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marina sexniaSvili



marina sexniaSvili

biologia

VIII

klasi

moswavlis wigni

grifminiWebulia saqarTvelos ganaTlebis, mecnierebis, kulturisa da sportis saministros mier 2020 wels


marina sexniaSvili

biologia VIII klasi, moswavlis wigni

samecniero redaqtori malxaz mayaSvili mecnierebaTa doqtori

teqstis redaqtori neli elizbaraSvili mxatvari elene varamaSvili kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa elene varamaSvili

© gamomcemloba `klio~, 2020 © gamomcemloba `meridiani~, 2020 © marina sexniaSvili, 2020 yvela ufleba daculia

ISBN 978-9941-481-93-2 pirveli gamocema (2020)

Sps `gamomcemloba klio~ aRmaSeneblis gamz., #181-2, Tbilisi, 0112 tel.: (+995 32) 234 04 30

Sps gamomcemloba `meridiani~ al. yazbegis #47, Tbilisi tel.: (+995 32) 239 15 22

E-mail: book@klio.ge; www.klio.ge

E-mail: meridiani777@gmail.com


s a r Cevi Sesavali.................................................................................................................. 5

Tema 1. sicocxlis organizaciis doneebi 1.1. ujreduli Teoria....................................................................................... 10 1.2. cxoveluri qsovilebi ................................................................................. 12 1.3. mcenareuli qsovilebi ................................................................................ 16 1.4. sicocxlis organizaciis doneebi ............................................................. 19 Tema 1-is Sejameba ................................................................................................ 22

Tema 2. sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistema 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5.

sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistemis funqciebi ............................................. 28 adamianis ConCxis agebuleba ....................................................................... 30 Zvlebis agebuleba da zrda ....................................................................... 34 Zvlis qimiuri Sedgeniloba ........................................................................ 37 ZvalTa SeerTebis formebi ......................................................................... 39 2.6. ConCxis dazianebis saxeebi .......................................................................... 42 2.7. ConCxis kunTebi............................................................................................ 45 2.8. ConCxis kunTebis moqmedebis meqanizmi ..................................................... 48 2.9. tanadobis darRveva .................................................................................... 52 Tema 2-is Sejameba ................................................................................................ 56

Tema 3. nivTierebaTa mimocvla da transporti 3-1 sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema .......................................................................... 62 3.1. organizmis Sinagani garemo ........................................................................ 63 3.2. adamianis sisxlis komponentebi da funqciebi ....................................... 66 3.3. organizmis Sinagani garemos damcvelobiTi funqcia ............................. 71 3.4. sisxlis jgufebi .......................................................................................... 74 3.5. guli .............................................................................................................. 77 3.6. gulis muSaoba .............................................................................................. 80 3.7. sisxlZarRvebi .............................................................................................. 83 3.8. sisxlis moZraoba organizmSi .................................................................... 87 3.9. gul-sisxlZarRvTa daavadebebi ................................................................. 89 Tema 3-1-is Sejameba ............................................................................................. 93 3-2 sasunTqi sistema .......................................................................................... 101 3.10. sunTqva. sunTqvis mniSvneloba? ............................................................ 102 3.11. sunTqviTi moZraobebi ............................................................................. 105 3.12. sunTqviTi moZraobebis regulacia ....................................................... 108 3.13. sasunTqi organoebis daavadebebi .......................................................... 112 Tema 3-2-is Sejameba ........................................................................................... 114 3-3 saWmlis momnelebeli sistema .................................................................... 119 3.14. sakvebi nivTierebebi da sakvebi produqtebi ....................................... 120 3.15. sakvebi produqtebis kvebiTi Rirebuleba ........................................... 123 3.16. saWmlis momnelebeli sistemis struqtura da funqciebi ................. 127 3.17. saWmlis moneleba piris RruSi .............................................................. 130

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3.18. saWmlis moneleba kuWSi .......................................................................... 134 3.19. saWmlis moneleba nawlavSi ..................................................................... 136 3.20. kuW-nawlavis daavadebani da maTi Tavidan acileba ............................ 139 Tema 3-3-is Sejameba ........................................................................................... 141 3-4 gamoyofa ....................................................................................................... 149 3.21. nivTierebaTa cvla organizmsa da garemos Soris .............................. 150 3.22. Tirkmlebi, rogorc gamomyofi organo ............................................... 153 3.23. wylis balansis regulacia ..................................................................... 156 3.24. kani, rogorc gamomyofi organo ........................................................... 158 3-4 Temis Sejameba .............................................................................................. 162

Tema 4. janmrTeloba da mavne Cvevebi 4.1. Tambaqos moxmarebis gavlena janmrTelobaze ....................................... 168 4.2. alkoholis moxmarebis gavlena janmrTelobaze ................................... 172 4.3. jansaRi kveba da kvebiTi darRvevebi ...................................................... 174 4.4. fizikuri aqtivobis gavlena janmrTelobaze........................................ 178 Tema 4-is Sejameba .............................................................................................. 180 ganmartebiTi leqsikoni................................................................................... 182

moswavlis wignSi gamoyenebuli pirobiTi niSnebi samizne cnebebi, qvecnebebi, samecniero terminebi da maTTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi.

gaixsene _ biologiaSi, an sxva sagnebSi miRebuli codnis gaxseneba.

praqtikuli davalebebi _ kvleviTi samuSao: dakvirveba, eqsperimenti, socialuri kvleva kiTxvarebis, intervius saSualebiT, Catarebuli kvlevis monacemebis analizi, sakvlevi kiTxvis dasma; modelis Seqmna da gamoyeneba; proeqtis ganxorcieleba.

davalebebi _kiTxvebze pasuxebis gacema, muSaoba savarjiSoebsa da situaciur amocanebze; suraTebze, grafikebsa da cxrilebSi mocemuli monacemebis analizi, monacemebis organizeba sqemebSi.

mecniereba praqtikaSi _ mecnieruli Teoriis kavSiri da gamoyeneba realur cxovrebaSi, mniSvnelovani mecnieruli aRmoCenebi da misi Sefaseba, gavlena teqnologiebis ganviTarebaze, sazogadoebasa da garemoze. Sejameba _ paragarafis ZiriTadi ideebi.

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Sesavali

ras Seiswavli am saxelmZRvanelos gamoyenebiT? am wigniT gaecnobi sicocxlis organizaciis doneebs, maT Soris urTierTkavSirs da TiToeul donesTan dakavSirebul sasicocxlo Tvisebebs; Seiswavli sakuTar organizms. yovelma adamianma unda icodes sakuTari organizmis agebuleba, organizmSi mimdinare sasicocxlo procesebi da pirobebi, romelic xels Seuwyobs janmrTelobis SenarCunebasa da ganmtkicebas. adamianis organizmis SeswavlaSi dagexmareba mecnierebis iseTi dargebi, rogoricaa: adamianis anatomia, fiziologia da higiena. anatomia Seiswavlis organizmisa da misi calkeuli organos agebulebas da formas, xolo fiziologia _ organizmis, organoebisa da organoTa sistemebis moqmedebis meqanizms, maTSi mimdinare sasicocxlo procesebs da funqciebs. higiena Seiswavlis janmrTelobis SenarCunebisa da ganmtkicebis, daavadebebisgan Tavdacvis pirobebs.

rogor unda isargeblo saxelmZRvaneloTi? es wigni, Tavisi agebulebiT, dagexmareba saWiro informaciis swrafad da advilad moZebna-SeTvisebaSi. yovel adamians aqvs swavlis Tavisi xerxebi, magram qvemoT mocemuli rCevebi, vfiqrobT, maqsimalurad dagexmareba codnis miRebaSi. • yuradRebiT gaecani saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli rubrikebis aRwerilobas, rac gagiadvilebs wignis miznobriv gamoyenebas; • gaecani Temis Sesaval nawils, romelic mogcems warmodgenas misi Sinaarsisa da ZiriTadi ideebis Sesaxeb; • paragrafis Sinaarsis gacnobamde gaecani rubrikas `ZiriTadi cnebebi, qvecnebebi da maTTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi~; • saxelmZRaneloSi mocemuli rubrika `gaixsene~ dagexmareba biologiasa da sxva sagnebSi adre miRebuli codnis gaaqtiurebaSi, axladSeswavlili sakiTxebis gaazrebulad da Rrmad SeswavlaSi;

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• gaecani paragrafis Sinaarss, am dros teqstis garda isargeble ilustraciebiTa da masze mocemuli teqsturi informaciiT; • paragrafis wakiTxvis Semdeg axseni, an ganmarte cnebebi, terminebi da masTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi. amaSi dagexmareba teqstSi CarTuli kiTxvebi, paragrafSi mocemul davalebebze muSaoba (teqstSi `*~-iT aRniSnuli sityvebis ganmarteba ixile ganmartebiT leqsikonSi); • yuradRebiT gaecani da kargad daimaxsovre paragrafis bolos `SejamebaSi~ mocemuli ZiriTadi ideebi; • Teoriul masalasTan dakavSirebuli saintereso istoriebis, am sakiTxebis teqnologiebTan da cxovrebiseul praqtikasTan kavSiris Sesaxeb Seityob rubrikaSi _ `mecniereba praqtikaSi~; • yoveli Temis dasrulebis Semdeg mocemulia Temis Sejameba, romelSic Tavmoyrilia mTavari ideebi, mravalferovani davalebebi TviTSefasebisTvis. davalebebis didi nawili gaTvlilia maRali donis saazrovno unarebze. davalebebis Sesruleba dagexmareba Temis farglebSi Seswavlil ZiriTad cnebebs, qvecnebebsa da samecniero terminebs Soris kavSiris dadgenaSi. vimedovnebT, rom mogewoneba am wigniT sargebloba, radgan igi dagexmareba sakuTari organizmis gacnobaSi da imis aRqma-gagebaSi, rom Sen, rogorc sxva nebismieri cocxali organizmi, xar bunebis nawili da Seni organizmic emorCileba biologiuri sistemebis moqmedebis kanonzomierebebs.

kvlevis ra meTodebiT Seiswavli adamianis organizms? rogorc sxva cocxali organizmebis Seswavla xdeba kvleviTi samuSaoebis CatarebiT, aseve, adamianis agebulebasa da funqciebs ikvleven iseTi kvleviTi meTodebiT, rogoricaa dakvirveba, eqsperimenti, socialuri kvleva (socialuri kvleva gulisxmobs sazogadoebis interesTa sferos, raime movlenisadmi/sakiTxisadmi damokidebulebis, janmrTelobis darRvevis romelime formis SemTxvevebis da a.S. gamokvlevas). adamianis ujredebisa da qsovilebis Seswavlis mizniT kvlav aqtiurad gamoiyeneb mikroskopul kvlevas, mogiwevs kvlevebis Catareba rogorc maswavleblis instruqciis mixedviT, ise eqsperimentis damoukideblad dagegmva/Catareba. SegaxsenebT, rom samecniero meTodi gulisxmobs sakvlevi SekiTxvis dasmasa da masze pasuxis gacemas eqsperimentis meSveobiT. am dros Tvalyurs adevneb sasicocxlo process _ dakvirvebis obieqts da aRwer, Tu rogor icvleba igi garemo pirobebis/ faqtorebis cvlilebis sapasuxod. cdis pirobebs _ cvladebs _ Sen TviTon irCev da cvli maT saWiroebis mixedviT; Tu saWiroa, imave cdas mravaljer imeoreb. dakvirvebis obieqti damokidebuli cvladia, xolo faqtori _ damoukidebeli cvladi. magaliTad, dakvirvebis obieqtia gulis muSaobis sixSire. eqsperimentma unda daadginos, aris Tu ara gulis muSaobis sixSire damokidebuli organizmis fizikur aqtivobaze. am SemTxvevaSi, gulis muSaobis sixSire damokidebuli cvladia, xolo organizmis fizkikuri aqtivoba _ damoukidebeli cvladi. eqsperimentis Catarebis dros aucilebelia sxva faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebac, e.w. kontrolirebadi cvladebis gansazRvra. magaliTad, Tu ikvlev gulis muSaobis sixSireze fizikuri aqtivobis gavlenas, maSin sxva faqtorebi, rogoricaa kvlevaSi monawile adamianebis asaki, sqesi unda iyos erTnairi. es faqtorebi kontrolirebadi cvladebia. es exeba socialur kvlevebsac. magaliTad, Tu ikvlev adamianebSi raime daavadebis SemTxvevebs da mis gamomwvev mizezebs, gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos kvlevaSi CarTuli adamianebis asaki da sqesi, radgan erTic da meorec did gavlenas axdens adamianis organizmis anatomiasa da fiziologiaze.

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damoukidebeli cvladebi Zalian mravalferovania da yvela maTganis gaTvaliswineba cdaSi sakmaod Znelia. amitom cdis Catarebis erT-erTi aucilebeli pirobaa cdis kontroli (sakontrolo cda). magaliTad, Tu vikvlevT, nerwyvi Slis Tu ara saxamebels da am mizniT, erT sinjaraSi vaTavsebT saxameblis wyalxsnars, nerwyvs da vumatebT iodis nayens, xolo meore sinjaraSi vaTavsebT mxolod saxameblis wyalxsnars da vumatebT iodis nayens, am SemTxvevaSi sakontrolo cda iqneba meore sinjara. samecniero meTodi moiTxovs TanmimdevrobiTi nabijis gadadgmas, rasac ukve gaecani me-7 klasSi, magram aqac SegaxsenebT. nabiji 1 – dasvi sakvlevi kiTxva:

• CainiSne erTi kiTxva, romelzedac Cemi sakvlevi kiTxva: ginda miiRo pasuxi cdis, dakvirvebis nerwyvi Slis Tu ara saxamebels? Sedegad; • Camowere, ra ici am sakiTxis Sesaxeb; • gadawyvite, kidev ra informacia gWirdeba; • moiZie informacia am sakiTxze. nabiji 2 – Camoayalibe hipoTeza:

• dawere, ras moeli kvlevis Sedegad, anu SesaZlebeli pasuxi Sens sakvlev kiTxvaze. SesaZlebel pasuxs hqvia hipoTeza. hipoTeza ise unda iyos formulirebuli, rom misi Semowmeba SeiZlebodes.

Cemi hipoTeza: vfiqrob, nerwyvi moqmedebs saxamebelze da Slis mas, ris Sesamowmeblad gamoviyeneb iods, radgan vici, rom iodi saxameblis Tanaobisas lurjdeba.

nabiji 3 – dagegme eqsperimenti da Caatare:

• gansazRvre cvladebi; • gansazRvre kvlevis procesis etapebi, romlis mixedviTac Caatareb cvladebis kontroliT eqperiments Seni hipoTezis sisworis Sesamowmeblad; • CamoTvale aucilebeli mowyobiloba/aRWurviloba; • gadawyvite, rogor moagroveb da CainiSnav eqsperimentis Sedegad miRebul monacemebs (monacemebi aRricxe ise, rom gagiadvildes misi analizi da daskvnis gakeTeba. magaliTad, monacemebis dafiqsireba cxrilSi, fotosa da videos gadaReba, naxatebi da a.S.); • Sen mier dawerili kvlevis gegmis/ instruqciis mixedviT Caatare eqsperimenti; • daicavi usafrTxoebis wesebi; • aRricxe eqsperimentis Sedegebi/monacemebi.

eqperimentis gegma cvladebis gansazRvra: damoukidebeli cvladia nerwyvi, damokidebuli cvladi _ saxameblis cvlileba, rac iodis Seferilobis SecvliT dgindeba, xolo kontrolirebadi _ erTnairi moculobis saxameblis wyalxsnari da garemoSi erTnairi temperatura. saWiro masala: ori sinjara, ori qimiuri Wiqa, 37°C-mde gamTbari wyali, sinjaris sadgami, saxameblis wyalxsnari, iodis nayeni. procedura: 1. sinjarebis danomvra: #1 da #2. 2. #1 sinjaraSi 2 ml saxameblis wyalxsnaris moTavseba, iodis nayenisa da 2 ml nerwyvis Camateba; 3. #2 sinjaraSi 2 ml saxameblis wyalxsnaris moTavseba da iodis nayenis Camateba; 4. orive sinjaris 37°C-ian wylian qimiur WiqaSi moTavseba 10 wuTis ganmavlobaSi; 5. dakvirveba sinjarebis SigTavsis Seferilobis cvlilebaze; 6. monacemebis aRricxva monacemebis cxrilSi.

