before serving as the commander of the 657th Aeronautical Systems Squadron (C-130J) for three years. He was selected in 2010 to attend the Army War College in Pennsylvania, following which he was assigned in July 2011 to lead the Simulators Division. Eide is also dual-hatted as the director of the Air Force’s Training Systems Product Group. Q: Can you give an overview of the two organizations that make up the Training Systems Product Group [TSPG]? A: The Training Systems Product Group is an organizational management construct that I inherited upon assumption of duties last summer. The foundational idea was to marry three geographically separated, but related organizations within the Air Force [AF] Materiel Command’s training system enterprise into a single, virtual 16 | MT2 17.5
organization. My position leads the TSPG triad, which is composed of a research piece, an acquisition piece and a sustainment piece. In recent years, however, the sustainment piece of the triad at Ogden Air Logistics Center, Utah, was stood down as part of an AF-wide organizational consolidation and workload alignment efficiency initiative. My organization, the Simulators Division, at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, now has both acquisition and sustainment responsibility. At the same time, the research piece of the triad at the Air Force Research Lab’s Mesa, Ariz., site was relocated to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base as part of the base realignment and closure process. Colonel Merrice Spencer runs that office now and he works just a few blocks up the hill from me. The full title of his organization is the Air Force Research Laboratory, 711 Human Performance Wing, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Warfighter Readiness Research Division. On a day-to-day basis, we still refer to the lab portion of TSPG as “AFRL MESA” which now stands for “Models and Environments for Simulation and Assessment.” Q: How do the two organizations that make up the TPSG work together to support warfighter training through the use of modeling and simulation techniques? A: Right now, I find myself mostly operating and maintaining legacy systems that use modeling and simulation techniques. This includes refresh of technology when affordable or driven by obsolescence and www.MT2-kmi.com
of course matching the configuration to the latest weapon system capabilities. Spencer’s division in the 711th Human Performance Wing is managing research projects that are designed to better facilitate the use of modeling and simulation techniques in today’s and tomorrow’s training systems. Research that manages or enhances student learning methods, for example, invites greater use of M&S. Tying live, virtual and constructive entities together also addresses other warfighter needs. The TSPG must establish appropriate and executable plans to transition the fruits of research into technical requirements that my team can then apply to acquisition and sustainment contracts.
the Warfighter Readiness Research Division under the leadership of Colonel Spencer, is responsible for conducting research to facilitate the use of M&S technology in our training systems. My organization, the Simulators Division, is now responsible for operating and maintaining the Air Force’s fielded systems—incorporating new technologies when appropriate—and acquiring new training simulator systems when warfighter requirements dictate. Q: How does using modeling and simulation help the warfighter overcome challenges and accomplish mission objectives out in the field?
Q: What are the most pressing challenges to the TSPG in 2012? A: The TSPG’s challenges are not unlike those facing the broader Air Force, namely how best to prosper and serve in a time of fiscal austerity. Every office and leader is being challenged to find more efficient means to execute their programs. In my opinion, this simply places an even higher emphasis than normal on planning. Q: What new programs or initiatives are planned to be implemented in the near future?
A: In general terms, modeling and simulation provide the warfighter a spectrum of options for training that may not otherwise exist or may be becoming rapidly unaffordable. From weapon and mission familiarization to large force combat exercise and rehearsal, M&S provides reliable, repeatable, safe and effective training. Today, budget realities are forcing our warfighters to migrate training from the actual weapons system and into training simulators whenever and wherever possible. We need to continue to partner with the M&S community and harness their M&S advances to meet the warfighters’ growing requirements for realistic, immersive, end-to-end training capabilities.
