Issuu on Google+

Postcard Travel Guide

Finland


Postcard Travel Guide


Postcard Travel Guide

W

31 â‚Ź

GPS Coordinates Official Website Wikipedia UNESCO World Heritage Site Opening Times and Days Costs How to get there Souvenirs For children Must See Location UNESCO World Heritage Site For children


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Finland Europe

Lapland

c Cir Arcti

cle

Rovaniemi

Kuopio High Coast & Kvarken Archipelago

Petäjävesi Old Church

Tampere

Struve Geodetic Arc

www.visitfinland.com Sammallahdenmäki

EET (UTC+2) Summer (DST): EEST (UTC+3) €

W

Euro Wikipedia

Bronze Age Burial Site

Old Rauma

Lahti

Verla Groundwood & Board Mill in Jaala

Turku

Helsinki

Fortress of Suomenlinna

Finland is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden on the west, Norway on the north and Russia on the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland. Around 5.4 million people reside in Finland, with the majority concentrated in the southern region. It is the eighth largest country in Europe in terms of area and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. Finland is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in Helsinki and local governments in 342 municipalities. Finland was historically a part of Sweden and from 1809 on, an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire. Finland's declaration of independence from Russia in 1917 was followed by a civil war, wars against the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, and a period of official neutrality during the Cold War. Finland joined the United Nations in 1955, the European Union in 1995, and the eurozone since its inception. Finland tops continuously the international comparisons of national performance.[7] Finland ranks the best country in the world in the 2010 Newsweek survey based on health, economic dynamism, education, political environment and quality of life. The name Suomi (Finnish for "Finland") has uncertain origins, but according to an earlier theory the name was derived from suomaa (fen land) or suoniemi (fen cape). The Swedish-language name Finland has resemblance with the North Germanic placenames Finnmark, Finnveden and hundreds of other toponyms starting with Fin(n) in Sweden and Norway. Some of these names are obviously derived from finnr, a Germanic word for a wanderer/finder.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

UNESCO World Heritage Sites 1

Fortress of Suomenlinna, near Helsinki 60.143611, 24.984444

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.suomenlinna.fi Open daily 10:00-18:00

31 €

Adults 7 €, children 3 €, families (2+2) 16 €. With Helsinki Card free admission. Suomenlinna is only accessible by water. Helsinki City Transport (HKL) runs a ferry service from Kauppatori to Suomenlinna throughout the year. JT-Line operates a waterbus in the summer. A service boat runs throughout the year from Katajanokka. The two-kilometre (1.24 mile) crossing takes about 15 to 20 minutes. Ferries run from one to four times an hour, depending on the season. Suomenlinna brochures are available on the ferry, so you can plan your visit during the crossing.

Suomenlinna or Sveaborg in Swedish is maybe the most important tourist destination of Finland and Helsinki. It is a sea fortress that was built on six islands beginning in 1748 at the order of the Swedish crown. The main role of the fortress was to be a protection against Russia. The style is the famous fortress of Vauban, a star fort adapted to the six islands. In 1808, Suomenlinna surrenders to Russia without any opposition during the Finnish War and one year later Finland becomes a part of Russian Empire. It was damaged by Anglo-French navy bombs during the Crimean War in 1855. In 1906 there was the location of Viapori Rebellion in which the Russian soldiers planed to depose the tsar (Viapori is the old Finnish name of the castle). In the First World War, is built a system of ground and sea fortifications to protect Helsinki. In 1991, Suomenlinna becomes UNESCO World Heritage Site.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

2

Old Rauma, the wooden city centre of Rauma 61.128333, 21.511667

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.oldrauma.fi Rauma is famous of its lace which can be a perfect souvenir for you to take home. Old Rauma (Finnish: Vanha Rauma) is the wooden city centre of the town of Rauma, Finland. It is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991. The area of Old Rauma is about 0.3 km2, with approximately six hundred buildings (counting both proper houses and smaller buildings like sheds) and about 800 people living in the area. The town of Rauma expanded outside the Old Rauma proper only in the early 1800s. The oldest buildings date from the 18th century, as two fires of 1640 and 1682 destroyed the town. Most buildings are currently inhabited and owned by private individuals, although along the two main streets and around the town square they are mainly in business use. Locations of special interest include the Kirsti house, which is a seaman's house from the 18th and 19th centuries, and the Marela house, which is a shipowner's house dating to the 18th century but with a 19th century facade, both of which are currently museums. Other sights include the rare stone buildings of the Old Rauma: the Church of the Holy Cross, an old Franciscan monastery church from the 15th century with medieval paintings and the old town hall from 1776. Another church in Rauma, the Church of the Holy Trinity, also from the 15th century, burned in the fire of 1640.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

3

Petäjävesi Old Church 62.249722, 25.183333

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.petajavesi.fi 31

Open 1.6.-31.8. from 10-18. Other times by reservation. Tel. +358 (0)40 582 2461 / guide or +358 (0)14 447 1400. The Petäjävesi Old Church (Finnish: Petäjäveden vanha kirkko) is a wooden church located in Petäjävesi, Finland. It was inscribed in 1994 on the UNESCO World Heritage List. It was built between 1763 and 1765. The clock tower that has been built in 1821 is connected to it. UNESCO considered it to be a representative Lutheran church of the Scandinavian tradition, mixing Renaissance with older Gothic elements. The church stayed from the use during the year 1879 when in 1867 the new church of the congregation which has become independent was completed to the present centre densely populated area of Petäjävesi. The old church has retained its original appearance and its interior decoration exceptionally well. It is a popular church for weddings in the summer, and there is a church service on most Sundays.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

4

Verla Groundwood and Board Mill in Jaala 61.062403, 26.639521

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.verla.fi The museum is closed on Mondays. Tue-Sun 10:00 – 17:00. The museum is closed on June 25 & 26 (Midsummer). You may visit the museum on guided tours only. The tours in Finnish begin on the hour each hour, the first one at 10.00 and the last one at 17.00. The tour lasts 50 – 60 minutes. Tours in languages other than Finnish are arranged to order. Group bookings and enquiries tel +358 2041 52170, museum.verla@upm-kymmene.com.

