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The Voice of Military Communications and Computing

Materiel CIO Edward Siomacco CIO/G-6 Army Materiel Command


April 2013

Volume 17, Issue 3

MUOS Radios O Telecommunications Contracts O Cyber-Threats Rugged Tablets O Lt. Gen. Susan Lawrence O Tactical Radios

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military information technology Features

Cover / Q&A

Radio Realignment

IT Needs and Budget Realities

For the first time beginning later this year, soldiers on the battlefield will be equipped with voice and data radios that are not dependent on fixed infrastructure or line-of-sight communications, representing a pivotal step forward for the Army’s tactical radio portfolio. By Nancy Jones-Bonbrest

Lieutenant General Susan Lawrence, who serves as chief information officer/G-6 for the Army, recently laid out her plans for modernizing Army networks within an austere budget environment. By Harrison Donnelly







Networx Grows Up

Equipping a New Constellation

Long Live the Touchscreen

Building the Cyber-Resilient Force

Along the way toward achieving its vision of comprehensive contracts for telecommunications products and services for government agencies, the Networx program has been going through a bit of a midlife crisis. By Karen E. Thuermer

April 2013 Volume 17, Issue 3

Now that the Mobile User Objective System is operational, the military and its industry partners are working to bring devices to the field that can take advantage of its many capabilities. By Peter Buxbaum

Departments 2 Editor’s Perspective 3 program notes/People 14 data bytes 26 COTSacopia 27 Resource Center

Spurred by the form factor’s consumer popularity, ruggedized tablet computers are making inroads in the military market. By William Murray

A recently released Defense Science Board report, entitled “Resilient Military Systems and the Advanced Cyber Threat,” warns of cyber-threats and outlines improvements in DoD’s ability to respond to attacks.

Industry Interview Edward Siira

Vice President of International Sales Cornet Technology


16 Edward Siomacco

CIO/G-6 Army Materiel Command

Military Information Technology Volume 17, Issue 3 • April 2013

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EDITOR’S PERSPECTIVE A recent announcement from an industry group dedicated to system interoperability has underscored the extent to which the concept of cloud computing is working its way into every aspect of military, intelligence and emergency operations. The announcement concerned an award by the Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium (NCOIC) to an industry team led by NJVC to create a cloud infrastructure to support a concept proposed by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), which is interested in using cloud computing to deliver services to its nontraditional users such as those responding to a humanitarian crisis. The project is designed to demonstrate the interoperability and movement of Harrison Donnelly data in an open-cloud-based demonstration. NGA will provide unclassified data that Editor supports a scenario depicting the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. NCOIC’s foundational model is based on a series of successful lab interoperability demonstrations, also based on Haiti, it conducted four times during 2010. While one commercial cloud served as a data-transport vehicle during the 2010 lab demonstrations, the NGA work would put a number of clouds in the center of the action, thereby enabling the ever-expanding population of global cloud users, including emergency responders, to post their “eyewitness” views of what’s happening where they are. The first stage of the project will focus on defining and building the cloud infrastructure, guided by an NCOIC process for developing a “voice of industry” consensus. In the second stage, member companies will plug into the cloud and use the geospatial data to activate unique, sometimes proprietary, applications that demonstrate end-user capabilities. An example of potential end-user capability could be rescue workers, firefighters or hospital personnel—or even bankers trying to reconstitute a financial system. “Governments have spent billions on satellites that can locate objects on Earth, and those systems give us very reliable data about the latest situations on the ground,” said Tip Slater, NCOIC director of business development. “But why shouldn’t we encourage the Web community to contribute their own views of the reality they see every hour of every day? Clouds offer the global reach for data storage, retrieval and survivability that could help NCOIC validate this work on behalf of NGA.”

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DARPA Seeks Better Way for Phased Arrays The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is seeking new, faster and more cost-effective ways to develop phased radio frequency (RF) arrays. Phased arrays, which use numerous small antennas to steer RF beams without mechanical movement, are invaluable for key military applications such as radar, communications and electronic warfare. Their lack of moving parts reduces maintenance requirements, and their advanced electromagnetic capabilities, such as the ability to look in multiple directions at once, are extremely useful in the field. These benefits come with a high price tag, however. Current phased arrays are extremely expensive and can take many years to engineer and build. One of the main factors driving the dollar and time costs of current phased array programs is the need to start engineering from scratch, to customize the array to a specific defense application every time a new system is needed. Because the resulting arrays are so specialized, even upgrading them is often prohibitively expensive. The drawn-out process for designing and building custom arrays also means that actual gains in performance have slowed to the point that COTS electronics are catching up rapidly in their ability to counter phased arrays. This emerging parity threatens to diminish the technological advantage the Department of Defense has traditionally enjoyed in military electronics. A technical solution is needed to bring military array programs to more manageable cost levels and timescales. As a result, DARPA created the Arrays at Commercial Timescales (ACT) program to seek new technologies to form a shared hardware basis for many future DoD phased array development programs. If ACT is successful, the resulting technologies may yield substantial savings and cut the required research and development time for new systems. ACT will oversee technology research into three technical areas: 1) a common building block for RF arrays; 2) a reconfigurable electromagnetic interface; 3) over-the-air coherent array aggregation.

“What DARPA is looking for is essentially three tiers of technology that together form a configurable system that would serve as a starting point for any new array program,” said Bill Chappell, program manager. “Current DoD array development programs can take more than a decade and cost tens of billions of dollars. That’s because these programs start from zero, from a clean slate, every time and work toward an endpoint as specific as a radar system for a single class of warship. We want to give those efforts a common foundation. “Success with technical areas one and two would lead to a significant reduction in program costs, namely the 30-40 percent nonrecurring engineering costs these programs average. We’ll also save time, allowing DoD to field the effective new systems and readily refresh systems already in the field. Because of the rapid evolution of electronics, cost and time translate directly to performance. So not only do we hope to make arrays significantly cheaper at a faster time scale, we believe that this will in turn allow for much greater performance,” Chappell said. The third technological area of ACT aims to reduce the space requirements for defense electronics by developing distributed phased arrays that can communicate with each other to function as a single larger array. For example, there is very limited space available in the tower of an aircraft carrier, so large systems for applications like radar do not always fit. ACT could enable just a piece of a radar system to be hosted in one location, with other pieces hosted elsewhere in the carrier group, and with all the pieces communicating to act as a whole.

PEOPLE Air Force Brigadier General John M. Hicks, who has been serving as director, command, control, communications and cyber, J-6, Headquarters U.S. Pacific Command, has been assigned as commander, 23rd Air Force and director, operations, Air Force Special Operations Command, Hurlburt Field, Fla

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

CACI International has appointed Kenneth Asbury as the company’s president and chief executive officer. He comes to CACI from Lockheed Martin, where he oversaw that company’s technical operations, mission services and civil businesses. ARTEL, a global provider of satellite and terrestrial communications

and IT services, has recently added four new executives to its leadership team: Gregory A. Garrett, vice president of managed network services; William E. Cleghorn, vice president of solutions integration and information assurance services; Steve Johnson, vice president, business development; Jackie Berger, vice president, communications and marketing.

David K. Heebner, who has been serving at General Dynamics as executive vice president and group executive of the Combat Systems group, has been appointed group executive of the company’s Information Systems and Technology group ViON has named Steven Picot as vice president of federal sales.

MIT 17.3 | 3

After a bumpy transition, telecommunications contract program offers comprehensive services for federal agencies. By Karen E. Thuermer, MIT Correspondent which agencies were transitioning to NetAlong the way toward achieving its vision worx, FTS2001 had to be again extended of comprehensive contracts for telecommuagain, this time to March 2013. nications products and services for governEven up to this date, contractors have ment agencies, the Networx program has been working frantically. Sprint’s Mike Ligas, been going through a bit of a midlife crisis. sales director, federal, commented that he Although contracts for the program, expected the transition “to come down to which covers both military and civilian agenthe wire.” cies, have been awarded, its start has been “Networx was billed as a painfully slow, observers say. means to leverage the buying While Networx began with power of the federal governnoble intentions like bringing ment,” he said, while adding better, more advanced services that he is uncertain as to the to the government to increase end result. efficiency, effectiveness, pro“These are really infraductivity and security, some structure-type contracts,” analysts contend that it has Ligas said. “Changing the not yet been successful in contract every time we do it achieving those goals. causes a lot of rip-and-replace That’s because under Netactivities, which are expensive worx, agencies were to first Edward Morche for the government. The govtransition to updated technolernment can build an aircraft ogy, and then to shift to using carrier faster than this.” next-generation services that Diana Gowen, senior vice are better performing, more president and general mansecure and more efficient. ager for CenturyLink, called “That second part was the situation “a sad state of completely missed because affairs.” there was no incentive to “The government has not transform; only deadlines gotten the value it could just to transition,” commented because it took so long to get Edward Morche, senior vice Diana Gowen off old systems and onto new,” president and general manshe said. ager of Level 3’s GovernThe reasons the transition has taken so ment Markets Group. “Also, the slow and long, she said, include law changes, misundelayed transition lost $18 million in savings derstandings of the new contract, and the fact a month, and better pricing was missed that staffs were diminished. “The whole idea because agencies generally opted more for of transforming from old to something new Networx Universal, which had only three proand more effective went by the wayside. And viders competing for business, than Networx now we’re five or so years being the power Enterprise, which had five providers.” curve.” Part of the problem, analysts say, is that A particular problem is the modifications it has taken six years to finally turn off the that have been made to the contract. “Those bridge contract, Federal Technology Services modifications have been late in the game,” 2001 (FTS2001). But given the slow pace at 4 | MIT 17.3

she remarked. “Those agencies that were able to get their act together have benefited. But those that took a long time to figure out what they wanted did not get the savings or innovation that they could have.” Susan Zeleniak, senior vice president for Verizon Public Sector Markets, agrees that the transition has gone slower than expected. “But once an agency engages to get that transition done, they do it very quickly,” she said. “We are pleased with the progress of the contract and with our success.” Networx involves two complementary acquisitions—Networx Universal and Networx Enterprise. Networx Universal has three prime contractors: Verizon Federal, CenturyLink and AT&T. Networx Enterprise comprised the same three Universal contractors plus Sprint, Nextel and Level 3 Communications. Through the Networx Universal contract, large providers offer a full range of service offerings with national and international geographic coverage. Under the Networx Enterprise contract, providers offer federal agencies a wide array of advanced IT and communications services. For example, for the Department of Defense, Verizon is providing traditional PDM services, toll-free voice, MTLS services, private internet, and management network services. “Large data networks, managed services and various voice services are our biggest areas,” Zeleniak described. While contractors are not permitted to divulge the details and for whom they have been contracted, the Defense Information Technology Contracting Organization (DITCO) within the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) has stated that it awarded Verizon two agreements worth as much as $1.12 billion in 2008. In one agreement valued at as much as $752 million, Verizon Business was selected

to provide DoD agencies with data services. They include network-based IP virtual private network services based on multi-protocol label switching; Internet protocol services; asynchronous transfer mode; and wireless and point-to-point private line for existing services. Here, critical IP VPN data traffic rides on the Verizon Business vBNS+ (Very High Performance Backbone Network Service) network, which is dedicated primarily to government and educational institutions with high-performance network requirements. In a separate agreement valued at as much as $368 million, Verizon Business was selected as the primary provider for voice services to help more than 700,000 users at military locations worldwide communicate and collaborate effectively. This included long-distance, toll-free, calling-card, ISDN (integrated services digital network) and video teleconferencing. In December 2011, the National Guard Bureau selected Verizon to upgrade and modernize GuardNet, the guard’s primary communications network. Under the $28.8 million Networx Enterprise contract and through DISA, Verizon was charged with migrating GuardNet to Verizon’s secure private Internet Protocol communications network. Used in 54 states and territories across the nation and abroad, the new IP backbone is based on multiprotocol label switching and serves learning applications, community outreach initiatives, administrative purposes and facilitating the guard’s interaction with DoD. “We have won other contracts through agencies outside of DITCO, which did not issue press releases,” Zeleniak added. “We also have had multiple smaller awards with agencies within DoD, both domestic and international.” While Zeleniak admits that some agencies were slow to finish work on FTS 2001, she notes that there is new activity constantly going on. “Once an agency makes its transition to Networx, they can continue to order other services off of Networx,” she said. “We are continuing to see new activity to expand their capacity.” Since Networx offers opportunities to save money, most agencies are reinvesting those savings to expand their capabilities, Zeleniak said. “For example, there is a greater need for increased bandwidth for video and high-capacity bandwidth, since video carries an enormous amount of data for information.”

