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Dedicated to Those Who Are Always Ready

Special Section

Maritime Propulsion Systems

Maritime Advocate Rep. Duncan D. Hunter (R. Calif.) Chairman, Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation

Biometrics O District 17 Profile O Inland Waterway Craft Surveillance Capabilities O Oils & Lubricants

February 2014

Volume 6, Issue 1

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Cover / Q&A Special Section

Oils & Lubricants Manufacturers of oils and lubricants are increasingly working to make the case that operators ought to think in terms of the total cost of equipment, and that while purchasing higher-quality lubricants may have somewhat higher upfront costs, they more than pay for themselves in overall costs. By Scott Nance


Powerful Options Options for upgrading the performance, reliability, environmental characteristics, life and maintainability of engines on Coast Guard boats and cutters abound. But complicated choices must be made, costs taken into account and tradeoffs among important objectives resolved. By Henry Canaday







The Water Watch

The ability to enroll, identify or verify the identity of a person of interest or military personnel has advanced in the last few years due to developments in algorithms related to facial recognition, fingerprinting and iris scans, the three dominant modes of biometrics. By William Murray

It’s nearly impossible to fathom the endless amount of maritime territory—millions of square miles of ocean surface—that the U.S. Coast Guard is tasked with servicing and patrolling. Which is exactly why the USCG demands a highly reliable radar that provides high performance in searching broad ocean areas and looking for very small objects, such as people in the water or capsized boats, that present a very small radar target. By J.B. Bissell

Coast Guard Alaska – District 17

Inland Waterway Craft

There are approximately 2,500 active duty, reservists, Coast Guard Auxiliary and civilian employees serving in the 17th District, tasked with 11 different missions, the largest of which include search and rescue, pollution response, aids to navigation and fisheries enforcement. By Heather Baldwin

Manufacturers of smaller vessels that can be used by the U.S. Coast Guard for harbor and waterway patrols have made a number of design advancements in recent years. These include better hull design to promote maneuverability and fuel efficiency and providing extra deck space and shock mitigation seating for greater crew comfort. By Peter Buxbaum


Industry Interview

2 Editor’s Perspective 4 Nav Notes 14 On The Horizon 27 Resource Center

Alfred Taylor

Director, Business Development L-3 Maritime Systems


16 Rep. Duncan D. Hunter (R.-Calif.)

Chairman Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation

“In general we should be able to look at leasing key national strategic assets like an icebreaker. An icebreaker is not a Coast Guard thing, it’s an American thing. We should be able to play where everybody else is playing [the Arctic], and we’re not able to.” Rep. Duncan D. Hunter (R.-Calif.)


U.S. Coast Guard Forum Volume 6, Issue 1 • February 2014

Dedicated to Those Who Are Always Ready Editorial Editor-In-Chief Jeff McKaughan Managing Editor Harrison Donnelly Online Editorial Manager Laura McNulty Copy Editor Sean Carmichael Correspondents J.B. Bissell • Peter Buxbaum • Henry Canaday Kelly Fodel Cheryl Gerber • Steve Hirsh Nora McGann • William Murray • Scott Nance

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Homeland security is not a single-entity function. Just take a look at Super Bowl XLVIII if there were any doubts. Not counting the local and state law enforcement, emergency responders and health care providers that partnered, there were 14 federal offices that had a hand in managing the safety and security of football’s biggest game. The Coast Guard played no small role and supported maritime and waterway security. Roughly bounded by waterways on three sides, MetLife Stadium was kept safe with coordinated planning and execution. Several articles in this issue play right to the mission that the Coast Guard performed for this very specific event. The waterways that the Coast Guard patrolled Jeffrey D. McKaughan Editor-IN-CHIEF were small and tight—as perfectly described in our harbor craft and inland waterway craft article. Biometrics added a critical layer to the rings of security. People can change much of their physical appearance to fool the human eye and mind into not seeing what is there. Biometrics can cut through the clutter and noise. More importantly, they can connect the dots between a person of interest today with their past. Turning to another matter, the Coast Guard Foundation is coming down the home stretch in its fundraising drive for the Sault Sainte Marie Community Center. The building of a family community center for Coast Guard members and their families is the foundation’s number one project. Sault Sainte Marie serves as home station for eight units with more than 600 active duty, reserve and civilian employees and their families. The current plans call for a 4,000-square-foot building with a kitchen, workout room, activities room and an outdoor deck. The foundation is offering brick sponsorships as a way of directly participating in the building of the community center and to pay lasting tribute to the men and women who serve there. There are two bricks available—one is 4 by 8 inches for a $100 donation and a larger 8-by-8 inch brick is available for $500. Each can be engraved with a personalized message. If not a member of the Coast Guard Foundation yet, you should consider joining; either way, it is a great expression of gratitude and support to donate a brick for the Coasties of Sault Sainte Marie.

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Coast Guard Information Assurance Professional Certification Program The Coast Guard operates on the DoD Global Information Grid and is therefore required to follow DoD’s information assurance (IA) workforce requirements. In 2009, the Coast Guard CIO signed policy implementing the Coast Guard’s IA Professional Certification Program, currently managed by the chief information security officer Office at Coast Guard Headquarters.

The program requires Coast Guard personnel (i.e. civilian and military) in IA positions to obtain an IA professional certification per DoD and CG polices. The Coast Guard recently announced that they were seeking contractor support to provide them with IA and cybersecurity training.

Standardizing Navigation Systems The Coast Guard Command, Control, and Communications Engineering Center (C3CEN) has a requirement to procure new standardized Scalable Integrated Navigation System Two (SINS-2) projected to be installed on approximately 1,800 vessels. SINS-2 will be installed on all future boat acquisitions and retrofitted onto legacy boat platforms as the original equipment becomes unsupportable. Cutters will have SINS-2 installed as determined by the sponsor. SINS-2 will operate on surface units assigned to parent cutters, maritime safety and security teams, maritime security response team, marine safety units, aids to navigation teams and small boat stations throughout the Coast Guard and will support Coast Guard missions at any geographic location including the high seas, near shore, harbors, intercoastal areas and inland rivers. SINS-2 will allow for scalable integration of all installed electronic navigation equipment and sensors as required per platform. The SINS-2 system will be used on a wide range of vessels. Some potential configurations include: • Small Open Boats (15 to 20 feet in length) On a small open boat, the following configurations may be used: (a) a single multi-function display (MFD) with a nominal 7-inch display integrated with GPS, depth sounder, compass sensors and receive input from automatic identification system (AIS) and digital selective calling (DSC) systems. (b) a chart plotter with an internal GPS with a 4-7-inch display configured for bracketed surface or flush mount.

4 | CGF 6.1

In the bracket mounted configuration, the unit may be frequently removed from the boat when not in use. • Mid-Sized Open Boat (approximately 25 feet in length) Single MFD with a nominal 10-inch display integrated with GPS, radar, depth and heading sensors, remote instrument display and receive input from AIS and DSC systems. • Mid-Sized Enclosed Boat (approximately 25 feet in length) Single MFD with a nominal 10-inch display integrated with GPS, radar, depth and compass sensors, remote instrument display and receive input from AIS and DSC systems. • Large Enclosed/Open Boat Four MFDs with a nominal 10-inch or greater displays or a black box processor unit with separate display and controller integrated with GPS, radar, depth and compass sensors and receive input from AIS and DSC systems, a FLIR camera, multiple onboard cameras and a weather sensor. Provide output to an autopilot system, and provide output to remote instrument displays. Two of the MFDs and two of the remote instrument displays could be mounted in an exposed bridge location. • Cutter Backup Navigation System Single MFD with a nominal 10-inch or greater display or black box processor unit with separate display and controller integrated with GPS, radar, depth and compass sensors, and receive input from AIS and DSC systems.

The Coast Guard takes biometrics to sea as technologies come of age. William Murray,CGF Correspondent The ability to enroll, identify or verify the identity of a person of interest or military personnel has advanced in the last few years, due to developments in algorithms related to facial recognition, fingerprinting and iris scans, the three dominant modes of biometrics, which are unique personal identifiers. According to vendors, U.S. military and maritime agencies are increasingly looking for mobile, rugged tri-modal biometrics solutions that can accommodate the imperfect nature of some of the biometrics scans in the field. Furthermore, agency officials want the ability to use high-speed, encrypted networks to share biometrics data between relational database systems and remote field operators who need to make quick decisions. Some biometrics proponents would like to see these identification systems be more widely used for facilities access and network security to replace passwords. “The algorithms have advanced,” said Anthony Johnson, president and chief executive officer of ICC Software, a Plano, Texasbased biometrics and engineering services company. “Even a partial fingerprint scan can have 90 percent accuracy” when used to search a large database, he said. A key aspect of making biometrics technologies work in a networked environment is the building and maintenance of databases that allow packets of data to be efficiently sent from client workstations and devices to the network with only the information needed for unique identification. In a military operational scenario, personnel may not have time to redo an obscured iris scan or a smudged fingerprint, according to Robert Horton, senior director of marketing and communications for MorphoTrak of Alexandria, Va., a biometrics technology company focused on fingerprint, iris and facial recognition.

“Sometimes, I take what I can get,” he said. Part of the Safran Group, MorphoTrak is working with FBI on the Next Generation Identification Biometric Interoperability system for its Integrated Automated Fingerprinting Identification System (IAFIS), with deployment in 30 states. One emerging biometrics challenge is abstracting software applications from hardware devices, said Dave Benini, vice president of marketing for Aware Inc., a biometrics software company in Bedford, Mass., that works with law enforcement, border patrol and defense agencies. For the past several years, Aware has worked with the Navy in fielding several hundred handheld mobile devices for enrolling and identifying individuals encountered in austere maritime environments and remote locations using fingerprint, face and iris biometrics. Benini noted that the Navy’s mobility software can be ported to different hardware devices, giving the service flexibility as it moves forward. “Ruggedness and portability are critical to biometric search for military applications,” said Benini, who has worked with Aware since 1999. The ability to encrypt biometrics data on mobile devices, which is a safeguard in case the data falls into the wrong hands, is also important. Aware’s work with the Navy falls under the service’s Information Dominance roadmap. “There’s a big difference between verifying someone and identifying them,” with the latter taking more work, Benini said. This distinction has key ramifications for blue force and red force identification and access control, among other biometrics applications. “Finding someone in a database is hard, and even harder on a mobile device,” he said, but such a match can enable operators to know the person of interest’s past more effectively. “Biometrics is one tool ­CGF  6.1 | 5