A: In May, we briefed interested industry partners on upcoming TSPG workload. One new effort is Q: If the TSPG had a wish list, what are a fresh start attempt to deliver the the top three things on that list and why? badly-needed Joint Terminal Controller Training Rehearsal System. As for initiatives, we are quite seri- C-130 Aircrew Training System Cockpit (Simulators Division) [Photo courtesy of DoD] A: Good question! The TSPG is all about delivering capability and providing trainous in our attempts to implement ing. Anything that supports those goals would be on the wish list. the Office of Secretary of Defense’s Better Buying Power initiatives. Robust resourcing would probably be the first wish, starting with What this means to the training system enterprise is that we’ll see enough for the warfighter to truly leverage what M&S has to offer. more competition, more small business involvement, and shorter Closely related at number two would be resources that ensure we in contract lengths than was the case just a decade ago. the TSPG are able to accomplish all our goals in the time allotted. Third would be more environmental stability. The pace of motion Q: How does the TPSG work with private industry to help achieve and change in all facets of our daily lives mean that we as individuals its goals? and organizations never quite reach our maximum potential. In my mind, less churn would result in more effectiveness. A: Private industry is the arsenal of democracy. The private sector M&S community is particularly robust, so that much of what we Q: How will the TSPG’s strategies be modified with the conflicts do in the TSPG is apply to our training systems what has already in Iraq and Afghanistan drawing down? been developed. When needed, however, we can make use of Small Business Innovation Research contracts with industry. These are A: I don’t anticipate the drawdown affecting the path that the TSPG small projects that encourage innovation in areas of niche interis currently on—or the M&S community at large, for that matter. est. Finally, there are numerous forums, both formal and informal, There is a general consensus that M&S in our training systems is where TSPG members engage with industry partners to look into here to stay and more is likely better. Where and what to add and the future, address pressing issues, or discuss opportunities. Supmore importantly, how much can we afford, will be the key quesporters from Team Orlando and the NDIA’s National Training and tions coming out of the drawdown. Simulation Association have been strong conduits for such interaction. Q: Is there anything else you would like to add? Q: Can you describe what the TSPG does to provide the warfighter A: Thank you for the opportunity to share my perspectives with the with a full range of training system life cycle support? broader enterprise. I hope my thoughts resonate with readers and provide the basis for further discussion within our community. We A: Together, the TSPG covers the full range of training system life are all interested in improving military training technology. O cycle support. The 711th Human Performance Wing, and specifically 18 | MT2 17.5
Advancing technologies improve warfighters’ skills. By J.B. Bissell, MT2 Correspondent
There is no arguing the fact that technology—and its continuing advancement— is crucial to today’s military. Warfighters make regular use of infrared targeting capabilities, night vision optics and thermal imaging. There are unmanned drones and robots and real-time battlefield video feeds to supplement situational awareness. These are the “glamorous” elements of military technology, which are well documented in Hollywood movies and on popular television shows. Less talked about, yet equally important, are the advancing technologies that have fueled an evolution in firearms training, making the process both more productive and more efficient than in the past. “Simulation is a very effective tool to train in marksmanship,” said Major Paul Hopkins, staff officer grade two Small Arms Policy and Safety with the Australian Defence Force.
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And thanks to bigger hard drives, faster RAM and creative programmers, its effectiveness has increased exponentially over the last decade or so. “Three of the major advancements have been the introduction of gaming technologies used in military simulation scenarios, improvements in RF, and the development of tracking technology,” said Phyllis Pearce, senior vice president of sales, marketing and business development at Meggitt Training Systems. “The benefits from advanced gaming technologies are numerous, but two primary advantages are lower production costs and the ability to link tasks into a collective training environment. Advances in RF continue to improve the cordless capabilities and interactivity with various systems. Finally, tracking technologies increase the end-to-end capabilities and enhance the ease of movement within a training environment.” These three areas of progress have combined to create virtual worlds in which servicemembers can practice the skills they’ll eventually need in the real world. “In the past, simulators were standalone,” Pearce continued. “Soldiers had a tank trainer, a forward observer trainer, a howitzer simulator, an aircraft simulator and so on. But now the requirement is that all simulators are networked and allow each operator to communicate as if truly on the battlefield operating in the same environment.”
In the Details
Competitive Advantage For a long time, competition shooters and military operators felt as though their training requirements and methodologies were unconnected. “There was sort of a boundary between tactical folks and competitive folks,” said Lamar Tooke, vice president of ITI operations at G4S International Training Inc. “They’d look at each other and think there’s no way to cross that boundary.” Just like top athletes who have discovered the benefits of a certain amount of cross training, however, “we’ve learned that there are a lot of skills that do crossover from competitive shooting to tactical operations.” G4S provides a variety of firearms training services, from the very basics of how to shoot all the way to dealing with advanced weaponry systems and specific wartime scenarios. And over the course of the last few years, they’ve also fielded a competitive shooting team. “They won 25 or so division titles last year,” Tooke said, “so they’re doing quite well.” Fortunately, they’re bringing the skills and knowledge it takes to win those titles to the courses they offer their military clients. “For competitive shooting, you have to acquire your target, gain a good sight picture, and squeeze the trigger—and hit the target where it needs to be hit,” Tooke continued. “You have to do all that as quickly as you can, deal with malfunctions as quickly as you can and move to the next target. Those are fundamental parts of shooting, whether for competition or the battlefield. We’ve developed drills to speed all those processes up, and our trainers have figured out how to bring those same exercises to the tactical elements of our training. “Because of the competitions, we’re providing a better service to the people we train. Even experienced folks are coming and saying, ‘Wow, nobody ever showed me that.’” So, G4S isn’t just winning championships—they’re giving our military an effective competitive advantage.