Data Decisions Gowen observed that while DoD was an early leader in making decisions on Networx, much of the contracted work involved voice technologies, for which price points were already very low. “Agencies involved themselves with a lot of widgets, but not a lot of value,” she commented. “It wasn’t until later in the game—in late 2010 and 2011, that they made decisions regarding data networks and who that data provider was going to be.” Gowen pointed to one example in which, for two years, a future DoD purchase was framed as a rely buy for the Marine Corps. “They finally killed that and moved into new

technology,” she said. “This is a good example of what agencies did. If they were going to make a change, they were going to change into the future, not the status quo.” In December 2011, DISA/DITCO awarded CenturyLink a multi-year task order valued at more than $250 million to provide private line services for dedicated high-speed connections between military installations. The contract involved the deployment of an optical network infrastructure to deliver highly reliable and capable private line services to support defense customers. “CenturyLink’s private line services have extensive geographic coverage that will ensure fast, direct and secure communications

STANDING READY TO MEET YOUR MISSION-CRITICAL NETWORK NEEDS Our government contracts offer the services and solutions you need to get the job done. Our proven performance and ongoing commitment to designing, building and operating IP networks make Level 3 the nextgeneration networking choice for government agencies. Contract vehicles: • Networx Enterprise • WITS 3 (The Washington Interagency Telecommunications System) • GSA Schedule 70 • DITCO Basic Agreement • GSA Regional Contracts Visit or call 1.866.9FEDNET to learn more.

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MIT 17.3 | 5

between U.S. military bases, posts, camps and stations,” Gowen said. Earlier that year, DISA/DITCO also awarded Qwest Communications, a company CenturyLink acquired in April 2011, a $100 million contract for a multi-year task order for advanced data services. Over the past two years, CenturyLink has been involved in providing Internet services for Navy Reserve Command training centers. “What we did was build WiFi hotspots in the Navy Reserves Support centers so that the reservist could bring their own devices and immediately log on and do whatever training they needed to do,” Gowen said. While the use of WiFi may not be novel, the Navy Reserve was the first organization within DoD to utilize it on the Networx contract and use this technology on base. “We have done the mundane transition from the old to the new,” Gowen said. “In private line technologies, we are executing a strategy that takes certain bases and makes them a hub and aggregates traffic into the hub. We have finished three of those, and have seven more to go.” CenturyLink is making progress, but the job is not complete, she said. “We are helping the customer get off of older contracts that either will soon expire or do not have the price points that the new contracts have. This is helping them save money where money needs to be saved.” Ligas noted that while much of the FTS 001 and Networx contracts have been focused on wireline activities, the line between the two is getting increasingly blurry. For example, Sprint offers a unified communications, secure wireless capability called Sprint Data Link that provides a secure connection to a wireline infrastructure and a product called Sprint Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), or SIP Trunking, that maximizes network capacity, and minimizes the amount of trunks used compared to traditional trunking. “The technology is migrating and changing the ability of the end-user, from sitting at their desk to being in a mobile environment and having information at their fingertips no matter where they are,” Ligas explained.

Mobile Environment Sprint has been working with DISA on the ability to be responsive to changing technology in a mobile environment. “That is going to create more efficiency in DoD,” said Ligas. “One nice thing about working with the DISA Mobility Group is they understand 6 | MIT 17.3

that any time the government asks for something that is different than a commercial capability, they are adding more cost. Yes, there are times when things have to be classified and top secret, meaning you have to offer something different from what is available commercially, but for everyday voice communication and unclassified information, a commercial-type technology that is reliable is useful for the government.” Level 3 Communications has found DoD to be one of the few agencies to actively use the Networx Enterprise contract for enterprise data needs, including network-based IP virtual private network service and private line service. “DoD agencies are also transforming the way they think about enterprise networks through the use of Ethernet technologies such as L2VPNS,” commented Morche. “However, DoD did not use Networx Enterprise to compete their requirements for Internet Protocol service, which is an area where Level 3 is particularly strong. We believe that by using Networx Universal, DoD did not realize the benefits of better pricing and service that come with the increased competition on Networx Enterprise.” Morche added, however, that many agencies, including DoD, are looking at IP-based unified communication and collaboration services (UCC). “The promise of converged voice, video and data that has been discussed for many years is finally here,” he said. “The applications and the underlying infrastructure have reached a stage of maturity that makes it feasible across a wide range of use cases. Furthermore, the cost of continuing to maintain legacy systems has become so exorbitant that agencies can often realize return on investment within a year.” Level 3 holds foundational patents in Voice over Internet Protocol and is by far the largest provider of SIP-based communication services globally. SIP-based service is at the heart of new UCC services and is at the core of the Level 3 network. “For this reason, we often find ourselves in discussion with agencies and partners about ways in which we can leverage this experience and scale to their benefit,” he added.

Next Networx With technology advancing so rapidly, anticipation is soaring regarding Networx 2020, the next 10-year government-wide acquisition contract (GWAC).

Every five years, vendors start to ask about what future technology is going to be on the next GWAC, Morche noted. But the better question, he suggested, is to ask how vendors can enable agencies to get the newest technology while it’s still new. “How do we make sure our government is as advanced as our citizens expect and more advanced than anyone who wants to do harm?” he asked, adding that the answer is simple: Operate more like a commercial enterprise. “Get rid of the concept of a 10-year contract vehicle with limited providers and mandating that providers deliver outdated services,” he said. “Instead, bring in more providers, open the contract to be evergreen in nature, and allow agencies to simply open up an MSA with no clock associated with it so they can evaluate and procure services from those who do it best. That way, agencies can quickly take advantage of increasingly beneficial services like cloud and collaboration, as well as future services that we can’t even predict.” Ligas concurs, adding that the future will see ways to transmit data faster and on wireless and wireline networks. “What this means is we are going to get into larger size gigabyte wireline types,” he said. “Those will be technologies that will continue to advance as data explodes. And DoD in particular is one happy data customer.” In the future, he predicted, there will be a ubiquitous wireless technology that will be global. “The kind of capabilities that will be available in the United States for a soldier to train on will also be available in other parts of the world, so that they can actually use that in combat. To the military that is the ultimate goal: to train like you fight,” he commented. Zeleniak concurred that now that everyone is getting onto Networx, it’s time to look at how to use the contract to provide new technologies. “If you think about the world being more mobile, using cloud, and needing more security because mobile and cloud both require this, we are looking at how to bring more services to Networx that involve those technologies,” she said. “We are working on how to ensure you go through the same security outlet whether you are mobile or not.” O

For more information, contact MIT Editor Harrison Donnelly at or search our online archives for related stories at

With Mobile User Objective System satellites now operational, the search is on for new radios to take advantage of the system’s many capabilities. By Peter Buxbaum, MIT Correspondent

Now that the Mobile User Objective System (MUOS)—with its promise of simultaneous voice, video and data services for mobile and remote users worldwide—is becoming operational, the military and its industry partners are working to bring devices to the field that can take advantage of its many capabilities. The next-generation narrowband MILSATCOM program is envisioned to provide reliable, global coverage for military operations as well as for national emergency assistance, disaster response and humanitarian relief. MUOS is adapting a commercial 3G cellular phone network waveform that will provide 16 times more capacity than today’s communication system, the Ultra-high Frequency Follow-on (UFO) constellation. Another key difference is that MUOS will enable users to be mobile while communicating. UFO requires users to be stationary and equipped with an antenna pointed toward a satellite. Designed in the 1990s, the system has surpassed its expected lifespan and been short on available capacity for the last few years. The increase in throughput MUOS will provide comes thanks to the Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) payload on MUOS satellites. The MUOS satellite will also continue to support legacy UHF 8 | MIT 17.3

communications compatible with UFO systems and legacy terminals. The dual payload is designed to ensure a smooth transition to WCDMA while the UFO system is being phased out. The first MUOS satellite was launched by prime contractor Lockheed Martin in February 2012, about two years behind its original schedule. U.S. Strategic Command accepted the satellite in November 2012 for operational use. In January 2013, prime contractor Lockheed Martin delivered the MUOS waveform, which was developed by General Dynamics, also after some delay. The new waveform will enable military satellite communications terminal providers to deploy equipment that takes advantage of MUOS capabilities. The MUOS constellation will consist of four satellites plus an on-orbit spare. The second MUOS satellite is scheduled to be launched in July, and two more satellites are expected to be launched in the following two years. Developers see the MUOS constellation as achieving full operational capability in 2015, and providing narrowband capacity past 2025.

Fielding Radios Now that the first MUOS satellite and associated ground systems provide

an initial on-orbit capability, the next step is to get radios in the field that can exploit the MUOS capabilities. To that end, they have contracted with vendors to modify existing radios to become MUOS-compliant. As the program moves forward, additional opportunities will arise to provide communications equipment to the armed services equipped with the MUOS waveform, and defense contractors are preparing accordingly. “The MUOS constellation will perform many of the same functions as UFO,” said Bill Beamish, director of Falcon III manpack products for Harris Corp. “But MUOS is based on different technology than UFO and will dramatically increase satellite communications capacity and provide network data at higher rates.” “A single MUOS satellite will provide four times the capacity of the entire legacy constellation of eight satellites,” said Steven Davis, a spokesperson for the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR). SPAWAR runs the MUOS satellite and ground terminal programs and is in charge of procuring MUOS radio sets for the Navy. The procurement of MUOS waveform portable radios and terminals is directed and funded independently through each of the armed services.