31

Admission is free without booking to the basic exhibition, other exhibition areas and the point for viewing the rock paintings. Adults 7€ / Students, pensioner 5€ / Group tickets, over 10 persons 5€ / Children under 18 free

One of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Finland is a 19th century mill village called Verla. The first mill was founded in 1872 by Hugo Nauman and then, a many more buildings were founded in 1882 that continued to operate until 1964. All the machines are very good preserved and the tourist can see the technological process from timber to paper.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

5

Bronze Age Burial Site of Sammallahdenmäki, in Lappi 61.120879, 21.784852

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.rauma.fi/museo Sammallahdenmäki is a Bronze age burial site in Finland in Lappi municipality. It was designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1999, and includes 36 granite burial cairns dating back more than 3,000 years, to 1,500 to 500 BC. It is located on a hill in a remote area off the road between Tampere and Rauma. Originally, it was near the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, but the land has risen so it is now 15 kilometers from the sea. It is one of the most important Bronze Age sites in Scandinavia. Four of the cairns were excavated by archaeologist Volter Högman in 1891, including Kirkonlaattia ("Church Floor"), an unusual rectangular cairn covering 16 x 19 metres with a flat top, and Huilun pitkä raunio ("long ruin of Huilu"), which is surrounded by an ancient stone wall.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

6

High Coast and Kvarken Archipelago 63.5, 21.0

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.kvarken.fi Kvarken (alternative spelling Quarken, Swedish Kvarken, Finnish Merenkurkku, or North Kvarken as opposed to South Kvarken) is the narrow region in the Gulf of Bothnia separating the Bothnian Bay (the inner part of the gulf) from the Bothnian Sea. The distance from Swedish mainland to Finnish mainland is around 80 km while the distance between the outmost islands is only 25 km. The water depth in the Kvarken region is only around 25 meters. The region also has an unusual rate of land rising at about 1 cm a year. On the Finnish side of Kvarken, there is a large archipelago. Most of the small islands are inhabited. The archipelago is smaller on the Swedish side of the region, and the islands have much steeper shores. The Kvarken region was historically important also, because mail was delivered across Kvarken when the sea was completely frozen from the Swedish to the Finnish coast. This mail route was used frequently during the period of Swedish rule. In the group of islands in the “middle” of the Kvarken region, in Swedish called Valsörarna – Finnish Valassaaret, is a 36 meter high lighthouse designed by Henry LePaute who worked for Gustave Eiffel's engineering bureau. The structural similarity between the lighthouse (built in 1885) and the Eiffel tower (built in 1889) is quite obvious. The lighthouse is now automated as are most lighthouses in Finland. In 2006, the Kvarken Archipelago was added as an extension to the World Heritage Site of the High Coast. Terranova - Kvarken Nature Centre is situated in the same facilities as the Ostrobothnian Museum, in the centre of the town of Vaasa. Its exhibition provides information on land uplift and the natural features of the Kvarken area. Here you can also find information about the World Heritage.

www.luontoon.fi 31

Closed on Mondays; Tue, Thurs and Fri 10:00 – 5:00, Wed 10:00 – 8:00; Sat and Sun 12:00 - 5:00. Groups should make reservations in advance.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

7

Struve Geodetic Arc Stuor-Oivi (currently Stuorrahanoaivi) in Enontekiö 68.6825, 22.745833 Avasaksa (currently Aavasaksa) in Ylitornio 66.397778, 23.725278 Tornea (currently Alatornion kirkko) in Tornio 65.83, 24.157222 Puolakka (currently Oravivuori) in Korpilahti 61.926667, 25.533611 Porlom II (currently Tornikallio) in Lapinjärvi 60.704722, 26.003333 Svartvira (currently Mustaviiri) in Pyhtää 60.276389, 26.603333 Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.mapscroll.fi The Struve Geodetic Arc is a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea, through ten countries and over 2,820 km. The chain was established and used by the German-born Russian scientist Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve in the years 1816 to 1855 to establish the exact size and shape of the earth. At that time, the chain passed merely through two countries: Sweden-Norway and the Russian Empire. The Arc's first point is located in Tartu Observatory, where Struve conducted much of his research. In 2005, the chain was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The chain is made up of 34, out of the original 265, main station points which are marked by drilled holes in rocks, iron crosses, cairns, commemorative plaques or built obelisks. Measurement of the triangulation chain took place between 1816 and 1855. It comprises 258 main triangles and 265 geodetic vertices. The northernmost point is located near Hammerfest in Norway and the southernmost point near the Black Sea in Ukraine.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