airports, after operational use in Britain and Qatar. In the latter counamong many,” since human intelligence, signal intelligence and try, furthermore, AOptix Technologies is used at all border crossings. other data can also be effective, Benini said. The FBI was the first U.S. federal agency to invest heavily Government biometrics system architects and managers also in biometrics with the Justice Department’s IAFIS, according to have to ensure that their systems comply with The Privacy Act of Horton. While the largest U.S. biometrics system, IAFIS has the 1974, which means that data collected on U.S. citizens and legal weakness of having a significant amount of records that are unusresidents only be that which is “relevant and necessary” for misable, since federal, state and local law enforcement agencies with sion accomplishment. U.S. government agencies generally extend varying degrees of training and capabilities submit records into the provisions of The Privacy Act to foreign nationals, although the IAFIS, and the records are generally ink fingerprint records on recent revelations of NSA metadata programs appear to challenge that paper that are digitally scanned, which can create a number of concept. According to well-established U.S. legal precedence, incomplete or digitally unreadable prints. fingerprinting a person in custody does not constitute an illegal seiIAFIS has more than 70 million subjects in its criminal maszure under the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution, provided the ter file, in addition to more than 34 million civil fingerprints. Its seizure of the person is reasonable. criminal database includes prints from more than 73,000 known In business since 2001, ICC Software this spring is developing and suspected terrorists processed by U.S. or international law a patent-protected ruggedized mobile device under $4,000 that can enforcement agencies. The average response time for an electronic withstand seawater and sand. It contains fingerprinting and facial fingerprint submission is about 27 minutes, according to the FBI. recognition features through an onboard camera. The company After September 11, the newly formed Department of Homeworks with the Air Force, Army and Navy and will market its product land Security (DHS) made the next significant investment with its to the military. United States Visitor and Immigration Status Indicator TechnolAnother challenge is mobile connectivity to centralized relational ogy (U.S. VISIT) fingerprinting system to update terrorist watch databases that provide data which can be efficiently apportioned and lists while maintaining the privacy of travelers and transmitted over a network. “Instant identity verificamaking commerce and travel streamlined. DoD tion is what everyone is trying to get,” Johnson said next made a significant investment in biometrics of federal and state and local law enforcement and through its Tri-Modal Biometric program. military agencies. “We need and want to allow the Coast Guard personnel need to access Departoperator to have real-time recognition capabilities,” in ment of Justice (DOJ) IAFIS and two other key dealing with a person of interest and verifying identity, government biometrics databases. DoD ABIS stores Johnson said. biometrics from enemy combatants, detainees, In some cases, a device could sync with a 3G or 4G latent prints from IEDs and other hostile actions, WiFi network daily or even hourly, and in the case of and credential applications individuals requesting the Coast Guard, such a high speed network would be access to DoD installations overseas. With approxiaccessed through satellite connectivity. ICC Software’s Rob Horton mately 120 million records, the Department of device in development uses the prevailing Open Database Connectivity standard. Having the centralized Homeland Security Automated Biometrics Identification (IDENT) System stores latent prints from relational databases be available 24 hours a day, seven DHS, DoD and DOJ, in addition to immigration viodays a week, and then updated on a regular basis with lators, visa applicants and travelers to the U.S., and data transmitted from the field becomes an important other immigration and border credential applicants. requirement. One challenge the U.S. Coast Guard faced in its Ease of use across language barriers and accuBiometrics-at-Sea program is that pirates, migrants racy are key features that organizations are seeking and other persons of interest usually don’t carry in biometrics systems, according to Joseph Pritikin, personal identification, according to ICC Software’s director of product marketing at AOptix Technologies Johnson. “It’s important to know who a person is,” Inc., a fiber-based identity solutions company based in he said, reflecting a post-9/11 sentiment widely held Campbell, Calif. “You need a system that’s fast, easy in DoD and law enforcement.” and effortless,” he said. David Benini The Coast Guard began testing its BiometricsAOptix Stratus, a flagship product, is an at-Sea fingerprint scan program in 2006 in District based mobile identity system with the familiar Apple 7, developed by the USCG Research and DevelopiOS operating system that company officials say is ment Center in New Haven, Conn. Within a year, the highly intuitive for facial, fingerprint, iris and voice Coast Guard had deployed it to five cutters stationed recognition. Previous technologies depended on a in Puerto Rico for migrant interdiction in the Caribfixed location or were cost prohibitive mobile solutions bean and began checking migrant records against with limited features. IAFIS, IDENT and U.S. VISIT to determine if felons, A second product, AOptix Technologies’ Insight recidivists or other persons of interest should be held VM Iris Recognition System, accurately works at a longer, as opposed to being quickly repatriated. range of up to 2 meters and can handle a high volume Coast Guard personnel treated the laptops as they of scans, and one of its primary applications is personwould any classified data. A 2008 deployment of nel authentication and immigration identification, Joseph Pritikin Biometrics-at-Sea covered a group of cutters off the access control and boarding. Pritikin’s company’s iris coast of Florida, with total use now on 20 cutters. scan technology is nearly ready for deployment in U.S. 6 | CGF 6.1

The use of satellite communications with Biometrics-at-Sea eliminated the need for the Coast Guard to retain fragments of its biometrics database onboard the cutters, alleviating security concerns for handling the sensitive data. In addition, the use of the Biometrics-at-Sea in keeping records about migrants and aiding in prosecutorial decisions may have led to a 75 percent decrease in migrant interdictions since the start of Biometrics-at-Sea, although Coast Guard officials can’t draw a definitive cause and effect relationship. There’s clearly room for augmentation of the biometric system beyond fingerprinting. The Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2010 called for the enactment within a year of the Act’s implementation of a mobile biometrics system for fingerprinting, iris and facial recognition for alien migrant interdiction operations in maritime environments. In addition to funding and working with partner agencies, a challenge in effectively implementing a service-wide maritime USCG mobile tri-mode biometrics system is that Coast Guard personnel need to query the three government biometrics databases before enrolling persons of interest into the system. According to the USCG Acquisition Directorate Research & Development Center, each query can take as much as 10 minutes. In a resource-constrained environment where Coast Guard cutters have to patrol 85,000 miles of American shoreline, it is important for them to efficiently repatriate migrants and other persons of interest and also try to ensure that there are consequences for those who are repeat offenders or who pose significant risk, rather than treat them anonymously, without the ability to record and access unique biometric data. While facial, fingerprinting and iris scans are the three most common forms of biometrics, there are five other emerging forms of biometrics: gait, hand geometry, keystroke dynamics, signature and vascular. According to Horton, National Institutes of Standards and Technology officials are evaluating integrating vice and dental records for biometrics. “DoD is constantly evaluating technology,” he noted. Defective biometric samples—such as an obscured iris and smudged fingerprint—are sometimes not sufficient while in other cases such as military operations, they are the best that personnel can collect under certain conditions and are helpful. “There’s a need in [DoD] agencies to take high quality images,” Aware’s Benini said. Smudged, dark or poorly formed fingerprint images may not be useful. A partial facial image may not also serve its purpose. MorphoTrak’s Horton sounded a more optimistic note about technological advances in algorithms and their operational benefits. “Partial fingerprints that were formerly deemed of no value now are hitting in the number one position,” on candidate lists, he said. “Two good index fingers now is usually good enough,” for a reliable match, he said. Biometrics specialists generally consider two good iris scans as good as 10 good fingerprint scans, according to Horton. A good candidate list for facial recognition purposes is “very important,” according to Horton. He noted that dual eye capture in iris scanning is also more effective than single eye capture. O

For more information, contact Editor-In-Chief Jeff McKaughan or search our online archives for related stories at

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Cutting-edge technologies give the Coast Guard its eyes on the water. By J.B. Bissell CGF Correspondent as cutting edge. “Although it’s still a relatively new system, the It’s nearly impossible to fathom the endless amount of marihardware and software are being regularly updated to extend time territory—millions of square miles of ocean surface—that capabilities and performance,” Levato said. the U.S. Coast Guard is tasked with servicing and patrolling. And “For example, customers are always looking for better detecwhile cutters and various aircraft can rapidly and efficiently get tion performance at longer ranges. To meet this demand we are operators where they need to be to perform rescues or act as a now able to offer extended detection range on our unique small security force, it’s actually impossible for humans in those same target detection mode by about 50 percent. As with the televisions vehicles to conduct surveillance across all that open space. in our homes, viewers are always looking for better images on Which is exactly why “the USCG demands a highly reliable the screen. To this end we are responding with higher resolution radar that provides high performance in searching broad ocean synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging modes to areas and often looking for very small objects, such provide a clearer picture of our SAR strip maps and as people in the water or capsized boats, that presspot images of stationary targets.” ent a very small radar target,” said Antonio Levato The exponentially improved capabilities, from Selex ES’s land and naval division. however, don’t necessarily come with a similarly “By using its expertise in integration of wide expanded price tag. “To be able to provide this kind and complex systems, and in the maritime surveilof performance at an affordable cost is a very big lance field, Selex ES has the capabilities to provide challenge,” admitted Levato. “Seaspray has met this a response to all of the demands of the U.S. Coast challenge through development and production of Guard,” Levato explained. “Our engineers have a a unique combination of mechanical and electronic broad knowledge base in all the disciplines needed scanning arrays made up of affordable, air-cooled for the design and implementation of a complete Antonio Levato transmit/receive modules.” maritime surveillance system, including sensors, radars, fixed and wireless telecommunications, ship and aircraft systems design, surveillance, security Solid State News and command, and control systems.” Selex ES put their engineers to the test back in The folks at Terma North America Inc. also 2006 when the USCG inquired about the possibility are working to keep costs affordable. “Our Scanter of replacing an aging radar system on the HC-130H line of 2-D solid state radar systems provides a long-range surveillance aircraft. The result was the broad array of functionality—surface surveillance, development of the Seaspray 7500E, a multimode navigation (in the naval sector), and low airspace radar that can be utilized throughout marine envimonitoring and control—all at a reasonable price,” ronments, across terra firma, and in an air-to-air said Jeff Schleicher, the company’s business develcapacity. opment manager for radar and C2 systems. “It’s the only radar in its class that uses active Still, they continue to push functionality forJeff Schleicher electronic scanning aperture (AESA) technology,” ward. “Our solid state radars represent a quantum said Levato. “We determined several years ago that leap in new technology,” explained Schleicher. AESA offered the best avenue to meeting the challenges of the “Solid state allows for the use of advanced signal processing techbroad surveillance radar market that includes not only the U.S. niques to detect and display both air targets and small, maneuCoast Guard, who focus on maritime operations, but other serverable surface targets in extreme weather conditions with more vices who operate in other various environments. AESA provides accuracy and better target separation over a broad range, from the flexibility to adapt to each of them.” close proximity to the outer capability limits of the radar. This The Seaspray 7500E also has enough technological flexibility increased performance is not limited to shore-based assets; it has that its designers can easily—and constantly—ensure its status great applicability to patrolling USCG vessels as well.” 8 | CGF 6.1

Other significant solid state radar characteristics Multiple Fields of View include advanced clutter suppression, reliable digital processing, the ability to be upgraded without replacL-3 WESCAM is well known for its wide range ing any hardware, and a power amplifier that uses of stabilized multi-sensor electro-optic and infrared only a fraction of the power of a conventional radar imaging systems. “Our equipment is in use by USCG system and requires no tuning or pre-heating. aircraft and ships around the world for long-range All of this adds up to a reliable, high-performance and multi-spectral imagery during pivotal missions, radar arrangement. “Our existing line of Scanter including search and rescue, drug and migrant 5000 vessel traffic service (VTS) and coastal surinterdiction, environmental protection, and port and veillance radar systems are designed to exceed the coastal security,” said Paul Jennison, vice president Paul Jennison International Association of Marine Aids to Navigaof WESCAM’s government sales and new business tion and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) Recommendevelopment. dation V-128 regarding the technical performance When it comes to maritime surveillance, howrequirements for VTS equipment by a minimum of ever, status quo isn’t an option, so a number of 20 percent for the advanced recommendations,” said already-successful WESCAM instruments will be Schleicher. receiving significant upgrades throughout 2014. “This is in keeping with the observation from “Year after year, we make a considerable investment V-128 that for security purposes, ‘radar is the only in technology insertion in order to keep our products VTS tool that can potentially detect small, nonup-to-date and competitive in terms of performance cooperative targets at long distances and in all and customer value,” noted Jennison. weather conditions,’ and that the needs of security “We recently added low-light capability to the applications for detection and identification of such wide angle situational awareness sensor in our Joseph Battaglia targets substantially increase sensitivity of the radar popular MX-15, and new for 2014 will be a multiple services.” field-of-view spotter in that same product. High resoThese increased radar services will no doubt be lution short-wave IR imager options—which, thanks on full display when Terma unveils their latest maritime-monito their sensitivity, are more effective at penetrating poor weather, toring device sometime in the coming months. “That’s our most such as haze and fog, than color or near-IR imagers—are now availnewsworthy update related to coastal surveillance,” said Schleicher. able in our mid- and large-sized sensor airborne products.” “We’ve developed a new solid state radar system currently referred WESCAM also is planning for a full-market launch of the new to as the SCXXXX that will be available later this year. MX-10MS shipboard system, a product that was introduced on a “It’s designed to meet the IALA V-128 recommendations, and limited basis last year and is now ready for active duty. “It features is based on the already-proven technology and performance of our a full high definition daylight color imager, electron multiplied SCANTER 5000 product line while featuring the following charcharge coupled device near-IR low-light imager, a large format acteristics: upmast and downmast configurations; medium- and cooled mid-wave infrared imager, an eyesafe laser rangefinder, and a low-power versions; external AC supply and DC supply versions; laser illuminator,” said Jennison. “In addition, we have the capability and it will be designed for use with our 7-, 12- or 18-foot compact to introduce longer standoff shipboard sensors, with a wider variety antenna options.” of imagers, should they be demanded by the market.”