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nabiji 4 – monacemebis analizis safuZvelze gaakeTe daskvna:

• gaaanalize monacemebi. Seqmeni analizi da daskvna diagrama da grafiki monacemebis war#1 sinjaraSi 10 wuTis Semdeg SigTavsis Seferimosadgenad; loba Seicvala _ aRar hqonda lurji Seferi• dawere daskvna, romelic unda paloba, rac imaze miuTiTebs, rom nerwyvis zemoqsuxobdes sakvlev kiTxvas. miRebuli medebiT saxamebeli daiSala. #2 sinjaraSi, sadac nerwyvi ar iyo Camatebuli, Seferiloba Sedegebi/monacemebi gamoiyene, roar Seicvala, es imas niSnavs, rom aq saxamebeli gorc mtkicebuleba Seni daskvnisTar daSlila. vis; daskvna: nerwyvi Slis saxamebels. Cemi hipoTeza gamarTlda da me gamiCnda axali • gaaanalize, Seni hipoTeza gamarsakvlevi kiTxva: rogor aris nerwyvis moqmedeba Tlda Tu ara? damokidebuli temperaturaze? • Tu Seni hipoTeza gamarTlda, imave Temaze SegiZlia sxva sakvlevi kiTxva dasva da Seamowmo cdis CatarebiT; • Tu Seni hipoTeza ar gamarTlda, SegiZlia gansxvavebuli hipoTezis Camoyalibeba da misi sxva cvladiT Semowmeba. nabiji 5

samecniero eqsperimentis mniSvnelovani nawilia eqsperimentuli monacemebis _ cdis Sedegebis/monacemebis _ gacvla/gaziareba sxva jgufTan. diagramebi, cxrilebi da grafikebi, romlebzec Seni monacemebia gamosaxuli, SegiZlia sxva jgufebs gauziaro, dawero kvlevis angariSi da warudgino maswavlebels.

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Tema

1. sicocxlis organizaciis doneebi

molekulebi

ujredi

qsovili

organo

org. sistema

organizmi

molekulebi

ujredi

qsovili

organo

org. sistema

organizmi

cocxali buneba warmoadgens sistemas, romelSic gamoarCeven organizaciis sxvadasxva dones, rac organizmis rTuli ierarqiuli agebulebis formirebas ganapirobebs. organizaciis doneebis gamoyofa mosaxerxebelia sicocxlis, rogorc bunebis rTuli sistemis Sesasawavlad. organizaciis doneebi erTmaneTTan dakavSirebulia da erTmaneTs eqvemdebareba: ufro qveda martivi done gansazRvravs zeda donis Tvisebebs. am Temis Seswavlisas dawvrilebiT ganixilav sicocxlis organizaciis yovel dones. organizaciis yovel doneze vlindeba cocxalisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli gansxvavebuli Tviseba. sicocxle dedamiwaze warmodgenilia agebulebis mixedviT gansazRvruli sirTulis sxvadasxva sistematikuri jgufis organizmebiT. am Temis Seswavlisas, aseve, ganixilav sicocxlis organizaciis donis Sesabamisobas sxvadasxva jgufis organizmebTan. Temis Seswavlis dros mogiwevs iseT sakvanZo kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema, rogoricaa: • ratom miiCneva ujredi yvela organizmis elementarul erTeulad? • rogor Seesabameba qsovilTa agebuleba maT funqcias? • rogor ukavSirdeba sicocxlis organizaciis sxvadasxva done sasicocxlo Tvisebebs? • rogor Seesabameba sicocxlis organizaciis done sxvadasxva jgufis organizmebs?

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1.1.

ujreduli Teoria

ratom miiCneva ujredi yvela organizmis elementarul erTeulad? struqtura _ cocxalis ujreduli agebuleba; ujredi; kvleva _ ujredis kvlevis istoria.

• pirvelad vin da rogor aRmoaCina ujredebi? • ratom iyo ujredis aRmoCena dakavSirebuli mikroskopis gamogonebasTan? • romel organizmebs uwodeben mikroskopuls?

cnobismoyvareoba ubiZgebda mkvlevrebs, cocxali arsebebi SeeswavlaT linzebisa da mikroskopis saSualebiT, raTa ufro ukeTesi warmodgena SeeqmnaT maT struqturaze. amiT mecnierebi mividnen daskvnamde, rom yvela cocxali organizmi ujredebisgan Sedgeba. Tumca am daskvnamde misvlas saukuneebi dasWirda da ujredis kvlevas Zalian saintereso istoria aqvs. evropaSi gamadidebeli linzebiT pirvelad sargeblobdnen vaWrebi, romlebic qsovilebis xarisxis gansazRvris mizniT amowmebdnen Zafisa da naqsovis xarisxs. holandiaSi linzebis gamoyenebiT XVII saukunis dasawyisSi Seqmnes ori sasargeblo xelsawyo: erTi maTgani iyo huki

1665 w. aRmoaCina ujredi da termini `ujredi SemoiRo~.

levenhuki

1674 w. gaumjobesda mikroskopis linzebi da aRmoaCina erTujredianebi.

teleskopi, romliTac adamianebs SeeZloT Sors myofi sagnebis, magaliTad, caSi varskvlavebis danaxva; meore ki iyo mikroskopi, romliTac daiwyes cocxali arsebebis struqturis kvleva da aRqmadi gaxda bunebis Zalian mcire zomis obieqtebi. rogorc ukve ici, termini `ujredi~ SemoiRo ingliselma mecnierma robert hukma, rodesac mikroskopiT xis qerqis daTvalierebisas aRmoaCina patara saknebi. samwuxarod, hukma naxa mkvdari ujredebi, romelTac mxolod ujredis kedeli hqondaT SenarCunebuli. miuxedavad amisa, hukis aRmoCena iyo Zalian mniSvnelovani, radgan safuZveli Cauyara ujredebis mikroskopul kvlevas. robert hukis aRmoCeniT dainteresdnen sxva mecnierebic da intensiurad daiwyes cocxali arsebebis kvleva mikroskopiT (sur. 1). holandielma mecnierma anton van levenhukma tboris wylis wveTSi mikroskopiT dainaxa is, rac iqamde aravis enaxa: man wylis wveTSi aRmoaCina umciresi erTujrediani cocxali organizmebi da TiToeuli saxeobis organizmis aRwerilobiTi naxatebi Seqmna. Semdegi 200 wlis ganmavlobaSi sxva mecnierebma aRmoaCines, rom ujredebis-

Sleideni

1838 w. daadgina, rom 1839 w. daadgina, rom yvela mcenare ujre- yvela cocxal arsebas debisgan Sedgeba. aqvs ujreduli agebuleba.

sur. 1

10 0

Svani

virxovi

1855 w. gamoTqva mosazreba, rom axali ujredi sawyisi ujredis gayofiT warmoiqmneba.


gan Sedgeba ara marto mcenareebi, aramed sxva organizmebic. 1833 wels Sotlandielma mecnierma robert braunma SeamCnia, rom bevr ujreds centrSi gaaCnia muqi struqtura, rasac axla birTvs veZaxiT. 5 wlis Semdeg germanelma botanikosma maTias Sleidenma ganacxada, rom yvela mcenare ujredebisgan Sedgeba. germanelma zoologma Teodor Svanma msgavsi gamokvlevebi Caatara cxovelebze da imave daskvnamde mivida, rom cxovelebsac ujreduli agebuleba aqvT. 1839 wels

Svanma sakuTari da Sleidenis gamokvlevebis safuZvelze Camoayaliba ujreduli Teoria, romlis mixedviTac, ujredi aris yvela cocxalis agebulebis ZiriTadi erTeuli. Semdeg wlebSi sxva mecnierebis aRmoCenebis safuZvelze ujreduli Teoria TandaTan ivseboda da viTardeboda. magaliTad, 1855 wels germanelma eqimma rudolf virxovma kvlevebze dafuZnebiT ganacxada, rom yvela axali ujredi warmoiqmneba sawyisi/arsebuli ujredis gayofis Sedegad (sur. 2).

sur. 2

dRes ujreduli Teoriis debulebebia: • yvela cocxali arseba ujredebisgan Sedgeba. • ujredi aris cocxali organizmebis

struqturuli da funqciuri ZiriTadi erTeuli. • yvela axali ujredi ukve arsebuli ujredis gayofiT warmoiqmneba.

ujreduli Teoriis Seqmnis Semdeg ufro aqtiurad warimarTa ujredis kvleva da Camoyalibda biologiis erT-erTi dargi _ citologia, ujredis Semswavleli mecniereba. ujredis SeswavlaSi axali etapi daiwyo eleqtronuli mikroskopis gamogonebis Semdeg (1933 w.). igi obieqts milionjer adidebs. eleqtronuli mikroskopis gamogonebasTan aris dakavSirebuli ujredis mikroskopuli struqturebisa da virusebis aRmoCena, maTi kvleva. ujredi warmoadgens biologiis gasaRebs, radgan swored am doneze mimdinare bioqimiuri procesebi gansazRvraven sicocxles. ujredulma Teoriam didi gavlena iqonia medicinaze. dRes daavadebebs ikvleven ujredis doneze, mikroskops iyeneben qirurgiul operaciebze. medicinaSi ujredul da qsovilur doneze kvleva da daavadebis diagnostireba xdeba ara marto mikroskopis gamoyenebiT, aramed iseTi Tanamedrove meTodebiT, rogoricaa rentgenoskopia, mikrosonografia da sxv.

1. rodesac hukma pirvelad gamoiyena termini `ujredi~, fiqrobda, rom am terminis gamoyeneba SeiZleboda cocxali organizmebis mimarT? axseni Seni pasuxi. 2. ra wvlili Seitanes ujreduli Teoriis ganviTarebaSi van levenhukma, hukma, Sleidenma, Svanma da virxovma? 3. ra roli Seasrula mikroskopis gamogonebam ujreduli Teoriis ganviTarebaSi?

ujredulma Teoriam didi gavlena moaxdina biologiisa da medicinis ganviTarebaze.

111


1.2.

cxoveluri qsovilebi

rogor Seesabameba qsovilis agebuleba mis funqciebs? struqtura _ qsovilTa ZiriTadi jgufebis _ epiTeluri, SemaerTebeli, kunTovani da nervuli _ struqturis Tavisebureba; funqciebi _ qsovilTa TiToeuli jgufis agebulebis Sesabamisoba mis funqciasTan; kvleva _ mikroskopuli kvlevis safuZvelze qsovilebis amocnoba da maTi agebulebis funqciebTan dakavSireba; mikroskopuli kvlevis safuZvelze qsovilTa SedarebiTi daxasiaTeba. • ganmarte qsovili; • daasaxele SenTvis nacnobi cxoveluri qsovilebi.

mravalujredian cocxal organizmebSi gvxvdeba mravali saxis ujredi. isini erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdebian formiT,

zomiT, SeferilobiT da sxv. Tu erTujredianebis erTi ujredi asrulebs organzmisaTvis damaxasiaTebel yvela funqcias, mravalujredianebSi piriqiT _ ujredebs organizmisaTvis specifikuri funqciebis Sesruleba akisriaT. ujredis forma da agebuleba Seesabameba im funqcias, romelic mas gaaCnia. magaliTad, adamianis kunTovan ujredebs wagrZelebuli forma aqvT da SekumSva SeuZliaT. nervul ujredebs aqvT grZeli boWkoebi, riTac nervul impulsebs tvinidan organoebs gadascemen. nebismier mravalujredian organizmSi ujredebi SeTanxmebulad muSaoben. agebulebisa da Sesrulebuli funqciebis mixedviT msgavsi ujredebisa da ujredSorisi nivTierebis erToblioba qsovils warmoqmnis (sur. 3).

wamwamovani epiTeluri qsovili _ gvxvdeba sunTqvis organoebSi, saidanac wamwamebi mtversa da mikrobebs gamodevnian.

Zvlovani qsovili _ sxeulis sayrdenia da icavs dazianebisagan.

ganivzoliani kunTovani qsovili _ aqvs SekumSvis unari da monawileobs organizmis moZraobaSi.

sisxli _ organizms sakvebi nivTierebebiTa da JangbadiT amaragebs.

gluvkunTovani qsovili _ gvxvdeba Sinagan organoebSi, mis ujredebs aqvs SekumSvis unari.

nervuli qsovili _ igi warmoqmnis nervebs, Tavisa da zurgis tvins da akontrolebs organizmis sasicocxlo procesebs. sur. 3

me-3 suraTze warmodgenili qsovilebi SeiZleba oTx jgufad davajgufoT: epiTeluri, SemaerTebeli, kunTovani da nervu-

12

li qsovilebi. histologia aris mecnierebis dargi, romelic qsovilebs Seiswavlis.


epiTeluri qsovilis saxeebi

erTSriani brtyeli epiTeluri qsovili

erTSriani cilindruli epiTeluri qsovili

wamwamovani epiTeluri qsovili

mravalSriani brtyeli epiTeluri qsovili

jirkvlovani epiTeluri qsovili

sur. 4

qsovilebis TiToeuli jgufi warmodgenilia qsovilebis mravalferovani saxeebiT (sur. 4 da 5). rogorc suraTebze xedav, TiToeuli qsovilis struqtura, maTi Semadgeneli ujredebi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdeba, rac maT Sesasrulebel funqciasTan aris dakavSirebuli. magaliTad, SemaerTebeli qsovilis yvela saxeobaSi ujredebi erTmaneTisgan Sori-Sorsaa ganlagebuli da maT Soris didi raodenobiTaa ujredSorisi nivTereba, xolo epiTelur qsovilSi ujredebi ise mWidrodaa ganlagebuli, rom ujredSorisi nivTiereba arc ki SeimCneva. amitomaa, rom epiTelur qsovilTan, ZiriTadad, damcvelobiTi funqciaa dakavSirebuli.