The Capital: Helsinki Helsinki Helsinki (Swedish: Helsingfors) is the capital and largest city in Finland. It is in the southern part of Finland, in the region of Uusimaa/Nyland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, by the Baltic Sea. The population of the city of Helsinki is 584,420, making it the most populous municipality in Finland by a wide margin. The municipality of Helsinki forms the heart of the Helsinki metropolitan area and Greater Helsinki area. Over one million people live in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Two of these cities, Espoo and Vantaa, immediately border Helsinki to the west and north. Kauniainen, the third city, is an enclave within the city of Espoo. Helsinki is Finland's major political, educational, financial, cultural and research center. Helsinki is also an important regional city on the Baltic Sea and northern Europe. Helsinki was established as a trading town by King Gustav I of Sweden in 1550 as the town of Helsingfors, which he intended to be a rival to the Hanseatic city of Reval (today: Tallinn). The plague of 1710 killed the greater part of the inhabitants of Helsinki. The construction of the naval fortress Sveaborg (In Finnish Viapori, today also Suomenlinna) in the 18th century helped improve Helsinki's status, but it was not until Russia defeated Sweden in the Finnish War and annexed Finland as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 that the town began to develop into a major city. Czar Alexander I of Russia moved the capital from Turku to Helsinki to reduce Swedish influence in Finland. The Royal Academy of Turku, back then the only university in the country, was relocated to Helsinki in 1827 and eventually became the modern University of Helsinki. In 1918 the Finnish Civil War broke out and Helsinki fell to the Red Guards on January 28, the first day of the war. The Red side gained control of the whole of southern Finland after minor hostilities. Most members of the Senate fled to Vaasa, although some senators and officials remained in hiding in the capital. After the tide of war turned against the Red forces, German troops allied with the White Government took control of Helsinki in April 1918. In the aerial bombings of the Winter War (1939–40) and the Continuation War (1941–44) Helsinki was attacked by Soviet bombers. The most intense air raids took place in the spring of 1944, when over two thousand Soviet planes dropped some 16,000 bombs in and around the city. Fortunately successful air defense efforts spared Helsinki from the destruction visited upon many other European cities. A landmark event was the XV Olympiad (1952 Olympic Games) held in Helsinki.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland


Postcard Travel Guide Finland


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Parliament of Finland 60.172456, 24.933336

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

web.eduskunta.fi Eduskuntatalo is the building that hosts the Parliament of Finland. In 1923 was a competition to chose the place and then in 1924 a second competition to chose the project. The building was constructed between 1926 and 1931. The architect Johan Sigfrid SirĂŠn designed Parliament House in an architectural style combining Neoclassicism with early twentieth century modernism.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

The Helsinki Olympic Stadium 60.186944, 24.927222

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.stadion.fi 31

The Tower of the stadium is open for visitors; Mon-Fri 9-20, Sat-Sun 9-18. €

2 € (adults) / 1 € (children)

The Helsinki Olympic Stadium (Finnish: Helsingin olympiastadion; Swedish: Helsingfors Olympiastadion), located in the Töölö district about 2 kilometres from the center of the Finnish capital Helsinki, is the largest stadium in the country, nowadays mainly used for hosting sports events and big concerts. The stadium is best known for being the center of activities in the 1952 Summer Olympics. It was built however to host the 1940 Summer Olympics, which were moved from Tokyo to Helsinki before being cancelled due to World War II. The stadium was also the venue for the first World Athletics Championships in 1983 as well as for the 2005 World Championships in Athletics. It is also the home stadium of the Finland national football team. Construction of the Olympic Stadium began in 1934 and it was completed in 1938. The Olympic was designed in functionalistic style by the architects Yrjö Lindegren and Toivo Jäntti. The stadium was completely modernized in 1990–1994 and also renovated just before the 2005 World Championships in Athletics. The tower of the stadium, a distinct landmark with a height of 72 metres (236 ft), is open for visitors and offers impressive views over Helsinki. It is possible to see into the adjacent Finnair Stadium.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Helsinki Cathedral 60.170278, 24.952222 W

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

tuomiokirkko.kirkkohelsinki.net Helsinki Cathedral (Finnish: Helsingin tuomiokirkko or Suurkirkko, Swedish: Helsingfors domkyrka or Storkyrkan) is an Evangelical Lutheran cathedral of the Diocese of Helsinki, located in the centre of the town. The church was originally built as a tribute to the Grand Duke, Nicholas I, the Tsar of Russia and until the independence of Finland in 1917, it was called St. Nicholas' Church. A distinct landmark in the scenery of central Helsinki, with a tall green dome surrounded by four smaller domes, the church was built in 1830–1852, in neoclassical style. It was designed by Carl Ludvig Engel, to form the climax of the whole Senate Square laid out by Engel, surrounded by a number of buildings all designed by him. The building has a Greek-cross plan and is symmetrical in each of the four cardinal directions, each marked by a colonnade and pediment. Today the cathedral is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Helsinki. Annually more than 350,000 people visit the church, some of them to attend religious events, but most as tourists. The church is in regular use for both worship services and special events such as weddings. The crypt was renovated in the 1980s by architects Vilhelm Helander and Juha Leiviskä for use for exhibitions and church functions. Helander was also responsible for the conservation repairs to the cathedral in the late 1990s.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Uspenski Cathedral 60.168333, 24.96 W

31

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

Admission to the Cathedral is free of charge. In winter, the Cathedral is closed on Mondays

Uspenski Cathedral (Finnish: Uspenskin katedraali, Swedish: Uspenskij-katedralen, Russian: Óñïåíñêèé ñîáîð) is an Eastern Orthodox cathedral in Helsinki, Finland, dedicated to the Dormition of the Theotokos (the Virgin Mary). Its name comes from the Russian word uspenie, which denotes the Dormition. Designed by the Russian architect Alexey Gornostaev (1808-1862), the cathedral was built after his death in 1862-1868. The Cathedral is set upon a hillside on the Katajanokka peninsula overlooking the city. On the back of the cathedral, there is a plaque commemorating Russian Emperor Alexander II, who was the sovereign of the Grand Duchy of Finland during the cathedral's construction. Main cathedral of the Finnish Orthodox Church in the diocese of Helsinki, Uspenski Cathedral is claimed to be the largest orthodox church in Western Europe,[1] although Finland is normally included into Northern Europe.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Temppeliaukio Church 60.173056, 24.925278 W

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

taivallahti.helsinginseurakunnat.fi €

Admission to the Cathedral is free of charge.