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T +(0)1 714.229.9020 F +(0)1 714.229.9015 ­CGF  6.1 | 9

consumption is about half to 60 percent that of other systems with similar performance,” Battaglia said. “That, combined with high reliability and affordability, makes them excellent products for the U.S. Coast Guard.”

Keep It Simple Ease of use, flexibility and problem-solving potential are a few other attributes that make for excellent products, and when it comes to these particular traits there may not be a company that delivers more consistently than SSR Engineering. Geoffrey Boyce put it best when he said, “Our goal is to supply the best value that successfully solves the problem.” The bottom line is that Boyce and SSR could essentially outfit an entire Coast Guard cutter with a complete radar tracking system, from the processor to the display interface to a vessel database server and so on. “Oftentimes, though, that’s not what our customers need,” Surveillance in one of its simplest forms is a pair of eyeballs and good binoculars. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Coast Guard] Boyce explained. “Instead, they want to upgrade a specific piece of the overall puzzle.” And usually SSR has a piece that fits perfectly. “Even if you Smaller and Lighter already have radar installed, you can do some significant modernizing by connecting that legacy equipment to one of our processJoseph Battaglia, president and chief executive officer for ing boxes, which has our detection algorithms so you can see Telephonics, along with his colleagues, certainly understands smaller objects further away. That same idea is true with a display what this particular market demands. “We’ve been focusing on maritime surveillance since the late 1950s, and have a or integrated camera. And you can do it in phases, too.” The ability and willingness to piecemeal an entire system thorough understanding of sea clutter and its effect on the together speaks to SSR’s overall flexibility, but their detection of small targets in high-sea states in fundamental distinction is problem solving—and open water,” he said. “The advanced detection the ease with which they do it. “About nine years algorithms we use in our signal processing are ago, we were on a Navy ship and the captain was optimized for maritime environments.” complaining that his sonar folks weren’t very good Indeed, with integrated AIS, Ocean Surveillance at their job,” Boyce said. “They kept sending him Initiative and ISAR imaging, the radar provides a targets that he could see from his bridge and he common operating picture that can be used in condidn’t care about those; he wanted to be shown junction with other onboard sensors, providing for targets that weren’t ships. persistent surveillance for extended periods of time. “So we fed the sonar team a display from the In addition, Telephonics develops digital intercombridge so they could see exactly what was on the munication systems and identification friend or foe Geoffrey Boyce surface and then eliminate those blips from the interrogators for various worldwide military and reporting structure. About two-and-a-half weeks commercial platforms. later, the captain told us, ‘My sonar guys are so much smarter “All of our systems are considered state-of-the-art and at the now.’ Well, they didn’t get smarter, they just finally got the all forefront of the niche ISR markets we address,” said Battaglia. the data that was available that they previously couldn’t see on And yet, perhaps the hallmark of Telephonics’ equipment is sometheir screen.” thing much more basic than all the futuristic technology. “Our Because while it is impossible for humans by themselves to products’ key design features include small size, a lightweight conduct comprehensive surveillance across so many square miles package, and low power consumption for the performance they of open water, when they have such a broad range of effective achieve. tools, along with a little problem-solving assistance, it actually “Acquiring target position, direction and velocity for hungets quite a bit easier, not to mention much more effective. O dreds of targets simultaneously is critical for situational awareness,” Battaglia continued. “The primary challenge we face is the relentless search for ways of putting better performance and ever-increasing reliability into lighter packages—while keeping For more information, contact Editor-In-Chief the cost down.” Jeff McKaughan or It’s a challenge Telephonics seems to be conquering. “As a search our online archives for related stories at general rule of thumb, our equipment’s size, weight and power 10 | CGF 6.1

How the Coast Guard’s search and rescue mission is evolving in the low-ice age. By Heather Baldwin, CGF Correspondent

Retreating sea ice has caused uproar among environmentalists for years; now, it is impacting the U.S. Coast Guard by significantly expanding its operating area and the amount of activity in the region. Last year, the Arctic Ocean’s ice cap was at a historic low while transits through the Bering Straits and Northern Sea Route hit an all-time high. These new realities are changing the way the Coast Guard operates in Alaska. “There are vast areas of open water where there used to be ice,” observed Admiral R.J. Papp Jr., commandant of the Coast Guard, in a May 2013 report entitled “U.S. Coast Guard Arctic Strategy.” “As the receding ice invites increased human activity in commercial and private ventures,” he continued, “there is increasing demand for the Coast Guard to ensure the safety, security and stewardship of the nation’s Arctic waters.” The Coast Guard has been operating in the Arctic region since 1867, when Alaska became part of the United States. Today, approximately 2,500 active duty, reservists, Coast Guard Auxiliary and civilian employees serve in the 17th District, which encompasses the Alaskan maritime region. Those personnel are tasked with 11 different missions, the largest of which include search and rescue (SAR), pollution response, aids to navigation and fisheries enforcement. SAR cases make up the majority of the work. “We are very SAR-centric when it comes to command center operations at the district level,” said Lieutenant Commander Jason Brennell, command center chief, 17th District. “Anything and everything the Coast Guard has up here is at our disposal to save lives.” That “anything and everything” includes eight MH-60 Jayhawk helicopters, four MH-65 Dolphin helicopters and four HC-130s home-based at Air Stations Kodiak and Sitka. It also includes two cutters, six buoy tenders and seven patrol boats out of small boat

tions in Juneau, Ketchikan and Valdez. To augment its own equipment and manpower, the Coast Guard works closely with other units in the region, including the 11th Air Force, Alaska State Troopers and North Slope Borough Search and Rescue. Over the past five years, the 17th District has averaged a load of 612 SAR cases per fiscal year, which runs October 1 through September 30. busiest year was fiscal 2009, with 662 cases, an average of about 55 cases a month. Since then, there has been a downward trend, with fiscal 2013 marking a low point of 548 cases, an average of nearly 46 per month. All of those cases are funneled through the D17 Command Center, located in Juneau.

Vast Territory It is tough to get a real sense of just how immense an area D17 rescuers must cover until you have flown over Alaska’s 44,000 miles of rugged shoreline, its 3.8 million square miles of mostly unpopulated wilderness and its vast waters, from the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea north to the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. The state’s landmass is larger than Texas, California and Montana combined. Overlay a map of Alaska onto a map of the lower 48 and the state’s far southeastern edge would dip into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Georgia while its westernmost Aleutian islands would lie well off the coast of California. Barrow, Alaska’s northernmost town, would be positioned on the North Dakota-Wisconsin-Canada border. These distances make it tough—and often impossible—to be at the scene of a rescue within the two-hour window for which the Coast Guard strives. Take the case of the 21-year-old male who, last September, suffered compound fractures and internal bleeding after falling 75 feet aboard a vessel positioned several hundred nautical ­CGF  6.1 | 11

seasons,” noted the Coast Guard’s Arctic strategy report. “The use of mobile assets and seasonal presence, supplemented by existing shorebased infrastructure, will be the preferred strategy for Coast Guard operations during periods of peak activity.” The effectiveness of that strategy was aptly illustrated in early January when forward deployed Coast Guardsmen conducted backto-back rescues near Cold Bay. In the first, an MH-60 Jayhawk crew deployed to Cold Bay hoisted two men with severe burns from a motor vessel about 207 miles southwest of Cold Bay. Following standard operating procedure, the MH-60 was met by an MH-65 Dolphin, forward deployed aboard the Coast Guard Cutter Munro, to be available as back-up and rescue for the -60 crew if needed. On the return trip, the MH-65 was diverted to retrieve a man with an eye injury who had been brought aboard the Munro from the fishing vessel Prowler. Based on the assessment of a health service technician on the Munro, the Dolphin crew medevaced the man to St. Paul for treatment. While every case and every day’s caseload is different, there are some overarching SAR trends by region, said Captain Daniel Travers, 17th District chief of incident management. A recent analysis of the Coast Guard Cutter Healy holds station off of Seward, Alaska, in murky weather. [Photo courtesy of past 10 years of SAR data revealed that around the Bering Sea, where U.S. Coast Guard, by Petty Officer 1st Class David Mosley] fishing is a major industry, the predominant SAR activity has been medevacs off vessels. Second on the list was non-maritime medemiles south of Adak Island, near the western extent of the Aleutian vacs out of native villages when the weather is poor and commercial Islands. He needed to be medevaced off the vessel for treatment, but services can’t get in. In the Southeast, Travers said, SAR calls for was roughly 1,200 nm from Kodiak Air Station, where the closest non-maritime medevacs top the list. Around Prince William Sound, rescue assets were located. The MH-60 Jayhawks which would be overdue recreational vessels and people in the water make up the largdeployed for the rescue have just a 500 nm fuel range. est number of SAR calls. “We had to look at: Where will they stop and how will we switch While not yet a large percentage of SAR work, Travers said the out crews? A crew can only go six hours and then they are done,” said Coast Guard has noted a surge in the number of advenCommander Mark Vislay, operations officer at Air Staturists coming to Alaska—such as those who want to tion Kodiak, who helped plan the rescue. Ultimately, kayak or personal watercraft across the state—and the Coast Guard used two MH-60s, two C-130s and 38 needing to be rescued when they find themselves in different aircrews who switched out in Cold Bay and a situation over their heads. Early last year, the Coast Adak. They flew for a combined 52 hours and covered a Guard estimated 1 million adventure tourists would combined 6,800 nm to retrieve the mariner. An operavisit Alaska in 2013. tion like that—not atypical in Alaska—is measured in Although the melting Arctic ice has led to a surge days, not hours, said Vislay. in shipping traffic, this trend has not yet translated To help address the problem of distance, the Coast into increased SAR work. In 2008, there were 220 tranGuard has established several forward operating locasits through the Bering Straits; last year, that figure tions (FOL) in which a small number of personnel and had doubled to 440 transits. The Northern Sea Route one or two helicopters are positioned according to the Daniel Travers is also seeing heightened traffic. In 2012, 46 vessels SAR threat. “Right now it is crab season, so the crabtransited the route, up from 34 in 2011 and just four in bing vessels are all out by St. Paul in the Bering Sea. 2010. In 2013, the number jumped to 71. It is notable That’s 700 miles from where we are in Kodiak, so we that 17th District’s lowest SAR caseload in the last 10 created a forward operating location in Cold Bay, about years occurred last year when shipping traffic through a three-hour flight down the chain for a [MH-]60,” the region was at a peak. said Vislay. With a rescue asset three hours closer to As activity in these far northern reaches continues crabbing activity, the Coast Guard is able to effect a to increase, the Coast Guard will continue to evalumuch quicker response to emergencies that arise in ate where and how to best leverage seasonal, forward the crabbing fleet. positions. Already, his SAR analysis prompted Travers In addition to the FOL at Cold Bay, the Coast to move one of the Coast Guard’s FOLs, from St. Paul Guard operates FOLs in Cordova and Barrow durto Cold Bay. “We used to deploy a forward operating ing the summer. Barrow’s establishment in 2012 Lt. Cmdr. Jason Bennell location to St. Paul, but I saw that most of my cases coincided with Operation Arctic Shield, the Coast weren’t up there; they were more toward the Aleutian Guard’s deployment of its largest Arctic force packIslands,” said Travers. “We plotted the rescues during the last 10 fiscal age in history. “Given the level of oil exploration and attendant risks years and looked at one helicopter in Cold Bay versus two in St. Paul associated with activity in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, the Coast and which would have been more effective for each rescue. For most Guard forward deployed the national security cutter Bertholf, two of the rescues, we could have gotten to them in a more timely fashion helicopters, several boats, scores of support personnel, communicawith a helicopter in Cold Bay, so we are testing that location this year.” tions equipment, and other resources for the summer and early fall 12 | CGF 6.1