and contractors can now integrate the “The MUOS system’s WCDMA cellular waveform into their MUOS-compatible phone network architecture will provide a terminals to provide WCDMA capabilities 16-fold increase in transmission throughfor users. put over the legacy system,” said Davis, “The MUOS waveform has been “including global connectivity through delivered and is portable to two General the Defense Information Systems Network Dynamics C4 Systems products, the Digiand support services such as full, two-way tal Modular Radio and the Joint Tactical voice and data transfers. It will provide Radio System (JTRS) Handheld, Manpack, coverage on a 24/7 basis.” Small Form Fit radio,” said Davis. “The “MUOS increases the capacity for the MUOS waveform allows the four-channel number of subscribers as well as the numDMR to communicate using ber of messages that can the MUOS satellite commurun over the network,” said nications network.” Rick Tomy, senior director MUOS-capable equipfor airborne communicament differs from what tions at Rockwell Collins. the U.S. military currently “The fact that it can provide fields. “MUOS is a 3G celluemails, images and other lar system in the sky,” said data is another key aspect Beamish. “It adds point-toto MUOS.” point data capabilities in the MUOS also includes four neighborhood of three to ground stations located in Scotty Miller four hundred kilobits per Hawaii, Virginia, Italy and second, which is an order Australia, which provide of magnitude higher than the ability to connect users what the military gets out worldwide. The ground sysof the current UFO contem transports data, manstellation. The MUOS wave ages the worldwide network form is much more comand controls the satellites. plex than its predecessors, The MUOS ground stations and the waveform requires in Hawaii and Australia are hardware designed specificurrently operational, and cally to implement it.” the site in Virginia is about “The MUOS wave form to come online. Dennis Moran has 1.5 million lines of MUOS’ top code, plus whatever else is ments, according to Davis, running in the radio,” said Tomy. “That is include capacity, coverage and link availmuch larger than what radios are running abilities. “The ability for a warfighter to today, and why it is necessary to increase make a telephone call over a MUOS terprocessing and memory in existing radios minal and to send several times more data to accommodate MUOS.” are significant improvements,” he said. “The MUOS waveform is full-duplex, “Whether for vehicles, ships, submarines, which means users can carry on a conaircraft or individual servicemembers disversation as you would on a cell phone, mounted and on the move, this system rather than most legacy radios, which are was designed to provide voice and data half-duplex, where only one person talks communications services both point-toand everyone else listens,” said Scotty point and through netted connections. Miller, a vice president with Secure ComThose capabilities did not exist with the munications and Computing Technologies previous programs.” for General Dynamics C4 Systems. Unlike legacy UHF satellites systems Compatible Waveforms where channel access is pre-coordinated and assigned, the MUOS system operLockheed Martin tailored a previously ates like a cellular phone system in that commercial waveform to be used with the the ground terminal must negotiate onto WCDMA payload. The government has the system via a call processing protocol. made the waveform available for military “Service can be offered on an as-needed satellite communications terminal providbasis,” said Miller. “This negotiation capaers through the Joint Tactical Networking bility requires an amount of processing Center (JTNC) Information Repository,

capability not found on typical tactical radios. MUOS terminals are required to possess sophisticated capabilities to mitigate interference with existing radio systems.” “The emulation of the 3G cellular network also contemplates the use of radios that are lighter and easier to handle than previous ground radios,” said David Patton, senior program manager at Raytheon Network Centric Systems. “The intent is to reduce the size and weight of the satellite terminals so that the dismounted soldier would be able to carry MUOS handheld terminals and have communications.” Currently, a dismounted warfighter needs to carry a directional antenna and aim it toward the satellite. The complete contraption, including the radio and antenna, is typically carried in a backpack. Using the radio usually means stopping, unloading the equipment and setting it up.

Modify or Build There are two ways to accommodate MUOS in end-user equipment: by adapting existing radios, usually by appending hardware that is loaded with the MUOS waveform and allows the radio to communicate in full duplex mode, or building a new generation of radios that are native to MUOS. Military communications providers are currently focused on adapting existing equipment to MUOS, but future generations of terminals are also already in the works. In December 2012, the Army ordered kits to upgrade 100 Handheld, Manpack Small Form Fit (HMS) AN/PRC-155, twochannel manpack radios. The kits enable the radios to communicate with the MUOS satellite system. “With the two-channel, MUOS-enabled HMS AN/PRC-155 manpack radios, the Army will greatly enhance soldier effectiveness by providing a 16-fold improvement in capacity for secure, over-the-horizon military communications,” said Miller. General Dynamics also received a contract in early February to port the MUOS waveform onto the Digital Modular Radio (DMR) that is used aboard Navy ships, submarines and on-shore sites. “We recently awarded a $40 million contract modification to General Dynamics C4 Systems that would allow for the MUOS waveform to be integrated into the MIT 17.3 | 9

approximately 500 DMR terminals already in use by the fleet,” said Davis. In addition to the new MUOS waveform, the radios will also be compatible with UHF line-of-sight and UHF satellite communications and will be equipped with the Integrated Waveform, which increases the communications capacity and efficiency of legacy satellite communications networks. Raytheon has a contract with the Army to upgrade its ARC 231 radios to MUOS compatibility. “With our ARC 231 program, the Army program of record is doing a design upgrade to replace the internal electronics of the radio to provide the full duplex radio frequency communications necessary for MUOS,” said Patton. This is being accomplished through the development and installation of an applique that mounts to the side of the radio. The applique is a piece of hardware that is loaded with the MUOS waveform. “The first contract for the start of the MUOS upgrade goes back to 2009,” said Patton. “The contract was issued in a series of phases because of the MUOS development cycle. Formal qualification testing took place during the fall of last year. Now that the final version of the waveform has been delivered, we are now porting that software to the radio.” In order to upgrade the ARC 231 for MUOS compatibility, Raytheon implemented the JTRS Software Communications Architecture, which allows the radio to accept the MUOS waveform from the JTNC Information Repository. It also implemented crypto modernization of the equipment and installed a MUOS radio frequency transceiver. “The crypto modernization is a security feature and a process defined by the National Security Agency,” said Patton. “The transceiver replacement was necessary to handle MUOS’ full duplex communications, and with that conversion we will also be doing a form, fit and function replacement of the RF power amplifiers and the preamplifier for satellite communications.” Raytheon is currently building an engineering development model of the upgraded ARC 231 to take to qualification testing, which is expected to begin before the end of this year. Following qualification and testing activities this year, a platform integration model is expected to be ready during the third quarter of 10 | MIT 17.3

2014, with production scheduled to come in 2015. Raytheon is not yet under contact to deliver MUOS-compliant ARC radios in quantity. “The government’s plans haven’t firmed up yet,” said Patton. Rockwell Collins’ involvement with MUOS began in 2008, when it received to contracts from the Navy to upgrade radio ancillaries, such as the high power amplifier and the low noise amplifier, to the new waveform. That work was completed in 2011. The company is now in the process of upgrading its ARC 210 airborne radio, which has been co-developed by the company and the Navy since 2005, to accommodate MUOS. There are around 35,000 ARC 210 radios installed around the world. “Those radios are undergoing their final upgrades and should be available by the end of 2015,” said Tomy. The upgrades involve modification to four of the radio’s 22 circuit cards. The upgraded ARC 210 radio will also accommodate legacy waveforms so that it is backwards compatible with older satellite communications systems. “We have also been able to maintain the form and fit of our current satellite communications boxes so that the upgrade can be dropped and replaced into the current boxes and the radio can bolt right into the current mounts on their platforms,” said Tomy. “Some people say transitioning to MUOS will be complicated. We intend to make it really simple for the end user.”

Commercial Model Harris is taking a different approach to the opportunities that MUOS may afford, as is reflected in its business model. “We believe in a commercial business model,” said Dennis Moran, vice president of government business development. “Where we see opportunities to provide hardware to meet warfighter requirements, we invest in those opportunities with our own research and development dollars. We get the products certified under the supervision of the different armed services and standards organizations, and we bring products to market.” Harris isn’t pursuing design contracts, but offers the government fully developed products based on its understanding of military needs. “We have had discussions with the services of upgrading our PRC117GS radios to MUOS compatibility and

they are interested,” said Moran. The U.S. military has fielded some 30,000 of those Harris radios. “We are actively porting the MUOS waveform from the repository to the radio,” said Moran. “We plan on going through the certification process and bringing the capability to market quickly. There is great interest in this highly anticipated capability by the services. Since the MUOS program is behind schedule, we believe there will be great demand for the ground terminals and they will be happy to have the upgraded PRC-117GS radios.” Harris is not stopping with the PRC117G, however. “The Army is going to have an open competition for full rate production of the HMS manpack and vehiclemounted MUOS radios,” said Moran. “We will have a solution for that competition that meets a variety of requirements including MUOS compatibility. We are very excited about offering these products to the Army in both of these full rate production competitions. We anticipate developing other future MUOS products as well.” Rockwell Collins also expects to develop future MUOS-compatible products. “Communications is headed toward two-channel radios,” said Tomy. “MUOS will likely be one of the three IP-based waveforms embedded in future two-channel radios.” Since MUOS is based on 3G cellular technology, Tomy speculated that the military might consider adopting what the commercial world is already implementing: 4G cellular technology. That development would certainly involve a new iteration of the MUOS waveform and perhaps other enhancements as well. “We have seen over time an insatiable demand for bandwidth down in the lower tactical echelons,” Moran said. “I think that MUOS, when fielded, will go a long way towards providing a beyond-line-ofsight capability to dismounted or mounted warfighters. But there always has to be a balance among all kinds of communications capabilities, whether beyond line of sight or terrestrial networks. It is up to the communications planners to understand each tool and then to optimize their use.” O

For more information, contact MIT Editor Harrison Donnelly at or search our online archives for related stories at

Spurred by the form factor’s consumer popularity, ruggedized tablet computers are making inroads in the military market.

By William Murray MIT Correspondent

the ultra-fine sand encountered during field operations infiltrates The consumer popularity of the Apple iPad and similar thin clia tablet’s components, it can eventually cause the unit to overheat. ent tablet computers running the Apple iOS, Google Android and As important as the ability to withstand shock, Microsoft Windows operating systems is making its vibration and dust is the ability to operate in bright way into the Department of Defense, as manufacsunshine, and this is one feature that many military turers combine a form factor familiar to a younger users of ruggedized tablets are seeking, according generation of warfighters with the ruggedized and Rohonczy, whose division sells to the U.S. military. high-security features needed to operate in a mili“There are environmental requirements, such as tary environment. good optical engineering,” he explained. “Having a Because military personnel, like most people, good contrast ratio on the screen is paramount, even tend to be more comfortable with the same look and more important than brightness,” he said. feel in their technology on the job that they use at Devices also have to show the ability to continue to home, there is a strong market trend away from the work even when their batteries overheat. And battery keyboard and clamshell design of traditional laptop Robert Rohonczy life continues to be a key issue for electronic devices and notebook units, to the touchscreen interface in the field. used by the iPad and similar devices. For medium to heavy ruggedized tablets, the “The touchscreen is ubiquitous,” said Robert ability to operate in “extremes of temperature, from Rohonczy, marketing manager for Land and Joint Afghanistan to Alaska,” is very important, Rohonczy Solutions with General Dynamics Canada. “It was said. Ruggedized tablets are generally sealed units, not accepted 10 years ago.” built without fans so that there’s no problem with According to VDC Research, worldwide product moisture. shipments for ruggedized tablets in the second “We play very much on the product side,” he said of quarter of 2012 were more than 30 percent above General Dynamics. “Our products are engineered from the comparable period in 2011. the ground up,” with operational demands in Abrams, Tim Collins, senior director of federal for PanaBradleys, MRAPs, HMMWVs and other platforms in sonic, a leading provider of ruggedized computers Tim Collins mind. to the federal government through its Toughbook “A large percentage of our efforts is providing family of notebooks, described a recent visit to Fort hardware,” which can include network equipment, Rucker, Ala., where the Army trains pilots and airradios, and tactical networks in a secure, trusted, embedded environcraft maintenance personnel. According to the senior technology ment, Rohonczy said. General Dynamics has worked with the “zeroofficial on the installation, he recalled, junior enlisted personnel ize” feature, which enables the user to permanently and completely have a strong preference for the multi-touch technology they have destroy any sensitive data on a device that may fall into the wrong grown accustomed to while using their beloved smartphones and hands. tablets. Older military personnel, by contrast, frequently prefer General Dynamics has experience working with dismountable, their clamshell ruggedized notebook PCs. ruggedized equipment, as well as ultra-ruggedized equipment, which Ruggedized tablets are generally designed to MIL-STD-810G is both vehicle-mounted and dismountable. The company has worked and to IP65 specifications to protect against environmental condito improve data security, portability and battery life for radios and tions and damage caused by bumps, drops, or exposure to heat, handheld computers, and also offers ruggedized notebook PCs that rain and wind in the harsh environments of Afghanistan and rely on touchscreens, similar to the iPad, with the keyboard removed. elsewhere. Resistance to sand is particularly important because if

MIT 17.3 | 11

Desktop Replacement

the January 2010 Haitian earthquake. “They can scan the goods to determine what is in the container,” Randolph said. General Dynamics is seeing a demand for Linux, Windows 7 and Windows 7 Embedded, in addition to older Windows operating systems. As an “A to Z defense provider,” Rohonczy said, the company is as comfortable providing secure network infrastructure or systems solutions, as it is developing battle management tools as applications that can run on a thin client, such as a tablet. Maintenance, mapping, explosive ordnance disposal, RFID and training are popular applications for military personnel who deploy ruggedized tablets, according to Panasonic’s Collins. He noted that these applications are common across law enforcement and military organizations. “A dismounted soldier and a Border Patrol agent face similar challenges,” he said, and the need for functions like flight line maintenance spans all the military services.