Temppeliaukio Church (Finnish: Temppeliaukion kirkko, Swedish: Tempelplatsens kyrka) is a Lutheran church in the Töölö neighborhood of Helsinki. The church was designed by architects and brothers Timo and Tuomo Suomalainen, and opened in 1969. The Temple Square was selected as a location for a church in the 1930s, but the plan by J. S. Siren, the winner of the second competition to design the architecture of the church, was interrupted in its early stages when WWII began in 1939. After the war, there was another architectural competition, which was won by Timo Suomalainen and Tuomo Suomalainen in 1961. For economic reasons, the suggested plan was scaled back and the interior space of the church reduced by about onequarter from the original plan. Construction finally began in February 1968, and the rock-temple was completed for consecration in September 1969. The interior was excavated and built into the rock, but is bathed in natural light entering through the glazed dome. The church is used frequently as a concert venue due to its excellent acoustics. The acoustic quality is ensured by the rough, virtually unworked, rock surfaces. Leaving the interior surfaces of the church exposed was not something that was in the original plans for the church. Conductor Paavo Berglund told the brothers of his experiences in the best music halls and the acoustical engineer Mauri Parjo set out requirements for the wall surfaces. The architect brothers discovered that they could fulfill all the requirements by realising their own idea of leaving the rock walls exposed in the Church Hall. This idea the brothers already had when planning the competition entry, but they had been afraid to present it, thinking it too radical for the competition jury. The back wall of the altar is a majestic rock wall, originally created by a withdrawing glacier. The Temppeliaukio church is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the city.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Turku 60.45, 22.266667

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.turku.fi Turku is a city situated on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River. It is located in the region of Finland Proper. It is believed that Turku came into existence during the end of the 13th century which makes it the oldest city in Finland. Turku quickly became the most important city in Finland and retained that status for hundreds of years until Finland became part of the Russian Empire in 1809 and the capital of the Grand Duchy of Finland was transferred to Helsinki in 1812. After that Turku continued to be the most populous city in Finland until the end of the 1840s. Today Turku remains a regional capital and is an important location for business and culture. Because of its long history it has been the site of many important historical events and has extensively influenced Finnish history. During the year 2011 Turku has been designated to be the European Capital of Culture together with Tallinn, the capital city of Estonia. In 1996 it was declared the official Christmas City of Finland. Although archaeological findings in the area date back to the Stone Age, the town of Turku was founded in late 13th century. The Cathedral of Turku was consecrated in 1300, and together with Turku Castle and the Dominican monastery (founded in 1249), established the city as the most important location in medieval Finland. During the Middle Ages, Turku was the seat of the Bishop of Turku. In 1640, the first university in Finland, The Royal Academy of Turku, was founded in Turku. Turku was also the meeting place for the States of Finland in 1676. After the Finnish War, which ended when Sweden ceded Finland to Imperial Russia at the Treaty of Fredrikshamn in 1809, Turku became briefly the official capital, but soon lost the status to Helsinki, as Emperor Alexander I felt that Turku was too far from Russia and too aligned with Sweden to serve as the capital of the Grand Duchy of Finland. The change officially took place in 1812. The government offices that remained in Turku were finally moved to the new capital after the Great Fire of Turku, which almost completely destroyed the city in 1827. After the fire, a new and safer city plan was drawn up by German architect Carl Ludvig Engel, who had also designed the new capital, Helsinki. In the 20th century Turku was called "Finland's gateway to the West" by historians such as Jarmo Virmavirta.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Turku Castle 60.435332, 22.227984 W

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

http://www.nba.fi/en/turku_castle Turku Castle (Finnish: Turun linna, Swedish: Ă…bo slott) is a monument of Finnish history situated in the city of Turku in Finland. Together with Turku Cathedral, the castle is one of the oldest buildings still in use in Finland. A start was made on building the castle in about 1280. The Swedish conquerors of Finland intended it originally as a military fortress. During the next two centuries its defenses were strengthened and living quarters were added. The castle served as a bastion and administrative centre in Eastland, as Finland was then known, during the Swedish period. The main part of the castle was extended considerably during the 16th century after Gustav Vasa had ascended the Swedish throne and his son John headed the Finnish administration following his promotion to duke. The bailey was also supplemented and the round tower at the southeast corner of the bailey was added. Since then no part of the castle has been added or extended, only repaired. Only once did the castle actually figure in the defense of the realm. This was when Russian invaders from Novgorod destroyed Turku in 1318. On the other hand, it frequently played a role in internal struggles for power within Sweden-Finland and the Kalmar Union. The renovation of the castle, which was begun before the Second World War and interrupted by Finland's two wars with the Soviet Union, was completed in 1987. The castle was handed over to its users completely restored on 12 October 1993. The building is owned and maintained by the Finnish state and is entrusted to the use of the city of Turku. The castle functions in its entirety as a historical museum as part of the Turku provincial museum. In the main part of the castle are banquet rooms for the city of Turku, a church for the local congregation and also restaurants in both the main castle and the bailey. Today the castle is once more experiencing a heyday as it has achieved the status of being one of Finland's most visited museums.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Tampere 61.5, 23.766667