Easier Getting Shot At Talk to anyone who has served in Alaska about the challenges they face there, and at the top of the list is usually weather. While rescue reports may read very matter-of-fact on paper, the experience of them is often quite different. Brennell, a former Army pilot and combat veteran, now a helicopter pilot in the Coast Guard, summed it up best. After flying in Alaska for several months, the pilot observed, “Sometimes it was easier getting shot at in combat than flying in Alaska, because in Alaska the weather is always trying to kill you.” The flying is so tough that seasoned helicopter commanders must “winter over” in Alaska before they can sign for an aircraft. This means that new pilots arriving during the summer must spend the next eight months flying second-in-command with an Alaska veteran—even if the veteran doesn’t outrank the new pilot—before they are allowed to take command of an aircraft. “Here, you fly up narrow channels, in pitch black, crabbing because the winds are so high, with 3,000-foot peaks on each side of you,” said Travers, an MH-60 pilot who served at Air Station Sitka from 2003-2006. Though arriving in Sitka with six years’ flying experience, much of it in the notoriously bad weather of Cape Cod, Travers said he found Alaska “humbling.” “Crews might take off on a beautiful day, fly 150 miles and encounter 100-foot ceilings and 20-knot winds and have to pull someone off a fishing boat,” said Vislay. “The primary skill here

is to be master of your aircraft.” Pilots get there with “as many training flights as possible,” including countless practice hoists off boats and completion of an Alaskan qualification syllabus. It’s not just the weather that is unpredictable in Alaska; the wildlife can also pose a challenge. In one case, an MH-60 Jayhawk crew was about to lose its tail rotor and had to put down on an empty beach on the south side of Kodiak. They radioed their position and situation and then observed there were bears present. Over the next few days, following delivery of the parts needed to repair the helicopter, Coast Guard mechanics removed, tore down and repaired the tail rotor—on the beach, in driving rain and high winds, surrounded by bears. Tough? Sure. But that is one reason those serving in the 17th District enjoy their work. “Our crews love doing the job or we wouldn’t do it,” concluded Vislay. The job is one that will continue to evolve with the changing Arctic landscape. “We are still testing our operations in the Arctic,” he added. “We have a duty to the American people and to Alaskans to be good stewards. We are always conscious of the maritime and natural resources here.” O

For more information, contact Editor-In-Chief Jeff McKaughan or search our online archives for related stories at

Surviving the LongeSt night

They’re coming for you. Just hold on. The deck was under your feet. Then it wasn’t. Sky, water – it’s all black. It’s been 20 hours, but now the sun’s up. They’re coming. Stay focused. Check your equipment again: seals are good – no leaking from the gloves or zipper, rescue light secure in pocket, pillow inflated. Stay warm. Take some breaths into the suit’s mouthpiece. It’ll circulate warm air to your fingers and toes. They should be close by now. Wait. There. A ship! It’s getting closer. They’re dropping the rescue boat. They’re coming. You’re going home. increaSe the oddS of going home I Jeff Gayer 316-832-2981


The warming feature of the I950 Thermashield™ 24+ was tested with the suit, however, it is not part of the certification from the U.S. Coast Guard or the third-party test laboratory, Underwriters Laboratories.

­CGF  6.1 | 13

ON THE HORIZON Iceberg Patrol The U.S. Coast Guard International Ice Patrol (IIP) recently took responsibility for issuing daily iceberg warnings for the North Atlantic Ocean from the Canadian Ice Service under the North American Ice Service (NAIS) collaboration, marking the beginning of the 2014 Ice Season. In early February, the IIP deployed the first ice reconnaissance detachment to Newfoundland, Canada, to meet with Canadian partners and to conduct the initial aerial patrols of the season. Iceberg reconnaissance is conducted primarily with HC-130J aircraft from U.S. Coast Guard Air Station Elizabeth City, N.C. Both radar and visual observations are used for iceberg detection and identification. The 2013 Ice Season was light based on the traditional measure of the number of icebergs passing south of the 48th parallel north, which typically marks the nominal northern boundary of the transatlantic shipping lanes. In 2013, only 13 icebergs passed into the shipping lanes. The IIP plans to survey the iceberg population to determine the outlook for the 2014 Ice Season. The IIP was established by the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea following the sinking of the RMS Titanic on April 15, 1912, after it collided with an iceberg near the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. During the last 101 years, the IIP has established an enviable safety record; no ship heeding IIP warnings has collided with an iceberg. IIP strives to eliminate the risk of iceberg collision in the North Atlantic Ocean by monitoring the iceberg danger on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and distributing the Iceberg Limit to the maritime community.

Coast Guard and DLA Discuss Partnership and Support Opportunities In mid-January, Defense Logistics Agency and Coast Guard leaders discussed ways the two organizations could partner and expand support, during an executive-level review at the McNamara Headquarters Complex. The relationship between DLA and the Coast Guard has steadily grown since the service signed an agreement with DLA for energy procurement support in 2006, said DLA Logistics Operations Director Army Major General Kenneth Dowd. “Today we have a much better understanding of what the Coast Guard’s needs are and how we can support them. The teamwork between us is also a lot better, and I hope we can continue to build your confidence in us,” he said. Rear Admiral Ron Rabago, the Coast Guard’s assistant commandant for engineering and logistics, said his service’s 14 | CGF 6.1

trust in DLA is high and the agency’s focus on making sure the job is done right is always clear. “Our relationship with DLA comes down to a couple of core things. One is the basic economics of quantity. We derive tremendous benefit by being a part of the DLA operation because you guys got quantity, and there’s great value in that. There’s value in it not only for the Coast Guard and DLA, but for our nation. We’re all trying to do things more efficiently and really be careful with how we use the ever-decreasing taxpayer dollars that are accorded to us,” he said. Other areas for partnership that leaders discussed included: affordable readiness, shared services, common business practices, total asset visibility, data-driven decision making, environmental stewardship and energy management.

Architect-Engineering Environmental Service Tetra Tech Inc. recently announced that it was awarded a $60 million contract with the Coast Guard for professional architectengineering environmental services. Under this five-year, multipleaward contract, Tetra Tech will provide services in support of USCG environmental compliance, restoration and environmental liabilities, planning, and sustainability programs. Services will be performed at both onshore and offshore structures, including navigational aids such as lighthouses, in the United States and its territories, and any other location where the USCG may have a mission interest. Tetra Tech has provided similar environmental services to the USCG for more than 20 consecutive years through multiple contracts that include all branches of the USCG, including its civil engineering units, facilities design and construction centers, shore infrastructure logistics centers and headquarters. Tetra Tech is a provider of consulting, engineering, program management, construction management, and technical services. The company supports government and commercial clients by providing innovative solutions to complex problems focused on water, environment, energy, infrastructure, and natural resources. With more than 14,000 staff worldwide, Tetra Tech’s capabilities span the entire project life cycle.

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

Newest HC-144 Added to Fleet Airbus Group Inc. has delivered the 16th HC-144A Ocean Sentry maritime patrol aircraft to the Coast Guard. The Ocean Sentry is based on the Airbus CN235 tactical airlifter, more than 235 of which are currently in operation by 29 countries. This is the first of three HC-144As planned for delivery this year. The latest aircraft will join a fleet of 15 Ocean Sentries performing roles from Coast Guard Air Stations in Cape Cod, Mass., Mobile, Ala., and Miami, Fla. The Coast Guard is planning in 2014 to stand up the fourth HC-144A air station in Corpus Christi, Texas. “The Coast Guard competitively selected and is buying the HC-144A because it has proven to effectively and efficiently perform the broad range of demanding maritime patrol missions, including search and rescue, homeland security, disaster response and national defense,” said Sean O’Keefe, chairman and CEO of Airbus Group Inc. “The Department of Homeland Security recently recognized the Coast Guard’s HC-144A maritime patrol aircraft program as the DHS Project of the Year, and we’re proud to have worked with them to deliver this capability consistently on schedule and on cost. We are pleased to be members of the Coast Guard aviation community and to support the dedicated men and women who protect our nation’s coasts and waterways,” said O’Keefe. The HC-144A achieved initial operational capability with the Coast Guard in 2008.

HC-130J Surveillance Systems Exelis has received a $32 million, five-year indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity award to supply airborne surveillance radars, spares, support equipment and technical services to the Coast Guard. Integrated on the Coast Guard’s HC-130J Super Hercules long-range surveillance aircraft, the AN/APY-11 multimode radar is designed to support the service’s maritime reconnaissance mission, which includes long-range surveillance, search and rescue, drug interdiction, counterterrorism and maritime environmental support. The radar’s multi-functionality will augment the Coast Guard’s situational awareness and ability to conduct missions successfully. For Exelis, the award further strengthens the company’s position in the growing field of intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and analytics amid evolving operational requirements and increasing global demand for adaptable, cost-effective solutions. “This latest award is indicative of the value and versatility our radar offers the customer,” said Pete Martin, director of programs, defense systems, for the Exelis electronic attack & release systems business. “As the U.S. Coast Guard’s mission continues to evolve, our radar will enhance the reach and effectiveness of the HC-130J and its crews to protect our shores.” First provided to the U.S. Coast Guard under a 2005 contract award, the AN/APY-11 multimode radar is produced by Exelis and partner ELTA Systems Ltd. This is the second contract given recently to Exelis to supply the AN/APY-11 radar to the Coast Guard. The first for $6.5 million was awarded to the company in October 2012.