Ruggedized tablet computers are even replacing desktops in some military organizations, noted Wayne Randolph, U.S. public sector manager with MobileDemand. “The military has a need to be more mobile,” Randolph said of the cost-saving measure to replace desktops with rugged tablets during a desktop refresh. “The tablets can function well in a garrison environment using a docking station in the office, and can then be undocked for mobile field applications, eliminating the cost for multiple devices,” Randolph continued. In the field, MobileDemand ruggedized tablets have been used on HMMWVs and Huskies in Iraq, as well as on military mine sweepers. U.S. military personnel have used facial recognition software running on the MobileDemand ruggedized tablets for nocturnal operations, with resulting images from checkpoints transmitted to nearby vehicles. Full integration with cameras, video and scanners make the MobileDemand Resistive Technology ruggedized tablet computers valuable for use outside the office, according to Randolph. Many military users wear gloves as they go about MobileDemand’s 7-inch screen unit weighs 2.5 their jobs, so it’s important that tablets have resistive Wayne Randolph pounds, while the 10-inch screen ruggedized tablet technology on touchscreens, according to Collins. weighs 5 pounds. Like many other ruggedized tablet Military users also are looking for anti-shock and computers, the company’s units meet the IP65 ruggedization stananti-vibration capabilities, in addition to the ability to function after dards. surviving a drop. Popular uses of the tablet computers include asset tracking Panasonic is selling both ruggedized tablets and convertible tablet and deployment, as well as logistics. For the U.S. Border Patrol the PCs. The 10-inch Panasonic Toughpad FZ-A1 Ruggedized Android MobileDemand units can be configured with passport readers. Some Tablet, for example, weighs 2.1 pounds and runs on a Marvell 1.2GHz military personnel use the MobileDemand units in conjunction with dual core processor. The Toughpad FZ-A1 is designed to MIL-STDCommon Access Card readers. 810G and to IP65 specifications to protect against environmental By 2016, tablets will be used by 760 million workers worldwide, conditions and damage caused by bumps, drops, or exposure to heat, and 55 percent of those tablets will be sold in the public sector, accordrain and wind. The starting price for the FZ-A1 is $1,299. ing to MobileDemand’s projections. MobileDemand tablets run MicroThe Panasonic Toughbook CF-19, meanwhile, is a fully ruggesoft Windows 7 or Windows 8, depending on the tablet. “We’re not dized, convertible tablet PC that features a 10.1-inch LCD-capable seeing much demand for Android, and we haven’t received requests screen, and is powered by a second-generation Intel Core i5 vPro proyet for Windows 8,” Randolph said. cessor. Integrated options include a 2-megapixel camera, backlit keyRandolph cited the example of U.S. military personnel involved in board (emissive or rubber), GPS receiver, Gobi 2000 mobile broadband humanitarian relief in Haiti, who helped ensure the safety of millions and a dual-touch LCD with touchscreen and digitizer. In addition, the of dollars’ worth of Red Cross care packages with the aid of MobileDeToughbook CF-19 has an IP65-certified design with a full magnesium mand T-7000 units, after widespread theft of care packages following alloy case, and it’s built to withstand a 6-foot drop.

Left: The Panasonic Toughbook CF-19 is a fully ruggedized, convertible tablet PC. [Photo courtesy of Panasonic] Right: General Dynamics Canada offers the SD 8010 ruggedized tablet. [Photo courtesy of General Dynamics Canada]

12 | MIT 17.3

The spill-resistant Toughbook C2 convertible tablet, which runs Microsoft Windows 7 and 8, has a 12.5-inch screen, a rugged triple hinge design, bridge battery and an integrated hand strap. The C2’s 500 nit IPS display has nearly 180 viewing angles and its semi-rugged design offers protection against up to 30-foot drops. Panasonic is seeing a stronger appetite for Windows 7 and 8 operating systems than for Google Android or Apple iOS. Panasonic also sells the Toughpad JT-B1, a ruggedized 7-inch Android tablet priced at $1,199. The Toughpad FZ-G1, meanwhile, is a 10-inch Windows-based computer selling for $2,899. Both products come with a three-year warranty. GammaTech Computer Corp. is another vendor that offers costcompetitive tablets that are also ruggedized and perform very well in the field. “We don’t sacrifice performance,” said Paul H. Kim, vice president of sales and marketing for the ruggedized notebook manufacturer. Key applications demanded by military users for ruggedized tablets include barcode scanners, Global Positioning System, magnet strip readers, radio frequency identification and web cameras, he noted. Warfighters are eagerly adopting ruggedized tablets from Panasonic for use in field operations. Military buyers favor docking stations for vehicle/office use and [Photos courtesy of Panasonic] battery chargers to extend field operations, according to Kim. GammaTech’s products sell for $1,299-$2,599 through a General Services technology leaders and procurement officials to plan and execute Administration schedule, and the company accommodates its touchlarge-scale five-year programs to accomplish bigger goals. screens to users wearing gloves. “Procurements are being delayed,” Collins said, on the eve of Users can also remove GammaTech’s wireless or Bluetooth capabilia congressional sequestration deadline, as some civilian military ties when necessary. “If you don’t need it, we don’t include it or disable employees and contractors feared layoffs and furloughs. “As a result, it,” Kim said. Many users favor 3G and 4G wireless network capabilities, many organizations are just engaged in maintenance and upkeep,” and hot swappable batteries and solid state hard drives are also popular. rather than making enterprise purchases and shipping units to the GammaTech sells four basic stock keeping units, but it custom field to help them carry out their missions, he said. builds for orders and can assemble and ship orders With the ongoing military pullback in Afghaniwithin five days. Users typically purchase three- to fivestan, however, Collins sees a continuing need for year warranties, according to Kim. ruggedized, lightweight tablets to help keep track of The GammaTech Durabook CA10 runs the Intel equipment through its transport from Afghanistan Atom processor N2600 and Genuine Windows 7 operto the United States. “Material tracking, bar code and ating system. It also features a 10.1-inch WXGA TFT RFID should be very important during the drawdown display (1280 by 800) and 1.3MP webcam, Intel Centrino in Afghanistan,” he said. Wireless N 135 (wireless LAN b/g/n+Bluetooth3.0), and Industry analysts expect that the next generation hot swappable dual batteries. of tablet computing for the military will come from Another competitor in the market is Xplore Techthe pending competition for the Army’s mounted nologies, which recently received an order from an Family of Computing Systems (m-FoCS). Paul Kim unspecified command for 200 of its iX104C5 DMSR-M The m-FoCS program will be the first increment rugged tablets, following an even larger military order of hardware to be fielded by the Project Manager in late 2012. Joint Battle Command-Platform in support of the “We have designed our products to be the most rugged available,” Army’s Mounted Common Operating Environment, and will work said Jim Plas, Xplore director of marketing. “While those in the field all as a part of already fielded legacy systems. have to meet MIL-STD-810G specifications, there is also the IP rating “Although there are various elements of the m-FoCS program, for ingress protection against water and dust. Ours is IP 6/7, which many people unofficially refer to it as the ‘tablet program,’ because means you can drop it in water for 30 minutes. We’ve also designed our it is meant to deliver thousands of rugged dismountable tablet units so they exceed the military standard drop specifications, which call computers to the Army and Marine Corps,” said Bill Guyan, vice for 4 feet to concrete and 6 feet for plywood over concrete. Ours will surpresident for strategy for DRS Technologies, which has already vive a 5- to 6-foot fall to concrete, and 7 feet to plywood over concrete.” delivered more than 30,000 rugged MRT Tablets to the Army. “This Other advantages of Xplore products include sunlight-readable is a very important competitive program for our company and for screens that retain their color vibrancy, designs that allow for repair our competitors, because it will deliver the next generation of tablet of devices in the field, and protections against radio emissions and computers to the joint forces.” interference. The final award announcement for m-FoCS is expected soon. O

Budget Uncertainty Like many in the defense industry, tablet makers point to uncertainties in the defense budget, which have made it difficult for military

For more information, contact MIT Editor Harrison Donnelly at or search our online archives for related stories at

MIT 17.3 | 13

DATA BYTES Increase Expands International Communications Assistance Harris has received a $500 million increase in the ceiling value of its 2011 indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity contract with Army Communications Electronics Command. The increased ceiling provides the U.S. government with greater flexibility in acquiring Harris radios, accessories, systems and services to assist international partners with their mission-critical communication needs. Under the contract, Harris provides military and land mobile radio systems to international partners of the Department of State and Department of Defense. The contract is part of the U.S. government’s foreign military sales program, which supports coalition building and interoperability through sales of defense equipment, training and services. The contract enables these organizations to acquire from the entire Harris Falcon radio portfolio, including advanced wideband solutions—such as the RF-7800H HighFrequency, RF-7800M Multiband Networking and RF-7800S Secure Personal radios—as well as Harris Unity and other land mobile radios for public safety and first responder communications.

Agreement Offers Robust Cybersecurity Solutions AccessData Group, a provider of digital forensics, cybersecurity and e-discovery software, has announced a partnership agreement with GovPlace, a provider of enterprise IT solutions exclusively to the public sector. Under the agreement, GovPlace will resell and implement AccessData solutions including its Cyber Intelligence & Response Technology platform to federal, state and local customers. Rapid growth in government cloud computing and big data initiatives requiring massive data uploads and capacity are driving up cybersecurity requirements for many public sector organizations. AccessData solutions will empower GovPlace and its customers with the most robust cybersecurity solutions for managing and securing big data. 14 | MIT 17.3

Whitelisting Solution Protects Android-Based Devices McAfee has announced delivery of the industry’s first ever whitelisting security solution for Android based embedded systems. McAfee Application Control for Android is the only security solution that resides in the Android kernel, embedded in the operating system. McAfee provides protection from the installation or execution of a malicious application on an Android-based device. McAfee also provides protection at the application layer to Android devices. The McAfee Embedded Control solution provides tamperproof protection, superior operational

control of devices in the field and ease of management with Android devices. Previously, embedded engineers had only a single operating system option, Security-Enhanced Linux, if they wanted to have enforceable security capabilities for their embedded system. Prior to McAfee Embedded Control, Android security applications only operated at the user level, leaving devices vulnerable to systemlevel attacks. McAfee removes this security gap with a kernel residing security solution to improve security for the entire Android stack. Hope Jones;

SATCOM System Delivers Broadband for Helicopters ViaSat has demonstrated a high-performance Ka-band satellite communication system that delivers beyond line-of-sight broadband for rotary wing aircraft. This advanced system provided sustained data rates of 4 Mbps from the helicopter to a ground station and 8 Mbps to the helicopter despite very high shock and vibration and the inherent repetitive signal blockage from rotating blades. While previous “through the blade” demonstrations have proved the underlying patented and patent-pending technology, the recent flight test at Patuxent River, Md., used a Sikorsky H-3 helicopter. Flight conditions encompassed rigorous maneuvers, including severe banking and operation through several rotor orientations while running data-intensive applications. During multiple tests, operators were able to simultaneously run five VoIP calls, three VTCs from air to ground, and streaming videos from the Internet to the aircraft. All applications ran without packet loss or video dropout.

Device Links iPhones to Satellite Communications The Thuraya SatSleeve is a versatile new device that brings satellite connectivity to the Apple iPhone. Thuraya SatSleeve is the world’s first product to offer easy and affordable access to mobile satellite communications, delivered over Thuraya’s extensive satellite network. Only slightly larger than the iPhone itself, the compact adaptor provides users with the ability to turn their iPhone into a satellite phone that allows them to have reliable connectivity beyond the coverage of traditional terrestrial networks. While iPhones are typically supported by terrestrial networks, Thuraya SatSleeve enables users to enjoy ubiquitous coverage even in the most remote environments.