SemaerTebeli qsovilis saxeebi xrtilovani qsovili

sisxli

ujredSorisi naerTebi cximovani SemaerTebeli qsovili

Zvlovani qsovili

sur. 5

kunTovani qsovilis saxeebi

gulis ganivzoliani kunTovani qsovili

ConCxis ganivzoliani kunTovani qsovili

gluvkunTovani qsovili

sur. 6

13


kunTovani qsovilic (sur. 6) ramdenime saxeobiT aris warmodgenili: ConCxis ganivzoliani kunTovani qsovili, gulis ganivzoliani da gluvkunTovani qsovili. kunTovan qsovilSi ujredebs kunTovani boWkoebi ewodeba. ConCxisa da gulis ganivzolian kunTovan boWkos aqvs wagrZelebuli Zafnairi forma, ganivi daxazuloba da mravali birTvi. gulis kunTSi qsovilis saxesxvaoba

boWkoebi zogierT adgilas erTmaneTs erwymis. gluvkunTovani boWko mokle da TiTistariseburia, mas ar aqvs ganivi daxazuloba da gaaCnia erTi birTvi. qvemoT cxrilSi dawvrilebiTaa mocemuli TiToeuli qsovilis funqciebi (struqturis TaviseburebebTan dakavSirebiT) da organizmSi maTi mdebareobis magaliTebi.

mdebareoba organizmSi

funqciebi

epiTeluri qsovili _ ujredebi erTmaneTTan mWidrodaa ganlagebuli da mcire raodenobiTaa maT Soris ujredSorisi nivTiereba. erTSriani brtyeli epiTelu- kapilarebisa da filtvis ri qsovili buStukebis kedeli cilindruli epiTeluri qsovili

kuWi, wvrili nawlavi

mravalSriani jirkvlovani wamwamovani

sxeulis safarveli (kani) sekreciis jirkvlebi sasunTqi gzebi

nivTierebaTa cvla sisxlsa da qsovilebs Soris, haersa da sisxls Soris sakvebi nivTierebebis Semwovi funqcia damcvelobiTi sekretoruli damcvelobiTi

SemaerTebeli qsovili _ faSarad ganlagebuli ujredebi da kargad ganviTarebuli ujredSorisi nivTiereba. Zvlovani _ ujredSorisi nivTiereba mdidaria kalciumis marilebiT

ConCxi

sayrdeni, damcvelobiTi, kalciumis samarago

xrtilovani

ConCxi, sasunTqi gzebi, yuris niJara

sayrdeni, damcvelobiTi

elastikuri

myesebi, iogebi, arteriebi

sayrdeni, mamoZravebeli, damcvelobiTi

cximovani

kanqveSa ujredisi, muclis Rru _ badeqoni

damcvelobiTi, sayrdeni, Tboregulacia, samarago

sisxli

gulisa da sisxlZarRvebis siRrue

nivTierebaTa satransporto, damcvelobiTi, Tboregulacia

kunTovani qsovili _ warmoqmnis kunTovani boWkoebi. axasiaTebs kumSvadoba. ConCxis ganivzoliani kunTovani qsovili gulis ganivzoliani kunTovani qsovili gluvkunTovani qsovili

ConCxis kunTebi

sayrdeni, mamoZravebeli, damcvelobiTi

guli

mamoZravebeli

saWmlis momnelebeli sistemis mamoZravebeli arxi, saSarde buSti, sisxlZarRvebisa da limfuri ZarRvebi da sxva Sinagani organoebi

nervuli qsovili _ Sedgeba grZeli da moklemorCebiani ujredebisgan. Tavisa da zurgis tvini, nervuli kvanZebi da nervebi

14 4

nervuli impulsis warmoqmna da gatareba


cxoveluri qsovilebis mikroskopuli kvleva kvleva 1. cxoveluri qsovilebis mza mikropreparatebze qsovilebis amocnoba masala: sinaTlis mikroskopi, cxoveluri qsovilebis mza mikropreparatebi (slaidebi). kvlevis mizani: mikropreparatebze qsovilis amocnoba. procedura: mikroskopiT saTiTaod ganixile maswavleblis mier mowodebuli mza mikropreparati (slaidi); TiToeul mikropreparatze amoicani qsovili da miuTiTe qsovilis agebulebis is Tavisebureba, romelic dagexmara qsovilis amocnobaSi; miuTiTe TiToeuli qsovilis funqcia da daakavSire mis agebulebis TaviseburebasTan.

kvleva 2. kunTovani qsovilebis mikroskopuli kvleva kvlevis mizani: sami sxvadasxva tipis kunTovani qsovilis Sedareba. saWiro masala: mza mikropreparatebi: slaidi 1 _ ConCxis kunTovani qsovili, slaidi 2 _ gluvkunTovani qsovili, slaidi 3 _ gulis kunTovani qsovili. procedura: kunTis tipi

dakvirveba

saerTo Tvisebebi

gansxvavebuli Tvisebebi

slaidi 1 slaidi 2 slaidi 3 1. gadaitane cxrili rveulSi; 2. mikroskopiT yuradRebiT daaTvaliere slaid 1-ze mocemuli kunTovani qsovili da Seadare me-16 suraTze mocemul kunTovani qsovilis gamosaxulebas; 3. dakvirvebis monacemebi Seitane cxrilSi. aRwere, rogor gamoiyureba, rogori forma aqvs boWkoebs, ra feri aqvs, SeiniSneba maTze zolebi Tu ara, ramdeni birTvia TiToeul boWkoSi; 4. ori-sami nabiji gaimeore slaid 2-sa da slaid 3-Tvis. analizi da daskvna: 1. aRwere yoveli kunTovani qsovilis saxeoba. 2. ra aqvs saerTo qsovilebs da riT gansxvavdeba? 3. rogor dagexmara mikroskopi qsovilebis erTmaneTTan Sedarebisas?

1. daasaxele qsovilTa ZiriTadi jgufebi da TiToeuli jgufis agebulebis Tavisebureba. 2. konkretuli magaliTebis safuZvelze axseni, qsovilTa agebuleba rogor Seesabameba maT funqcias.

ms msgavsi funqciisa da struqturis ujredebi qmnian qsovilebs; cxoveluri qsovilebi (epiTeluri, kunTovani, nervuli da SemaerTebeli) gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan da maTi agebuleba Seesabameba maT funqcias.

15 5


1.3.

mcenareuli qsovilebi

ra tipis qsovilebi gvxvdeba mcenareebSi? struqtura _ mcenareul qsovilTa ZiriTadi jgufebis _ warmomSobi, mfaravi, ZiriTadi, gamtari da meqanikuri _ struqturis Tavisebureba; funqciebi _ qsovilTa TiToeuli jgufis agebulebis Sesabamisoba mis funqciasTan; kvleva _ mcenareSi warmomSobi qsovilis adgilmdebareobis gansazRvra; mikroskopuli kvlevis safuZvelze mcenareuli qsovilebis amocnoba da maTi agebulebis funqciebTan dakavSireba.

• ganmarte qsovili; • me-7 suraTze amoicani SenTvis nacnobi mcenareuli qsovilebi, aRwere TiToeulis agebulebis Tavisebureba maT funqciebTan kavSirSi.

mcenareebSic ujredebi mravalferovania da formiT Seesabameba mis mier Sesrulebul funqcias. agebulebiTa da Sesrulebuli funqciebis Taviseburebebis mixedviT ujredebis erToblioba ro-

foTlis ujreduli agebuleba

gorc cxovelebSi, ise mcenareebSic qsovilebs warmoqmnis. mcenareebSi gamoyofen Semdegi jgufis qsovilebs: ZiriTadi, warmomSobi, mfaravi, meqanikuri da gamtari. sxvadasxva mcenareuli qsovili gansxvavdeba agebulebiT, rac dakavSirebulia mis funqciasTan. ZiriTadi qsovili mcenaris sxeulis did nawils Seadgens. funqciebis mixedviT arCeven ZiriTadi qsovilis sxvadasxva saxes. magaliTad, mafotosinTezebeli da samarago qsovilebi. mafotosinTezebeli qsovili aris mcenaris mwvane organoebSi, gansakuTrebiT ki kargadaa ganviTarebuli foTlebSi. igi asrulebs mafotosinTezebel funqcias, radgan ujredebi qloroplastebiTaa mdidari. samarago qsovilis ujredebSi samaragod grovdeba sakvebi nivTierebebi (saxamebeli, cilebi, cximebi), romelsac mcenare saWiroebisamebr iyenebs sasicocxlo procesebSi. mcenareebi, romlebic periodulad ganicdian garemoSi wylis naklebobas, wyals igroveben Reros (mag., kaqtusebi) an foT-

qsilema (mis WurWlebSi wyali da mineraluri marilebi moZraobs)

mafotosinTezebeli qsovili kutikula gamtari qsovili

zeda epidermisi

qveda epidermisi floema (mis sacrisebur milebSi moZraobs foTolSi warmoqmnili sakvebi nivTierebebi) bagis Semqmneli ujredebi sur. 7

16

bagis xvreli _ misi saSualebiT moZraobs airebi da aregulirebs wylis aorTqlebas


WurWlebi

fesvis bususebi

Semwovi zona

gaWimvis anu zrdis zona

kenwruli meristema

ujredebis dayofis zona

fesvis wvero sur. 8

WurWlebi

sacriseburi milebi sacriseburi firfita

glukoza

wyali da mineraluri marilebi

lis (mag., aloe) samarago qsovilebSi. samarago qsovilis didi moculobaa gorglsa da bolqvSi, ZirxvenaSi, marcvleuli mcenareebis TeslebSi, wvniani nayofebis rbilobSi, xemcenareebis ReroSi da sxv. warmomSobi qsovili (meristema) monawileobs mcenaris zrdaSi, radgan mis ujredebs aqvs dayofis unari. ujredebi aris Txelgarsiani, centrSi aqvT birTvi, ar gaaCniaT vakuolebi. mWidrodaa ujredebi erTmaneTis gverdiT ganlagebuli da iyofian sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT. warmomSobi qsovili aris mcenaris mkacrad gansazRvrul nawilebSi: fesvisa da Reros wveroSi (kenwruli meristema), e.i. iq, sadac swrafad warmoiqmneba axali ujredebi, ris xarjzec mcenare izrdeba (sur. 8). mfaravi qsovili mdebareobs mcenaris yvela organos zedapirze. igi damcvelobiT funqcias asrulebs: mcenares icavs gadaxurebisa da gayinvisgan, wylis didi raodenobiT aorTqlebisgan, daavadebis gamomwvevi organizmebisgan da sxv. foTols an axalgazrda Reros Tu daakvirdebi, SeamCnev, rom masze Txeli kania. es epidermisia, romelic erTmaneTze mijrili gamWvirvale garsiT dafaruli ujredebisgan Sedgeba. epidermisi zemodan kutikuliTaa* dafaruli (sur. 7). misi priala zedapiri mzis Warbi sxivebisganac icavs mcenares. epidermiss zogjer gamonazardebi _ bususebi gaaCnia. isini gansakuTrebiT bevria udabnoebisa da naxevarudabnoebis mcenareebis foTlebsa da Reroebze. epidermisSi wylis aorTqleba da airTa cvla (Jangbadisa da naxSirorJangis Sesvla-gamosvla) specialuri warmonaqmnebiT _ bageebiT xdeba. gamtari qsovilebi uzrunvelyofen araorganuli da organuli nivTierebebis transportirebas mcenaris erTi organodan meoreSi. mcenaris yvela organoSi gvxvdeba gamtari qsovilebi. mcenareSi arCeven ori saxis gamtar qsovils _ qsilemasa da floemas (sur. 9). qsilema Sedgeba WurWlebisgan. WurWlebs qmnis wagrZelebuli formis mkvdari ujredebi, romelTac mxolod ujredis kedeli aqvT

sur. 9

SenarCunebuli. WurWlebSi moZraobs fesvebis mier Sewovili wyali da mineraluri marilebi mxolod erTi mimarTulebiT: fesvidan mcenaris miwiszeda organoebisken. floemis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis sacriseburi milebi. sacrisebur milebs qmnis wagrZelebuli formis ubirTvo cocxali ujredebi. sacrisebur milebSi moZraobs organuli sakvebi nivTierebebi orive mimarTulebiT: foTlebidan sxva organoebisken (maT Soris, fesvebisken) da fesvisa da Reros samarago qsovilebidan zeda organoebisaken.

17 7


meqanikuri qsovili mcenaris sxvadasxva organos simtkices aniWebs. meqanikuri qsovili ReroSi ufro periferiulad aris ganlagebuli, magram Sedis, agreTve, gamtari konebis SemadgenlobaSi, xolo foTolSi kargadaa ganviTarebuli foT-

lis ZarRvebSi. ReroSi, mcenaris asakis momatebasTan erTad, cocxali meqanikuri qsovili icvleba mkvdari qsoviliT, romlis ujredebsac aqvT gamerqnebuli ujredis kedeli. meqanikuri qsovili ar aqvT, an naklebad aqvT ganviTarebuli wylis mcenareebs.

1. gaecani paragrafis teqstsa da suraTebze mocemul informacias, mopovebuli monacemebis safuZvelze Seavse qvemoT mocemuli cxrili. (cxrili gadaitane rveulSi): mcenareuli qsovilis ZiriTadi jgufebi

qsovilis agebulebis Tavisebureba

funqcia

mdebareoba organizmSi

2. me-8 suraTis mixedviT daasaxele fesvis zonebi da aRwere TiToeulis funqcia. 3. ra gansxvavebaa qsilemasa da floemas Soris? 4. botanikosebma ipoves mcenaris Reros nawili da ainteresebdaT, igi xmeleTis mcenares ekuTvnoda Tu wylis mcenares. rogor fiqrob, romeli qsovilis arsebobas gamoikvlevdnen masSi? ratom?

warmomSobi qsovilis adgilmdebareobis gansazRvra sakvlevi kiTxva: Reros romeli nawiliT izrdeba mcenare simaRleSi? saWiro masala: qoTani niadagiT, 5-6 lobios Tesli, wyali, markeri, saxazavi. procedura: qoTanSi CaTese 5-6 cali lobios Tesli da daelode maT aRmocenebas. aRmocenebidan me-5 dRes mcenaris Reroze markeriT gaakeTe Tanabari danayofebi, daaxloebiT yovel 3 milimetrze. yovel meore dRes gazome danayofebs Soris manZilebi da monacemebi Seitane cxrilSi. analizi da daskvna: daakvirdi, sad ufro gaizarda danayofebs Soris manZili, niadagTan axlos Tu mcenaris wverosken? iq, sadac ufro gaizrdeba danayofebs Soris manZili, romeli qsovilis arseboba unda vivaraudoT? cdis Sedegebze dakvirvebiT gamoitane daskvna.

mmcenareuli qsovilebis jgufebia: ZiriTadi, warmomSobi, mfaravi, gamtari da meqanikuri; qsovilebi gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisgan da maTi agebuleba Seesabameba maT funqciebs.

18


1.4.

sicocxlis organizaciis doneebi

ras niSnavs sicocxlis organizaciis doneebi? sicocxle dedamiwaze nairgvari saxiT vlindeba. igi warmodgenilia prokarioti da eukarioti, erTujrediani da mravalujrediani formebiT. mravalujrediani organizmebi, Tavis mxriv, gaerTianebulia sokoebis, mcenareTa da cxovelTa samefoebSi. bunebaSi yvela sxeuls _ cocxalsa da aracocxals _ garkveuli struqturebis erToblioba qmnis. Sen ukve ici, rom yvela cocxalis struqturuli da funqciuri erTeuli ujredia, romlis moqmedeba, Tavis mxriv, damokidebulia nivTierebaTa Sedgenilobasa da maT gardaqmnebze. isic ici, rom mravalujredian organizmebSi erTi tipis ujredebi SeTanxmebulad muSaoben da isini qsovilebs qmnian. sxvadasxva tipis qsovilebi ki organos qmnis. organo sxeulis nawilia, romelsac aqvs garkveuli forma, agebuleba, fun-

struqtura _ sicocxlis organizaciis doneebi: molekuluri, ujreduli, qsoviluri, organuli, organoTa sistemuri da organizmuli; funqcia _ TiToeuli organizaciis donis daxasiaTeba; sasicocxlo Tviseba _ sicocxlis organizaciis sxvadasxva donis dakavSireba sasicocxlo TvisebebTan; biomravalferovneba _ organizaciis doneebis Sesabamisoba sxvadasxva sistematikuri jgufis organizmTan.