This sort of networked effort—a sort of fully realized virtual battlefield—might seem like a monumental task, and very much a “big-picture” design. And to some extent it is. Major Hopkins explained that the Australian Defence Force [ADF] is now making full use of computer-generated ranges and targets, but that “the transition was made possible as there are now simulation systems available that are robust and flexible enough to support the ADF’s training requirements.” That’s not to say, however, that it’s all about seeing the forest instead of the trees. The simulation equipment also allows for plenty of operator fine-tuning. “For instructors, the number of integrated analysis tools is extensive,” Pearce said. “For example, it’s possible to track and report trigger squeeze. This allows the instructor to quickly identify and rectify faults of the trainee during remedial training.” Whether it’s correcting trigger squeeze or something else, the bottom line is that the simulators are making soldiers more proficient with their weapons. “It’s about enhanced and improved muscle memory and weapons handling skills,” explained Lieutenant Colonel Mark Evans, who serves as the product manager for Ground Combat Tactical Trainers at the U.S. Army’s Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation [PEO STRI]. “They allow the men and women to build confidence in their abilities through repeated practice and feedback.” This immediate feedback is one of the greatest benefits. “Simulators can give the trainee far more data on the shots fired than could previously be provided,” said Hopkins. “This allows the shooter to learn at a faster rate than before, thus reducing 20 | MT2 17.5
training time. For example, a soldier may be conducting a scenario where they must engage a moving target. Once the serial is complete, a replay of the scenario is possible, with every fall of shot and point of aim noted. This provides almost instant feedback and allows instructors and supervisors the ability to review and correct trainees as required.”
Price Point Another requirement is maintaining top-of-the-line training programs during a time of challenging financial constraints. Simulators, though, meet the teaching demands while also providing the armed forces the ability to pinch a few pennies. “Our virtual training systems provide significant cost saving opportunities without sacrificing quality,” Pearce said. Perhaps most interesting is that the savings don’t just come in the form of material costs. Studies are showing that simulators can dramatically increase the rate at which servicemembers become proficient with their firearm. “A simulator can be used during basic or recruit training,” Pearce said. “In instances when soldiers must fire and pass, it has www.MT2-kmi.com
been found that the initial pass rate of recruits on a live range can jump from 52 percent to 98 percent when they first train on a marksmanship trainer. This leads to big savings in both time and resources.” These findings make sense to Lieutenant Colonel Evans, who consistently sees soldiers “develop second-nature shooting ability and cognitive skills for scanning and shooting in a rapid manner” during their simulated exercises. “They obtain all those skills before going to the live-fire range,” he said. “It’s lower cost, and risks are reduced because we can fix bad habits with non-weaponized instruments that have the form, fit and function of our weapons.”
Going Live, Almost
Meggitt’s FATS M7 allows training instructors to continuously adapt courseware to meet ever changing training needs. [Photo courtesy of Meggitt]
Even with all the latest advancements in simulated maneuvers, there can still be a training gap between computer-generated scenarios and those that involve real people. “Non-lethal, reality-based training fills this void by improving training effectiveness and realism,” said Steve Didier, co-chief executive officer of Phoenix RBT Solutions, the official North, Central and South American sales and training arm for UTM, a company that offers complete nonlethal training systems, including non-lethal training ammunition (NLTA), magazines, props and portable facilities. Seabees assigned to Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 17 use the firearms training simulator at the Construction These sorts of products, which make live Battalion Center training facility during Unit Level Training and Readiness Assessment called Operation Sea Hornet. force-on-force exercises possible, are vital to [Photo courtesy of DoD] a comprehensive firearms training regimen. “Today’s soldiers fight in close proximity to the enemy and must prepare for these dynamic situations,” said Didier. “Our products allow soldiers to experience the threat of consequences they face in war in a safe, non-lethal environment, therefore building their competence and skills using their own service weapons.” Mastering the physical elements of weapons handling is essential, but there’s a mental side to firearms training, too, and that can be nearly impossible to address without some form of actual live preparation. “By utilizing NLTA, soldiers are better able to understand their psychological and physiological reactions Masters-at-arms assigned to the Naval Security Force at Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, train on the firearms in threatening situations because they can training simulator using the M16 assault rifles and the M9 pistols. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Navy/photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Leona Mynes] safely experience getting shot at and engaging a threat,” Didier added. “Through this stress inoculation, the soldier is able to affirm and the actual training, significantly reducing the gap between what internalize tactical concepts and priorities, thus performing the outcomes training used to be capable of delivering and what more effectively in combat.” current operations are demanding of our service personnel.” O Whether the training is completely simulated or live, but non-lethal, “there are several ways that modern technology is supporting high quality and safe weapons training,” concluded For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea at firstname.lastname@example.org or search our online archives Major Hopkins. “These sorts of products and facilities increase for related stories at www.mt2-kmi.com. training capability while at the same time reducing the cost of www.MT2-kmi.com
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Mixed reality for training. By Brian O’Shea MT2 Editor