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

IT Support Ordered for DoD Dependents Schools in Europe General Dynamics Information Technology has been awarded a task order to provide IT support services to the Department of Defense Dependents Schools-Europe (DoDDS-E), which provides instruction to more than 30,000 students. The task order was awarded under the Information Technology Enterprise Solutions-2 Services (ITES2S) contract and has a potential value of $18 million over three years if all options are exercised. Under the contract, General Dynamics will deliver IT support services

to all DoDDS-E locations to meet the technology challenges of ever-changing educational needs of the dependents of military and civilian employees. The company will provide customer technology support, hardware and software support, desktop and laptop management, server and network support, and handheld device support. The ITES-2S contract is a multiple-award, indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity contract awarded to General Dynamics in April 2006.

Industry Team to Modernize Joint Global C2 System The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) has selected a team led by Northrop Grumman to modernize and sustain the Department of Defense joint command and control (C2) system used to provide accurate, complete and timely information for the armed forces operational chain of command. Under the Encore II contracting vehicle from DISA, Northrop Grumman was awarded $58 million for the base year of a task order for Global Command

and Control System-Joint engineering support services. The contract has a potential value of $211 million over 54 months, if all options are exercised. The Northrop Grumman-led team includes Raytheon Trusted Computer Solutions, Mandex, Trinity Information Technology, J5 Systems, SAP Government Support and Services, Engility, General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems, Alisco Computer Consulting, Distributed Technologies, and TrustedQA.

Army Orders Nett Warrior Radios Thales Communications has announced a new low rate initial production contract for secure radios to support the Army’s Nett Warrior Program. This Nett Warrior Radio is capable of providing soldiers with access to the government’s classified networks at the Secret or Sensitive But Unclassified level. The radio is a lightweight, body worn unit that transmits voice and data simultaneously utilizing the Soldier Radio Waveform. It allows selfforming, ad hoc, voice and data networks and enables any leader at the tactical level to track individual soldier position location information. The radio was jointly developed by Thales and General Dynamics C4 Systems (GDC4S) under the handheld, manpack, and small form fit program, primed by GDC4S. The award is for 2,052 Nett Warrior radios and associated ancillaries. Half of the radios will be produced by GDC4S, and half will be produced by Thales.

Air Force C2 Center Modernization Advances The Air Force and Northrop Grumman have successfully completed the preliminary

design review for the Air Operations Center Weapon System (AOC WS) program. The successful review allows the AOC WS program to enter the detailed design phase. The program modernizes the Air Force’s essential operational-level command and control (C2) centers to increase operational effectiveness and reduce costs. The in-depth review, conducted at Northrop Grumman’s

AOC WS warfighter test and integration laboratory in Newport News, Va., served as a forum for the Air Force, Northrop Grumman and its teammates to review and approve the preliminary design. Additionally, Northrop Grumman delivered a prototype system built upon a service-oriented open architecture to highlight the future AOC environment and demonstrate the concept of rapid and affordable development and integration. In conjunction with the Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, Hanscom AFB, Mass., Northrop Grumman will modernize the AOC by developing a secure, streamlined computing environment for legacy and stove-piped systems.

MIT 17.3 | 15

Materiel CIO

Q& A

Optimizing Network Performance for the Enterprise

Edward Siomacco Chief Information Officer/G-6 U.S. Army Materiel Command

As chief information officer/G-6 for Army Materiel Command, Edward Siomacco serves as the command’s principal, senior-level advisor on the strategic direction, objectives and supervision of all issues in command, control, communications, computers and information management (C4IM). Siomacco is the single commandwide-responsible official whose primary duties involve the improved design, modernization, acquisition, use, sharing, performance and termination of information resources. He provides technical direction to the senior leaders of the AMC information technology community and oversight of the delivery of all C4IM services and enterprise applications. In this capacity, he directs the information component of national power for AMC’s strategic advantage. Prior to this position, Siomacco served as director, Enterprise Systems Technology Activity (deputy to the commander for enterprise services), Army Network Enterprise Technology Command/9th Signal Command (Army) with responsibility to operate, manage and defend the Army LandWarNet. He also served as the principal adviser to the Army CIO/G-6 in providing information assurance policy and plans. Earlier, Siomacco served from 1975 to 1983 as an Army signal officer assigned to numerous tactical formations including the 50th Signal Battalion, Fort Bragg, N.C., and 7th Signal Brigade, West Germany. Subsequent assignments included serving as a professor of electrical engineering at the U.S. Military Academy and project manager for the Warfighter Information Network-Tactical. Siomacco has a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering from North Carolina State University, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in the same subject from the Naval Postgraduate School. Siomacco was interviewed by MIT Editor Harrison Donnelly. Q: How would you define your mission as chief information officer/G-6 of the U.S. Army Materiel Command [AMC]? 16 | MIT 17.3

A: Our AMC mission to develop, deliver and sustain materiel for the joint warfighter depends heavily on assured and reliable communications and information technology systems. We focus on supporting a globally networked logistics command that provides America’s warfighters with the decisive edge. This networked mission requires CIO teamwork among our 11 AMC major subordinate commands. My teammates work together to sustain critical mission applications and provide the synergy necessary for building unified collaboration across AMC. From our Research, Development and Engineering Centers to our depots, arsenals and ammunition plants, from our Expeditionary Contracting Command to our Army Field Support Brigades supporting combat formations on the battlefield, AMC delivers and sustains the integrated solutions that support both the Army’s institutional and operational forces. Because AMC operations rely on automated business processes, our primary job is to optimize the performance of the network and applications enabling the entire AMC enterprise. This task can only be accomplished through the day-to-day collaboration among our subordinate CIOs and with the Defense Information Systems Agency [DISA] and the Army Cyber Command/ Network Enterprise Command [NETCOM]. We leverage DISA and NETCOM services such as the Defense Enterprise E-mail, Defense Connect Online, and the Defense Enterprise Computing Centers.

Q: What are your key initiatives under way for improving AMC’s IT systems and functions? A: Our highest priority initiative is the deployment of an AMC Materiel Common Operating Picture [COP] in order to track the complex Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF] retrograde operations from Afghanistan. We are leveraging COTS visualization software to display information on different classes of supply including both standard and non-standard equipment. The AMC Materiel COP pulls actionable logistics data from the Logistics Information Warehouse [LIW], which serves as the culminating point for effective data mining from approximately 90 independent authoritative data sources. This initiative helps our deputy chief of staff, G-3/4/5/7, Army Field Support Battalion Kandahar, 401st Army Field Support Brigade’s Redistribution Property Assistance Team yard at Kandahar Airfield, to measure the velocity of materiel Afghanistan, retrogrades its first Stryker combat vehicles for return to the U.S. [Photo courtesy of AMC] leaving OEF; provides an accurate inventory; and tracks reset and disdelivered from regional Network Enterprise Centers [NECs] to tribution through the organic industrial base to the units. our depots, arsenals and ammunition plants. Another key initiative is an enterprise approach to monitoring the day-to-day performance and cybersecurity posture of our Q: What changes have you seen as the result of your reorganizaAMC critical mission information systems, enterprise services tion about two years ago? and data warehouses. We have established the AMC Global Information Technology Operations Center [GITOC] to support A: As part of our Base Realignment and Closure move to Redreal-time monitoring of critical AMC mission applications and to stone Arsenal, Ala., in 2011, the AMC Headquarters was realigned orchestrate the rapid restoral and manage the disaster recovery by merging the Enterprise Integration Directorate with the CIO/ operations of these systems, as needed. The GITOC uses a suite G-6. The merger provided the opportunity to converge logistics of automated tools to monitor performance alerts from selecbusiness process experts and information technology specialists tive enterprise data centers hosting our mission applications. to deliver more effective mission applications. We’re a stronger For example, DISA broadcasts alerts immediately to our GITOC team, more knowledgeable of the AMC business processes and whenever critical application servers go off-line. Having realfunctions such that automated systems can be optimized. We time monitoring capabilities allows us to validate service-level can better understand which of the legacy business processes agreements with DISA, and improves customer relations manshould migrate to the Army’s enterprise resourcing planning agement operations. We often know when problems occur before [ERP] systems. our customers. The GITOC directly supports the AMC Operations Center by Q: What role does your office play in developing overall Army ensuring logistics information is timely and reliable. The GITOC policy for IT acquisition? manages the unified collaboration services across the entire AMC enterprise using both unclassified and classified video teleconferA: We are playing a supporting role as the Department of the ences. We are working a VTC pilot with DISA and NETCOM to Army CIO/G-6 executes the Army Information Technology Manimprove IP-based collaboration services across the Army. This agement Reform Implementation Plan. The plan’s management initiative has the potential to bring the Army into the state-ofreforms are critical to our achieving the LandWarNet 2020 vision the-art for video technology. of a single, secure, standards-based network that aligns with Finally, we’re teaming with 7th Signal Command [NETCOM] the Department of Defense Joint Information Environment. We to conduct a proof of concept for delivering regional C4IM serconduct portfolio management reviews across the AMC mission vices to our AMC organic industrial base special installations. areas supporting decisions that will rationalize, consolidate, Currently, we operate eight depots/arsenals and 49 ammunition standardize and possibly terminate duplicative IT investments, plants across the continental United States. Our recent migraresulting in optimized enterprise solutions. We serve as the AMC tion to the Defense Enterprise E-mail demonstrates one of the enterprise integrator synchronizing multiple functional leads, most important C4IM service. This proof of concept will detersuch as contracting, logistics or financial, for supporting the mine if other C4IM services can be effectively and efficiently

MIT 17.3 | 17

new Business Capability Life Cycle [BCL]. The BCL allows rapid acquisition and deployment of business IT capabilities by tailoring the traditional acquisition process to meet requirements. The BCL improves the capability definition and streamlines acquisition for our most critical ERP, the Logistics Modernization Program [LMP]. Q: How would you characterize the overall changes going on in the Army’s approach to developing and buying IT systems? A: Several changes are being introduced by the Army’s IT management reforms. Specifically, these reforms will establish the conditions to achieve the Secretary of the Army’s objective to modernize the network and realize efficiencies in annual savings beginning in fiscal year 2015. Changes in IT governance, IT architecture, and the agile IT acquisition process combine to enable the transition towards LandWarNet 2020. The IT governance establishes the governance process that integrates the priorities from each of the mission areas—for example, the war fighting, business and enterprise information environments. The IT architecture will enforce compliance with design rules to satisfy the vision of a single, secure, standards-based network, and the agile IT acquisition implements acquisition processes that accelerate procurement of IT products and services. We’re supporting the emerging Army Request for Information Technology process to increase our AMC visibility and accountability of IT procurements of software, hardware and services. This process enables us to accurately follow IT investment requests and to reduce duplicative IT capabilities across AMC. One of the benefits of having increased IT asset visibility is to achieve consolidated procurements for greater buying power, and to establish software enterprise licensing agreements. Q: Is your office involved with such Army IT acquisition initiatives as agile software development and the series of Network Integration Evaluations [NIEs]? A: Our office provides technical and software management staff support to the AMC commander in coordination with our Research, Development and Engineering Command [RDECOM] and the AMC chief technology officer. RDECOM has software development laboratories directly supporting the Army program executive offices and project managers. For example, the Aviation and Missile Research and Development Center’s Software Engineering Directorate, located at Redstone Arsenal, Ala., is now developing, integrating and testing the Joint Battle CommandPlatform [JBC-P] capability for PM JBC-P. The JBC-P software and hardware will provide the next generation of mission command and situational awareness capabilities for the brigade combat teams. In addition, our Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center [CERDEC] is in direct support to the NIE providing evaluations of COTS and GOTS communication technologies. CERDEC supports the NIE risk reduction activities using their C4ISR System Integration Lab and provides technical support throughout all phases of the new agile process. AMC also plays a significant supporting role in the NIE process. Clearly our research and development community supports those programs of record participating in the NIE, 18 | MIT 17.3