• daasaxele organizmTa 5 samefo da TiToeuli samefo molked daaxasiaTe; • daasaxele sicocxlis araujreduli forma da aRwere misi agebulebis Tavisebureba; • CamoTvale cocxalisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi?

organizmis organizaciis doneebi I molekuluri lekulu II ujreduli li

III qsoviluri

IV organuli

VI organizmuli

V organoTa sistemuri

sur. 10

19 9


qcia da adgili organizmSi. magaliTad, guli Sedgeba SemaerTebeli, kunTovani, nervuli qsovilebisgan. umetes nawils gulis kunTovani qsovili Seadgens, romelic mis funqcias ganapirobebs.

ujredebisa da qsovilebis msgavsad, organoebic SeTanxmebulad muSaoeben. isini `TanamSromloben~ erTmaneTTan. raime funqciis an funqciebis Sesasruleblad erTad momuSave organoTa jgufs mwvane ujredebSi fotosinTezi xdeba da mafotosinTezebel qsovils qmnis

fotosinTezi uSualod qloroplastSi mimdinareobs

bagis xvrelis saSualebiT naxSirorJangi aRwevs mafotosinTezebel qsovilSi mWidrod ganlagebuli ujredebi damcvelobiT funqcias asrulebs da mfarav qsovils qmnis

WurWlebi

fesvebis mier Sewovili wyali gamtari qsoviliT miewodeba foTols _ mafotosinTezebel organos wyali

fesvis mfaravi qsovilis bususovani ujredi niadagidan wyalsa da masSi gaxsnil mineralur marilebs iwovs

sur. 11

20 0


organoTa sistema ewodeba. magaliTad, sisxlis mimoqcevis sistemas qmnis guli da sisxlZarRvebi. es sistema uzrunvelyofs qsovilebis momaragebas JangbadiTa da sakvebi nivTierebebiT. sxvadasxva organoTa sistemebis erToblioba ki organizms qmnis. organizmi _ es aris cocxali sistema, romelsac damoukideblad SeuZlia moqmedeba da funqcionireba. aseve xdeba mcenareebSic: mcenareebs aqvT ujreduli agebuleba, ujredebi qmnian qsovilebs, qsovilebi _ organoebs

(fesvi, Rero, foToli), organoebi _ organoTa sistemas (mag., fesvTa sistema), organoTa sistemebi ki – mTlian organizms (mcenares). amrigad, mravalujrediani organizmis sicocxle damokidebulia molekulebis, ujredebis, qsovilebis, organoebisa da organoTa sistemebis SeTanxmebul moqmedebaze. TiToeuls ganixilaven, rogorc organizaciis dones: molekuluri, ujreduli, qsoviluri, organuli, organoTa sistemuri, organizmuli (sur. 10).

rogor ukavSirdeba organizaciis sxvadasxva done sasicocxlo Tvisebebs? Tu daakvirdebi sicocxlis organizaciis doneebis rigs, SeamCnev, rom yoveli Semdgomi done winamorbeds moicavs. magaliTad, organuli done moicavs qsovilur da ujredul dones, ujredebi ki molekulebisgan Sedgeba. ase iqmneba sicocxlis organizaciis erTgvari ierarqia, romelTa Soris mWidro kavSiri arsebobs. sicocxlis erTi organizaciis donidan meoreze gadasvlisas Cndeba axali Tvisebebi, romlebic wina doneze ar aReniSneba. es Tvisebebi damokidebulia organizaciis doneebis urTierTganlagebasa da urTierTqmedebaze. es sakiTxi ganvixiloT SenTvis kargad nacnobi procesis _ fotosinTezis _ magaliTze, Tu rogor monawileobs mcenaris organizaciis sxvadasxva done, TiToeuli ra Tvisebebs avlens da ra rols asrulebs am procesSi (sur. 11). magaliTad, xemcenare Wadari aris mcenareuli organizmi, romelic fotoavtotrofia, radgan gaaCnia mwvane foTlebi, foToli ki organos magaliTia. foToli ramdenime qsovilisgan (mafotosinTezebeli, mfaravi, gamtari) Sedgeba. mfarav qsovils _ epidermiss gaaCnia bageebi, romlis saSualebiT naxSiror-

Jangi aRwevs foTlis SigniT _ qsovilSi, sadac fotosinTezi mimdinareobs, aseve, mafotosinTezebel qsovilSi xvdeba fesvis mier Sewovili wyali gamtari qsovilis saSualebiT. fotosinTezi xorcieldeba ujredebis SemadgenlobaSi arsebul qloroplastSi, magram igi ver ganxorcieldeba qloroplastis SemadgenlobaSi Semavali qlorofilisa da sxva molekulebis gareSe: qlorofilis molekulas aqvs garemodan sinaTlis energiis STanTqmis Tviseba, xolo qloroplasts _ araorganuli nivTierebebidan organuli nivTierebebis warmoqmnis unari. amrigad, miuxedavad imisa, rom organizmi organizaciis sxvadasxva donisgan Sedgeba, organizmi erT mTlian sistemas warmoadgens. amaze metyvelebs zemoT aRwerili magaliTi: mcenareSi fotosinTezis procesis ganxorcielebaSi CarTulia organizmis organizaciis yvela done, rac Seesabameba maT struqturisa da Tvisebebis Taviseburebas. amitom, Tu romelime doneze dairRva sasicocxlo procesebi, es gavlenas axdens mTel organizmze.

ra Sesabamisobaa organizaciis donesa da sxvadasxva sistematikuri jgufis organizms Soris? ameba da baqteria erTi ujredisgan Sedgeba da isini organizmebs wamoadgenen.

am SemTxvevaSi ujredi warmoadgens organizms _ damoukidebel cocxal siste-

21


mas. maSin, rodesac mravalujrediani organizmis ujredi ar warmoadgens damoukidebel cocxal sistemas. erTujrediani organizmebisTvis organizaciis doneebidan damaxasiaTebelia mo-

lekuluri, ujreduli da organizmuli doneebi. Tu gavixsenebT nawlavRruianebs, romelTa sxeuli mxolod eqtodermisa da entodermisgan Sedgeba, maT ar gaaCniaT organuli da organoTa sistemuri doneebi.

1. mokled ganmarte mravalujrediani organizmebis organizaciis eqvsi done da moiyvane magaliTebi. 2. axseni molekulebs, ujredebs, qsovilebs, organoebsa da organoTa sistemebs Soris kavSiri. 3. daasaxele magaliTebi, romlebic imyofebian organizmul doneze, magram ar aqvT sicocxlis organizaciis qsoviluri, organoTa da organoTa sistemebis doneebi. 4. axseni, amebas romeli organizaciis doneebi ar aqvs da ratom? 5. organizaciis romel dones miakuTvneb virusebs? ratom? 6. spirogirasTvis (mravalujrediani Zafnairi wyalmcenare) romeli organizaciis doneebia damaxasiaTebeli? 7. romeli organizaciis doneebi gaaCnia Wiayelas? 8. romeli organizaciis doneebi gaaCnia hidras? 9. ra daemarTeba mcenares, Tu dauziandeba fesvebi? Seni pasuxi daasabuTe.

nnivTierebaTa molekulebi qmnian ujredebs, specializebuli ujredebi erTad funqcionireben qsovilebSi, organoebSi, organoTa sistemebsa da mTel organizmSi; yoveli organo ramdenime saxis qsovilisgan Sedgeba. erT-erTi maTgani organos umetes nawils Seadgens, rac misi agebulebis Taviseburebas da funqciebs ganapirobebs; organizaciis doneebi erTmaneTTan dakavSirebulia da erTmaneTs eqvemdebareba; organizaciis doneebi Seesabameba sxvadasxva sistematikuri jgufis organizmis agebulebis Taviseburebas.

22


Tema

1-is Sejameba

Temis mimoxilva mTavari ideebi • ujredi warmoadgens cocxali sistemis struqturul, funqciur da ganviTarebis erTeuls; • organizmis zrdas safuZvlad udevs ujredebis gamravleba; • funqciis Sesabamisad ujredebi gansxvavdebian formiTa da zomiT, agreTve Semadgeneli komponentebiT; • msgavsi funqciis da struqturis ujredebi qmnian qsovilebs; qsovilebi gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan da maTi agebuleba Seesabameba maT funqcias; • yoveli organo ramdenime saxis qsovilisgan Sedgeba. erT-erTi maTgani organos umetes nawils Seadgens, rac mis agebulebis Taviseburebas da funqciebs ganapirobebs; • organizaciis doneebi Seesabameba sxvadasxva sistematikuri jgufis organizmis agebulebis Taviseburebas; • organizaciuli doneebi erTmaneTTan dakavSirebulia da erTmaneTs eqvemdebareba.

davalebebi TviTSefasebisTvis testuri davalebebi (pasuxebi rveulSi CainiSne) 1. cocxali organizmebis struqturuli da funqciuri ZiriTadi erTeuli aris: a. ujredi; b. qsovili; g. organo; d. organoTa sistema. 2. organizmebs, romelTa ujredebs birTvi ar gaaCniaT, ewodeba: a. prokarioti; b. eukarioti; g. sokoebi; d. mcenareebi. 3. ujredebis jgufs, romelTac aqvT msgavsi agebuleba da funqcia, ewodeba: a. organo; b. organoTa sistema; g. qsovili; d. organizmi. 4. r. virxovma aRmoaCina, rom: a. yvela cocxali Sedgeba ujredebisagan; b. yoveli ujredi warmoiqmneba sawyisi ujredidan misi gayofis Sedegad; g. ujredi aris mravalujrediani organizmis ganviTarebis erTeuli; d. ZuZumwovrebi viTardebian erTi ujredidan _ zigotidan. 5. birTvis Semcvelobis mixedviT arCeven ujredebs: a. avtotrofuls da heterotrofuls; g. fototrofuls da qemotrofuls; b. eukariotuls da prokariotuls; d. anaerobuls da aerobuls. 6. qvemoT CamoTvlilTagan romeli organizmebi miekuTvneba eukariotebs? a. poliomielitis gamomwvevi virusi; g. qoleris vibrioni; b. tuberkulozis Cxiri; d. dizenteriuli ameba. 7. adamianis organizmSi qsovilebs akisriaT mravalgvari funqcia: 1) damcvelobiTi; 2) sekretoruli; 3) sayrdeni; 4) nivTierebaTa Sewovis; 5) sasignalo da a.S. epiTeluri qsovili asrulebs: a. 1, 2, 4;

b. 1, 2, 5;

g. 1, 3, 4;

d. 2, 3, 5.

23


8. adamianis organizmSi arCeven qsovilTa: a. sam saxes: epiTelurs, SemaerTebels, nervuls; b. oTx saxes: epiTelurs, kunTovans, Zvlovans, nervuls; g. oTx saxes: epiTelurs, kunTovans, Zvlovans, sisxls; d. oTx saxes: epiTelurs, kunTovans, SemaerTebels, nervuls. 9. mcdari debuleba _ epiTeluri qsovilis saxeebia: a. mravalSriani brtyeli epiTeliumi; b. kuburi; g. jirkvlovani; d. cximovani. 10. mcdari debuleba _ epiTeluri qsovilis funqciebia: a. mfaravi;

b. sekretoruli;

g. Semwovi;

d. yvela pasuxi mcdaria.

11. jirkvlovani epiTeliumis funqciaa: a. damcvelobiTi;

b. mfaravi;

g. sekretoruli;

d. Semwovi.

kritikuli da SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebisTvis erTxelac erTujredian organizmebs Zalian mobezrdaT mravalujrediani organizmebisgan imis mosmena, rom erTujredianebi martivi organizmebi arian. erTujrediani organizmebi ki sakmaod rTul individebad miiCnevdnen Tavs da Tvlidnen, rom yvelac aseTad unda miiCnevdes maT. aRiareba rom moepovebinaT, erTujredianebma diskusiaSi gamoiwvies mravalujredianebi. erTujrediani organizmis poziciis dasacavad warmoadgine argumentebi.

monacemebis gansja (analizi da daskvna) 1.

svetovani diagrama uCvenebs adamianSi mniSvnelovan nivTierebaTa atomur Semadgenlbas procentebSi. a. romeli nivTierebis atomebia yvelaze didi raodenobiT? b. es monacemebi warmoadgine cxrilisa da wriuli diagramis saxiT. rogor fiqrob, am monacemebis warmosadgenad yvelaze metad romeli diagramaa mosaxerxebeli? ratom? procentebi (%) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Jangbadi naxSirbadi

24

wyalbadi

azoti kalciumi

fosfori

iodi


2.

zemoT diagramaze ganxiluli atomebi ufro xSirad organizmSi warmodgenilia nivTierebaTa sxvadasxva naerTebis saxiT. am naerTebis ZiriTadi jgufebi warmodgenilia cxrilSi. naerTi

Semcveloba adamianis sxeulSi (%)

cximebi

12%

cilebi

14%

naxSirwylebi

1%

wyali

67%

mineraluri marilebi da sxva naerTebi

X%

a.

yvelaze didi raodenobiT romeli naerTia?

b.

organul nivTierebebs Soris romelia ufro didi raodenobiT?

g. gamoTvale, mineralur marilebsa da sxva naerTebze ramdeni procenti modis?

vizualuri masalis gansja

3

4

1

5 2 6

a. amoicani suraTze warmodgenili organizaciis doneebi da daasaxele; b. daalage ierarqiis mixedviT.

terminebsa da cnebebs Soris kavSiris dadgena terminebs Soris damokidebuleba qvemoT mocemul terminebis yovel nakrebSi sami erTmaneTTan kavSirSia, xolo erTi termini ar miekuTvneba maT. gansazRvre, ra aqvs saerTo sam termins da Semdeg ki daasaxele termini, romelsac maTTan kavSiri ar aqvs. 1)

citoplazma, plazmuri membrana, qsovili, birTvi.

2)

qsovili, difuzia, organo, organoTa sistema.

3)

cila, sunTqva, eriTrociti, sisxli.

4)

epiTeluri qsovili, Zvlovani qsovili, sisxli, xrtilovani qsovili.