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.tampere.fi Tampere is a city in southern Finland. It is the most populous inland city in any of the Nordic countries. The city has a population of 211,691, growing to approximately 300,000 people in the conurbation and over 340,000 in the metropolitan area. Tampere is located between two lakes, N채sij채rvi and Pyh채j채rvi. Since the two lakes differ in level by 18 metres, the rapids linking them, Tammerkoski, have been an important power source throughout history, most recently for generating electricity. Tampere is dubbed the "Manchester of Finland" for its industrial past as the former center of Finnish industry, and this has given rise to its Finnish nickname "Manse" and terms such as "Manserock". Helsinki can be reached in 1.5 hours by train and 2 hours by car. The distance to Turku is approximately the same. Tampere Airport is the third-busiest airport in Finland, with 800,000 passengers annually. Tampere was founded as a market place on the banks of the Tammerkoski channel in 1775 by Gustav III of Sweden and four years later, in 1779, Tampere was granted full city rights. At this time, it was a rather small town, consisting of only a few square kilometers of land around the Tammerkoski. Tampere grew as a major market town and industrial centre in the 19th century. During the latter half of 19th century Tampere had almost half of Finland's industrial labour. Tampere was the centre of many important political events of Finland in the early 20th century. On November 1, 1905, during the general strike, the famous Red Declaration was proclaimed on the Keskustori, the central square of Tampere, subsequently leading to universal suffrage in Finland and the Tsar of Russia granting larger freedoms to Finns. In 1918, when Finland had recently gained independence, Tampere also played a major role, being one of the strategically important scenes

Lapland

c Cir Arcti

cle

Rovaniemi

Kuopio

Tampere

Lahti Turku

Helsinki


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Vaasa 63.094292, 21.612453

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.vaasa.fi Vaasa (Swedish: Vasa) is a city on the west coast of Finland. It received its charter in 1606, during the reign of Charles IX of Sweden and is named after the Royal House of Vasa. Today, Vaasa has a population of 59,232 (2010). In the middle of the century, Saint Mary's Church was built, and in the 1370s the building of the fortress at Korsholm, Crysseborgh, was undertaken, and served as an administrative centre of the Vasa County. King Charles IX of Sweden founded the town of Mustasaari/Mussor on October 2, 1606, around the oldest harbour and trade point around the Korsholm church approximately seven kilometres to the southwest from the present city. In 1611, the town was chartered and renamed after the Royal House of Vasa. During the Finnish War, fought between Sweden and Russia in 1808–1809, Vaasa suffered more than any other city. In June 1808, Vaasa was occupied by the Russian forces, and some of the local officials pledged allegiance to the occupying force. On June 25, 1808, the Swedish colonel Johan Bergenstråhle was sent with 1,500 troops and four cannons to free Vaasa from the 1,700 Russian troops who were led by generalmajor Nikolay Demidov. The Battle of Vaasa started with the Swedish force disembarking north of Vaasa in Österhankmo and advancing all the way to the city where they attacked with 1,100 troops, as some had to be left behind to secure the flank. There was heavy fighting in the streets and in the end the Swedish forces were repelled and forced to retreat back the way they came. During the Finnish Civil War, Vaasa was the capital of Finland from January 29 to May 3, 1918. As a consequence of the occupation of central places and arresting of politicians in Helsinki the Senate decided to move the senators to Vaasa, where the White Guards that supported the Senate had a strong position and the contacts to the west were good. The Senate of Finland began its work in Vaasa on February 1, 1918, and it had four members. The Senate held its sessions in the Town Hall. To express its gratitude to the town the senate gave Vaasa the right to add the cross of freedom, independent Finland's oldest mark of honour designed by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, to its coat of arms.

Lapland

c Cir Arcti

cle

Rovaniemi

Kuopio

Tampere

Lahti Turku

Helsinki


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Kuopio 62.8925, 27.678333

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.kuopio.fi Kuopio is a city and municipality located in the region of Northern Savonia, Finland. A population of 92,649 makes it the ninth biggest city in the country. Kuopio was founded in 1653 by Governor Peter Brahe, but the official date is recognized as November 17, 1775, when King Gustav III of Sweden ordered the establishment of the city of Kuopio. The municipality of Vehmersalmi joined the city of Kuopio on January 1, 2005 like the municipality of Kuopion maalaiskunta in 1969 and the municipality of Riistavesi in 1973. Karttula will join Kuopio in 2011. Kuopio is almost completely surrounded by lake Kallavesi and several parts of it are built on islands. Kuopio is known for its association with a national delicacy, Finnish fish pastry (Kalakukko), and the dialect of Savo, as well as the hill of Puijo and the Puijo tower. Besides being a very popular outdoor recreation area, Puijo serves also as a stage for a yearly World Cup ski jumping competition. The city has a nationally unique feature in its street network, where every second street is practically a pedestrian and cycle street. Those streets provide pedestrians a calm environment aside from the main street traffic. This setup dates back all the way to 1776 and the first town plan by Pehr Kjellman. Originally r채nnikatu, gr채nd (in Swedish) were created as a fire barrier to prevent a possible fire escalating in a city mostly built with wood.