More and More Non-Military Missions for UAS General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc., a manufacturer of remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), tactical reconnaissance radars and electro-optic surveillance systems, recently announced that MQ-1 Predator and Predator B/MQ-9 Reaper RPA successfully supported local law enforcement officials in their efforts to find a missing mountain biker who was stranded and injured in the Lincoln National Forest in New Mexico last October. Operated by the U.S. Air Force’s 49th Wing at Holloman Air Force Base, Predator and Reaper RPAs launched on October 25 and worked together to expedite the search for the missing person, a German national. The aircraft significantly narrowed the search area and enabled law enforcement personnel to focus on areas where the missing biker would most likely be found. This rescue mission follows a similar one successfully conducted by Holloman-based Air Force Reaper crews in response to kayakers that were reported missing in New Mexico in April 2012. “These recent rescues represent continuing examples of the lifesaving capabilities that these multi-mission aircraft demonstrate both at home and abroad,” said Frank Pace, president, aircraft systems, GA-ASI. “Every second of every day, over 54 Predator/Gray Eagle-series aircraft are airborne worldwide and have been repeatedly successful in search and rescue missions when called upon.” Overseas, the Italian government has likewise recognized the merit of leveraging Predator-series aircraft for search and rescue missions. Following successful deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan, and support to NATO operations in Libya, Italian Predators and MQ-9s have been operated in civilian airspace to aid in rescuing those attempting to cross the Mediterranean Sea in makeshift boats from Northern Africa to Italy. The aircraft are playing integral roles in Operation Mare Nostrum—a team that also includes Italian helicopters and naval vessels—which commenced in October following several incidents involving tragic loss of migrant lives. The Italian MQ-9s’ search and rescue capabilities soon will be augmented by the addition of a new maritime wide area search (MWAS) mode for its Block 30 Lynx Multi-mode Radar. “We are pleased to provide the Italian Air Force with this quick reaction capability for Operation Mare Nostrum,” said Linden Blue, CEO, GA-ASI. “Featuring a 30-degree per second scan rate, with algorithms optimized for detecting small vessels, Lynx with MWAS mode is the ideal sensor for detecting and imaging very small vessels such as makeshift boats used by the migrants in various weather conditions.”

­CGF  6.1 | 15

Maritime Advocate

Q& A

Understanding the Need for a Fully Funded, Mission Capable Coast Guard

Congressman Duncan D. Hunter (R- Calif.) Chairman House Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation

Congressman Duncan D. Hunter represents California’s 50th Congressional District, consisting of East and Northern County San Diego. In 2008, Hunter was elected to his first term in the House of Representatives, succeeding his father, Duncan L. Hunter, who retired after serving 14 consecutive terms in Congress. Hunter is a native of San Diego. He graduated from Granite Hills High School in El Cajon and earned a degree in business administration from San Diego State University. Hunter worked to pay for his education by creating websites and programming databases and ecommerce systems for high-tech companies. Immediately after graduation, he went to work full time in San Diego as a business analyst. Soon after our nation was attacked on September 11, 2001, Hunter quit his job and joined the United States Marine Corps. Hunter entered active service as a lieutenant in 2002 and excelled in the area of field artillery, much like his grandfather, Robert O. Hunter, who was a Marine Corps artillery officer in World War II. Over the course of his service career, Hunter served three combat tours overseas: two in Iraq and one in Afghanistan. In 2003, Hunter deployed to Iraq with the 1st Marine Division. Hunter completed his second tour in 2004, where he and his fellow Marines were at the center of combat operations in Fallujah, Iraq. In September 2005, four years after he quit his job and joined the Marine Corps, Hunter was honorably discharged from active military service and started a successful residential development company. Still a Marine Reservist, he was promoted to the rank of captain in 2006, and to the rank of major in 2012. 16 | CGF 6.1

Less than two years before Hunter was elected, he was recalled to active duty and deployed to Afghanistan. Hunter returned home after more than six months on the front lines and, with the support of the San Diego community, became the first Marine combat veteran of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan elected to Congress. Q: In your opening remarks at the hearings back in December, you painted a bleak picture that even with sufficient funding, the Coast Guard would not be able to fulfill all of its mission tasks. With that as the background, where do the Coast Guard and Congress go to make sure that there are no gaps in mission capabilities? A: Number one, they’re extremely diverse. The Coast Guard arguably has one of the most diverse mission sets of any of the armed forces. They’re supposed to do everything from regulate ballast water, check on ships coming into the harbors, ensure water safety, allow for science vessels in the Arctic to operate, manage oil spills, antiterrorism, drug enforcement, to name a few. As far as responsibilities, they run the gamut. Yet their funding is cut by $640 million and they are told that they are going to keep all of their missions—even with a 40

percent reduction in their acquisition funding. Moving forward, the president needs to fully fund the Coast Guard. If that doesn’t happen, then I think we need to see what the thoughts are in Congress for fully funding the Coast Guard. We do, however, want to look at their requirements. So for instance, look at the new National Security Cutters (NSCs), which are all Sea State 5 capable vessels. In the past, the Coast Guard had about 12 Sea State 5 vessels. With every NSC being Sea State 5-capable, every OPC [offshore patrol cutter] is also going to be Sea State 5-capable. So they go from 12 Sea State 5 vessels to 33. Do they need that? Do they need to basically triple the number of Sea State 5 vessels that they had, or were they okay with 12? If they’re okay with 12 or 15, maybe they could spend less money on rebuilding the fleet that the Coast Guard needs. We’re not only looking at their funding and how to get them fully funded, but also at their mission set and requirements. Lastly, if we have to, we will have to look at their acquisition plans and see about any flexibility.

Shown here in a previous deployment, the Polar Star rejoined the fleet in December 2013 as the Coast Guard’s only heavy icebreaker until a new class is brought along. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Coast Guard]

Q: Are there undue regulatory burdens in the maritime environment and how are those impacting the Coast Guard? A: When environmentalists and different groups start imposing environmental rules that are not realistic, whether transporting goods down the Mississippi [River], working in Port Fourchon, or a tuna fisherman out of San Diego, they all have these unintended and unforeseen consequences—but all of them raise costs. We want to make sure that everything is safe and environmentally sound, but at the same time, we want to ensure these rules are realistic and take into account the business side. There ought to be a cost-benefit analysis along with every single environmental regulatory scheme submitted by any agency; there ought to be a real cost-benefit analysis that takes everything into account. One example is the new life raft regulations [which among other things, call for a device that will keep the occupant 100 percent dry]. The Coast Guard has studied this and said that outof-water rafts in places like the Gulf of Mexico, where the water is 80 degrees, or off of Hawaii, aren’t necessary for safety. The costs range from hundreds to thousands of dollars to accommodate the new regulation. Q: What’s the Coast Guard’s role in Arctic strategy and how will they manage that with their current icebreaking capability?

A: Number one, it’s the Coast Guard’s role, whether you’re doing science experiments up there, supporting the drilling for gas and oil, or managing maritime safety. With something like 13 percent of the world’s oil and 30 percent of the world’s gas under the water, we’re going to be up there, along with other countries, so the Coast Guard will be an important national asset there. The Coast Guard can’t afford an icebreaker right now. When the budget is cut $640 million, to think that they’re going to have an icebreaker is sheer folly. I think something that needs to be looked at is a wholeof-government approach, where this is looked at as a national security issue and not just a Coast Guard issue. We should be able to project power and project American force if we need to, wherever we have to. The Arctic is one of the places where we may have to do it. The whole-of-government approach is where you get the Natural Science Foundation, the Navy, all of DoD, and say to the Coast Guard, “What do you guys need?” Everyone chipping in to help pay for it should be an option. Another approach is to think about things outside the box, like leasing an icebreaker, something that Representative Don Young (R-Alaska) has talked about for a long time. I think it’s a great idea. One problem that makes it hard is that the CBO scores a lease with everything in year one of a 20-year lease; they compound everything and score it in the first year. That kind of an accounting rule makes it appear very unattractive when ­CGF  6.1 | 17

in reality leasing is probably the only option that we have right now to get everybody on the same page. In general we should be able to look at leasing key national strategic assets like an icebreaker. An icebreaker is not a Coast Guard thing, it’s an American thing. We should be able to play where everybody else is playing [the Arctic], and we’re not able to. We haven’t been doing a very good job of looking out into the future. We need to be looking down the road— waterways—25 years out. Q: What should your committee and the Coast Guard be doing differently? A: There needs to be noise. The Coast The crew of the Seattle-based Coast Guard Cutter Healy conducts deck-landing qualifications with an Air Station Kodiak MH-65 Dolphin Guard is not always their best advo- helicopter crew in Kodiak. Flight deck-equipped cutters provide a mobile platform for Coast Guard air assets to accomplish the service’s cate. They need to be more boisterous statutory missions. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Coast Guard, by Petty Officer 3rd Class Jonathan Klingenberg] and let themselves be heard. I don’t programming, so when I had the chance to visit Liquid Robotthink there’s been a whole lot of attention paid to them, or they ics—and the guy who invented Java—I jumped at the chance. wouldn’t have had a 40 percent acquisition cut this past year. They have the first perpetual motion wave rider, basically I’ve been on the Armed Services Committee for a while, and I a surfboard with flaps under the water that keep everything see guys—Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps—come in all the in motion. They actually have hundreds of these things in the time and talk about what their strategies are. The Coast Guard water, tracked with GPS, that can take pictures, test water for needs to engage more on their missions and what they need to oil and pollutants, track whales, and just about any other support them. task you can imagine. They do all of this using perpetual motion. Q: The Coast Guard is getting ready to add the C-27J to their This is an amazing company making these things and they inventory. are so cheap. What’s expensive is what you can put on them, the different sensor sets—that’s what’s expensive and what gives A: An example of the Coast Guard not advocating for their needs. them mission versatility. The services wanted them, but we didn’t hear a whole lot from I was surprised when I asked the Coast Guard about this and them on it. they said that they were unable to even classify this type of craft. They’ve got to be louder, talk to people, and tell people what They called it “sea debris” and were not able to go any further in they need—and not be reluctant to do that. They’re not the investigating if this technology could be used by them. red-headed stepchild. They might think there is some of that, In late February we are having a technology roundtable that because they’re part of the military system, but once again they will be very in line with much of what the Coast Guard would have the most diverse set of missions that anybody has and they be interested in, including ballast water management systems, need to be able to accomplish all of those. They ought to be able underwater vehicles, robotics and a lot more. to at least have experts talk loudly and smartly about all of them, and they haven’t been doing that. Q: What are the subcommittee’s plans for 2014 for the Coast Guard? Q: Are there other asset/equipment acquisitions that could come from DoD stock that could be useful to the Coast Guard? A: Fully fund them! First from the president, then from us. That’s probably our number one goal—to make sure that their A: Because Coast Guard assets have to have multi-mission acquisition side gets funded. Then we look at the OPCs and the capable, sometimes it makes it difficult to acquire other systems. sea state, but the OPCs need to replace the medium endurance The C-27 was the one thing that did work, but on other things, cutter. That’s a big deal. we really haven’t found a match. Bottom line is that if the funding isn’t there, then the next biggest issue is to look at the mission set and what the Coast Q: There was a recent hearing on maritime domain awareness Guard is supposed to do. We don’t want to go there if we don’t and the need for Coast Guard to utilize new technologies. What have to go there. are those kinds of technologies that would help them? If everyone wants them to continue to execute their current missions sets as they are today, then they have to put the money A: Right before the hearing I had been out to Silicon Valley. Now on the table. O in college I was a computer science guy and did a lot of Java 18 | CGF 6.1