25


sworia Tu mcdari? gansazRvre yoveli debuleba/mtkicebuleba sworia Tu mcdari. Tu sworia, dawere `sworia~, Tu mcdaria, gaxazuli sityva Secvale iseTi sityviT an sityvebiT, rom mtkicebuleba swori iyos! 1) van levenhukma SemoiRo termni ujredi. 2) yvela ujreds aqvs ujredis kedeli. 3) eukariotuli arian ujredebi, romelTac ar aqvT birTvi. 4) ujredebis specializacia niSnavs maT Seguebas Sesasrulebel funqciebTan. 5) qsovilTa jgufebi, romlebic erTad muSaoben, qmnian organoTa sistemas. 6) amebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia organizaciis qsoviluri done. 7) sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema erTad momuSave organoebis kargi magaliTia. 8) guli _ erTad momuSave sxvadasxva qsovilis kargi magaliTia. 9) ZaRli, muxa da buzi _ faqtobrivad erTad momuSave organoebis kargi magaliTia.

monacemebis organizeba sqemebSi qvemoT mocemuli magaliTebis CamonaTvali gaanawile cxrilSi (cxrili gadaitane rveulSi). magaliTebi: evglena, glukoza, guli da sisxlZarRvebi, yvavili, tuberkulozis baqteria, hidra, WurWlebi, baqteriofagi, filtvi, kalciumis marilebi, adamiani, cila, fesvTa sistema. SeniSvna: gaiTvaliswine, rom erTi da igive magaliTi SeiZleba moxvdes organizaciis sxvadasxva doneze, aseve, organizaciis erT doneze _ ramdenime magaliTi. organizaciis done molekuluri ujreduli qsoviluri organuli organoTa sistemuri organizmuli

26

magaliTi


Tema

2. sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistema

cxovelebTan SedarebiT, romelTac aqvT Zlieri kunTebi da masiuri Zvlebi, adamiani sust da faqiz arsebad gamoiyureba. magram sakmarisia, davakvirdeT sxvadasxva saxeobis sportsmenis, mocekvavis mier Sesrulebul ileTebs, rom es Sexeduleba SevicvaloT.

marTlac, adamiani saocrad Zlieri da moqnilia. am siZlierisa da moqnilobis safuZvelia adamianis sxeulis agebulebis Tavisebureba. am Temis Seswavlis dros dainaxav, Tu rogor uzrunvelyofs Zvlebi da kunTebi organizmisTvis sayrden-mamoZravebel da damcvelobiT funqciebs. Temis Seswavlis dros mogiwevs iseT sakvanZo kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema, rogoricaa: • ra mniSvneloba aqvs sayrden-mamoZravebel sistemas organizmisTvis? • rogor izrdeba Zvali sigrZesa da sisqeSi? • ratom aqvs Cvens xerxemals S-iseburi da terfs TaRovani forma? • rogor Seesabameba adamianis ConCxis agebuleba mis mier Sesasrulebel funqciebs? • rogor amoZravebs Zvlebi da kunTebi adamianis sxeuls? • ratom aris gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani jansaRi cxovrebis wesis dacva mozardis sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistemis sworad ganviTarebisTvis?

27


2.1

sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistemis funqciebi

ra mniSvneloba aqvs sayrden-mamoZravebel sistemas organizmisTvis? struqtura _ sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistema, Zvali, kunTi; funqcia _ sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistemis funqciebi. ra funqciebs asrulebs qitinovani safarveli fexsaxsrianebSi?

Seni kanis qveS moTavsebulia mravali kunTi da Zvali. Zvlebi da kunTebi erTad muSaoben, rac gexmareba jdomaSi, dgoma-

Si, siarulSi, sirbilsa Tu sxva saxis moZraobis SesrulebaSi. Zvlebi da kunTebi simyares aniWeben Sen sxeuls da aZleven mas formas. Zvlebis erToblioba ConCxs qmnis, ConCxi da kunTebi ki erTad sayrdenmamoZravebel sistemas. sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistema mravalferovan funqcias asrulebs. am paragrafSi gaecnobi sayrden, mamoZravebel da damcvelobiT funqciebs (sur. 12).

tvinis qala _ icavs Tavis tvins

neknebi mkerdis Zvali da masze mimagrebuli kunTebi _ icavs gulsa da filtvebs, monawileobs sunTqviT moZraobaSi

xerxemali _ asrulebs sayrden funqcias da icavs zurgis tvins

menjis Zvali da muclis kunTebi _ Sinagani organoebisTvis sayrden da damcvelobiT funqcias asrulebs

zemo da qvemo kidurebis Zvlebi da kunTebi _ asrulebs mamoZravebel funqcias

sur. 12

28 8


Sinagani ConCxi

garegani ConCxi saxsari kunTebi

qitinovani garegani ConCxi

ConCxi kunTebi

sur. 13

ConCxis tipebi xerxemlianebs, maT Soris ZuZumwovrebs, aqvT Sinagani ConCxi _ kanis qveS mdebare kunTebi mimagrebulia mis SigniT moTavsebul Zvlebze (sur. 13). sxva organizmebs gansxvavebuli tipis ConCxi aqvT. magaliTad, fexsaxsrianebisTvis, rogorc ukve ici, garegani ConCxia damaxasiaTebeli. maTi sxeuli garedan dafarulia qitinovani safarveliT, romelzedac Signidan mimagrebulia kunTebi (sur. 13). garegani ConCxis mTavari nakli imaSi mdgomareobs, rom igi organizmis zrdasTan erTad ar

izrdeba, radgan Sedgeba nivTiereba qitinisgan da ara ujredebisgan. zog organizms saerTod ar gaaCnia iseTi ConCxi, romelic realurad Seasrulebda damcvelobiT funqcias, magram yvelas sWirdeba iseTi masala, romelic daexmareboda moZraobis SesrulebaSi. aseTi organizmebi, magaliTad, Wiayela da sxva Wiebi, sargebloben TavianTi sxeulis RruSi arsebuli siTxiT, romelic hidroConCxis rols asrulebs. siTxis moZraoba da misi zewola ganapirobebs am organizmebSi kunTebis SekumSva-modunebas.

1. me-12 suraTis mixedviT 1) CamoTvale sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistemis funqciebi da moiyvane Sesabamisi magaliTebi; 2) qvemo kidurebis Zvlebi da kunTebi, mamoZravebeli funqciis garda, kidev ra funqcias Seasrulebs? 2. axseni, ra gansxvavebaa _ Sinagan da garegan ConCxs Soris. Seni swavlis procesis analizisTvis mocemul paragrafze muSaobis Semdeg dafiqrdi da gaaanalize, ra axali codna SeiZine da damatebiT ris gagebas isurvebdi? vicodi

axali gavige

meti minda gavigo

Z Zvlebis erToblioba qmnis ConCxs; ConCxi da kunTebi qmnian sayrden-mamoZravebel sistemas; sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistemis funqciebia: sayrdeni, mamoZravebeli da damcvelobiTi.

29 9


2.2.

adamianis ConCxis agebuleba

rogor Seesabameba adamianis ConCxis agebuleba mis mier Sesrulebul funqciebs? adamianis ConCxi 220-mde Zvlisgan Sedgeba. ConCxis ZiriTadi ganyofilebebia: qala, tani, zemo kidurebisa da qvemo kidurebis ConCxi (sur. 14).

struqtura _ adamianis ConCxis Semadgeneli Zvlebi; funqcia _ Zvlebis funqciebi.

tvinis qala qala mkerdis Zvali

saxis qala

mxris Zvali TiTebis falangebi

laviwi beWi

nebis Zvlebi

zemo kiduris sartyeli

majis Zvlebi mxari

idayvis Zvali

neknebi

sxivis Zvali xerxemali qvemo kiduris sartyeli

wina mxari menjis Zvali gavis Zvali

zemo kiduris Tavisufali nawili

mtevani

barZayis Zvali barZayi

kviristavi didi wvivis Zvali

wvivi

qvemo kiduris Tavisufali nawili

mcire wvivis Zvali ukana terfis Zvlebi wina terfis Zvlebi

terfi

TiTebis falangebi sur. 14

1. gaecani me-14 suraTze mocemul informacias da Camoayalibe am informaciis Sesabamisi kiTxvebi.

30 0


Sublis Zvali Txemis Zvlebi safeTqlis Zvlebi cxviris Zvlebi yvrimalis Zvlebi zeda ybis Zvlebi

qveda ybis Zvali

kefis Zvali

sur. 15

Tavis ConCxi. tvinis qala (sur. 15) Sedgeba erTmaneTTan uZravad SeerTebuli Zvlebisgan: wyvili Txemisa da safeTqlis, kenti Sublisa da kefis Zvlebi. saxis

qala 15 Zvlisgan Sedgeba. maTgan yvelaze msxvili Zvlebia kenti qveda yba da wyvili zeda ybis Zvlebi.

kisris nadreki

kisris 7 mala

ukana wvetiani morCi

ganivi morCi

gulmkerdis nadreki (fiziologiuri kifozi)

gulmkerdis 12 mala

malis Zvlovani rkali/arxi

malis sxeuli

welis nadreki (fiziologiuri lordozi)

welis 5 mala gavis 5 mala kudusunis 4-5 mala

sur. 16

tanis ConCxi. xerxemali Sedgeba 33-34 malisgan. mala (sur. 16) Sedgeba malis sxeulis, ramdenime morCisa da malis arxisagan. malebi erTmaneTzea dalagebuli da malebis arxebis SeerTebiT warmoiqmneba xerxemlis arxi, romelSic zurgis tvinia moTavsebuli. adamianis xerxemalSi gamoyofen ganyofilebebs (sur. 17): kisris, gulmkerdis, welis, gavis (5 urTierTSezrdili mala) da kudusunis (ganuviTare-

sur. 17

beli malebi). gulmkerdis ganyofilebis malebTan dakavSirebulia 12 wyvili nekni (TiTo malasTan TiTo wyvili nekni), aqedan 10 wyvili xrtilovani qsoviliT ukavSirdeba mkerdis Zvals, xolo 2 wyvili Tavisuflad bolovdeba. zemo da qvemo kidurebis ConCxi Sedgeba sartylisa da Tavisufali nawilisgan (sur. 14).

31


ratom aqvs Cvens xerxemals S-iseburi da terfs TaRovani forma? adamianis ConCxs amarTul siarulsa da gonebriv ganviTarebasTan dakavSirebiT

mTeli rigi Taviseburebani axasiaTebs (sur. 18).

2 1 2 4

3

1 4 3

6

6 5

5

7

7

sur. 18 1

cxovelTan SedarebiT Semcirebulia ybebis zoma, radgan adamiani ikvebeba umetesad Termulad damuSavebuli sakvebiT, metyvelebis ganviTarebis gamo ki qveda ybaze ganviTarda nikapis gamonaSveri. 2 Tavis tvinis ganviTarebasTan dakavSirebiT, gazrdilia tvinis qalas moculoba. cxovelis gulmkerdi konusiseburi 3 formisaa, xolo adamianis amarTul siarulTan dakavSirebiT ganzea gafarToebuli da Sebrtyelebulia. 4 amarTuli siarulis gamo adamianis xerxemals aqvs nadrekebi, rac mas aZlevs S-isebur formas (sur. 17). igi moZraobis dros amsubuqebs da amcirebs biZgebs. 5 gansakuTrebuli agebuleba aqvs adami-

anis mtevans: cera TiTi dapirispirebulia danarCen TiTebTan da igi Zalian moZravia. adamians TiTebiT SeuZlia Zalian faqizi da zusti moZraobebis Sesruleba. 6 amarTul siarulTan dakavSirebiT, adamianis qvemo kiduris sartyels aqvs Tasiseburi forma, amitom igi muclis RruSi moTavsebuli organoebisTvis sayrdenia. ukana terfi wina terfi TiTebis falangebi terfis TaRi sur. 19

32

quslis did didi Zvali


qalis menji, misi fiziologiuri Taviseburebidan (mSobiarobasTan dakavSirebiT) gamomdinare, ufro farToa, vidre mamakacis.

7

amarTul siarulTan dakavSirebiT adamianis terfi aris TaRovani (sur. 19), rac sirbilis, siarulis, xtomis dros biZgebs amcirebs.

2. daadgine Sesabamisoba Zvlebsa da ConCxis ganyofilebebs Soris: Zvlebi _ 1) beWis Zvali; 2) mtevani; 3) barZayis Zvali; 4) neknebi; 5) Txemis Zvlebi; 6) Sublis Zvali; 7) laviwis Zvali; 8) mkerdis Zvali; 9) yvrimalis Zvali; 10) wvivis Zvlebi; 11) mxris Zvali; 12) menjis Zvali. ConCxis ganyofileba _ a) qala; b) gulmkerdi; g) zemo kidurebis sartyeli; d) zemo kiduris Tavisufali nawili; e) qvemo kiduris sartyeli; v) qvemo kiduris Tavisufali nawili. a

b

g

d

e

v

3. me-14 suraTis mixedviT daasaxele Zvlebi, romlebic ZiriTadad asruleben: a) sayrden, b) damcvelobiT da g) mamoZravebel funqciebs. 4. welis ganyofilebis malebis sxeuli ufro masiuria, vidre xerxemlis zeda ganyofilebebis malebis. rogor fiqrob, ratom? 5. gansazRvre, suraTebze warmodgenili TiToeuli mala xerxemlis romel ganyofilebas miekuTvneba: morCebi

morCebi

morCebi malis arxi

malis arxi

malis arxi sxeuli

sxeuli

sxeuli 1

2

3

6. daasaxele adamianis ConCxis Taviseburebani da axseni, rogor ukavSirdeba es adamianis ganviTarebis Taviseburebas. Seni swavlis procesis analizisTvis axseni, rogor dagexmara kiTxvebis Camoyalibeba me-14 suraTze datanili informaciis aRqmaSi?

adamianis ConCxs qmnis 220-mde Zvali; adamianis ConCxis ZiriTadi ganyofilebebia: qala, tanis ConCxi, zemo da qvemo kidurebi; adamianis ConCxis Taviseburebani dakavSirebulia mis amarTul siarulsa da gonebriv ganviTarebasTan.

33 3


2.3.

Zvlebis agebuleba da zrda

rogor izrdeba Zvali sigrZesa da sisqeSi? struqtura _ Zvlovani ujredebi (osteocitebi), kompaqturi da Rrublisebri Zvlovani qsovilebi, Zvlis wiTeli tvini, Zvlis yviTeli tvini; grZeli, mokle da brtyeli Zvlebi; funqcia _ Zvlis struqturebis funqciebi; sasicocxlo Tviseba _ Zvlis zrda-ganviTareba; kvleva _ Zvlis struqturis kvleva.

Zvlebis agebuleba. ConCxs qmnis myari qsovili, romelic cocxali ujredebisgan Sedgeba. Zvali Zvlovani qsoviliTaa warmodgenili. igi SemaerTebeli qsovilis erT-erT saxeobas miekuTvneba. arCeven kompaqtur da Rrublisebr Zvlovan qso-

vils. Zvlovan ujredebs _ osteocitebs Soris moTavsebul ujredSoris nivTierebas Zvlovani xarixebi/firfitebi ewodeba (sur. 20). firfitebi mdidaria kalciumis marilebiT. ConCxSi gvxvdeba xrtilovani qsovilic. xrtilovani qsovili, Zvlovan qsovilTan SedarebiT, naklebad myaria da ufro elastikuria. axalSobilis ConCxi ZiriTadad xrtilovani qsovilisgan Sedgeba da amitom sakmaod rbilia. tvinis qalas Zvlebs Soris ki SemaerTebeli qsovilia, romelsac yiflibands uwodeben. es aadvilebs mSobiarobis dros bavSvis moZraobas samSobiaro gzebSi da dabadebis Semdeg xels ar uSlis tvinis ganviTarebas. yiflibandi TandaTan ganicdis gaZvalebas.