Lapland

c Cir Arcti

cle

Rovaniemi

Kuopio

Tampere

Lahti Turku

Helsinki


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Lappeenranta 61.066667, 28.183333

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.lappeenranta.fi Lappeenranta (Swedish: Villmanstrand) is a city and municipality that resides on the shore of the lake Saimaa in South-Eastern Finland, about 30 kilometres from the Russian border. It belongs to the region of South Karelia. With approximately 72,000 inhabitants (2010) Lappeenranta is the 13th largest city in Finland. The neighboring municipality of Joutseno was consolidated with Lappeenranta on January 1, 2009, and the neighboring municipality of Ylämaa on January 1, 2010. The town was chartered in 1649 by Queen Christina of Sweden, legitimizing the trade at the then popular marketplace of Lapvesi. In 1741 the battle of Villmanstrand was fought between the Swedish and Russian armies in the Russo-Swedish War of 1741–1743. The battle ended in a Russian victory.

Lapland

c Cir Arcti

cle

Rovaniemi

Kuopio

Tampere

Lahti Turku

Helsinki


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Porvoo 60.392148, 25.663948

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.porvoo.fi Porvoo is a city and a municipality situated on the southern coast of Finland approximately 50 kilometres east of Helsinki. Porvoo is one of the six medieval towns in Finland, first mentioned as a city in texts from 14th century. Porvoo is the seat of the Swedish speaking Diocese of Borg책 of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. Porvoo was first mentioned in documents in the early 14th century, and Porvoo was given city rights around 1380, even though according to some sources the city was founded in 1346. The old city of Porvoo was formally disestablished and the new city of Porvoo founded in 1997 when the city of Porvoo and the Rural municipality of Porvoo were consolidated.[6] When Sweden lost the city of Viborg to Russia in 1721, the episcopal seat was moved to Porvoo. At this time, Porvoo was the second largest city in Finland. After the conquest of Finland by Russian armies in 1808 Sweden had to cede Finland to Russia in 1809 (the Treaty of Fredrikshamn). The Diet of Porvoo in 1809 was a landmark in the History of Finland. The Tsar Alexander I confirmed the new Finnish constitution (which was essentially the Swedish constitution from 1772), and made Finland an autonomous Grand Duchy.

Lapland

c Cir Arcti

cle

Rovaniemi

Kuopio

Tampere

Lahti Turku

Helsinki


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Jyväskylä 62.241667, 25.741667

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.jkl.fi Jyväskylä is a city and municipality located in Central Finland, 147 kilometres north-east of Tampere and 270 kilometres north of Helsinki, on northern coast of lake Päijänne. It is the only city and central of Central Finland. The site of many educationrelated firsts in Finland, Jyväskylä is known as a city of schools, the Athens of Finland. It is also famous for its many buildings designed by Alvar Aalto. The city hosts Neste Oil Rally Finland, which is part of the World Rally Championship. It is also home of the annual Jyväskylä Arts Festival. The City of Jyväskylä was founded on 22 March 1837 by Czar Nicholas I of Russia and the infrastructure was essentially built from scratch.

Lapland

e Circl

Arctic

Rovaniemi

Kuopio

Tampere

Lahti Turku

Helsinki


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Kemijärvi 66.716667, 27.433333

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.kemijarvi.fi Kemijärvi is a municipality of Finland and the northern-most town in Finland. It is located in the province of Lapland. The municipality has a population of 8,494 (2010). The first permanent settler inhabitant of Kemijärvi was Paavali Ollinpoika Halonen, who moved, from region of Oulu, from Niskakylä, Utajärvi to Kemijärvi about 1580. His wife was Anna Laurintytär Halonen and their children were Paavo, Olli and Pekka Halonen. Paavali's place of residence is known today as Halosenranta. As the first settlers moved to Kemijärvi, the area wasn't inhabited by the Sami people anymore, but Ämmänvaara in the are of the municipality is an ancient sacrificial place of Samis. The Eastern Lapland area where Kemijärvi is situated is well known for the nearby skiing resorts Suomu, Luosto, Pyhä and Salla, as well as Ruka in Kuusamo region. The beautiful Lake Kemijärvi, next to the city of Kemijärvi, is much appreciated as a place to visit during summertime. Lake Kemijärvi, a part of the Kemi river, is surrounded by hills and large forests. Common fish species found include pike, perch and brown trout. Also, currently Kemijärvi is the northernmost known lake in Finland with an indigenous population of zander (also known as walleye or pikeperch). Other popular summer pastimes besides fishing are hiking, trekking, boating and hunting.

Lapland

Rovaniemi

cle c Cir Arcti

Kuopio

Tampere

Lahti Turku

Helsinki


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Hämeen linna 61.003994, 24.45797 W

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

www.nba.fi/en/hame_castle Häme Castle (Finnish: Hämeen linna, Swedish: Tavastehus slott) is a medieval castle in Hämeenlinna, Finland. The castle is located on the coast of Lake Vanajavesi in the city center. The castle was originally located on an island. The castle's age is disputed. Traditionally the construction of the castle has been connected to the legendary Second Swedish Crusade which would date the castle in the mid-13th century. However, there are no finds from the castle that can be firmly dated to a period earlier than 1320s. Also the contents of the crusade legend have been seriously contested. An earlier fortification from about 1300 only some 20 kilometres away in Hakoinen also makes a 14th century dating for Häme Castle more probable. Only one castle ("Tauestahus") is listed in Tavastia in a royal document from 1308. Also, the Russian Novgorod Chronicle only mentions one castle during their plundering of Tavastia in 1311, its description matching well with the castle in Hakoinen. The construction of Häme castle probably started after the Novgorod invasion. The first castle was made of gray stone, and later bricks were used. The castle lost military importance by the end of the 16th century. Its defensive systems were upgraded in the 18th century with bastions around the castle. The castle became a prison in the 19th century and served as such until 1953, when massive restoration work started. The castle has been a museum since 1988. Facilities can also be rented for private events.