The life blood for all things mechanical. By Scott Nance CGF Correspondent Like the automotive market, oils and lubricants in marine Often, the standard operating procedure for engine oil and applications are a petroleum mineral-based product, a synthetic lubricants, even within the marine market, is to purchase inexpenone, or a synthetic/mineral blend, said James Self, general mansive products and change those lubricants regularly. ager of the Marine Division at Farmingdale, N.J.-based Bel-Ray Manufacturers of oils and lubricants, however, are increasCompany. ingly working to make the case that operators ought to think in terms of the total cost of equipment, and that while purchasing higher-quality lubricants may have Additives Are Key somewhat higher upfront costs, they more than pay for themselves in reduced labor costs, less oil that What often sets different products apart are the needs to be disposed of, reduced downtime and betadditives they are blended with, Self said. ter protection of equipment. “Additives are what make the product perform. “That kind of understanding of the value of That’s really where a lot of the products really a high-quality oil is still being introduced to the stand apart, when you compare one synthetic verindustry. I think that’s where we are going to sus another,” he said. continue to focus our efforts,” said Ben Bryant, And there are many different types of lubricants marine market manager for Kluber Lubrication, used in marine applications. Gear lubricants, for Jared Mikacich a manufacturer of specialty lubricants headquarexample, may need extreme-pressure properties, as well as resistance to water and corrosion, Self said. tered in Germany. Jared Mikacich, sales and marketing manager For engine oil, those are different for two-stroke at Panolin America, the U.S. arm of a Swiss oil supengines and four-stroke engines, he added. plier, touted that firm’s saturated synthetic-based “There’s really a very, very wide range of addioil in a similar way. tives that go in each of those products—all custom He acknowledged that Panolin’s product comes formulated for the specific application,” Self said. with a higher initial cost. “But the long-term value “A lot of people think all oil is the same, but there is clear when you can, in some applications, have couldn’t be anything further from the truth.” a lifetime fill,” Mikacich said. “If there’s no breach Self added: “Bel-Ray’s always had the position in the system and you can filter out the contamithat they want to be the best at everything, so nants, in most applications, those lubricants won’t we are currently using some of the latest, most break down. I’m talking more about hydraulic advanced, state-of-the-art additive packages that James Self systems, thrusters and stern tubes than I am speare offered on the market out there. We work with cifically talking about engines.” other companies on those additive packages, and

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there are three or four major additive companies out there that supply the bulk of the industry.” For instance, the industry has developed products specifically for four-stroke engines, which use catalytic converters, Self said. “Those additives are different than just the standard four-stroke,” he said. Kluber is known for working with original manufacturers of equipment so as to better meet the lubrication needs for such factors as temperature, load, environment, or longevity, Bryant said. “As a lubricant formulator, there are a lot of options on how you develop products to meet those specific attributes of the equipment,” he said. The marine industry is usually “a little behind the automotive industry” as far as standards and such, Self explained. “In the automotive world, you’ve seen a big change and shift in oil viscosities to help improve emissions and fuel economy,” he said. “You used to use 10W-30s [or] 10W-40s. Now a lot of them are using 5W-30s or a 0W-20. Those things all help fuel economy and reduce emissions, but it also puts a much bigger burden on the additives that go into the product because they have to make up and compensate for what they’re losing on the grade of oil. We’ll probably see some of that coming down the road in the marine market.”

Environmentally Sensitive Lubricants Another major focus for the industry these days involves providing more environmentally acceptable lubricants. In particular, lubricant manufacturers are turning to provide products that biodegrade relatively quickly. “We try to enhance the performance and be as environmentally friendly and eco-sensitive as we possibly can,” Self said. Marine lubricants that may come into contact with the water often must be readably biodegradable, minimally toxic and lead to no bio-accumulation, Panolin’s Mikacich said. “There’s a strong worldwide demand for these bio-lubes,” said Michael Kane, marine manager North America for Linden, N.J.-based Total Lubmarine, the marine lubricant division of global petroleum corporation Total. That strong demand will likely shift the focus for much of the industry to producing for environmentally acceptable lubricants, which must be made from vegetable-based or synthetic product that “will degrade at the appropriate rate,” said Dan Harms, manager of the marine business for Schaeffer Manufacturing Co., a St. Louis, Mo.-based lubricants supplier. Lubricant manufacturers like Panolin also are developing products which minimize any sheen on the top of the water, which has become an issue even with the general public, Mikacich said. “They don’t like to see the sheen, which normally indicates a mineralbased oil spill or some major problem,” he said. Various manufacturers are taking different approaches to providing these environmentally friendly lubricants. Panolin’s existing synthetic blend, nearly 30 years old, already “ironically, now today, [is] environmentally friendly,” Mikacich said.

Just like at home, keeping the fluids within specs keep the engines purring. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Coast Guard]

Harms agreed that there is more to offer the marine market than environmental safety. He noted that Schaeffer recently celebrated its 175th anniversary, the company being founded in 1839. “Marine is certainly our fastest growing area, and it will be … our largest market. After 175 years, it’s not often that you find an area to expand into,” he said. “We’re not only offering very, very complete environmental assurance and acceptance within regulations, but we’re also offering longer-lasting, lowercost products—value-added products, but far less than the competition in cost per hour to operate.” Schaeffer also offers a lubricant that significantly reduces wear and tear, Harms said. “Nothing eliminates wear, but we can reduce wear to an area.” Harms noted Schaeffer began supplying gear oil to one particular vessel 17 years ago. “They immediately ordered a replacement set of gears for that vessel, and to this day—and the last report I have is a couple months ago—the new gear set still sits in storage. It’s never been replaced—and never had to be replaced,” he said. O

Lubrication “The Primary Focus” But even as environmental factors come into play, “the ability to lubricate the system is the primary focus, and it always should be the primary focus,” Mikacich added. 20 | CGF 6.1

For more information, contact Editor-In-Chief Jeff McKaughan or search our online archives for related stories at

The Coast Guard needs small boats to be fast, maneuverable, durable and still have enough capability to be flexible for a variety of missions. By Peter Buxbaum, CGF Correspondent been an aluminum boat builder for 27 years its vessels, including smaller boats. In optManufacturers of smaller vessels that can and we don’t entertain the idea of building ing for aluminum, the Coast Guard traded be used by the United States Coast Guard fiberglass others.” the smoother ride of composite materials for harbor and waterway patrols have made As to the question of aluminum versus for the easier and less expena number of design advancefiberglass, “Each material has its advantages sive serviceability of alumiments in recent years. These and disadvantages,” said Richard Bryson, num. Some manufacturers of include better hull design to director of engineering at Willard Marine. fiberglass boats have recently promote maneuverability and “I would rather work with the customer to developed aluminum producfuel efficiency and providing figure out what they want and need before tion capabilities with an aim extra deck space and shock recommending one material or the other. of grabbing some Coast Guard mitigation seating for greater For quantities of 200 or more it is generally business. Fiberglass manufaccrew comfort. Over the horimore cost-effective to build composite.” turers still have opportunities zon are coming innovations The Coast Guard is much smarter about to make foreign military sales. in vessel control that make what it wants and needs than it was 15 years “All Coast Guard procurethem simpler and more effiTodd Salus ago, Bryson added. “These are not first-genments in recent years have cient to operate. Unmanned eration boats they are buying,” he explained. harbor patrol vessels are also been for aluminum vessels,” “They are second and third said Todd Salus, vice presia possibility in the future. generation, so they are able dent of Ocean Craft Marine. Boat builders seeking to penetrate this to refine their requirements “I can’t see the Coast Guard potentially lucrative market will find a savmuch tighter so that they messing with fiberglass any vier Coast Guard articulating tighter speciget something that matches time soon.” fications for its vessels than it did in earlier their mission. They also don’t “As far as I am aware the generations of procurements. They will also want to overpay. If the misCoast Guard has not bought find that budgetary constraints have limited sion calls for a boat that goes any fiberglass boats in the the Coast Guard’s ambitions to grow and 25 knots they don’t need an last 15 years,” said Scott modernize its fleet, at least for the time engine that runs 35 knots.” Clanton, director of spebeing. One thing is certain: Alucial projects at Silver Ships. The Coast Guard for the last number Scott Clanton minum boats are harder to “Everything we build here is of years has opted for aluminum hull damage and easier to repair. strictly aluminum. We have struction over fiberglass composite for all of

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Coast Guard small boats have to be maneuverable for inland waterways, and they must have cruise and burst speed for a variety of missions. [Photo courtesy of Silver Ships]

The Coast Guard needs flexible capabilities in their inland waterway boats. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Coast Guard]

Guard was willing to sacrifice that ride in “When I was director of operations at Zodiac order to have a boat that is more serviceable.” Boats,” said Salus, “I became aware of the The Coast Guard’s boat procurements are amount of routine damage and wear and tear some of the largest anywhere on the Coast Guard boats. in terms of the numbers of Fiberglass boats would likely units involved. In 2011, the have to taken out of service Coast Guard awarded a $192 for an extended period. Alumillion contract to Metal minum boats can be much Shark Aluminum Boats for more easily repaired and put the construction of up to 500 back into service quickly. second-generation Response But a fiberglass boat has a Boats-Small (RB-S). phenomenally better ride. It The new 29-foot RB-S is includes inherent shock-mitpowered by twin 225-horseigating properties because of Richard Bryson power Honda outboard some flexing that occurs in the fiberglass. But the Coast engines, which can achieve 22 | CGF 6.1

speeds exceeding 40 knots and have a minimum range of 150 nautical miles. “The RB-S is suited for port and waterway enforcement, search and rescue operations, drug and coastal interdiction, and environmental missions,” said Greg Lambrecht, vice president of Metal Shark. Metal Shark has delivered 66 of the boats thus far. Under current budget constraints, Lambrecht doubts the full complement of 500 boats will be ordered but he anticipates Metal Shark will eventually deliver between 300 and 400. The new RB-S’s biggest innovation is its window system. “The specifications required that the coxswain should have 360 degrees of visibility with less than 2 percent blockage in any direction,” he said. “We went with pillarless glass and used windows all over the boat.” The windows drop into the hull, converting the vessel from an open cabin to a center console type of boat depending on weather and sea conditions and the mission set. “Some missions might have audible requirements so that the crew can listen for something,” said Lambrecht. “That is made easy by fully opening the boat.” Despite the longer length, the new RB-S weighs about the same as its predecessor thanks to innovations in the design of the hull. “We achieved that by doing more bending versus welding of the aluminum,” said Lambrecht. “This allowed the boat to gain rigidity and reduce weight. It also makes the boat a little quicker and more fuel efficient than the previous version.” The hull shape and driving surface also differs from its predecessor. “The original RB-S uses the collar [an inflatable tube] to provide flotation in the water,” said Lambrecht. “Our design raises the collar above the water line to reduce drag.” The second-generation RB-S measures 29 feet, 4 feet longer than its predecessor. “We chose to go longer to extend the range of the boat, so that it could handle rougher waters, to increase its mission capabilities, and to add to crew comfort,” said Lambrecht. “The added deck space allows the crew to walk around the boat and to not have to stand on the collar.” The forward-mounted gunner’s platform provides 180-degree firing capability and is equipped with enhanced shock mitigation properties to allow the crewmember to withstand high-speed and high sea state conditions. Shock-mitigating seats for enhanced crew comfort are provided