Zvlovani ujredi _ osteociti

Rrublisebri Zvlovani qsovili Zvali

osteociti

kompaqturi Zvlovani qsovili

Zvlovani qsovili Zvlovani firfitebi sur. 20

yovel Sens Zvals aqvs gansazRvruli forma da zoma, rac Sesabamisi funqciis Sesrulebis SesaZleblobas aZlevs Ti-

34 4

Toeul maTgans. Zvlebi, formis mixedviT, aris: grZeli _ lulisebri, mokle da brtyeli (ix. cxrili gv. 35).


cxrili 2. Zvlebis formis saxeebi

grZeli, anu lulisebri Zvlebis Sua nawili Rruiania (sur. 21) da Zvlis yviTeli tviniTaa amovsebuli, xolo TavSi Rrublisebri Zvlovani qsovilia. Zvlovan xarixebs Soris moTavsebulia sisxlmbadi organo _ Zvlis wiTeli tvini. wiTel tvinSi warmoiqmneba sisxlis axali ujredebi. es ConCxis sisxlmbadi funqciaa. mokle da brtyel Zvlebs Rrublisebri nivTiereba qmnis. maT zedapirs faravs Zvlisazrdela, romelic SemaerTebel qsovils warmoadgens. Zvlisazrdela mdidaria sisxlZarRvebiT da uzrunvelyofs Zvals JangbadiTa da sakvebi nivTierebebiT. Zvlebis zrda. 22-25 wlis asakamde Zvlebi izrdeba sigrZesa da sisqeSi. Zvlebis sisqeSi zrdas ganapirobebs Zvlisazrdelas Sida Sris ujredebis dayofa, xolo Zvlis sigrZeSi zrdas _ xrtilovani qsovilis ujredebis dayofa. mozardebSi gansakuTrebiT swrafad viTardeba sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistema gardatexis asakSi. am periodSi gogonebic da biWebic simaRleSi swrafad izrdebian. xSirad am asakis mozardis sxeuli araproporciulia, radgan jer kidurebi izrdeba, xolo tani ufro nela viTardeba.

Zvlebis forma

magaliTebi

mxris, winamxris, barZayis, wvivisa da wina terfis Zvlebi majisa da ukana terfis Zvlebi (maT Soris quslis didi Zvali) tvinis qalas Zvlebi, beWi, laviwi, mkerdis Zvali, neknebi, menjis Zvlebi.

grZeli, anu lulisebri

mokle

brtyeli

xrtilovani qsovili Rrublisebri Zvlovani qsovili kompaqturi Zvlovani qsovili Zvlis Rru Zvlis yviTeli tvini

Zvlisazrdela Zvlis wiTeli tvini

Zvlis Tavi

sur. 21

1. ra miuTiTebs, rom Zvali cocxalia? 2. ra gansxvavebaa Zvlovan da xrtilovan qsovilebs Soris? 3. rogor fiqrob, formis mixedviT romeli Zvlebi Seasruleben ufro metad damcvelobiT funqcias da romeli Zvlebi _ mamoZravebel funqcias? 4. rogor izrdeba Zvali sigrZesa da sisqeSi? 5. ilustraciis mixedviT daadgine: 1) Sesabamisoba ilustraciaze cifrebiT aRniSnul Zvlebsa da Zvlis formas Soris: a. grZeli, anu lulisebri; b. mokle; g. brtyeli (cxrilSi moniSneT „X~-iT):

1

2

3

a b 3

1

g

2

2) romeli Zvali Seicavs Zvlis yviTel tvins? 3) romeli Zvali Seicavs mxolod Zvlis wiTel tvins?

35 5


Zvlis struqturis kvleva sakvlevi kiTxva: rogoria Zvlis struqtura? saWiro masala: saqonlis grZeli Zvali, pipeti, mikroskopi, sasagne da safari mina, gamadidebeli xelsawyo, skalpeli, kovzi, rezinis xelTaTmani. procedura: 1. gadaitane cxrili biologiis samuSao rveulSi;

Zvlis maxasiaTeblebi

aRwera

garegnoba kompaqturi Zvlovani qsovili Rrublisebri Zvlovani qsovili Zvlis tvini

2. moipove saqonlis siganesa da sigrZeSi gadaxerxili grZeli Zvali; 3. daakvirdi Zvals garedan. zedapiri gluvia? Cawere es cxrilSi. moacile Zvals gare safari. Tu Zvali axalia, mocilebul safarSi dainaxav patara wiTel wertilebs; 4. daaTvaliere Zvlis SigTavsi lupiT. ganasxvave erTmaneTisgan Rrublisebri da kompaqturi Zvlovani qsovili, aRmoaCine Zvlis tvini. aRweriloba cxrilSi Seitane. ar dagaviwydes, aRwero zemoT dasaxelebuli struqturebis feri da mdebareoba; 5. rveulSi Caxate Zvlis struqturebi da gaukeTe warwerebi; 6. sasagne minaze daawveTe wyali, skalpeliT aiRe Zvlis tvinis Txeli anaTali da moaTavse wylis wveTSi, daafare safari mina da daakvirdi mikroskopiT jer mcire da Semdeg did gadidebaze. Caxate da aRwere, ras xedav; 7. gamodevne Zvlis tvini Zvlidan da gamorecxe Zvlis siRrue, daaTvaliere Zvlis Rrus Sida kedlebi. gaaanalize: 1. Seadare Zvlis Sua nawili da Tavebi, daafiqsire msgavseba da gansxvaveba; 2. aRwere Zvlis tvinis Semcveli nawilebi. gaakeTe daskvna: 1. ras warmoadgens me-3 proceduris dros mocilebul mfarav garsSi arsebuli wiTeli wertilebi? ra mouva Zvals, Tu Zvlisazrdela mokvdeba? 2. sad aris moTavsebuli grZel ZvlebSi Rrublisebri Zvlovani qsovili? 3. sad mdebareobs Zvlis yviTeli tvini da sad wiTeli tvini?

CConCxSi gvxvdeba Zvlovani da xrtilovani qsovilebi, romelic SemaerTebeli qsovilebis nairsaxeobaa; Zvlovani qsovili orgvaria: kompaqturi da Rrublisebri; Rrublisebri Zvlovani qsovili amovsebulia Zvlis wiTeli tviniT, romelic sisxlmbad funqcias asrulebs; formis mixedviT Zvlebi aris lulisebri, mokle da brtyeli; Zvali sisqeSi izrdeba ZvlisazrdelaTi, xolo sigrZeSi _ xrtilovani qsoviliT.

36 6


2.4.

Zvlis qimiuri Sedgeniloba

ratom aris Zvali magari? funqcia _ araorganuli (kalciumis marilebi) da organuli nivTierebebis (cilebi) roli ZvalSi; janmrTeloba da daavadebebi _ osteoporozi; kvleva _ Zvlis qimiuri Sedgenilobis kvleva.

CamoTvale cocxalisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli organuli da araorganuli nivTierebebi.

Zvlebis SedgenilobaSi Sedis organuli da araorganuli nivTierebebi. organuli nivTierebebidan mniSvnelovania cilebi, rac Zvals elastikurobas aniWebs. mineraluri nivTierebebidan ZvalSi didi raodenobiTaa kalciumis marilebi. kalciumis marilebi ki Zvlis simtkices ganapirobebs. ZvalSi misi naklebobisas Zvali myife xdeba. sakvebSi arsebuli kalciumi Seiwoveba sisxlSi (sakvebidan kalciumis SeTvisebas xels uwyobs D vitamini), sisxlidan ki ZvalSi gadadis. ZvlebSi grovdeba kalciumi. es ConCxis samarago funqciaa.

Zvlis qimiuri Sedgenilobis mniSvnelobis kvleva sakvlevi kiTxva: ratom aris Zvali magari? gamoTqvi varaudi: saWiro masala: qaTmis ori erTnairi gasufTavebuli Zvali, ori minis qila, Rvinis Zmari da wyali. procedura: 1. mosinje xeliT Zvlebi, magaria Tu rbili? 2. erTi Zvali moaTavse Rvinis ZmriT savse qilaSi, meore ki _ wyliT savse qilaSi, qilebs winaswar daawere, ra siTxea masSi (SeniSvna: ZmarSi ixsneba mineraluri marilebi); 3. qilebs Tavze daaxure da 4 dRiT karadaSi Seinaxe; 4. oTxi dRis Semdeg amoiRe Zvlebi qilebidan, ZmarSi nadebi Zvali 1 wuTis ganmavlobaSi garecxe gamdinare wyalSi; 5. Semdeg Seamowme TiToeuli Zvali, orive Zvali iseTive simagrisaa, rogorc cdis dasawyisSi? gaaanalize: 1. ZmarSi nadebi Zvali gansxvavdeba simagriT wyalSi nadebi Zvlisgan? 2. rogor fiqrob, ZmarSi nadeb ZvalSi romeli nivTiereba darCeboda? gaakeTe daskvna: 1. rogor fiqrob, ra aris Zvlebis Tvisebebis gansxvavebis mizezi? 2. ra Tvisebas aniWebs Zvals cilebi? 3. ra Tvisebas aniWebs Zvals mineraluri marilebi?

Tu adamiani didi xnis ganmavlobaSi ver iRebs kalciumiT mdidar sakvebs da Zvali kalciumiT gaRaribdeba, qsovilSi warmoiqmneba sicarieleebi da Zvali myife gaxdeba _ viTardeba osteoporozi. osteoporozis Sedegad mosalodnelia Zvlebis xSiri motexiloba. amitom aucilebelia yoveldRiurad miviRoT kalciumiT mdidari sakvebi. asakovan adamianebs (70 da meti wlis) axasiaTebT ZvlebSi kalciumis nakleboba da xSirad iReben xelis, fexis, menjis Zvlebis motexilobas.

37 7


magram am SemTxvevaSi ZvlebSi kalciumis deficitis mizezi SeiZleba iyos ara marto sakvebSi kalciumis ukmarisoba, aramed is, rom asakovani adamianis wvrili nawlavi veRar axerxebs kalciumis jerovnad Sewovas.

janmrTeli Zvlis qsovili

osteoporozi

1. CamoTvale ConCxis yvela funqcia. 2. axseni, ramdenad mniSvnelovania sakvebSi cilebisa da kalciumis Semcveloba Zvlebis zrdisa da formirebisaTvis? 3. ratomaa xandazmulebSi Zvlebis motexilobis xSiri SemTxvevebi? 4. daadgine mizezSedegobrivi kavSiri: Sedegi

gamomwvevi mizezebi

osteoporozi Seni swavlis procesis analizisTvis aRwere, rogor dagexmara qaTmis Zvlebze Catarebuli cdebi Zvlebis SedgenilobaSi Semavali marilebisa da cilebis mniSvnelobis gageba-gaazrebaSi.

Zvali Z Sedgeba organuli da araorganuli nivTierebebisgan; organuli nivTierebebidan ZvalSi sWarbobs cilebi, romelic Zvals elastikurobas aniWebs; araorganuli nivTierebebidan sWarbobs kalciumis marilebi, romelic Zvals simtkices aniWebs; sakvebSi kalciumis nakleboba an asakobrivi TaviseburebebiT gamowveuli Zvlebis kalciumis marilebiT gaRaribeba iwvevs osteoporozs.

38 8


2.5.

ZvalTa SeerTebis formebi

rogor Seesabameba ZvalTa SeerTebis forma ConCxis funqciebs? funqcia _ ZvalTa SeerTebis formebis dakavSireba ConCxis funqciebTan; struqtura _ saxsari da misi komponentebi: sasaxsre Zvlebi, sasaxsre CanTa, iogebi, sasaxsre Rru, sasaxsre siTxe. kvleva _ saxsrebis mniSvnelobis kvleva.

Seni ConCxi Sedgeba mravali Zvlisgan. sxvadasxva Zvali erTmaneTTan kontaqtSi Sedis da ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs. zogierTi Zvali erTmaneTTan sruliad uZravad aris SeerTebuli, zogi _ naxev-

radmoZravad da zogic _ moZravad (sur. 22). naxevradmoZravi SeerTebis dros Zvlebi xrtilovani feniTaa dakavSirebuli. aseT SeerTebas naxevradsaxsars, xolo Zvlebis moZrav SeerTebas saxsars uwodeben. imisaTvis, rom ConCxma Seasrulos sayrdeni da damcvelobiTi funqcia, igi mtkice unda iyos, rasac ganapirobebs ZvalTa uZravi SeerTeba. magram ConCxs simtkicesTan erTad moqnilobac sWirdeba mamoZravebeli funqciis Sesasruleblad. amis saSualebas iZleva ZvalTa naxevradmoZravi da moZravi SeerTeba.

ZvalTa SeerTebis formebi tvinis qalas Zvlebs Soris uZravi SeerTebaa

malebs Soris naxevradmoZravi SeerTebaa

neknebsa da mkerdis Zvals Soris naxevradmoZravi SeerTebaa

menj-barZays Soris moZravi SeerTebaa

muxlis saxsari koW-wvivis saxsari

neknebsa da malebs Soris moZravi SeerTebaa

sur. 22

1. 22-e suraTis mixedviT _ 1) daasaxele ZvalTa SeerTebis formebi da moiyvane Sesabamisi magaliTebi, 2) axseni, ZvalTa SeerTebis forma rogor Seesabameba ConCxis damcvelobiT da mamoZravebel funqciebs. moiyvane konkretuli magaliTebi.

39 9


saxsari _ es aris ConCxis nawili, sadac erTmaneTs moZravad ukavSirdeba ori an meti Zvali. aris saxsrebis ramdenime tipi, razedacaa damokidebuli moZraoba da moZraobis mimarTuleba. saxsari Sedgeba sasaxsre Zvlebisa da sasaxsre CanTisagan (sur. 23). saxsars amagrebs iogebi. sasaxsre Zvlebis zedapirebi (formiT erTmaneTis Sesabamisi sasaxsre Tavi da foso) dafarulia gluvi xrtilovani feniT, sasaxsre CanTa saxsris RruSi gamoyofs sasaxsre siTxes. xrtilovani fena da sasaxsre siTxe saxsarSi Zvlebis moZraobisas xaxuns amcirebs.

sasaxsre Zvlis Tavi

iogebi sasaxsre Rru sasaxsre siTxiT xrtilovani qsovili sasaxsre CanTa sasaxsre Zvlis foso

sur. 23

saxsrebis mniSvnelobis kvleva kvleva 1. sakvlevi kiTxva: ra mniSvneloba aqvT saxsrebs? saWiro masala: webovani lenta. procedura: xelze, romliTac wer, oTxi TiTi webovani lentiT ise Seikari, rom TiTebi ar ixrebodes, maTTan ki miamagre cera TiTi, rom mas moZraoba ar SeeZlos; Semdeg aiRe fanqari. aRwere, ramdenad advilad Seasrule es moqmedeba. Seecade sxva tipis moZraobis Sesrulebas: Seikari perangis Rilebi, fexsacmlis Tasmebi, Seecade Seni saxelis daweras furcelze. es aris is martivi moZraobebi, romelsac Sen yoveldRe asruleb. analizi: ratom gagiWirda am moZraobebis Sesruleba, rodesac Seni TiTebi Sewebebuli iyo erTmaneTTan? daskvna: ramdenad mniSvnelovania SenTvis TiTebis moZraoba?

kvleva 2. sakvlevi kiTxva: ra moZraobebis Sesruleba SeuZlia saxsars? procedura: dadeqi, welSi gaimarTe da: xeliT wriuli moZraoba Seasrule; moxare xeli idayvSi, majaSi, moxare TiTebi; Seasrule moZraoba menjiT, wviviTa da fexis TiTebiT; Seasrule moZraobebi TaviT. analizi: yvela saxsriT erTnairi moZraoba Seasrule? rogor fiqrob, razea damokidebuli moZraobis xasiaTi da mimarTuleba? daskvna: daasaxele moZraobebi, romlis Sesrulebas uzrunvelyofs saxsari.