Lapland

Rovaniemi

cle c Cir Arcti

Kuopio

Tampere

Lahti Turku

Helsinki


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Moomin World 60.473027, 22.003934

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.muumimaailma.fi Moomin World is open daily from mid-June to mid-August. 2011: Open 7 June–14 August daily 10:00 a.m.–6:00 p.m. and 15–28 August daily 12:00 p.m.–6:00 p.m. Did you know that the Moomins hibernate and Moominworld is closed during the winter? The exception: 19–27 February 2011.

31

22-31 euros

Moomin World (Muumimaailma in Finnish, Muminvärlden in Swedish) is the Moomin Theme Park especially for children, based on the Moomin books by Tove Jansson. Moomin World is on the island of Kailo beside the old town of Naantali, near the city of Turku in Western Finland. The blueberry-coloured Moomin House is the main attraction. Tourists are allowed to freely visit all five stories. Hemulen's yellow house is located next to the Moomin House. It is also possible to see Moominmama's Kitchen, Fire Station, Snufkin's Camp, Moominpappa's boat, etc. in Moomin World. Visitors may meet Moomin characters there or the Witch in her cottage. Moomin World isn't a traditional amusement park. There are many activities and fantasy paths for children there, e.g., Toffle's Path with Witch's Labyrinth, The Hattifatteners' Cave and The Groke's House. There are also performances in Moomin Theatre Emma. The Moomins (Swedish: Mumintroll) are the central characters in a series of books and a comic strip by Swedish-Finn illustrator and writer Tove Jansson, originally published in Swedish by Schildts in Finland. They are a family of trolls who are white and roundish, with large snouts that make them resemble hippopotamuses. In all, nine books were released in the series, with five picture books and a comic strip being released between 1945 and 1993. The Moomins have since been the basis for numerous television series, films and even a theme park called Moomin World in Naantali, Finland.

Lapland

c Cir Arcti

cle

Rovaniemi

Kuopio

Tampere

Lahti Turku

Helsinki


Postcard Travel Guide Finland


Postcard Travel Guide Finland


Postcard Travel Guide Finland


Postcard Travel Guide Finland


Postcard Travel Guide Finland


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Santa Claus Village 66.550556, 25.889444

Use numbers on your GPS to navigate. Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

W

www.santaclausvillage.info 31

Opening Hours 10 January – 31 May: 10 a.m. – 5 p.m. 1 June – 31 August: 9 a.m. – 6 p.m. 1 September – 30 November: 10 a.m. – 5 p.m. 1 December – 9 January: 9 a.m. – 7 p.m.

Annual exceptions (public holidays): 30 April: 10 a.m. – 3 p.m. 1 May: 12 a.m. – 3 p.m. 24 December: 9 a.m. – 3 p.m. 25 December: 12 a.m. – 5 p.m. 31 December: 9 a.m. – 5 p.m. 1 January: 12 a.m. – 5 p.m.

Santa Claus Village is an amusement park near Rovaniemi in the Lapland region of Finland. It is located about 8 km northeast of Rovaniemi and about 2 km from the Rovaniemi Airport. Rovaniemi city bus route 8 travels between the Rovaniemi Railway Station and the Santa Claus Village. The bus trip takes about 30 minutes. Attractions: Arctic Circle: The Arctic Circle cuts right through Santa Claus Village. A white line denoting the Arctic Circle is painted across the park. Visitors officially enter the Arctic area when they cross the line. The line is a very popular photo spot for visitors. Santa Claus Post Office: A large variety of Christmas related items, Christmas cards and CDs are sold in the post office. All mail sent from this post office is postmarked with a special Santa Claus postmark. Visitors can also specify their mail to be sent at the next Christmas, regardless of when they actually visit the post office and send their items. Santa Claus's Office: A Santa Claus's Office is located inside the main building of the Village, for visitors to take photographs and chat with the Santa Claus. However, there is an "office hour" for the Santa Claus and he may not be in the office all the time even when the Village is open. Other attractions: There are also many shops and restaurants inside the park selling a variety of items related to Santa Claus and the Lapland region.

Lapland

c Cir Arcti

cle

Rovaniemi

Kuopio

Tampere

Lahti Turku

Helsinki


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Aurora Borealis & the Arctic Circle & Lapland W

Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

Auroras, also known as northern and southern (polar) lights or aurorae (singular: aurora), are natural light displays in the sky, particularly in the polarregions, and usually observed at night. They typically occur in the ionosphere. They are also referred to as polar auroras. This is a misnomer however, because they are commonly visible between 65 to 72 degrees north and south latitudes, which place them a ring just within the Arctic and Antarctic circles. Aurorae do occur deeper inside the polar regions, but these are infrequent and often invisible to the naked eye. In northern latitudes, the effect is known as the aurora borealis, named after the Roman goddess of dawn, Aurora, and the Greek name for the north wind, Boreas, by Pierre Gassendi in 1621.