enhances the warfighter’s training by allowing a unit to conduct multiple runs of the same event until the training operation is error free. “It prepares them for any environment they may get sent into,” said Major General Thomas M. Murray, commanding general, Training and Education Command, who recently attended a demonstration of the system at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Va. “It’s like a quarterback taking snaps; the more snaps he takes, the more ready he’ll be for the game. We deal with many possible situations so the units can react like muscle memory. We want that reaction to become as routine as possible to handle situations that you can’t anticipate. With this type of simulation, we can do a lot more training on a more frequent and larger scale.” To use the Augmented Reality Training System, a unit suits up in a backpack and head-mounted display (HMD). The helmet cameras capture video of what the warfighter sees, and the navigation module tracks visual features to locate the warfighter. Visual landmarks from the warfighter video are matched to a pre-collected landmark database that establishes the position of the warfighter in the simulation model. Stereo cameras on the helmets worn by the warfighter enable real-time depth reasoning of the user’s view. The simulation engine then utilizes the depthsensing and location to render synthetic characters into the see-through HMD, meaning the cameras gauge what the warfighter’s field of view and location, and can show the warfighter an inserted character based on where they are and what they are looking at. For example, if they look into a room, the simulation engine can add an enemy insurgent into their field of view. “We began working on augmented reality for training soldiers in 2008 as part of a DARPA [Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency] program seedling [Mixed Reality for Training Major General Thomas M. Murray, Commanding General, Training and Education Command looks through a – MrT] under Colonel Buck Surdu,” said Rakesh “Teddy” Kumar, pair of binoculars equipped with augmented reality technology and is looking at virtual features injected into senior technical director, Vision and Robotics Lab, Information an existing landscape at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Va. [Photo courtesy of Military Training Technology]
Using virtual reality technology, Marines may soon be able to train for a variety of operations using existing infrastructure by injecting role players, effects, vehicles and aircraft into the existing infrastructure. SRI Sarnoff is working with the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory (MCWL) further develop a project that has been in the works since 2008. The benefits of this system are cost savings by using role players and simulated vehicles and aircraft, and avoiding some of the training logistics that are involved in maintaining a facility such as a Combat Training Center. The Augmented Reality Training System is portable, in that it is range-independent and does not rely on any fixed infrastructure. It
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and Computing Sciences Division, SRI Sarnoff. “I met Dr. Surdu at the I/ITSEC conference in 2007 and suggested that as a topic to him. He liked the idea and funded us for a seedling program in the DARPA I20 office.” A major challenge in the beginning of the project was developing a navigation system that could track the warfighter accurately enough to insert stable avatars in their eye-view, added Kumar. The inserted avatars must appear stable with respect to the world and must not jitter or drift. Other challenges included being able to occlude the avatars when objects appear in front of them, and being able to build an integrated system that combines tracking, occlusion, rendering and displays on HMDs with low latency. The next steps of development of the Augmented Reality Training System are to create augmented weapon targeting and location using a weapon-mounted camera video frame matched to the head-mounted camera to train for marksmanship. Kumar also wants to create intelligent avatars to display meaningful natural language interactions with in-game characters and increase the depth of immersion. This means the avatars will react to how the users respond to them; whether it’s in a hostile manner or friendly manner will depend on how the user approaches the avatar. Lastly, he wants to minimize the required gear users need to carry to use the system, eliminating the need for a backpack, lowering the power usage and decreasing the weight of the entire system. Kumar said he anticipates these goals will be met within one year from now. While the project has come a long way since its inception, the augmented reality system for training is still in the research and development phase, said Major Ray Pursel USMC (Ret.), modeling and simulations analyst, MCWL. “It is not quite ready to be moved into an acquisition program because there are some technology hurdles that have yet to be cleared, such as a head-mounted display with a small form-factor with a wide field-of-view and high contrast outdoors,” said Pursel. “Whether opaque or see-through, these HMDs currently aren’t available. The ONR [Office of Naval Research] has a program to investigate and advance the development of HMDs, but it is an example of a technology on which we largely have to wait on industry. In the meantime, there are still plenty of other pieces of the system to be refined or developed. These include weapon employment [tracking and aiming], including optics such as binoculars and rifle optics, and incorporating communications.” The mission of the MCWL is to conduct concept-based experimentation and war gaming to develop and evaluate tactics, techniques, procedures and technologies in order to support the warfighter by enhancing current and future war fighting capabilities. The MCWL also serves as executive agent for counter-IED, science and technology, and joint concept development and experimentation. “When we started this program, the MCWL and the ONR were the R&D members of the Infantry Skills Simulation Working Group [ISSWG],” added Pursel. “The ISSWG’s charter was to identify a system of systems for improving infantry skills for ground combat element Marines. The other members were the training requirements sponsor, Training and Education Command; and the training acquisition activity, the Program Manager for Training Systems. The ISSWG saw promise in this technology to enhance training and so the MCWL initiated the R&D effort.” Captain Gabriel Diaz, model and simulation officer at MCWL, sees potential in this training system, but said that it will take some time before anything can be implemented. www.MT2-kmi.com
“I think it has a place, especially when it comes to decision making down to the infantry level,” said Diaz. “Anything worth the value of implementing something this complex is going to take some time. In the long run, I think it will benefit the Marine Corps.” The Marines who demonstrated the Augmented Reality Training System at Quantico had positive feedback concerning the system’s utility. “It helps with small unit decision-making and gives team leaders experience operating and maneuvering as a team,” said Sergeant David Campbell, who has prior experience using Quantum 3D’s Expedition DI infantry training tool. “It makes it so we can change the situations and create something you don’t anticipate to help us prepare for the unexpected,” said Lance Corporal Paul-Joseph Engleman. “Everything was good with the system, but it took a little bit to get used to the depth perception.” Another use of this Augmented Reality technology includes using binoculars to train joint tactical air controllers (JTACs). JTACs currently train in virtual domes or have to train on the top of a hill and wait for a plane to come by, which can be costly, said Kumar. With the Augmented Reality Training System, JTACs can look through binoculars with virtual elements such as aircraft added. O
For more information, contact MT2 Editor Brian O’Shea at email@example.com or search our online archives for related stories at www.mt2-kmi.com.
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Center for Information Dominance Evolving nature of warfare places greater demands on soldiers. By CID CO Captain Susan K. Cerovsky
Captain Susan Cerovsky hails from Wyandotte, Mich., and was reared in Erie, Pa., then Mobile, Ala. She graduated from the University of South Alabama in 1984 with a bachelor’s degree in geology and was commissioned in the General Unrestricted Line Community in February 1986 following Officer Candidate School. Her first two tours with Fleet Capt. Susan K. Cerovsky Intelligence Center, Europe and Atlantic, Norfolk, Va., and Fleet Oceanographic Surveillance Intelligence Facility, Kamiseya, Japan, earned her subspecialties in Operational Intelligence and Information Technology. Additional duties included senior watch officer and assistant operations officer. In May 1991, she attended Instructor School aboard the former Naval Amphibious School, Little Creek, Va., and commenced her duties as an instructor in the Navy Leadership Department earning her Master Training Specialist, and the Education and Training subspecialty code. Her first department head tour was at the Naval Historical Center, Washington Navy Yard, from November 1993 to September 1995 followed by a tour as deputy director of the Joint PROFORMA Center at the National Security Agency/Central Security Service Fort George G. Meade, Md. During this tour, she qualified as a National Cryptologic School adjunct faculty member. Cerovsky received her master’s degree in information technology management from the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, Calif., and was designated as a Microsoft Certified Systems engineer. She reported to Naval Technical Training Center and the Center for Cryptology Pensacola, Fla., in October 2000 where she served as the information systems technology training department head. In 2003, she was selected for lateral transfer to the information warfare community and was reassigned to Naval Network Warfare Command where she worked computer network defense initiatives. In May 2005, she reported as executive officer to the Navy Cyber Defense Operations Command (NCDOC). She successfully led the command through unprecedented growth and mission accomplishment, culminating in NCDOC being awarded the prestigious Meritorious Unit Commendation. She transferred to Carrier Strike Group Twelve in November of 2007 and immediately assumed the duties and responsibilities as Enterprise Strike Group’s information warfare commander. Next, she was the executive assistant to the commander, Naval Network Warfare and most recently served as the Joint Forces Command J2 Chief of Staff from June 2010 until September 2011 prior to reporting to the Center for Information Dominance. 24 | MT2 17.5
Her personal awards include the Defense Meritorious Service Medal (two awards), the Meritorious Service Medal (five awards), the Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal (four awards), the Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal (two awards), and various campaign and unit awards.
Center for Information Dominance Over the past few decades, technology has been moving at an extremely fast pace, and each year, it seems to increase exponentially. The evolving nature of warfare in today’s environment has placed greater demands on all sailors to maintain combat readiness and versatility. This seems to be particularly true for sailors who begin their careers at one of the Center for Information Dominance school houses in highly technical ratings such as those engaged in information technology, cyber operations and intelligence. Then-Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Information Dominance Vice Admiral Jack Dorsett, in “The Navy’s Vision for Information Dominance” in May 2010, referred to the rationale behind the decision by then-Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) Admiral Gary Roughead to move forward with the development of the Information Dominance Corps (IDC). “Time is short and the task paramount. Potential adversaries are working to offset our strengths and level the playing field,” Dorsett said. “We can no longer afford inefficiencies incurred with stovepiped networks, systems and processes.” The IDC was established January 29, 2010, as part of the reactivation of the 10th Fleet at Fort Meade, Md. In a speech to the Center for Strategic and International Studies in October 2009, Roughead announced the future of cyber warfare. In addition to the 10th Fleet, he spoke about the creation of the Navy’s newest corps as one of the centerpieces of that new cyber future. “Right now we have a lot of ratings, a lot of specialties within the Navy that in and of themselves are a bunch of different communities, a bunch of different structures if you will,” Roughead said. “And we will combine them into an Information Dominance Corps.” The diverse communities that make up the IDC constitute of about 44,000 sailors and would include information professional officers, information warfare officers, naval intelligence officers, oceanography officers, space cadre, aerographers mate, cryptologic technician (CTN, CTM, CTT, CTI, CTR ratings) enlisted personnel, intelligence specialist enlisted personnel, information systems technician enlisted personnel, and they would have a new warfare pin to reflect their new responsibilities. www.MT2-kmi.com
Since its inception in 2005, CID has led the fight by using a multi-disciplinary, innovative approach to training joint warfighters for cyber operations and to dominate the information domain. Merging the Center for Naval Intelligence (CNI) into CID last fall transformed CID into one of the largest, most geographically-dispersed and complex centers within the Naval Education and Training Command domain. CID oversees four commands, two detachments and 16 learning sites in strategic worldwide locations, including Navy and Marine Corps Intelligence Training Center in Dam Neck, Va.; Fleet Intelligence Training Center in San Diego; CID Unit Corry Station in Pensacola, Fla.; CID Unit Monterey in Monterey, Calif.; Yokosuka, Japan; Kunia and Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; Bangor and Everett, Wash.; San Diego; Prospective Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy Mike Stevens speaks to Information Systems Technician “A” school students on board Medina, Texas; Fort Gordon, Ga.; Mayport, Center for Information Dominance Unit Corry Station during a brief visit to the schoolhouse July 13. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Navy/Photo by Cryptologic Technician Collection 1st Class Joshua Pugh] Fla.; Jacksonville, Fla.; Kings Bay, Ga.; Hampton Roads, Va.; Washington, D.C.; In a speech last fall at a change of command ceremony Fort Meade, Md.; and Groton, Conn. for the U.S. Fleet Cyber Command/U.S. 10th Fleet, Greenert CID is now responsible for the individual level training and eduhighlighted the challenges faced by the IDC, and the need for cation of the intelligence, informational professional and informaconstant vigilance. tion warfare communities and associated enlisted rates to include: “The next major conflict, we are absolutely convinced, will intelligence specialist, information systems technician, information start virtually,” Greenert said. “It won’t be a kinetic strike. The systems technician submarines, cryptologic technician networks, first strike will be somebody trying to paralyze information, cryptologic technician interpretive, cryptologic technician mainteweapons, sensors or our command and control systems.” nance, cryptologic technician technical, and cryptologic technician His point highlights that the demand signal for a wellcollection. trained certified and professionally developed IDC workforce CID school houses conduct both Navy and joint (Executive Agent will remain steady in the future. for National Security Agency courses) entry-level, intermediate and Joint and fleet requirements will increase as we continue to advanced individual level training in major fleet concentration areas accomplish the CNO’s Sailing Directions and Vision to operaand advanced individual level training in major fleet concentration tionalize cyberspace with capabilities that span the electromagareas and National Agency sites. netic spectrum. The merger of CNI and CID is a natural evolution to the profound As the Navy evolves doctrine, technology, systems and orgachanges that Roughead made in October 2009 and the continued nizations to remain the preeminent maritime force so will CID, changes that CNO Admiral Jonathan W. Greenert is making today. as our diverse workforce throughout the domain develops new As CID reaches full operational capability, from realignment and innovative ways to train the total force on the skills required initiatives of the merger, more advances in providing end-to-end to provide superior awareness, control and strike when and training and professional development of personnel in technical where we need it. information-centric disciplines will occur. Each member of the war CID is the Navy’s Learning Center that leads, manages and fighting team will better understand how their position interrelates delivers Navy and Joint Force training in information operawith the other information-intensive disciplines and when brought tions, information warfare, information technology, cryptology together creates a cohesive corps for information analysis and disand intelligence. semination as well as a war fighting capability. The CID domain comprises nearly 1,300 military, civilian No one can argue the value of the interdependency of the and contracted personnel. CID oversees the development and operational intelligence cycle and accurate weather prediction on administration of more than 222 courses at four commands, radio frequency wave propagation characteristics in exponentially two detachments and 16 learning sites throughout the United increasing the value of our counter intelligence, surveillance and States and in Japan. CID provides training for approximately reconnaissance operations and electronic warfare and other effects 24,000 members of the U.S. armed services and allied forces or that the computer network defense is truly not achievable unless each year. O we understand the threats. www.MT2-kmi.com
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Air Force Builds Portal to Connect Simulation Centers, Provide Training and More
By Dolly Glass
Eighteen months ago, Lieutenant Colonel Manny Dominguez of the Air Force Medical Modeling and Simulation Training (AFMMAST) program was charged with helping the Air Force Medical Service develop an IT portal for all medical simulation services. With simulation centers all over the world offering all kinds of simulation opportunities, it became readily apparent that there was a great need to share best practices and training procedures across the centers and provide a centralized service to patients and providers. Dominguez created a strategy, identified the virtual training resources from all branches of the military, and focused on what overlapping data could be minimized through consolidation of efforts. He also determined that the information would have to be standardized and relatable to many viewers and also be as virtually sophisticated as the information the portal would be supplying. In order to develop an overall virtual reality strategy, the next step included determining