compete in the future. We supply many throughout the vessel. boats, aluminum and otherwise, to militar“Shock mitigation seats have been ies around the world, but not at the level among the biggest developments in the last where we thought we could successfully eight years,” said Clanton. “Boat builders compete for a Coast Guard contract.” used to put a bench seat in boat. Now we Ocean Craft Marine is waiting to build are putting in $10,000 shock-mitigating a performance track record with its foreign seats. Every Coast Guard boat that I know sales before competing for Coast Guard of has shock-mitigating seats and the Navy business. “As we build more of these and is on board doing the same thing.” they find their way into service, we will Traditional builders of fiberglass boats establish the necessary design maturity,” interested in entering the market for Coast he said. “We will try and present a platform Guard vessels are now ramping up their that fits the bill for the next solicitation for capabilities for aluminum boat design and boats up to 13 meters.” production. “Up until recently we have Silver Ships, despite being an all-alumibeen a composite builder,” said Bryson. num manufacturer, hasn’t landed any busi“Over the last year we have been paying ness with the Coast Guard in recent years more attention to the U.S. Navy and Coast despite doing extensive business with the Guard, so we are ramping up on aluminum U.S. Navy. The company did some business production.” with the Coast Guard when acquisition Willard’s rigid inflatable boat includes processes were more decentralized, but has a multi-compartment inflatable buoyancy not since the Coast Guard standardized its tube or collar attached to a composite or vessels across the entire service. aluminum hull. The inflatable collar pro“We use marine grade aluminum hulls vides stability, a softer ride, and the ability that are baffled internally,” said Clanton. “If to fender off vessels without damage. The one part of the boat is breached it doesn’t Willard Sea Force series of rigid inflatable flood out the entire boat. boats range from 4.9 meters Our .25-inch hulls with reinto 16.5 meters and can be forced plates are designed powered by either inboard to be driven and used in a or outboard engines that can manner that fiberglass boats exceed 60 knots at top speed. are not adapted to. They Willard Marine recently can come alongside other delivered 11-meter composcrafts or be pushed up on ite rigid inflatable boats for the shore without the dama foreign military sales conage that [one] would see to a tract for Lebanon. The comfiberglass boat.” Silver Ships pany is currently working recently provided 11 rigid on another foreign sale to David Kelly hull inflatable boats to the the Ukraine for two 7-meter Navy for a foreign sale to and two 11-meter aluminum Yemen. boats. Collars are an important The same kind of develpart of providing stability opment is also ongoing at to smaller craft, and Wing Ocean Craft Marine. The Inflatables is a major supcompany has been buildplier of those components. ing composite standard and “We serve Coast Guard perinflatable boats and has sonnel as they go out to the recently entered the aludark and stormy by providminum boat market. The ing the most durable and company recently supplied reliable collars,” said David 12-meter riverine aluminum Ray Pilcher Kelly, the company’s vice boats to the Brazilian armed president of sales. “The Coast Guard is forces as well as others to Kuwait and the moving toward getting more service out of United Arab Emirates. their boats by repairing and refurbishing “We don’t yet have the design maturity rather than buying brand-new boats. We of our aluminum boats to the level where work toward getting a longer usable life we felt comfortable pursuing any recent out of our collars.” Wing provides collars, solicitations by the Coast Guard,” said primary for rigid inflatable boats, for some Salus. “We want to position ourselves to

15 equipment manufacturers. Wing endeavors to elongate the life span of its collars by using the most durable materials. “We use polyurethane-coated hypalon fabric that weighs 40 ounces per square yard,” said Kelly. “We thermally weld material together and minimize the use of glue. Our thermally welded chambers are warrantied for five years.” Boat builders can also reduce maintenance costs and headaches by standardizing components and parts across different vessels. “It’s a good idea to put the same type of motor on different boats so parts are interchangeable,” said Clanton. “This also reduces the footprint you have to take when you go overseas.” The future of smaller Coast Guard boats could see the inclusion of unmanned vessels into the mix. In 2012 Textron Systems’ common unmanned surface vessel (CUSV) demonstrated, for the U.S. Navy, an ability to conduct unmanned mine-hunting and mine-neutralization operations. CUSV is a multi-mission and multi-payload unmanned vessel featuring a commercial off-the-shelf modular open architecture. “CUSV users can quickly deploy any payload necessary to satisfy mission requirements including towing, mine countermeasures, communications relay, launch and recovery for unmanned aircraft, underwater systems, and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance,” said Ray Pilcher, vice president, Washington Operations at Textron Marine & Land Systems. Other potential changes coming to future small Coast Guard vessels include joystick operations. “This will make training easier,” said Bryson. “It also make sit easier to have the boat stay on station. You don’t need someone to be playing with the throttles.” Joystick operation could also allow smaller boats to maneuver laterally, according to Lambrecht. “It would be advantageous for low speed maneuvering,” he explained. “Moving the joystick would automatically adjust the position and the thrust of the engines. All of this would be done outside of the operator and within the brains of the system.” O

For more information, contact Editor-in-Chief Jeff McKaughan or search our online archives for related stories at

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Special Section

Propulsion manufacturers use state-of-the-art

technology to create and upgrade engines that are both powerful and efficient. By Henry Canaday, CGF Correspondent and 20 percent must be tailored to specific engine configuration. Options for upgrading the performance, reliability, environFairbanks Morse Solutions works closely with operators to ensure mental characteristics, life and maintainability of engines on each upgrade kit matches the specific engine model and applicaCoast Guard boats and cutters abound. But complicated choices tion configuration. must be made, costs taken into account and tradeoffs among The kit is currently available for quoting, and Fairbanks important objectives resolved. Morse Solutions is initially focusing on commercial vessels that Current engines may be upgraded or replaced. The Coast will have to meet California Air Resources Board Guard may seek to meet new environmental regurequirements, similar to EPA Tier 2, and the Canalations, even if not necessarily required to do so. dian Coast Guard, which sought the upgrade. In Improvements on well-proven technologies may addition, vessels operated by the Coast Guard can be best, or new technologies may be sought with also benefit from this upgrade kit. bigger potential gains. Always, operating profiles of Entirely new engine choices are also availvessels must be well predicted if optimum choices able. Richard Partridge, chief of Naval Systems are to be made. The choices are not easy, but comat Rolls-Royce, argues that his firm’s new thirdplex, expensive and long-lasting in their effects. generation hybrid system technology, derived from There are currently 65 Fairbanks Morse ALCO commercial-offshore vessels, has strong advantages 251 engines installed on Coast Guard cutters, and for large Coast Guard vessels that operate most the company is launching an upgrade kit for the Richard Partridge of the time below top speed, such as the offshore engine. One of the key benefits of the upgrade kit patrol cutter. is improved efficiency, reducing fuel costs by up to Rolls-Royce’s Hybrid Shaft Generator (HSG) can operate in 5 percent. In addition, the kit delivers lower emissions, meeting several modes—diesel-only propulsion, diesel-electric propulEPA Tier 2 levels for nitrogen oxide (NOx), total hydrocarbons, sion, assisted trailing mode, transit mode and diesel HSG boost particulates and carbon monoxide. mode—providing plenty of flexibility. In each mode, propeller and Matt Wisniewski, director of engineered solutions, said, “The main engine operate at optimum revolutions and pitch, maximizupgrade kit costs far less than a complete engine re-power.” ing propulsive efficiency over the vessel’s speed range. Upgrade costs depend on configuration, but when installed during When in generator/power take-off mode, HSG’s induction overhaul, upgrade and center-section overhaul can be completed machine supplies power at constant voltage and frequency, for less than half the cost of a replacement engine. Center-section regardless of main engine and propeller revolutions. This maxioverhauls are typically completed every three to five years. mizes propulsive efficiency and fuel economy, vessel range, The kit includes a more efficient turbocharger, new pistonendurance and life cycle economy. HSG also supports prolonged bowl geometry and an enhanced cam profile providing increased low-speed or loiter operations very efficiently, with low vibration partial load efficiency and lower brake specific-fuel consumption. levels to optimize crew conditions. About 80 percent of the kit is common to most ALCO engines 24 | CGF 6.1

HSG reduces dependence on diesel generator sets, resulting in lower fuel consumption and engine running hours. Also, patrol vessels may need fewer installed diesel generator sets or less power capacity. Fewer engines should mean less maintenance costs and may mean reduced manning requirements. Better fuel efficiency means reduced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Partridge believes Rolls-Royce is well ahead of other manufacturers in achieving advantages of third-generation hybrid systems. HSG entered sea-going service in 2012 on Norwegian ferries, demonstrating operational flexibility and fuel economy and raising HSG to Technology Readiness Level 9. For the polar icebreaker, Partridge recommended consideration of the MT30 gas turbine generator (GTG), an engine derived from the power-plant on the Boeing 777. The Rolls-Royce exec expects the icebreaker to use full electric propulsion that will support top ship speed and efficiently support prolonged low-speed operations, be highly reliable and re-configurable, produce low vibrations and be compact, proven and affordable in terms of initial acquisition and lifecycle cost. Partridge believes modern aviation gas-turbine technology has achieved new levels of power output with ultra-high reliability. “The MT30, derived from the same parent-engine technology as the 777 power-plant, enables new choices for the naval architect and system designer.” He said that MT30 GTG for high-power operation and medium-speed diesel generators for low-speed would be a great fit for the icebreaker. The MT30 is a two-spool engine that supports sudden changes to electrical load, as often experienced in icebreaking, in GTG configuration. “It can be considered the world’s most power-dense marine gas turbine,” Partridge stressed. MT30 has been selected for five naval programs and has been at sea since 2008 on the USS Freedom Class littoral combat ship (LCS). Tognum America, now MTU America, has been using highpressure, common-rail fuel injection and other internal-engine technologies for several years to maximize performance and fuel efficiency while reducing emissions, noted spokesman Gary Mason. In September 2013, MTU Series 8000 marine engines were given Naval Vessel Rules certification, a requirement for the Navy’s LCS and Joint High Speed Vessel, by the American Bureau of Shipping. Certification came after 1,500 hours of testing, including extensive run times at 110 percent of rated power in a variety of extreme environmental conditions. The Series 8000 joins the 8V 396 in MTU’s portfolio of engines with ABS NVR certification. Bernard Bentgen, director of government sales for MTU America, believes the latest NVR certification will help his firm strengthen its relationship with the Coast Guard. Cummins Engines offers a full range of propulsion and auxiliary engines, from 6.7 to 60 liters, that satisfy EPA Tier 3 requirements. Cummins’s Tier 3 engines use advanced combustion technology to reduce emissions in-cylinder without need for after-treatment. These engines will also serve as platforms for the future, as even more stringent emission regulations are put in place in the United States and world. For example, the QSB6.7 has exceptionally low cold-start smoke levels and significant sound reduction at cruise and rated speeds. This 6.7-liter engine is calibrated for optimal fuel economy at cruising speeds, which is how the engine is most often used,

rather than at wide-open throttle. Its high pressure common rail fuel system is compatible with low-lubricity fuels. With ultra-low sulfur diesel, this engine offers extended oil-change intervals. Another notable feature is power take-off capability. Power steering and hydraulic pumps are gear-driven, more reliable than belt-driven systems. Commercial propulsion and military ratings range from 247 to 542 horsepower, making QSB6.7 ideal for workboats, special vessels, military vessels and high-speed rigid inflatable boats. The QSC8.3 also meets Tier 3 and is rated at 493 to 593 horsepower. Cummins’s QSL9 has an Xtra-High Pressure Injection fuel system, enabling faster, smoother power delivery with minimal impact to fuel consumption. Engine management has been upgraded, with Cummins’s CM2250 electronic control module providing three times faster processing power and double the memory capability of previous modules. The QSL9 is Tier 3-certified, rated at 281 to 400 horsepower, making it ideal for pilot boats and workboats. Available in late 2013, Cummins’s QSM11 is rated at 602 to 705 horsepower. Early testing shows NOx emissions 10 percent below Tier 3 limits, with up to 3 percent better fuel economy. The Tier 3-certified QSK19 features the same premium base engine hardware and footprint as its Tier 2 predecessor. Rated from 660 to 800 horsepower, the QSK19 is suited for offshore support, towing, cargo and passenger transport, ship’s service power and diesel-electric propulsion. The Tier 3-certified QSK60 is rated at 2000 to 2700 horsepower and suited for high-hour, demanding applications, including ship-service power and diesel-electric propulsion. Cummins has announced its path to compliance with International Maritime Organization Tier III and EPA Tier 4 regulations. It is a fully integrated solution featuring Cummins Quantum Series engines, which meet particulate limits in-cylinder, combined with Cummins’s Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) clean exhaust system to meet NOx requirements. By using the Quantum Series, Cummins preserves exceptional power output and in-service dependability. All key EPA Tier 4 technologies are designed, manufactured and integrated by Cummins. The new SCR system is highly robust, fully passive, fully integrated compact aftertreatment package specifically developedby Cummins for high-horsepower applications. Cummins said it has experience with SCR not available to other diesel-engine manufacturers. Volvo Penta has two new advances it believes are suitable as a package for Coast Guard vessels. In June 2013, the D13 diesel engine was certified for EPA Tier 3, offering improved environmental properties while retaining low fuel consumption. The D13 operates in more than 450,000 heavy-duty applications, maritime and non-maritime. The new version achieves a 40-percent reduction in particulate matter and 20-percent reductions in NOx and hydrocarbons. Yet performance, fuel efficiency, design, size and installation remain the same. The D13 is available as a propulsion engine and as a marine generation set. Also last summer, Volvo launched its IPS900 inboard performance system with Rating 3 for commercial boats. Coast Guard boats can now exploit IPS benefits such as improved fuel economy, better maneuverability and lower operating costs. The IPS900 package uses a D13 diesel engine with 700 horsepower. Volvo believes this is ideal for boats that get medium-duty ­CGF  6.1 | 25

Special Section use of about 2,000 service hours per year. This usage means reduced load, lower oil temperature, lower engine temperature and reduced stress on components, leading to longer life. And service intervals are also longer, for both engine and IPS unit. The manufacturer estimates IPS yields a 30 percent saving in fuel and CO2, 40 percent longer cruising range, 50 percent less noise and 20 percent higher top speed. Other innovations are also available. Used on a wide variety of vessels, HamiltonJet’s waterjet propulsion systems are particularly suited to vessels operating in the 25- to 45- knot range, according to Acting Marketing Communications Manager Tony Kean. A waterjet is essentially just a specially designed water pump that picks up water from beneath the hull, accelerates the water through an impeller and stator system and then ejects it as a high speed jetstream from an outlet/steering nozzle. “By accelerating that water and throwing it backwards, a powerful forward thrust force is generated to drive a boat through the water,” Kean explained. Waterjet has several benefits compared with conventional propulsion. Obvious is shallow-draught capability. Less obvious is high-speed efficiency. Waterjet units sit flush with hull bottoms and do not have protrusions below the waterline, so increasing boat speed does not increase hull resistance as much as with conventional propulsion, which adds resistance from rudders, propeller shafts and struts. “In general, from 25 knots and faster a waterjet-propelled boat becomes more and more efficient compared to a conventional propeller-powered vessel,” Kean said. He believes waterjets are ideal for vessels that operate regularly at high speed, such as patrol boats and rescue vessels. Waterjet propulsion transfers engine power to propulsive thrust more efficiently, bringing performance benefits. “Waterjets can operate efficiently over a wider speed range than propeller systems,” Kean said. And waterjets are affected by changes in hull weight or hull resistance differently as well. Propeller-driven vessels do not significantly change speed when lightly loaded, but a waterjet-propelled vessel travels several knots faster when lighter. “This allows the operator to complete a trip faster or to reduce engine power to maintain speed with greater fuel economy.” Vessels that experience wide fluctuations in weight thus benefit from waterjets. Kean said waterjets also yield better maneuverability at all boat speeds. “Waterjet propulsion produces thrust for both ahead and stern operations so the vessel is able to maneuver with far more agility than with conventional propulsion. Tighter turns at high speed, more rapid steering and reverse control at low speed and the ability to maintain precise control when a vessel is stationary are three aspects of this.” The HamiltonJet spokesman argued that improved maneuverability is a key advantage for rescue craft, pilot boats and vessels that operate in close proximity to obstacles or other vessels. Another inherent advantage of waterjets is that crucial pumping components are out of the main flow of water beneath a vessel. Vessels can thus travel through shallow or debris-laden water, and propulsion systems are not easily damaged from striking bottoms or objects, a common cause of damage to conventional propulsion. This in turn reduces maintenance burdens. Kean said that waterjets have many inherent environmental advantages, including no exposed moving parts to harm marine 26 | CGF 6.1

The MTU engines on the Sentinel class fast response cutters give the power to get where it needs to go. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Coast Guard]

life, restriction of turbulence to water surface only, and reduced underwater noise and vibration. And HamiltonJet equipment is designed with inboard hydraulic control components to reduce risks of leaks and contamination. HamiltonJet has developed computational fluid dynamics software that models water-flow patterns using different intake and impeller designs to find the most efficient combinations. And improvements continue to be made in steering and reverse performance. Kean acknowledged that some waterjet designs suffer loss of thrust when turning. Manufacturers are incorporating interceptors and other systems to avoid this loss. HamiltonJet uses a steering system to maintain high thrust during turns, and the company continues to develop steering nozzles to allow for sharper turns and better control. HamiltonJet is also developing control systems to make control easier and more precise for skippers, to reduce risks of operator error and to closely link in with other vessel systems such as dynamic positioning. The firm is now looking at improvements that will further minimize environmental effects. For example, most noise and vibration are due to flow of water through the jet and are affected by the number and shape of impeller blades. “As we improve impeller designs, acoustics will change and this is taken into account in performance criteria,” Kean said. HamiltonJet waterjets have been used in boats from 6 to 70 meters in length in every maritime sector. Kean said the technology is not just an alternative, but should be considered a major option for any new re-powered vessels where waterjet benefits count. O For more information, contact Editor-In-Chief Jeff McKaughan or search our online archives for related stories at

This index is provided as a service to our readers. KMI cannot be held responsible for discrepancies due to last-minute changes or alterations.


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Top Shipyard Repair Facilities Directory Issue


April 2014 Vol. 6, Issue 2

Dedicated to Those Who Are Always Ready

Cover and In-Depth Interview with:

Next Issue

Rear Adm. Scott A. Buschman Commander Force Readiness Command Features Cutter Maintenance Focus Dry Dock Maintenance

Special Section Cutter Programs

New and innovative cutter designs are increasing operational capabilities and adding reliability to the fleet.

Heavy cutter maintenance sometimes requires the specialized facilities of a dry dock.

Top Shipyard Repair Facilities Directory

Coast Guard Forum takes a look at the commercial partners the Coast guard can turn to for ship maintenance work.

Radar Modernization

Besides the Mk. I eyeball of the Coastie, radar provides clear pictures of what’s ahead. Whether looking for a bad guy or a lost ship, modern radar capabilities are critical.

Oil Spill Mitigation

The environmental and economic impact of an oil spill require a coming together of technologies to control the spread, reduce the harm and clean up the mess.

District 1 Profile

District 1 covers the important coasts and waterways of the New England region.

Automatic Identification System

Improved maritime domain awareness allows for heightened security and more precise information of the commercial shipping fleet.

Bonus Distribution - Sea-Air-Space

Insertion Order Deadline: March 18, 2014 • Ad Materials Deadline: March 25, 2014

­CGF  6.1 | 27


U.S. Coast Guard Forum

Alfred Taylor Director, Business Development L-3 Maritime Systems Q: What are your primary business areas with the Coast Guard? A: L-3 Maritime Systems provides ship control and interior communication systems to the U.S. Coast Guard. We have a long history of providing leading control systems for a variety of ship classes from our office in New Orleans; our Henschel business unit in Ayer, Mass., provides alarm and announcing systems on the national security cutter and Sentinel class and our Leesburg office supplies the integrated bridge/pilot house system on the Sentinel class. We hope to continue to supply these systems on the upcoming offshore patrol cutter (OPC) class. Q: How have you adjusted your Coast Guard-related business to maximize efficiencies? A: As an example of a major success the Sentinel class pilot house program used a rapid prototyping approach. Traditionally we would develop all the designs in CAD, generate 3-D renderings and panel arrangements, and enter into a cycle of submission for review, comment and update before moving to a full scale production prototype. This prototype would then be used for ergonomic studies. On the Sentinel class, one of our engineers proposed going from the 3-D drawings to a full-scale prototype of the entire pilot house made from foam core poster board. This was a process change, but it worked out very well. We invited the Coast Guard to bring in ship operators to evaluate the life-sized design and they were able to move ‘equipment’ around on the model and suggest design improvements. Based on those comments, we then updated the CAD drawings, reconfigured the foam core model, and were ready for another full-scale model review within two weeks. That design was accepted and as a result, we quickly moved to the shipboard equipment prototype with very few changes required to the design. Not only did this save time, but we believe this reduced the cost of development and ultimately provided a better design to Coast Guard. 28 | CGF 6.1

after-sale support demand has a saddle curve shape: high during construction and commissioning, low in the middle years of vessel service and then ramping up near end of life. In the construction phase, we draw upon our engineering team as needed to support field service but we are also able to draw upon L-3’s Services group (Unidyne, PacOrd and GAI) to provide additional support. PacOrd has been very engaged in supporting the FRC construction at Bollinger Shipyards. The real lesson learned was to get early engagement and buy-in from the stakeholders, in this case our shipyard customer, the Coast Guard Program Office and the ultimate end users—the ship operators. We are now applying the same approach to our U.S. Navy programs. We have also adapted systems engineering toolsets, developed by another L-3 division for an international program, and plan to use these on future USCG programs. These tools will provide much higher efficiency in requirements management and documentation development.

Q: What do you see as major challenges over the next 12 months? A: The major challenge for any U.S. Navy/ USCG contractor is stability in the budget and shipbuilding plan. We have dealt with recent instability by keeping our organization right-sized for our current workload, but flexible for the future. Being part of the larger L-3 Marine and Power Systems organization helps with this, as in many cases we can get the support of additional qualified personnel from other divisions as needed.

Q: How do you coordinate your business development efforts?

Q: Is partnering with other companies an important part of your business strategy?

A: In addition to our past direct work on USCG programs, our Communications SystemsEast Division in Camden, N.J., has a long and excellent relationship with the USCG and we coordinate our activities closely. As a second-tier subcontractor, most of our business development activity is focused on our shipyard customers, so the inter-company collaboration enables us to better understand the Coast Guard and what we can do for them. The Coast Guard has been drawing upon Navy expertise in the area of machinery control systems for the OPC program, so our existing relationship with the Navy provides insight into the USCG’s requirements.

A: Partnering is a key aspect of our business strategy. We team with prime contractors, other second tier subcontractors, small businesses and also other L-3 divisions. Collectively from bridge to propeller, L-3 brings a wide range of technology and capability to a ship design, construction program and shipbuilders. As a partner to the prime, we are always fully involved with the prime contract bid and suggest ways that our capabilities can reduce total program cost and risk.

Q: How would you describe your after-sale support capabilities? A: We have a growing team that is incredibly agile and capable at providing support to our fielded systems. In our product areas,

Q: How do you measure success? A: Success is in measured by customer and end-user satisfaction with our products and services. We are proud to be a part of the development and delivery of the fast response cutter, and the ultimate satisfaction of U.S. Coast Guard men and women that are working on those vessels every day. O

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