W

Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. For Epoch 2010, it is the parallel of latitude that runs 66째 33' 44? (or 66.562째) north of the Equator. The region north of this circle is known as the Arctic, and the zone just to the south is called the Northern Temperate Zone. The Arctic Circle marks the southern extremity of the polar day (24-hour sunlit day, often referred to as the "midnight sun") and polar night (24-hour sunless night). North of the Arctic Circle, the sun is above the horizon for 24 continuous hours at least once per year and below the horizon for 24 continuous hours at least once per year. On the Arctic Circle those events occur, in principle, exactly once per year, at the June and December solstices, respectively.

W

Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

Lapland is a region in northern Finland, largely within the Arctic Circle. On the North it is bounded by the Barents Sea, on the West by the Norwegian Sea and on the East by the White Sea. The name Lapland refers to land inhabited by the Sami people, formerly called Lapp people, which is now considered derogatory, who are the minority indigenous people of the region. Lapland as a whole does not exist as a single administrative region, but there are discrete provinces of Finland and Sweden that also bear the name. Lapland lies largely north of the Arctic Circle. The western portion is an area of fjords, deep valleys, glaciers, and mountains. The climate is subarctic and vegetation is sparse, except in the densely forested southern portion. Lapland contains valuable mineral deposits. Reindeer, wolf, bear, and sea and land birds are the main forms of animal life, in addition to a myriad of insects in the short summer. Sea and river fisheries abound in the region.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Pale Pasque Flower W

Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

Kangasvuokko in Finnish or Pulsatilla vernalis in Latin or The pale pasque flower has been protected by Finnish law since 1952. Blooming around Mother's Day it has beautified the hillsides of South-Eastern Finland since the last Ice Age.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Finland gorgeous landscapes


Postcard Travel Guide Finland


Postcard Travel Guide Finland


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Finnish Sauna W

Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

Finnish sauna is traditionally the same as Russian banya despite the popular misconception that Finnish sauna is very dry. Records and other historical evidence indicate that the Finns built the first wooden saunas in the 5th or 8th century. Early saunas were dug into a hill or embankment. As tools and techniques advanced, they were later built above ground using wooden logs. Rocks were heated in a stone fireplace with a wood fire. The smoke from the fire filled the room as the air warmed. Once the temperature reached desired levels, the smoke was allowed to clear and the bathers entered. The wood smoke aroma still lingered and was part of the cleansing ritual. This type of traditional smoke sauna was called a savusauna (black banya), which simply means "smoke sauna" in Finnish. Many people find the smell of smoke and wood to be relaxing. In Finland swimsuits, towels, or any other garments are rarely worn in the sauna. Families often go to the sauna together, which is not considered eccentric since family saunas are an old tradition. In these private saunas swimsuits or towels are never worn. In public saunas it is more common that men and women go to the sauna separately, although people of both sexes may sometimes bathe together, for example in student clubs. Still, saunas are not associated with sex and sexuality. Quite the contrary, historically saunas have been the most sacred places after the church, and most houses which could afford to build a sauna had one. In older times women also used to give birth in the sauna because it was a warm and sterile environment. Children were occasionally born in saunas still in the beginning of the 20th century. Ancient Finns even believed saunas were inhabited by spirits. The lighting in a sauna is shady, and some Finns prefer to sit in the sauna in silence, relaxing. The temperature is usually between 80 째C (176 째F) and 110 째C (230 째F). Sometimes people make a vasta (or vihta); they tie together small fresh birch branches (with leaves on) and swat themselves and their fellow sauna bathers with it. One can even buy vihtas from a shop and store them into the freezer for later (winter) use. Using a vasta improves blood circulation, and its birch odour is considered pleasing.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

Jean Sibelius W

Click on the logos for the LINKS and MAPS

Jean Sibelius was a Finnish composer of the later Romantic period whose music played an important role in the formation of the Finnish national identity. His mastery of the orchestra has been described as "prodigious". The core of Sibelius's oeuvre is his set of seven symphonies. Like Beethoven, Sibelius used each one to develop further his own personal compositional style. Unlike Beethoven who used the symphonies to make public statements, Sibelius released his personal feelings in the symphonies. These works continue to be performed frequently in the concert hall and are often recorded. In addition to the symphonies, Sibelius's best-known compositions include Finlandia, the Karelia Suite, Valse triste, the violin concerto, and The Swan of Tuonela (one of the four movements of the Lemmink채inen Suite). Sibelius composed prolifically until the mid-1920s. However, after completing his Seventh Symphony (1924), the incidental music to The Tempest (1926), and the tone poem Tapiola (1926), he produced no large scale works for the remaining thirty years of his life. Although he is reputed to have stopped composing, he in fact attempted to continue writing, including abortive efforts to compose an eighth symphony. He wrote some Masonic music and re-edited some earlier works during this last period of his life, and retained an active interest in new developments in music, although he did not always view modern music favorably.


Postcard Travel Guide Finland


Postcard Travel Guide Finland

This Guide is created ONLY with postcards that I have and it is NOT FOR SALE. This file is constantly upgraded but I need your help. If you have more beautiful postcards of places that I have in this guide please send them to me. If you have postcards of famous places that you think should be in this guide please send them to me. I will swap with you: if you send me something I will return the favor. My address: Mircea C.P.2 Of.Poºtal 3 Garã 620220 Focºani Romania My blog: postcard-travel-guide.blogspot.com UNESCO World Heritage Sites: High Coast / Kvarken Archipelago Struve Geodetic Arc Wish List: Häme Castle Viipuri Castle Raseborg Castle Kastelholm Castle Olavinlinna Castle Kuusisto Castle Saimaa Canal Kalakukko

2010 KLMircea


FINLAND Postcard Travel Guide