40 0


2. daadgine Sesabamisoba Zvlebsa da maTi SeerTebis tips Soris da Seitane cxrilSi (cxrili gadaitane rveulSi): adamianis Zvlebi a. Txemisa da safeTqlis b. gulmkerdis ganyofilebis malebi g. mxrisa da beWis d. menjisa da gavis e. barZayisa da menjis v. neknebi da malebi z. neknebi da mkerdis Zvali

ZvalTa SeerTebis tipi 1. uZravi 2. naxevradmoZravi 3. moZravi

1

2

3

3. aRwere saxsris agebuleba da misi TiToeuli komponentis funqcia. 4. axseni, Tu ratom zeTaven avtomobilis nawilebs an ratom Wrialebs dauzeTavi kari? aRweril magaliTebSi zeTis funqcias saxsris romeli komponenti asrulebs? Seni swavlis procesis analizisTvis mocemuli Temis ganxilvisas gansakuTrebiT romeli aqtivoba dagexmara ZvalTa SeerTebis formebisa da maTi mniSvnelobis ukeT gaazrebaSi?

ZZvalTa SeerTebis formebia: uZravi, moZravi da naxevradmoZravi SeerTeba; ZvalTa SeerTebis forma Seesabameba Zvlebis funqciebs.

41 41


2.6.

ConCxis dazianebis saxeebi

ConCxis ra saxis dazianebaa SenTvis cnobili? janmrTeloba da daavadeba _ iogebis daWimva, RrZoba, Zvlis motexiloba; xelovnuri saxsari; pirveladi daxmarebis wesebi ConCxis dazianebis dros. kvlevis meTodi _ rentgenologiuri, rentgenis sxivebis aRmoCena, rentgenis aparatis Seqmna.

sur. 24

sur. 25

artaSani

sur. 26

42

Zvlebisa da saxsrebis travma ConCxis dazianebis gavrcelebuli formaa. pirveladi samedicino daxmarebis droul da swor aRmoCenas didi mniSvneloba aqvs travmis mZime Sedegebis ganviTarebis SeCerebisa da mkurnalobisTvis. pirvelad samedicino daxmarebaSi igulisxmeba RonisZiebebi, romelic ubeduri SemTxvevebis an moulodneli travmis dros SemTxvevis adgilze saswrafod unda ganxorcieldes, vidre eqims mivmarTavT. amitom yvela adamians unda SeeZlos pirveladi daxmarebis aRmoCena dazaralebulisTvis. eqskursiis, laSqrobis, dasvenebis, aseve, sportuli varjiSisa da Sejibrebis dros SeiZleba Sen an Senma megobarma miiRos sxeulis raime saxis dazianeba. miuxedavad Zvlis maRali meqanikuri simtkicisa da moqnilobisa, dacema an ConCxze Zalismieri moqmedeba iwvevs Zvlis motexilobas. yvelaze xSiria kidurebis Zvlebisa da neknebis motexiloba. Zvlis motexilobis maCvenebelia Zlieri tkivili, sxeulis dazianebuli ubnis SeSupeba da arabunebrivi formis miReba (sur. 24). arCeven daxurul da Ria motexilobas (sur. 25). Ria motexilobis dros kunTebi da kanic dazianebulia, adgili aqvs sisxldenas. pirveladi daxmareba, ZiriTadad, gamoixateba imaSi, rom umoZraod iyos sxeulis dazianebuli nawili, rac amcirebs tkivils. amisaTvis saWiroa specialuri artaSani (sur. 26), magram garemoSi yovelTvis ar aris igi xelmisawvdomi (SeiZleba samgzavro afTiaqSi gqondeT). mis magivrad SeiZleba joxis, totis, ficris an muyaos gamoyeneba (sur. 27). artaSani ase unda daado: man unda moicvas kiduris rogorc dazianebuli nawili, ise dauzianebeli; firfitaze dazaralebuls daadebine motexili kiduri ise, rom Sveba igrZnos da ar hqondes Tavisufali moZraobis saSualeba; dolbandiT an misi SemcvleliT (cxvirsaxoci, pirsaxoci, rame qsovilis naWeri) artaSani mWidrod daamagre; Tu artaSanis masala ar aris, motexili xeli tanze miakari, fexi ki _ janmrTel fexze. uxerxulma moZraobam SeiZleba saxsridan Zvlis amovardna gamoiwvios, rasac RrZoba ewodeba (sur. 28). am dros pirveladi daxmareba SemdegSi gamoixateba: unda uzrunvelyo saxris sruli uZraoba; amisTvis dazianebuli xeli qsoviliT Camohkide


RrZoba

norma

sur. 28 sur. 27

mxarze, fexze ki artaSani daade; tkivilis Sesamcireblad civi wylis tiloebi gamoiyene. ar scado motexili Zvlebis gasworeba an amovardnili Zvlis fosoSi Casma! es mxolod eqimma unda gaakeTos. mouqneli moZraobis dros SeiZleba daziandes Zvlebis SemaerTebeli iogebi. aseT dazianebas iogebis daWimva ewodeba. saxsris irgvliv iwyeba SeSupeba, tkivili, xandaxan sisxlCaqcevac, SesaZlebelia iogis gawyvetac (sur. 29). am dros pirve-

sur. 29

ladi daxmareba yinuliani parkis an civ wyalSi dasvelebuli safenisa da mWidro naxvevis dadebaa.

1. suraTebis mixedviT aRwere, rogori saxis pirveladi daxmareba unda aRmouCino dazaralebuls dazianebisa da kkidurebis motexilobis dros. e ul saxsris d e d du e te l d

1

2

3

4

naxvevis dadebis wesi koW-wvivis saxsarze a

b

yinuliani parki

2. 3. 4. 5.

ratom iwvevs motexiloba tkivils? ratom aris aucilebeli ConCxis dazianebis dros moZraobis SezRudva? ra saSiSroebas uqmnis adamians neknebis motexiloba? xerxemlis motexilobis dros, eqimis mosvlamde, daSavebuls swor, magar zedapirze pirqve awvenen da uzrunvelyofen mis uZrav mdgomareobaSi yofnas. ratom? 6. gaecani rubrikas `mecniereba praqtikaSi~ (gv. 44) da upasuxe kiTxvebs: a) ConCxis kvlevis ra meTodebs iyeneben? b) ra moTxovnebs unda akmayofilebdes masala, romlisganac xelovnur saxsars amzadeben?

43


Zvlebisa da saxsrebis mdgomareobas ikvleven rentgenologiuri meTodiT _ rentgenoskopiiT (gaSuqeba) da rentgenografiiT (suraTis gadaReba). es meTodi dakavSirebulia germaneli mecnieris vilhelm rentgenis mier gansakuTrebuli saxis sxivebis aRmoCenasTan (1895 w.), romelsac mecnieris sapativcemulod rentgenis sxivebi uwodes (Tu ras warmoadgens es sxivebi, fizikaSi iswavli). mecnierma SeamCnia, rom es sxivebi advilad gadioda wignebSi, minaSi da rodesac sxivebs Tavisi xeli dauxvedra, ekranze xelis Zvlebis silueti dainaxa. manve pirvelma daiwyo sxivebis gamoyeneba samedicino mizniT da safuZveli Cauyara rentgenodiagnostikas. saxsrebis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb did informacias iZleva kvlevis ultrabgeriTi meTodi da magnitur-rezonansuli tomografia. Seqmnilia Sesabamisi Tanamedrove aparatura.

rentgenis cifruli aparati

magnitur-rezonansuli tomografiuli aparati

dRes SesaZlebelia dazianebuli bunebrivi saxsris xelovnuriT Canacvleba. mkurnalobis am meTods endoproTezireba ewodeba. mas didi xnis da saintereso istoria aqvs. jer kidev 1891 wels scades barZayis Zvlis Tavis Canacvleba spilos ZvliT. warmatebuli gamodga 1940 wels amerikeli qirurgis ostin muris mier Seqmnili menj-barZayis saxsris proTezi, romelmac safuZveli daudo Tanamedrove umaRlesi samedicino teqnologiebiT damzadebul saxsris proTezebs. gasuli saukunis 80-ian wlebSi akademikos oTar RuduSauris mier dainerga keramikisa da sxva maRalteqnologiuri masalebiT damzadebuli xelovnuri saxsrebis gamoyeneba. nino kikabiZe iyo pirveli qarTveli orToped-travmatologi*, romelmac gaakeTa barZayis Zvlis nawilebis liTonis masaliT Canacvleba. xelovnuri saxsrebis mwarmoebeli msoflio firmebi mudmivad xvewen masalas xelovnuri saxsrebis dasamzadeblad, raTa uzrunvelyon misi ZvalSi myarad fiqsacia, saxsris optimaluri funqcionireba, eqsploataciis* gaxangrZliveba da postoperaciuli* garTulebis SemTxvevebis ricxvis Semcireba.

pirveladi samedicino daxmarebis simulacia saWiro masala: artaSani, bandi. procedura: ivarjiSe megobrebTan, rogor unda aRmouCino pirveladi samedicino daxmareba dazaralebuls iogebis daWimvis, RrZobis an motexilobis dros.

44


2.7.

ConCxis kunTebi

rogoria ConCxis kunTebis agebuleba da funqciebi? ConCxis kunTis struqtura _ myesi, SemaerTebelqsovilovani garsi, kunTovani boWkoebis kona, kunTovani ujredi _ boWko; funqcia _ adamianis ConCxis kunTebis sxvadasxva jgufis funqciebi.

daasaxele kunTovani qsovilis saxeebi da aRwere TiToeulis agebulebis Tavisebureba.

Sen albaT ukeT icnob im kunTebs, romlebsac gadaadgilebis, varjiSis Tu fizikuri muSaobis dros iyeneb. Sen aseve gaqvs sxva kunTebi, romlebic sxvadasxva organoSi gvxvdeba. amaTgan zogierTi kunTi gadaaadgilebs sakvebs saWmlis momnelebel organoebSi, gulis kunTi sisxls

gluvkunTovani qsovili

amoZravebs sisxlZarRvebSi, sxva kunTebi cvlian sisxlZarRvebis siganes, rom saWiroebis mixedviT moamaragos sxvadasxva organo sisxliT. amrigad, organizmSi sxvadasxva moZraobis ganxorcieleba xdeba kunTebis saSualebiT. arCeven ConCxis kunTebs, gulis kunTsa da gluv kunTebs. es kunTebi Sedgeba sxvadasxva saxis kunTovani qsovilisgan (sur. 30). gluvi kunTebi gvxvdeba Sinagani organoebis kedlebSi. gluvi kunTebi ufro nela ikumSeba, vidre ganivzoliani kunTebi. Seni survilisamebr SegiZlia xeli idayvis saxsarSi moxaro an gaSalo. es imas niSnavs, rom ConCxis kunTebis moqmedeba Cvens survils emorCileba, gulisa da gluvi kunTebis moqmedeba ki ara.

gulis ganivzoliani kunTovani qsovili

ConCxis ganivzoliani kunTovani qsovili

sur. 30

ConCxis kunTebis agebuleba. ConCxis kunTebi (sur. 31) orive boloTi myesebiT Zvlebzea mimagrebuli. gamonaklisia mimikuri kunTebi, romlebic mxolod erTi boloTia mimagrebuli Zvalze, xolo meore bolo Tavisuflad bolovdeba kanSi, Tvalisa da tuCis irgvlivi kunTebi ki mxolod kans emagreba.

adamianis ConCxis kunTebis ZiriTadi jgufebi da maTi funqciebi. Sen sxeulSi mravali kunTia. ConCxis zogierTi kunTi warmodgenilia suraTze (sur. 32). rogorc Seni Zvlebi, yoveli kunTi sxeulSi gansazRvrul funqcias asrulebs. ConCxis kunTebi ConCxTan erTad mamoZravebeli funqciis garda asruleben damcvelo-

45


biT da sayrden funqciasac. magaliTad, Tavis kunTebidan aRsaniSnavia mimikuri da saReWi kunTebi. saReW kunTebTan dakavSirebulia qveda ybis moZraoba. saReW kunTebTan erTad tuCis irgvlivi kunTebi monawileoben metyvelebaSi. mimikuri kunTebis saSualebiT adamiani gamoxatavs Tavis emociebs. kisris kunTebis funqciebia sayrdeni da mamoZravebeli (Tavis aweva, daweva, brunva). gulmkerdis kunTebi asruleben sayrden, damcvelobiT da mamoZravebel funqciebs. magaliTad, neknTaSorisi kunTebi did rols asruleben sunTqviT moZraobaSi. zurgis kunTebic sayrden, damcvelobiT da mamoZravebel funqciebs asruleben. kunTebs aqvT Tboregulaciis funqci-

kunTovani boWkoebis konebi

myesi

garsi

kunTovani boWko

sur. 31

ac. isini SekumSvisas siTbos gamoyofen. siciveSi kunTebis swrafi SekumSva _ kankali organizms siTbos unarCunebs.

mimikuri kunTebi saReWi kunTebi trapecia kunTi

kisris kunTebi

deltisebri kunTi

mkerdis didi kunTi samTava kunTi zurgis uganieresi kunTi

nekTaSoriso kunTebi

orTava kunTi muclis kunTebi

didi dundula kunTi barZayis swori kunTi

kanWis tyupi kunTi

sur. 32

46


saidan viciT ConCxis kunTebis Sesaxeb? gvian Sua saukuneebSi aRmavloba ganicada xelovnebam da mecnierebam. leonardo da vinCim Seqmna safuZvliani codna adamianis sxeulis organoebis, maT Soris kunTebis Sesaxeb. igi kveTda gvamebs da Seiswavlida kunTebis mdebareobasa da funqcias. mis mier Seqmnilma atlasebma dRemde moaRwia. andreas vezaliusma Seqmna adamianis anatomiis detaluri atlasebi.

1. Seadare erTmaneTs kunTebis sami tipi maTi struqturis, funqciebisa da organizmSi lokaciis/adgilmdebareobis mixedviT. monacemebi warmoadgine mocemuli sqemis saxiT (sqema gadaitane rveulSi): samuSao rveulSi mokle CanawerebisTvis kunTis tipebii ConCxis kunTi _ (maxasiaTeblebi)

2. daasaxele kunTovani qsovilis saxe, romelic Sedis mxolod _ a) ConCxis kunTSi, b) gulis kunTSi, g) sisxlZarRvis kedlebSi. 3. 32-e suraTis mixedviT gansazRvre, romeli kunTebi asruleben _ a) mamoZravebel, b) sayrden da g) damcvelobiT funqciebs. 4. ra saerTo funqcia eqnebaT zemo da qvemo kidurebis kunTebs? 5. kidev ra funqcias Seasrulebs qvemo kidurebis kunTebi zemo kidurebis kunTebisgan gansxvavebiT?

adamians aqvs sami tipis kunTi: ConCxis kunTebi, gulis kunTi da gluvi kunTebi; ConCxis kunTebis didi umravlesoba orive boloTi myesebiT mimagrebulia Zvlebze; ConCxis kunTebi asruleben sayrden, mamoZravebel da damcvelobiT funqciebs, monawileoben TboregulaciaSi.