what products were available in the industry and identifying potential partners that would help them to achieve this. The first step involved developing the AFMMAST portal. This website portal would be the access hub for all things related to medical simulation training and the launching point for evolving virtual services. As the portal unfolded, its first mission would be to serve as the ‘go to’ place for AF providers. Visitors would have access to all the latest in best practices, participate in online training courses, experience medical gaming, join a discussion board to exchange ideas with peers or view training scenarios from AF simulation centers throughout the world. Additionally, each of the simulation centers would have their own area of the portal to host and provide their unique, center specific content. Providers could also browse through the portal’s Cybrary—an online medical reference library created for providers and patients—and watch various training videos rated by viewers. Meanwhile, Dominguez received a call from the AF Surgeon General (SG), who had recently visited the Mayo Clinic. The SG suggested that Dominguez take a look at their virtual diabetic clinic. This clinic was a place where diabetics from all around the globe were talking with one another in a virtual world, discussing their disease, trading best practices, and sharing in a forum where they could rely on their own similarities and experiences to learn from one another. The SG saw something in this clinic he felt could work for the AF, so Dominguez was soon changing directions to add another dynamic to the portal. As the idea of a virtual world took hold, it became apparent that limiting the service to just one clinic, as originally conceived, would not suffice. Instead, an entire medical center that encompassed multiple clinics such as diabetes, orthopedic, cardiovascular, and a host of others would be to everyone’s best advantage.The Air Force has 72 hospitals around the 26 | MT2 17.5
world, and now Dominguez and his team were creating the 73rd Air Force hospital—only this one was online. The Virtual Medical Center (VMC) would differ from the original portal that was initially aimed at providers, and would now include a patientbased site. Patients and providers alike would have access to information, self-help tools and wellness tools, as well as opportunities to participate in group discussions related to their particular area of interest. Areas of the VMC would cater to diabetes care, cardiovascular health or any one of the many future clinics (totaling close to 30) scheduled for stand up. As the AFMMAST portal and VMC idea grew and developed, so did the list of offerings. Currently the team is building their first AFMMAST mobile application store for the portal. Mobile apps provide a wealth of medical games, useful tools and handy reference material to both providers and patients. “We don’t invent them all; we centralize them all.” Dominguez said about the store. Amazingly enough, all of this has come together in less than 18 months. The VMC will be staffed with full-time nurses and doctors that will be able to answer questions and respond in real time when needed. Patients can opt for a live e-Consultation with the medical staff whenever they need. For general questions, there are also Virtual Medical Advisors (VMAs) placed strategically throughout the VMC. The VMA is an avatar character with access to thousands of frequently asked questions and answers. Users within the VMC will be able to ask the VMA questions and get answers. In his research, Dominguez spoke with many physicians who expressed some concern because, as in a real office, they feared they would have patients waiting in line for two hours to ask a pretty simple question. The physicians felt like their virtual time would be better spent with their patients who really needed that one-on-one time with a more detailed exchange. “So here’s a solution,” Dominguez suggested. “For all those quick answers, patients can log in from home or from an iPad on a beach, interact with the VMA or get an e-consult, and they don’t have to drive 50 miles to the base and wait for two hours.” It’s a win-win for the patient and the physician. “We’re going to continue to integratethe lessons learned through our beta testing over the next three months or so, with a group of diabetic patients, as well as some of our providers,” said Dominguez. “They are going to give us feedback and tell us what’s missing, what they would like to see, and we will integrate those items and make the product more robust as the years go on.” O www.MT2-kmi.com
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I/ITSEC 2012. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 www.iitsec.org Matrox. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 www.matrox.com/avio/mtt MetaVR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C2 www.metavr.com Northrop Grumman Technical Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 www.northropgrumman.com/training Selex Galileo Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C4 www.selexgalileo.com USGIF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 www.geoint2012.com
Calendar September 25-27, 2012 Modern Day Marine Quantico, Va. www.marinemilitaryexpos.com
December 3-6, 2012 I/ITSEC Orlando, Fla. www.iitsec.org
October 22-24, 2012 AUSA Annual Meeting Washington, D.C. www.ausa.org/meetings/2012
February 20-22, 2013 AUSA’s ILW Winter Symposium and Exposition Fort Lauderdale, Fla. www.ausa.org/meetings/2013
Matrox Avio F120 KVM Extender delivers realtime 3D graphics and HD video up to 2 km away from the workstation over a single fiber-optic cable, for simulation and training applications.
NATION’S LARGEST INTELLIGENCE EVENT
5/24/2012 3:45:45 P
Taking its place in KMI Media Group’s family of publications
Border & CBRNE Defense makes eleven Border Threat Prevention and CBRNE Response
11 Border & CBRNE Defense
Geospatial Intelligence Forum SPECIAL SECTION:
Integrated Fixed Towers
Ground Combat Technology Military Advanced Education Military Logistics Forum
Military Information Technology www.BCD-kmi.com
Michael J. Fisher Chief U.S. Border Patrol U.S. Customs and Border Protection
June 2012 Volume 1, Issue 1
Military Medical & Veterans Affairs Forum Military Training Technology Special Operations Technology
Leadership Insight: Robert S. Bray Assistant Administrator for Law Enforcement/Director of the Federal Air Marshal Service
Wide Area Aerial Surveillance O Hazmat Disaster Response Tactical Communications O P-3 Program
Tactical ISR Technology U.S. Coast Guard Forum
For more information on BCD, please contact Editor Brian O’Shea at firstname.lastname@example.org
geoint2012.com MT2 17.5 | 27
Military Training Technology
Samuel Recine Director of Sales - Americas & Asia Pacific Matrox Graphics Q: Can you describe Matrox’s history and evolution? A: Matrox is in its 36th year of operation. The company was founded by two engineers, Branko Matic and Lorne Trottier, and the first product was Video RAM—a video display generator for first-generation microprocessors with a resolution of eight lines of 16 characters. With the advent of DRAM, graphics generators were introduced. In 1986, Matrox developed the EIDS computer-based training system for the U.S. Army, and as a prime contractor under an IDIQ contract delivered 27,000 systems. Subsequently, Matrox won a contract with Sun Microsystems to develop a low-cost, 64-bit 3-D graphics accelerator card. The product for Sun workstations was then further cost-reduced to become the world’s first 64-bit Windows 3 graphics accelerator for the IBM PC. Matrox grew rapidly from 1994 to 2000, with the steady introduction of award-winning GPUs. In recent years, Matrox has shifted its focus to developing products for vertical markets, including simulation and training. Q: What are some of your key products in the DoD training and simulation industry? A: Matrox quad-graphics accelerators are extensively used by leading manufacturers of task trainer systems that utilize multiple displays. Also widely used are our Graphics eXpansion Modules DualHead2Go and TripleHead2Go, which split the output of high-end 3-D GPUs into two or three display signals. With the growing requirement to “remote” graphics without compromising signal quality or introducing latency, our fiber-optic based extension products are being increasingly deployed in training environments. The Matrox Mura MPX Series of video wall controller boards is being considered as an effective way to visualize large amounts of data on display walls during simulation reviews. Q: What are some of the new training/simulation technologies Matrox is developing? A: We just launched a video compression over IP product range that uses open-standard 28 | MT2 17.5
H.264 compression that will greatly enhance the market’s option for multi-site collaboration. We are also currently working to add isochronous USB 2.0 functionality to our Avio KVM extenders, which will provide robust audio extension over fiber. Additionally, a pair of Avio units can drive the new 4K x 2K displays at full frame rate without video compression. Q: How are you positioned for the future within the military? A: As long as the military uses networked video and/or computers, we feel very well positioned. Matrox has always been at the forefront of applications that help to “see” information, and military budgets are skewed toward obtaining, studying and visualizing data on computer systems in numerous forms to extract usable information. Therefore, the more the military makes use of conferencing systems—we’ll be there. The more the military builds trainers and simulators—we’ll be there. And the more the military tries to take advantage of OS virtualization or desktop/video virtualization to split the user-side peripherals from the CPU—we’ll be there too. Q: What is Matrox’s connection with the defense community? A: When developing the Parhelia SGT [Satellite Grayscale Technology] video card, we worked with the defense contract holders, the DoD commands, and the numerous secondary and tertiary partners involved in viewing high-resolution satellite imagery on the stereoscopic Siemens SMM21106 display, which delivered the highest quality images ever. That kind of commitment is still present today. We’ve studied the detailed requirements for
visualization stations aboard AWACS aircraft—and we’ve demonstrated how to run uncompressed, multi-user, simulators in military classrooms using open-standard hardware with no customization requirements. We’ve worked with the highest-end applications in security and surveillance, simulation, command-and-control and collaboration. Furthermore, we’re deeply entrenched in the remote computing space using old and new protocols such as RDP, Citrix, RemoteFX, and other compression schemes. Q: What is an example of your success in the military, and what are some of your goals—specific to the training/simulation industry—over the next year? A: An example of our success is the penetration of our Extio fiber-optic KVM extension product into military control rooms on account of its uncompressed multimonitor support, as it drives the most displays in the market. But this year we want to gain the same level of traction with our new Avio fiber-optic KVM extender in high-end simulation and in control room applications. Q: How do customers benefit from Matrox’s varied resources and expertise? A: Matrox offers a wide range of COTS solutions to help capture, render, move and display graphical information of any type. Our products feature long life cycles so they are available throughout most program lifetimes, and our applications engineering team is able to provide a high level of technical support. For example, the Matrox Millennium G450 video card was launched in the year 2000 and is still selling today. It has more operating system support than any other video card ever built. Q: How do you measure success? A: We measure our success by the successes of our customers. Most of them come back and that gives us confidence that we are helping them deliver effective solutions. O www.MT2-kmi.com
September 2012 Vol. 17, Issue 6
America's Longest Established Simulation & Training Magazine
Cover and In-Depth Interview with:
Major General Thomas M. Murray Commanding General Training and Education Command U.S. Marine Corps
Command Profile U.S. Army Sniper School
Marine Recon Training The technology and solutions U.S. Marines use to complete reconnaissance training.
Serious Gaming/Virtual Worlds Military commands and industry vendors discuss the biggest trends in Serious Games and Virtual Worlds for the military.
Language Training The U.S. military responds to threats across the globe, and our warfighters receive language training in a variety of mediums to help accomplish their missions.
Combined Arms CenterTraining Based at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., the Combined Arms Center-Training (CAC-T) is a subordinate organization of the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command. CAC-T delivers training programs, products and services to leaders and units in support of Army readiness to conduct full spectrum operations in any environment.
Insertion Order Deadline: August 20, 2012 â€˘ Ad Materials Deadline: August 27, 2012
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