but the Communications-Electronics Life Cycle Management Command’s Central Technical Support Facility also supports the configuration management of the fielded software baselines, and conducts intra-Army interoperability testing, as required. Finally, the Army Field Support Brigade and Directorate of Logistics supporting Fort Bliss, Texas, and White Sands Missile Range, N.M., provide necessary logistics support to the assigned NIE brigade combat team. We’re also working with the Assistant Secretary of the Army, Acquisition, Logistics and Technology System of System Engineering and Integration Office as they lead the implementation of the Army’s common operating environment [COE] architecture. The intent of the COE architecture is to normalize the various computing environments, such as the vehicular mounted, mobile/handheld, command post, and enterprise data center environments, and achieve a balance between unconstrained innovation and standardization. In the commercial sector, computing environments have become commodities and applications developed and delivered on commoditized and inexpensive systems, such as Apple and Android handheld devices. With the COE, the Army can establish an agile framework similar to industry best practices. Communities of interest will be able to develop software applications quickly and cheaply; improve cybersecurity posture; reduce the complexities of configuration management and sustainment; and streamline and facilitate training. For the Army, this is a wholesale shift from the traditional software development and sustainment paradigm with dedicated and tightly coupled software and hardware. Instead, applications will be designed, developed and deployed using a common computing environment, allowing the software developer to download and reuse shared services and common software modules. When properly executed, the COE Implementation Plan will enable the Army to develop, test, certify and deploy software capabilities more rapidly. Q: What is your role in implementing Army ERP systems, and how would you assess overall progress in that area? A: We depend greatly on the Army’s ERP systems for automating and transforming business processes across the AMC enterprise. The LMP is our wholesale, Class VII and Class IX inventory tracking ERP used in our depots, arsenals and ammunition plants. LMP has been a huge investment for AMC, and the returns on investment are just bearing fruit as we standardize business metrics and reports. It’s making our depots much more productive and cost efficient. As CIO, I am excited about mapping business processes from disparate legacy systems into LMP in order to standardize business processes and ultimately terminate legacy systems. The Global Combat Support System [GCSS-Army or G-Army] is the retail ERP system currently being fielded to our tactical formations. The G-Army program will initially deploy a retail supply capability, and the maintenance support activities will follow as an incremental software release. It will be fielded into unit motor pools, as well as forward deployed to improve asset visibility up and down the supply chain. The network reach-back over tactical satellite systems will be critical for the forward deployed G-Army users. Hence, we must ensure that the Army’s network can deliver the sufficient bandwidth and quality of

service necessary to support all the ERP systems both in garrison and at the forward tactical edge of the LandWarNet. Q: How are you working with Cyber Command, DISA and other DoD organizations to improve information security? A: Recently, both AMC and Army Cyber Command have strengthened our joint collaboration by improving our cyber-situational awareness. We have integrated the Headquarters AMC Deputy Chief of Staff [G-2 [Intelligence] and G-6 [Computer Network Defense and Information Assurance] under the leadership of our G-3/4/5/7 [Operations]. This 2/3/6 Integration among staff principles has effectively aligned with the corresponding Army Cyber Command staff. We’re working closely to develop and share a cyber COP to ensure that our AMC critical mission applications and data warehouses are more secure from potential cyber-threats. DISA continues to service us, with the Defense Enterprise Computing Centers hosting our AMC enterprise mission applications. They are now the provider of the Defense Enterprise E-mail Service. As the AMC Designated Accrediting Authority, I am very confident in the DISA Defense Computing Centers’ [DECCs] security posture and their continuous monitoring capabilities. As mentioned earlier, DISA DECCs provides our GITOC with automated alerts whenever our hosted servers are having problems.

Q: What are some of the primary lessons from your lengthy past service in military communications and information systems? A: The most important lesson I have learned is we must strengthen the teamwork and collaboration among our Army’s network service providers such as DISA and NETCOM. Our AMC mission relies on these enduring partnerships. Together, we can only deliver highly reliable and secure networks, data centers and enterprise services with teamwork. Another lesson is we must understand the ever-changing information technology. Keeping pace with industry innovations has been difficult. During the past decade of war, the Army has focused on ensuring that our deployed soldiers and war fighting units were equipped with the best communications equipment and information systems. Now we must plan to modernize our U.S.-based network infrastructure. We must modernize the network to improve our existing virtual, live and constructive training environments, improve our laboratories, and ensure our business systems can enable our organic industrial base. Finally, we need to recruit, train and retain our invaluable IT workforce, to grow their advanced technical skills for the next generation of capabilities and to enhance their knowledge and understanding of the emerging cyberspace threats. Taking care of our people remains an AMC priority. O

MIT 17.3 | 19

Following transition of the Joint Tactical Radio System, the Army is beginning to field the first set of next-generation radios. By Nancy Jones-Bonbrest For the first time beginning later this year, soldiers on the battlefield will be equipped with voice and data radios that are not dependent on fixed infrastructure or line-of-sight communications, representing a pivotal step forward for the Army’s tactical radio portfolio. The current fielding of the Rifleman and Manpack radios comes only months after a Department of Defense decision to realign its radio programs in an effort to continue advancing technology through industry innovation in hardware, while leveraging years of government investment in both hardware and software. “Tactical radios left the Army as a managed item for a time. Now the Army is bringing that back and reconstituting it,” said Colonel William “Russ” Wygal, project manager for tactical radios (PM TR). “The message is that the Army believes an important part of its communications infrastructure is in tactical radios.” Known as software-defined radios (SDR), the new capabilities provide soldiers with state-of-the-art networking radio systems that greatly improve communications for the most disadvantaged 20 | MIT 17.3

users—the small unit down to the individual warfighter. Prior to SDR development, dismounted soldiers and those in vehicles could face less reliable radio communications as they moved out of line of sight. Now, the Rifleman, Manpack and other radios under development will solve that inconsistency by acting as their own “routers” with networking waveforms such as Soldier Radio Waveform (SRW). Using those waveforms, the SDRs are built to send both data and voice information between fixed command centers, vehicles on the move and dismounted soldiers on patrol. The SDR radios will bring a new level of flexibility and agility to the battlefield, providing forward-positioned forces with terrestrial, celestial and aerial tier communications. “The SDRs extend our range of communications and allow soldiers in mountainous and austere environments to exchange voice and data with each other and with higher headquarters,” said Wygal. “In essence, they allow troops to share more information over greater distances in significantly less time.”

Program Migration DoD retired the Joint Program Executive Office for the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) last year, migrating several of its programs to the Army’s Program Executive Office for Command, Control and Communications-Tactical (PEO C3T). The programs transferred to PEO C3T included Handheld, Manpack, Small Form Fit (HMS), Mid-Tier Networking Vehicular Radio (MNVR) and Airborne Maritime/ Fixed Station (AMF). The non-proprietary JTRS software waveforms, such as SRW, will be managed by the new Joint Tactical Networking Center (JTNC), ensuring interoperability across the services and allowing the continued development of open standards that industry can compete to build the hardware/radios that work on that network. With the realignment of the radio programs to PEO C3T, the Army will look to industry to fill a vital role in the streamlined development and production of SDRs. “Technical advances in the commercial software-programmable radio market that took place during the JTRS

developmental effort have enabled effective hardware solutions—radio ‘boxes’—to be developed,” Wygal said. “Along these lines, guiding industry innovation so that it can address emerging Army capabilities and requirements, counter threats and promote greater affordability is a key focus as we move forward.” The first Rifleman and Manpack radios are currently being fielded to select brigade combat teams (BCTs) as part of Capability Set 13 (CS 13), the Army’s first mobile communications package providing integrated connectivity throughout the BCT. The Rifleman is carried by platoon, squad and team-level soldiers for voice communications. It also connects with handheld devices to transmit text messages, graphics and other data. The Manpack, being fielded in both mounted and dismounted configurations, will bridge legacy networks to SRW networks, allowing dismounted leaders with the Rifleman Radio to communicate with legacy-equipped units and also access beyond-line-of-sight satellite networks. The Rifleman and the Manpack programs will both conduct full and open competitions that are open to all industry partners. In late 2012 and early 2013, requests for information (RFIs) were issued for both programs, to collect industry input in preparation for conducting the competitions this year.

Non-Developmental Items Leveraging progress in the commercial radio market and maturation of nonproprietary waveforms, both the AMF and MNVR programs were restructured as non-developmental item programs. This designation allows the program to meet requirements using COTS hardware solutions that can work with waveforms housed in the JTNC’s Information Repository. PM AMF is overseeing two softwareprogrammable radios with the technology to connect rotary wing aircraft with ground units, allowing the transmission of data, voice and video over the wireless, secure network. The Small Airborne Networking Radio (SANR) is designed for the Apache, Chinook, Black Hawk and Kiowa helicopters, as well as the Gray Eagle unmanned aircraft. The Small Airborne Link 16 Terminal (SALT) is being developed for the Apache aircraft. Both offer new networking technologies

Soldiers from the 4th Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division carried Rifleman Radios at Fort Polk, La., in March 2013. The Rifleman Radio is part of Capability Set 13, the Army’s first fully integrated package of network equipment that transmits voice/chat communications and situational awareness data throughout the BCT. [Photo courtesy of Staff Sgt. Kulani Lakanaria, 4th BCT, 10th Mountain Division]

capable of connecting the tactical edge through terrestrial and aerial tier communications not reliant on satellite networks or fixed infrastructure. In mountainous terrain, such as Afghanistan, line-of-sight communication is often unavailable. “It’s the same concept of being able to get the network out to the tactical edge of the battlefield,” said Captain Nigel Nurse, project manager AMF. “These networking radios do not require any satellite or satellite connectivity. The best way to think of them is sort of like cellular networks without the antenna infrastructure.” Last August, PM AMF released an RFI to industry for the development of the SANR, and officials are now meeting with the RFI respondents for the second time to discuss capability requirements. An RFI also was also released for SALT to shape the best acquisition approach. Both AMF radio programs are slated for a Milestone C decision by the third quarter of fiscal 2014. The MNVR capability will provide an extension of data services from the upper tactical network at brigade and battalion to the lower tactical network at company and platoon echelons. Through software reconfiguration, these radios will emulate current force radios and operate new networking waveforms, offering increased data throughput through self-forming, self-healing and managed communication

networks. MNVR is the replacement for the canceled Ground Mobile Radio program. As development continues on HMS, AMF and MNVR, the Army will synchronize and ensure compatibility with the COTS and legacy radios in the field, which are also managed by PEO C3T. The realignment also is facilitating hardware and software integration as the Army progresses to its objective network architecture and CS 14. As the Army continues to advance its tactical radio programs, it will use lessons learned to drive innovation and deliver nextgeneration radios that significantly increase capability for U.S. soldiers. “We are leveraging the considerable technological progress achieved over the past decade of JTRS development to harness industry’s ability to develop, build and deliver cost-effective radio hardware solutions,” said Major General N. Lee S. Price, program executive officer for C3T. “This will lead to enhanced communications capabilities from the brigade down to the individual soldier.” O Nancy Jones-Bonbrest is a staff writer for Symbolic Systems Inc., supporting PEO C3T. For more information, contact MIT Editor Harrison Donnelly at or search our online archives for related stories at

MIT 17.3 | 21

Defense Science Board report warns of cyber-threats and outlines improvements in DoD ability to respond to attacks. Editor’s Note: The Department of Defense recently released a report by a task force of the Defense Science Board, entitled “Resilient Military Systems and the Advanced Cyber Threat.” Following are excerpts from the document’s executive summary. The United States cannot be confident that our critical information technology systems will work under attack from a sophisticated and well-resourced opponent utilizing cyber-capabilities in combination with all of their military and intelligence capabilities (a “full spectrum” adversary). While this is also true for others (allies, rivals and public/ private networks), this task force strongly believes DoD needs to take the lead and build an effective response to measurably increase 22 | MIT 17.3

confidence in the IT systems we depend on (public and private) and at the same time decrease a would-be attacker’s confidence in the effectiveness of their capabilities to compromise DoD systems. We have recommended an approach to do so, and we need to start now! While DoD takes great care to secure the use and operation of the “hardware” of its weapon systems, these security practices have not kept up with cyber-adversary tac-

tics and capabilities. Further, the same level of resource and attention is not spent on the complex network of IT systems that are used to support and operate those weapons or critical cyber-capabilities embedded within them. This task force was asked to review and make recommendations to improve the resilience of DoD systems to cyber-attacks and to develop a set of metrics that the department could use to track progress and shape investment priorities.

Over the past 18 months, the task force received more than 50 briefings from practitioners, policymakers and senior officials throughout DoD, the intelligence community, academia and national laboratories. As a result of its deliberations, the task force concludes that: • The cyber-threat is serious, with potential consequences similar in some ways to the nuclear threat of the Cold War. • The cyber-threat is also insidious, enabling adversaries to access vast new channels of intelligence about critical U.S. enablers (operational and technical; military and industrial) that can threaten our national and economic security. • Current DoD actions, though numerous, are fragmented. Thus, DoD is not prepared to defend against this threat. • DoD red teams, using cyber-attack tools that can be downloaded from the Internet, are very successful at defeating our systems. • U.S. networks are built on inherently insecure architectures with increasing use of foreign-built components. • U.S. intelligence against peer threats targeting DoD systems is inadequate. • With present capabilities and technology, it is not possible to defend with confidence against the most sophisticated cyber-attacks. • It will take years for the department to build an effective response to the cyberthreat to include elements of deterrence, mission assurance and offensive cybercapabilities.

Recommendations 1. Protect the nuclear strike as a deterrent (for existing nuclear armed states and existential cyber-attack). Secretary of defense assigns U.S. Strategic Command the task to ensure the availability of nuclear command, control and communications and the Triad delivery platforms in the face of a full-spectrum Tier V-VI attack— including cyber (supply chain, insiders, communications). Our nuclear deterrent is regularly evaluated for reliability and readiness. However, most of the systems have not been assessed (end-to-end) against a Tier V-VI cyber-attack to understand possible weak spots. A 2007 Air

Force study addressed portions of this issue for the ICBM leg of the U.S. triad but was still not a complete assessment against a high-tier threat. The task force believes that our capacity for deterrence will remain viable into the foreseeable future, only because cyber-practitioners that pose Tier V-VI level threats are limited to a few state actors who have much to hold at risk, combined with confidence in our ability to attribute an existential level attack. 2. Determine the mix of cyber, protectedconventional, and nuclear capabilities necessary for assured operation in the face of a full-spectrum adversary. • Secretary of defense and chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) designate a mix of forces necessary for assured operation. To ensure the president has options beyond a nuclear-only response to a catastrophic cyber-attack, DoD must develop a mix of offensive cyber and high-confidence conventional capabilities. Cyber-offense may provide the means to respond in-kind. The protected conventional capability should provide credible and observable kinetic effects globally. Forces supporting this capability are isolated and segmented from general purpose forces to maintain the highest level of cyberresiliency at an affordable cost. Nuclear weapons would remain the ultimate response and anchor the deterrence ladder. This strategy builds a real ladder of capabilities and alleviates the need to protect all of our systems to the highest level requirements, which is unaffordable for the nation. Similar to the prior argument regarding the cyber-resiliency of the nuclear deterrent, DoD must ensure that some portion of its conventional capability is able to provide assured operations for theater and regional operations within a full-spectrum, cyber-stressed environment. Because of the expected cost of implementation, the protected-conventional capability must support a limited number of cyber-critical survivable missions. This task force recommends improving the cyber-resiliency of a mix of the following systems for assured operation in the face of a full spectrum adversary: global selective strike systems, for example penetrating bombers, submarines with long-range cruise missiles, conventional prompt global strike, survivable national and combatant command C2.

• Segment sufficient forces to assure mission execution in a cyber environment. Segmentation must differentiate only sufficient forces required to assure mission execution; it is not required across an entire capability. For example, if long-range strike is a component of the protected-conventional capability, then DoD should segment a sufficient quantity that is designated as a cybercritical survivable mission. Notionally, 20 aircraft designated by tail number, out of a fleet of hundreds, might be segregated and treated as part of the cyber critical survivable mission force. Segmented forces must remain separate and isolated from the general purpose forces, with no dual-purpose missions (for example, the current B-52 conventional/nuclear mission). DoD must engage multi-agency counterparts for an updated strategic deterrence strategy, including the development of cyber-escalation scenarios and thin lines. 3. Refocus intelligence collection and analysis to understand adversarial cyber-capabilities, plans and intentions, and to enable counterstrategies. The secretary of defense, in coordination with the directors of CIA, FBI and DHS, should require the director of national intelligence to support enhanced intelligence collection and analysis on high-end cyberthreats. Intelligence must include the identification and understanding of adversarial cyberweapon development organizations, tools, leadership and intentions, and the development of targeting information to support initiatives to counter cyber-weaponization. Mitigating a Tier V-VI threat is impossible without filling these intelligence gaps. Therefore, the IC should increase the priority of its intelligence collection and reporting requirements in this domain. 4. Build and maintain world-class cyberoffensive capabilities (with appropriate authorities). • USCYBERCOM develop capability to model, game and train for full-scale cyber-warfare. • Under secretary of defense for personnel and readiness establish a formal career path for civilian and military personnel engaged in offensive cyber-actions. MIT 17.3 | 23

Today, the United States is a leader in cyber-offensive capabilities. However, most training and engagements are very limited and in controlled environments. Preparing for full-scale force-on-force cyber-battle is not well understood. Challenges range from the scale of numbers of expected sorties to uncertainty of triggering mechanisms, trust and capability recovery timelines, and potential blowback of attacks all happening within the fog of war. To prepare, DoD must first begin to understand the full complexities of cyber-war. Recommendations include developing the capability to model, war game, red team and eventually train for full scale peer-on-peer cyber-warfare. A policy framework should be established for offensive cyber-actions, to include who has the authority and under what circumstances and controls to act. Finally, DoD needs to significantly increase the number of qualified “cyber warriors” and enlarge the offensive cyberinfrastructure commensurate with the size of threat. Professionalizing the cyberoffense skill set and providing career ladders in this new field will be a key element toward growing the human resources required to compete effectively. This report is especially concerned with developing top-tier talent who can be certified to perform at the elite or extreme cyber conflict levels. The United States needs such worldclass performers in substantial numbers— some of whom may not be eligible for security clearances. 5. Enhance defenses to protect against lowand mid-tier threats. DoD chief information officer in collaboration with the military departments and agencies establish an enterprise security architecture, including appropriate “building codes and standards” that ensure the availability of enabling enterprise missions. Some adversaries will not be deterred, such as terrorist organizations and lone wolves; DoD must defend its systems against these low- and mid-tier threats. Therefore, the task force recommends that the DoD CIO establish a DoD-wide “enterprise” architecture, including “building codes and standards” that ensure availability of mission operations during peacetime and full-spectrum wartime events. The building code analogy suggests that DoD 24 | MIT 17.3

should not make every network across the DoD identical, but instead should ensure that all networks, even when tailored by the military departments and end-users, meet a robust set of minimum standards that ensure a reasonable system network defense can be provided. U.S. networks also need requirements for instrumentation to increase the probability of detection of attacks and create situational awareness to speed remediation. Existing acquisition programs should be influenced, to the maximum extent feasible, with the new requirements. Audits should be conducted to the standard, and conducting in-process reviews to develop migration and mitigation strategies are critical. Legacy systems that cannot be maintained in a timely manner, (and DoD has many of them) must be enclaved and firewalled from the Global Information Grid. Commercial technologies that enable the automation of some network maintenance activities and provide real-time mitigation of detected malware are available today. The task force believes that use of these technologies would actually drive network operation costs down and free up resources to hunt on the network for intruders. 6. Change DoD’s Culture Regarding Cyber and Cyber-Security. Secretary of defense and CJCS establish a DoD-wide policy, communication, education and enforcement program to change the culture regarding cyber and cybersecurity. Establish a DoD-wide policy, communication, and education program to change the cyber-culture. When focused, DoD can be one of the most disciplined large organizations in the world. It is this discipline that enables DoD to establish and execute processes that ensure the physical fitness of the armed forces, the safe and secure handling of weapons and the effective management of classified material. The same level of importance and discipline has not been applied to cyber-hygiene and security. We will not succeed in securing our systems against even low- and mid-tier threats without changing this dynamic. Communication of the critical importance of DoD cyber-hygiene must be led by the secretary, CJCS and their direct reports. Updated policies and training

programs, and providing clear, punitive consequences for breach of policy will be necessary to move DoD to a higher level of cyber-readiness. 7. Build a Cyber-Resilient Force. The deputy secretary of defense should direct specific actions to introduce cyberresiliency requirements throughout DoD force structure to include: • Build a set of standards/requirements that incorporate cyber-resiliency into the cyber critical survivable mission systems identified in Recommendation 2. The DoD CIO, in coordination with under secretary of defense for acquisition, technology and logistics, should establish a resiliency standard to design, build and measure capability against. The Joint Staff will use the standard to inform the requirements process. The cyber-resiliency standard should be applied to sufficient segments of the force structure identified as the conventional components of the escalation ladder to achieve a credible deterrent effect. • Apply a subset of the cyber-resiliency standard developed above to all other DoD programs. • Increase feedback from testing, red teaming, the IC, and modeling and simulation as a development mechanism to build-out DoD’s cyberresilient force. • Develop a DoD-wide cyber-technical workforce to support the build-out of the cyber-critical survivable mission capability and rollout to DoD force structure. • Science and technology community establish secure system design project with federally funded research and development centers, universityaffiliated research centers, academia, commercial and defense industry. • Intelligence community should initiate a supply chain collection activity. O

For more information, contact MIT Editor Harrison Donnelly at or search our online archives for related stories at