47 7


2.8.

ConCxis kunTebis moqmedebis meqanizmi

rogor amoZravebs Zvlebi da kunTebi adamianis sxeuls? raime tipis moZraobis gansaxorcieleblad Seni Zvlebi da kunTebi erTad muSaoben. kunTs moZraobis gamowveva SeuZlia mxolod SekumSvis mdgomareobaSi. imisaTvis, rom amoZravdes Seni Zvlebi, zogierTi kunTi unda SeikumSos, rigi kunTebisa ki _ modundes. sxeulis nawilTa asamoZraveblad yovelTvis ori, xSirad ki ramdenime kunTia saWiro. isini an erTad muSaoben, an monacvleobiT, erTmaneTis sapirispirod.

sasicocxlo Tviseba _ moZraoba: kunTis SekumSva, moduneba, antagonisti kunTebi, kunTebis muSaoba da daRla. kvleva _ saxsarSi moZraobis modelis Seqmna da gamoyeneba.

• ZvalTa SeerTebis romeli forma Seesabameba ConCxis mamoZravebel funqcias? • CamoTvale saxsris komponentebi da aRwere TiToeulis funqcia.

beWis Zvali mxris Zvlis Tavi

orTava kunTi SekumSulia samaTava kunTi SekumSulia samaTava kunTi modunebulia orTava kunTi modunebulia

wina mxris Zvlebi

idayvis saxsari moxrilia

idayvis saxsari gaSlilia

sur. 33

Tu rogor amoZravebs kunTebi Zvlebs, es procesi ganvixiloT idayvis saxsris moZraobis magaliTze (sur. 33). idayvis saxsris moxras ganapirobebs mxris Zvlis Sida zedapirze mdebare orTava kunTi. es kunTi zeda boloTi myesebiT mimagrebulia mxrisa da beWis Zvalze, xolo qveda boloTi _ winamxris Zvlebis Sida zedapirze. amitom kunTis SekumSva winamxars mozidavs mxrisken da xeli idayvis saxsarSi moixreba. mxris Zvlis gareTa zedapirze

48

mdebareobs samTava kunTi, romelic zeda boloTi myesebiT mimagrebulia beWsa da mxris Zvlis Tavze, xolo qveda boloTi _ winamxris Zvlebze gareTa mxridan. amitom am kunTis SekumSva iwvevs winamxris ganzidvas mxrisgan da xeli idayvis saxsarSi iSleba. Sesabamisad, orTava kunTs momxrels uwodeben, xolo samTava kunTs _ gamSlels. radgan sapirispiro moqmedebebs asruleben, momxreli da gamSleli kunTebi antagonisti kunTebia.


saxsarSi moZraobas ganapirobebs antagonisti kunTebis SeTanxmebuli moqmedeba. rodesac momxreli _ orTava kunTi SekumSulia, am dros gamSleli _ samTava kunTi modunebulia. Sesabamisad, xeli moxrilia. piriqiT, rodesac samTava kunTi ikumSeba, orTava kunTi modunebulia da xeli iSleba.

saxsris momxreli da gamSleli kunTebi SesaZlebelia erTdroulad modunebul an SekumSul mdgomareobaSi iyos. magaliTad, Tu adamians sxeulis gaswvriv mSvidad CamoSvebuli xelebi aqvs, saxsris momxreli da gamSleli kunTebi modunebulia, xolo horizontalurad gaSlil xelebSi simZimis daWerisas _ SekumSulia.

saxsarSi moZraobis modelis Seqmna da gamoyeneba sakvlevi kiTxva: rogor moZraobs xeli idayvis saxsarSi? saWiro masala: rezinis gasaberi buSti, webovani lenti, 3 rezinis rgoli, 2 muyaos mili, romelTac boloSi aqvT TiTo xvreli.

1

2

procedura: 1. milis boloebi daakavSire reziniT (suraTi 1.); 2. buSti odnav gabere (rogorc naxatzea), boloebi ganaskve da reziniT an webovani lentiT erTi boloTi miamagre erT milTan, xolo meore boloTi _ meore milTan (daakvirdi me-2 suraTs); 3. mieci milebs erTmaneTis mimarT horizontaluri mdgomareoba. daakvirdi, rogoria buStis forma; 4. Semdeg ganalage milebi erTmaneTis mimarT kuTxiT, mag., 45°. daakvirdi buStis formas; 5. gansxvavebuli iyo Tu ara buStis forma proceduris me-3 da me-4 nawilSi? analizi: muyaos milebi saxsris romel nawilebs Seesabameba? saxsris romeli komponentis rols asruleben rezinis rgolebi, romliTac milebia dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan? romel kunTs Seesabameba rezinis gasaberi buSti, momxrels Tu gamSlels? proceduris me-3 nawili ris imitacias axdens, kunTis SekumSvis Tu modunebis? me-4 nawili?

49 9


ConCxis kunTebis muSaoba da daRla. SekumSvisas kunTi meqanikur samuSaos asrulebs. kunTis yoveli SekumSva energiis xarjvasTan aris dakavSirebuli. es energia kunTis ujredebSi gamoTavisufldeba glukozis daSlis Sedegad. energiis udidesi nawili Tavisufldeba Jangbadis monawileobiT. amitom muSaobis dros kunTi gaZlierebulad maragdeba sisxliT, rom miitanos ujredSi sakvebi da Jangbadi. xangrZlivi, Seusvenebeli fizikuri muSaobis dros kunTebis Sromisunarianoba TandaTan klebulobs. dasvenebis Semdeg, rodesac kunTi modunebulia, Sromisunarianoba kvlav aRdgeba. kunTis Sromis/SekumSvis unaris droebiT daqveiTebas daRlas uwodeben.

ritmuli SekumSvis dros kunTi ufro nela iRleba, radgan am dros ritmulad erTi saxis kunTebi (magaliTad, gamSleli) SekumSulia, meore saxis kunTebi (magaliTad, momxreli) modunebulia da, piriqiT. modunebis dros kunTi aswrebs dasvenebas. amave dros, kunTis daRla damokidebulia SekumSvaTa ritmsa da datvirTvaze: rac maRalia ritmi da datvirTva, miT swrafad iRleba kunTi. saSualo ritmisa da datvirTvis drosac dgeba momenti, rodesac xangrZlivi muSaobis Sedegad kunTi iRleba. amis erT-erTi mizezia kunTovan ujredebSi glukozisa da Jangbadis raodenobis Semcireba.

kunTis daRlis pirobebis kvleva sakvlevi kiTxva: razea (ra pirobebze) damokidebuli kunTis daRla? saWiro resursebi: adamianuri resursi _ cdispiri*, hantelebi (an sxva saxis simZime), wamzomi. procedura: monacemebis aRricxvis cxrili: kunTis muSaobis pirobebi daRlis dro (wT)

mxris gaswvriv gaSlili xelebi

idayvis saxsarSi ritmuli moxra-gaSla wT-Si 25 sixSiriT

idayvis saxsarSi ritmuli moxra-gaSla wT-Si 50 sixSiriT

idayvis saxsarSi ritmuli moxra-gaSla wT-Si 25 sixSiriT hantelebiT

1. gadaitane cxrili samuSao rveulebSi; 2. cdispirma gaSalos xelebi mxris gaswvriv uZravad, monacemebis cxrilSi CainiSne dro, rodesac igi daiwyebs xelebis CamoSvebas; 3. cdispiri 5 wuTiT dasvenebis Semdeg asrulebs idayvis ritmul moxra-gaSlas wT-Si 25 sixSiriT; monacemebis cxrilSi CainiSne dro, rodesac igi dakargavs kunTis SekumSvis unars; 4. gaimeore me-3 safexuri wuTSi 50 sixSiriT; 5. gaimeore me-3 safexuri datvirTviT. analizi da daskvna: yvelaze swrafad rodis daiRala kunTi? ratom? razea damokidebuli kunTis daRla da rogor axsni mas?

50 0


1. Tqvens sxeuls aqvs sami tipis kunTi _ ConCxis, gulisa da gluvi kunTebi. yvela es kunTi amoZravebs Tqvens sxeuls. am sami tipis kunTidan, romlis kontroli SegiZlia? ra mniSvneloba aqvs am faqts? 2. raSi gamoixateba idayvis saxsarSi xelis momxreli da gamSleli kunTebis SeTanxmebuli moqmedeba? 3. orTava da samTava kunTs ratom Tvlian antagonist kunTebad? 4. iogebi da myesebi SemaerTebeli qsovilisgan Sedgeba. sad gvxvdeba es struqturebi da TiToeuli maTgani ra rols asrulebs sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistemis mamoZravebeli funqciis ganxorcielebaSi? 5. daadgine mizezSedegobrivi kavSiri (cxrili gadaitane rveulSi): Sedegi

gamomwvevi mizezebi

kunTis daRla 6. suraTis mixedviT axseni, romeli kunTebi daeRala gogonas da ratom?

Seni swavlis procesis analizisTvis rogor dagexmara modelis Seqmna idayvis saxsarSi moZraobis meqanizmis ukeT gaazrebaSi. pasuxi daasabuTe.

ssaxsrebSi moZraobas ganapirobebs sxvadasxva jgufis kunTebis (magaliTad, momxreli da gamSleli) SeTanxmebuli moqmedeba; urTierTsawinaaRmdego moqmedebis kunTebs antagonisti kunTebi ewodeba; kunTebi SekumSvis dros asrulebs meqanikur muSaobas; kunTs muSaobisTvis esaWiroeba energia, romelic gamoTavisufldeba glukozis daJangvis Sedegad; xangrZlivi muSaobis Sedegad kunTi iRleba; kunTis daRla damokidebulia muSaobis ritmsa da datvirTvaze.

51


2.9.

tanadobis darRveva

ratom aris gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani fizikuri aqtivoba mozardis sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistemis sworad ganviTarebisTvis? janmrTeloba da daavadeba _ swori tanadoba; tanadobis darRveva _ sqoliozi, paTologiuri lordozi da kifozi, brtyelterfianoba; fizikuri aqtivobis mniSvneloba swori tanadobis ganviTarebisTvis; kvleva _ TanatolebSi tanadobis darRvevis SemTxvevebis kvleva; sakuTari terfis formis kvleva.

ra aris tanadoba da ra aris swori tanadobisTvis damaxasiaTebeli? tanadoba aris sxeulis Cveuli mdgomareoba moZraobisa

sur. 34

1

2

3

sur. 35

52

norma

da simSvidis dros. swori tanadobisTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebia: mxrebi erT doneze da odnav gaSlili, muceli aweuli, fexebi swori, kargad ganviTarebuli kunTebi da msubuqi siaruli, ukanidan Tavi da xerxemali qmnis swor vertikalur xazs. swor tanadobas ganapirobebs xerxemlis forma. rogorc ici, xerxemals aqvs nadrekebi da S-iseburi formisaa. xerxemlis nadrekebi swrafi da mkveTri moZraobis dros amsubuqebs da amcirebs zewolas xerxemalze. ratom unda gqondes swori tanadoba? gamoiyurebi mimzidvelad da Tavisuflad, msubuqad moZraob, moqnili xar. amavdroulad, swori tanadoba uzrunvelyofs Sinagani organoebis (filtvebi, guli, kuW-nawlavi) normalur muSaobas. ratom eqvemdebareba mozardis ConCxi advilad gamrudebas? zrdasrulis Zvlovani sistemisgan gansxvavebiT, mozardis ConCxSi sWarbobs xrtilovani qsovili. amitom mozardis Zvlebi naklebad magari da myaria, samagierod, ufro moqnili da drekadia. saskolo periodSi moswavleebis ConCxi jer kidev ar aris formirebuli. es imas niSnavs, rom sxeulis araswori mdebareoba siarulis, dgomis, magidasTan jdomis, Zilis dros xels uwyobs ConCxis gamrudebas da irRveva misi ganviTareba.

1. rogor fiqrob, tanadobis ra problema SeeqmnebaT bavSvebs (sur. 34) 2. gaecani teqstis Sinaarss da upasuxe teqstSi CarTul kiTxvebs. 3. gamoiyene Semdeg gverdze mocemuli xerxemlis gamrudebis formebis aRweriloba da TiToeuli maTgani amoicani 35-e suraTze. 4. jgufTan erTad SeimuSave tanadobis darRvevis prevenciuli RonisZiebebi.


tanadobis darRvevas iwvevs xerxemlis gamrudeba. xerxemlis gamrudebis formebia: sqoliozi _ xerxemlis normaluri mdgomareobidan marjvniv an marcxniv gadaxraa. am dros mxrebis done araTanabaria. igi aferxebs Sinagani organoebis muSaobas. paTologiuri lordozi _ xerxemlis gamrudeba mimarTulia win, kerZod, welis nadreki mkveTradaa Sezneqili, rac sxeulis ukan gadaxras iwvevs. paTologiuri kifozi _ gulmkerdis nadrekis amozneqiloba mkveTradaa gamoxatuli. am dros adamiani moxrilia, Tavi da mxrebi win aqvs daSvebuli. mkerdi Cavardnilia, rac sunTqvasa da gulis muSaobas aferxebs. tanadobis darRvevis mizezebia: magidasTan araswori jdoma; dgomis, jdomis dros sxeulis araswori poza; mxrebis araTanabar doneze Wera; simZimis sistematurad cal xelSi tareba; arasakmarisi fizikuri aqtivoba. ra iwvevs brtyelterfianobas? tanadobis darRvevas iwvevs brtyelterfianobac. rogorc ukve ici, adamianis terfs

aqvs TaRovani forma, rac moZraobis dros biZgebs amcirebs. xangrZlivi dgomisa da jdomis dros, mZime tvirTis gadatanisas, viwro da/ an maRalqusliani fexsacmlis tarebis SemTxvevaSi, myesebi iWimeba, rac terfis gabrtyelebas iwvevs. am SemTxvevaSi amboben, rom ganviTarda brtyelterfianoba (sur. 36) da irRveva swori tanadoba; icvleba terfis calkeul nawilebze datvirTva; uaresdeba sisxliT momarageba, rac qveda kidurebis swraf daRlasa da tkivilis SegrZnebas iwvevs. brtyelterfianobas iwvevs Warbwonianobac. SeiZleba igi memkvidreobiTic iyos. regularuli fizikuri aqtivoba xels uwyobs sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistemis ganviTarebas. rac ufro met samuSaos asrulebs kunTebi, miT ufro meti sakvebi da Jangbadi moaqvs masSi sisxls, Zlierdeba nivTierebaTa cvla. swrafad izrdeba da msxvildeba kunTovani boWkoebi. Sesabamisad, izrdeba kunTebis moculoba, maTi elastikuroba, SekumSvis Zala da siCqare. Zlieri kunTebi Zvlebis ganviTarebasac uwyobs xels, radgan Zvlebze kunTebi myesebiTaa mimagrebuli. