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White Sox? More  like Black Sox!  In America’s recent past there  has been a scandal now known as the  Black Sox Scandal! Ten years ago the  Chicago White Sox were found to be  guilty of throwing the World Series to  the Cincinnati Reds.  

What Happened?    This conspiracy was thought of by White Sox first baseman Arnold "Chick"  Gandil. He implemented some of his teammates to fix or “rig” the World Series  game. Starting pitchers Eddie Cicotte and Claude "Lefty"  Williams, outfielder Oscar "Happy" Felsch, and shortstop Charles "Swede"  Risberg were all principally involved with Gandil. So because of this “fix” of the  game, gamblers put their money on the Cincinnati Reds to win the World Series.  The players involved in the fix were told they would get money for doing so. Some  of the players would get double their salary of one game in this fix.   

Banned Players 

Eddie Cicotte: Pitcher

Oscar "Happy" Felsch: Center Fielder

Arnold "Chick" Gandil: First Baseman

"Shoeless" Joe Jackson: Outfielde

Fred McMullin: Infielder

Charles "Swede" Risberg: Shortstop

George "Buck" Weaver: Third Baseman

Claude "Lefty" Williams: Pitcher

A step backwards for labor unions in America After making great advances before world war one, labor unions in America declined in

light as possible "socialists." Thus, union activities were viewed with suspicion and found little support from communities. The 1920s were a great time for

membership and influence during the 1920s. In

capitalist and stock owners, but for the average

1920, union memberships hit a peak, but at the

working man, wages fell steadily after 1920. For

end of that decade membership had dropped

instance, worker earnings in manufacturing

dramatically. For example, in metal and metal-

during the basically prosperous years 1923-

using industries, the number of union members

1929 rose by 5.1 percent, a rate that represents

dropped by three-quarters during 1920-1924.

less than one percent a year. Indeed, wage

In the entire country, union membership

declines over the period were not unusual.

dropped 25 percent between 1920 and 1923.

In meat-packing jobs, for example, the 1929

The percentage of unionized soft-coal miners

average wage rates were as much as ten to

working under union contract fell from 72% in

twenty percent lower than they had been at the

1919 to 40% in 1925. Union membership

start of the decade.

continued to decline during the rest of the decade.

Many workers lived near the edge of poverty during the 1920s. Looking at the

There were several reasons for this

decade as a whole, it becomes clear that the

decrease. First of all, efforts at strikes were

wages of millions of workers (including more

defeated routinely in 1919-1920; the ruthless

than 30% of all non-farm family incomes)

violence that was used against the striking

were at or below the poverty line in 1929 and

workers discouraged further actions. Secondly,

the lowest paid sections of the working class,

there was a depression in 1921-1922, which led

such as unskilled railroad workers, probably did

to fewer jobs available and greater competition

not earn enough money to provide their

among unemployed workers for those jobs.

families with sufficient food on a regular basis.

Finally, fears about communism and the Red Menace put union workers in an unfavorable

Prohibition The prohibition started in 1919 when the 18th amendment was passed. This amendment was about the practice of prohibiting the manufacture, transportation, import, export, sale, and consumption of alcohol and alcoholic beverages. Then 18th amendment did not mention the basics of drinking alcohol. So that part was not illegal this is a loophole for people who enjoyed alcohol. Societies mostly made up of women started a Temperance Movement. This movement was made to attempt to dissuade people from becoming intoxicated. People part of this movement blamed alcohol on the murder and crime going on in the society. Temperance movement was meant to prevent accidents in workplace which was caused by the people who would come to work intoxicated. Then it was also supposed to keep men from hitting woman because they thought alcohol was the cause of this. Also women thought men were spending all the family money on alcohol, which also would prevent this from happening, or that’s what the members wanted. Another loophole for people being able to drink during the prohibition was the Volstead Act which allowed alcohol consumption if it was prescribed by a doctor. That resulted in a ton of written prescriptions for alcohol. Al Capone was one of the most famous gangsters during this time.

Prohibition became a failure because of how bad crime started to get. Bootleggers and gangsters started to sell the alcohol illegally. They saw this strategy as profit. At that point they basically were in control of the distribution of alcohol. After crime got so bad, people started thinking more about this amendment that was made. Even from the beginning of the ratification of the 18th amendment organizations formed to abolish it. People wanted liquor back! To add to the public wanting alcohol back, the Great Depression started changing many people’s opinions. If alcohol was made legal again, more jobs would open up, and additional sales taxes would be made. The need for money made the 21st amendment to the U.S. Constitution ratified in the late 1920’s. This amendment repealed the 18th amendment. Which meant alcohol was legal again! This was the 1st and only time an amendment has been repealed in the U.S. Constitution.

Kloeper’s Radio Stuck at home during those cold winter days, raining outside, or just feeling lazy today? Well there’s no need to leave your house anymore to go have fun! Now you can hear music, news, sports, and other fascinating talks with Kloeper's Radio. Only Kloeper's Radio will give you that high quality sound that you want compared to your old dusty radio. This quality will insure you not missing a second of that spicy Louis Armstrong trumpet solo. Recent studies show that families who listen to the radio at least once a week together are happier and connect families together like never before. The study also shows that children get more sleep after listening to the radio, which leads them to a better education. You sure don’t want your child to be behind others in education so come buy Kloeper's Radio. Kloeper's Radio's are quite affordable and have a variety of features on each of them. When you go to a dealer, you will be assisted in finding a radio to your liking.

The Jazz Singer 

So our technology is advancing and we have  more luxuries, now we can watch real people  create a story in front of you WITH SOUND! The Jazz  Singer though has created quite the commotion  because of its fun family entertainment. Everybody  who is anybody has seen this movie and you don’t  want to be the one who doesn’t see it. This movie  features great actors such as Al Jolson, May  McAvoy, and Warner Oland who all sing six songs of  which are very popular.     The Jazz Singer can be seen at any theatre  near you. So come view this historical moment and  while you’re at it, hear some amazing tunes from  wonderful actors singing. 

The Harlem Renaissance April 1925; Alain L. Locke, born and raised in the black suburbs of Pennsylvania, was a man of dedication, determination, and motivation. Locke began writing after graduating from Harvard with and English and philosophy degree. Locke had a desire to motivate people to see that things can always be better than they are with help, but also that things can get worse with ignorance.

Locke saw the country. He saw the evil of the country. He saw the prejudice of the country. He saw the country as the white population was shaping it out to be without any concern for the other races in their paths. Locke saw that if something did not surface that gave the black people hope, then the country could throw itself into an interracial war. Locke wanted to use his wonderful power of writing to motivate his surrounding people with words that seemed like they had flown from heaven itself. Locke began writing to the country inspirationally. All having to do with the black community, his books inspired people with heart and soul. Louis Armstrong had the same drive, but with music. Louis Armstrong had a passion for music. But however much he tried, he could not find heart in the music that white people kept sending out. So Louis decided to take his instrumental skills and make his own music that he could find passion and soul into. As he began adding more instruments to his music, he began to feel the rhythm in the music and began playing at local black clubs.

As white people began to find their way to the black music, the demand became apparent for the music. White musicians attempted to re-create this music their own clubs were not completely successful. So white musicians would travel to black clubs and ask to be taught the jazz music so that it could be played in white clubs and also it could be spread throughout the city on the radio. Musicians such as Armstrong were happy to hear this and taught the white musicians the ways of jazz music. Sure enough, years later, jazz music made its way into the mainstream radio and is now a popular style of music.

Trial of Sacco & Vanzetti April 15, 1920 a paymaster and a guard were murdered during an armed robbery by two men at a factory. Later, two Italian immigrants were arrested in suspicion that they were the two men who are active anarchists who had protested the Palmer Raids. Police were led to these men by one Michael E. Stewert who had originally called to discuss a different anarchist by the name of Ferruccio Coacci. Ferruccio was going to be the police’s main suspect been then caught wind of the fact that it would have taken two men to complete the factory robbery. Coacci was taken in for questioning. Coacci had managed to delay his deportation for two years, which led police to be suspicious on why he wanted his deportation delay for so long. Coacci used the excuse that the reason he had not reported in for deportation was because his wife was ill. When Michael Stewert was told to investigate Coacci’s wife, she was found to be in good health. Coacci then insisted on being arrested for immediate deportation. Why a man who had delayed his deportation for so long would suddenly be insistent on being deported so suddenly? Coacci’s car had been impounded so the police told the impound lot to notify the police when the owners returned to pick up the cars. Coacci showed up with three other people, believed to be Ferdinando Sacco, Bartolomeo Vanzetti, and Riccardo Orciani. But as the men walked up and the police were silently alerted, the men sensed something was wrong left. Orciani escaped on a motorcycle and Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested, both carrying pistols with them. Both of the men claimed that the pistols for self defense. The men were not deported after stating that they were not allied with the anarchists. Sacco and Vanzetti went to trial together and were eventually sentenced to death after two trials.

Ashley Fox Right to vote for women! Women’s rights are an issue that has gone on for awhile that was recently adopted into the constitution. Life for women all around is changing and getting better and better! Now that women have the right to vote, they are allowed to be more involved in politics. Men are not able to only make the decisions that go on in the government! The 19th Amendment states the rights of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of Sex. This amendment was made in 1920’s when President Wilson finally agreed to it. When men were only able to vote for everything going on in politics it was discriminating to women. How this amendment came to be was women would go on strikes, and protest everywhere around America, and they would even stand outside the white house with signs. They would do this even with the price of getting arrested! Susan B. Anthony stated “The day will come when men will recognize woman as his peer, not only at the fireside, but in councils of the nation. Then, and not until then, will there be the perfect comradeship, the ideal union between the sexes that shall result in the highest development of the race.”

The Federal government and many others who were against letting women vote were wrong. Throwing women in jail just because they feel they should have the right to have a say, that’s just cruel. As said from an

anonymous person from the opposing side to giving the women the right to vote “Because all government rests ultimately on force, to which women, owning to physical, moral and social reasons, are not capable of contributing.� No one let women have a chance before this amendment was made, how would they know what women could actually contribute without seeing how good they could affect political issues. Women will be the change! Without the vote of women the country is missing parts that need to be there! Women are just as smart as any other human being. Which means woman can make just as good opinions on subjects that are important. Men do not just make up the world. What would the world be without women? This means fairness needed to be spread between everyone.