IT Needs

and Budget Realities Army CIO Lawrence lays out plans for modernizing networks within an austere fiscal environment. By Harrison Donnelly MIT Editor ability to explain it operationally, as to why The Army saved $1.2 billion last year we must continue to invest in a modernizain IT spending by smarter buying practices tion of the network,” said Lawrence, adding and reduced inefficiencies, and expects to that she recently organized a “deep dive” meet a goal of $1.5 billion this year, accordsession on the network for ing to Lieutenant General Army leaders. Susan Lawrence. Lawrence summed up Lawrence, who serves as the need for network modchief information officer/G-6 ernization this way: “If you for the Army, recently laid go forward in Afghanistan, out her plans for modernizyou have the greatest teching Army networks within an nology. You are everything austere budget environment, over IP and unlimited bandin an address to an Army width. Every operational IT conference sponsored by needs statement that came in AFCEA NOVA. Lt. Gen. Susan Lawrence from theater was purchased. “We know that we have to But if you go back to our reduce our costs,” Lawrence posts, camps and stations, you’re in the said. “Part of the secretary of the Army’s Stone Ages. You’re still on copper circuit directive to us was to reduce our budget by switches. So we’ve got to study post by post $1.5 billion by fiscal year 2015. Last year, we what we need to do to modernize Landreduced the IT budget by $1.2 billion by just WarNet 2020 and beyond. being smarter, with better buying power, “A modernized network is absolutely and finding duplications and inefficiencies. essential to us being a smaller, better trained We’re continuing to work those this year, expeditionary Army as we go forward. If we and will easily meet the $1.5 billion target. get this right, we can go anywhere globally But I’m also asking for that money to be and be connected,” she observed. returned to us, so that we can recapitalize Lawrence portrayed key Army initiaand get to the modernized environment.” tives, such as Enterprise Email and data Those ongoing savings are being center consolidation, as part of broader achieved as Army and Department of efforts to extend the network and connect to Defense leaders engage in intensive planevery soldier. “The Enterprise Email effort ning for the potential impact of federal didn’t have anything to do with email, but budget sequestration, as well as continued had everything to do with giving every peruncertainty over the current fiscal year son a IP address so that we could connect budget. Even so, Lawrence made clear, the them no matter where they were, and that’s leadership is determined not to let progress what we’re doing today,” Lawrence said, towards its network modernization and noting that the new system had just signed other goals slacken as a result. up its millionth user. “The toughest thing we have to do is to Similarly, “Data center had nothing to explain to our bosses the importance of the do with consolidating data centers, but network and what it will bring to the fight, everything to do with data—how we tag and why everything we do in support of the it, store it and get access to it. The hardest Army needs to be a category 1 on a scale part has been cleaning up the data and the of 0 to 6, with category 0 being statutorily thousands of applications that we’ve had required. So far, it has worked. It was the

residing on our networks that we haven’t been using in a long time. It’s all about the data,” she said. In discussing her priorities for the future, Lawrence emphasized the importance of adopting new technologies more quickly in order to deliver the modernized network. That includes addressing the issue of network capacity, since demand is outpacing capacity on many Army installations with legacy networks. The four primary lines of effort ahead, she said, will be to build capacity, improve security, deliver enterprise services to the edge, and standardize the network. The CIO also outlined an approach to paying for things like installation upgrades that is anchored both in budget realities and the constantly changing nature of the IT business. “We’ve done the engineering work to do 10 installations and one core data center. As the money comes in, we get going. This gives the leadership three things. One, we’re only going to buy enough for those 10 installations, because we know that technology turns over. You don’t want to buy for a bunch of years, but only in the year of execution. “Also, we know that the cost of IT goes down, for example from $1,200 for a VoIP phone in 2005 to $249 today. What I’m trying to convince the leadership is not even to buy that, but go to a single unit with a $50 Bluetooth device, and that’s your phone. Then we save even more,” she said. “This strategy enables the leadership to change priorities of where we go next, buy just enough to get there, and keep the network modernized. As we go through life cycle maintenance, we can continue to upgrade the installations.” O For more information, contact MIT Editor Harrison Donnelly at or search our online archives for related stories at

MIT 17.3 | 25


Commercial Off-the-Shelf Technology

Tactical Mobile Router Manages High-Bandwidth Applications General Dynamics Canada has introduced its next-generation Tactical Mobile Router, the TMR 200, a compact, modular and flexible router that can be easily configured and integrated in a variety of platforms and wireless networks. With the ability to handle highbandwidth applications, it ensures reliable and secure communications even where wireless network infrastructures do not exist or when nodes are overloaded or off the network. It is ideally suited for tactical environments where network and vehicle electronic architectures are becoming more complex with high-definition cameras and sophisticated sensors streaming gigabits of information. Engineered specifically for in-field communications, the TMR 200 allows defense and public safety personnel, mobile command centers and central commands to share high-bandwidth applications such as situational awareness information or battle management applications, along with critical voice and data. The TMR 200’s “intelligent management” automatically adapts to network changes and maintains reliable connections in harsh environments. It uses advanced networking technologies to store and forward vital communications if a network connection is broken.

L-Band Service Offers Tactical Satellite Capability A new L-band service from Inmarsat will deliver robust, low-cost beyondline-of-sight (BLOS) mobile communications to a broad range of new government users. The service, called L-TAC, will deliver a UHF-like tactical satellite capability for use with existing military radios by approved government customers. UHF tactical satellite capability is in high demand because of its suitability for BLOS push-to-talk networks using tactical radios—either portable or installed in vehicles, helicopters, ships or other mobile platforms. The L-TAC service will provide additional capability over the Inmarsat-4 satellites when UHF capacity is unavailable. The global constellation offers the additional benefit of supporting small antennas for BLOS communications on the move. To access the leased service, users require only a small antenna adaptor for their existing tactical radio, which replaces their existing UHF antenna. L-TAC will enable militaries to exercise greater command and control through existing tactical radios at a realistic cost, company executives said.

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

Real-Time Anomaly Detection Strengthens Security Tool The recently released LogRhythm 6.1 represents a significant enhancement of the Security Information and Event Management 2.0 security analytics platform, which provides the industry’s first multi-dimensional behavioral analytics tool. Amid increasingly frequent and sophisticated cyberthreats, traditional point security solutions are no longer enough to secure ever-expanding IT estates. According to the 2012 Verizon Data Breach Report, 85 percent of breaches took weeks or more to discover. LogRhythm 6.1 enables organizations to baseline normal, day-to-day activity across multiple dimensions of the enterprise. The system then analyzes against that baseline the massive volume of log, flow and machine data generated every second to discover anomalies in real time. By doing so, LogRhythm is enabling IT administrators and security professionals alike to detect and respond to even the most sophisticated threats and breaches.

Spectrum Tool Monitors Radio Interference Ultra Electronics, 3eTI, a provider of military-grade, cybersecure network solutions for critical information systems, infrastructure and industrial automation, has announced UltraVision Spectrum Manager, a proactive monitoring tool for the radio frequency (RF) spectrum. Spectrum Manager offers a unique application designed to intelligently monitor the RF spectrum at the physical layer and immediately alert IT managers to interference. Spectrum Manager is the newest addition to 3eTI’s portfolio of UltraVision solutions, which seek to provide the ultimate level of operational wireless infrastructure availability for improved situational awareness, command, control and communications. With its network-centric topology, Spectrum Manager monitors for RF interference within an area of interest by performing intelligent analysis of emissions. The tool uses strategically positioned spectrum sensors with innovative antenna arrays that relay data back to a central monitoring display with geographic overlays. The data then allows personnel to localize the origin of the interference using a management console or mobile unit.

User-Defined Gesture Authenticates Mobile Devices Lockheed Martin and Fixmo have integrated technologies to provide a new level of secure authentication for mobile devices with unparalleled ease of use by joining forces with Fixmo’s SafeZone and Lockheed Martin’s Mandrake SG technology. Fixmo SafeZone is a defense-grade secure workspace solution for iOS and Android devices that keeps all corporate email, browsing, documents and applications encrypted, contained, and under IT control no matter who owns the device. Lockheed Martin’s Mandrake SG technology will enable 26 | MIT 17.3

smartphone and tablet users to authenticate into Fixmo SafeZone with a simple, user-defined gesture, which has been proven to be more secure and far easier to use than a 14-character, complex, randomly generated password. By integrating Lockheed’s Mandrake Secure Gesture capabilities into the Fixmo SafeZone secure workspace, Fixmo can now enable business users and government employees to easily switch contexts between the personal and business sides of the device while ensuring the integrity and identity of the user.

The advertisers index is provided as a service to our readers. KMI cannot be held responsible for discrepancies due to last-minute changes or alterations.


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Calendar May 14-16, 2013 FOSE Washington, D.C.

June 25-27, 2013 USCYBERCOM Symposium Baltimore, Md.

MIT 17.3 | 27


Military Information Technology

Edward Siira Vice President of International Sales Cornet Technology encoders, decoders and recorders that employ the latest video technologies to encode, compress and store video for a wide range of applications such as airborne ISR, shipboard surveillance and C2 intelligence distribution. These products typically allow a legacy sensor to link to an IP backbone, saving money and time.

Edward Siira brings to his position more than 30 years of experience with marketing, selling and engineering video, voice, and data telecommunications and networking products. His extensive knowledge of networking covers asynchronous, BSC, SNA SDLC, X.25, IP and SONET topologies. Over the years, he has employed his diverse background and expertise to direct the design of patch panels, A/B switches, matrix switches, packet switches, and a range of network management software spanning DOS, UNIX, LINUX and various MS Windows operating systems. Q: What types of products and services are you offering to military and other government customers? A: The Cornet Technology product portfolio covers voice, data and video communications products optimized to support our U.S. government clients as well as the armed forces of our allies. Providing both secure and non-secure communications to the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy is our Tactical Voice Communication Systems [TVCS] series of conference switch products. This product line utilizes VoIP at its core, simplifying network design and providing a path to the future. Our video encoders, decoders and storage products are used in ISR applications to link legacy interface cameras to storage devices and IP-based radios on board military aircraft. These products also provide a convenient way to manage high-definition resources in a command-and-control facility while providing a cost-effective solution for the client. Our IPGate product family provides an easy way to migrate from a legacy TDM-based network to an Ethernet IP-based network. This product range offers the possibility of significant cost savings by migrating legacy devices to an IP backbone. Additionally, it also provides an integral bus feature to allow easy testing of the far end legacy portion of the link. All of these products are designed to meet the exacting standards of our military customers both in the U.S. and abroad. Our COTS and customized solutions help achieve 28 | MIT 17.3

Q: What unique benefits does your company provide its customers in comparison with other companies in your field? size, weight and power-cost savings in the areas of command, control and communications and ISR. Although not a services company in the traditional sense, we do provide field support for products as needed by our clients. We also offer program management as well as integration services such as EMI, shock and vibration, temperature and humidity testing as required by the end user or our integration partner. Q: What applications do your products serve? A: Cornet Technology’s TDM-to-IP transport products—IPGate—offer government customers the means of meeting the CIO mandate to move all applications and networks to IP-based networks. These units reduce costs by eliminating dedicated TDM trunks, expensive leased lines, digital and analog voice circuits, and other serial data connections, and open the door to the benefits of IP networking. In addition, the IPGate products are used to move radio equipment to a more suitable location, keeping sensitive equipment such as encryption devices near the users of remotely deployed radios. Our field-tested and deployed IP-based secure/non-secure TVCS systems are ideal for air mission control as well as for internal and external shipboard communication. These products allow the use of fiber infrastructure, reducing weight and susceptibility to compromise through a reduction of EMI. To meet the ever-growing need for immediate situation awareness, we also offer video

A: Cornet Technology products are designed and manufactured in the U.S. Since Cornet Technology designs, engineers, manufactures and sells its products from its headquarters facility in Northern Virginia, the company is adept at and has the agility to modify any product to meet our customer’s exact needs. Among the military and system integration communities, Cornet Technology has an excellent reputation for providing specialized engineering services. The company’s talented engineering staff works closely with customers to modify existing products or develop new ones tailored to their exact requirements. Our engineering expertise is underscored by the strong market acceptance of our products and the high rate of return business. Q: What are some of the most significant programs your company is currently working on with the military? A: Cornet TVCS products are presently being installed in the Navy’s Littoral Combat Ships, the newest ships in the fleet. In addition, our IPGate-AC product is being used in the Air Force’s E4B [Advance Airborne Command Post] to provide switching, access, and testing capability for air to ground communications. Our video encoders and recorders are being used by international air forces for reconnaissance missions and to store and archive acoustic data from deployed sonobouys, aircraft intercommunications system audio and other applicable signals in support of under surface warfare missions. O


May 2013 Vol. 17, Issue 4

The Voice of Military Communications and Computing

Cover and In-Depth Interview with:

Lt. Gen. Mark S. Bowman Director for C4/Cyber Chief Information Officer Joint Staff Features

Cloud Service Brokers

Setting up cloud services with third-party assistance, or cloud service brokers, is becoming increasingly common both within private industry and the federal government.

Industrial Control Systems

Along with major infrastructure providers throughout the economy, the Department of Defense is paying increased attention to the threat posed by cyber-attacks on industrial control systems.

Serial to Packet Migration

As the military continues to rely on a wide variety of systems based on earlier generations of technology, products that bridge the gap between legacy applications and Internet Protocol could play an important role.

Joint Tactical Networking Center

Established in the wake of the demise of the overall Joint Tactical Radio System, the Joint Tactical Networking Center facilitates secure, interoperable, and affordable joint and coalition software-defined, tactical networking capabilities.

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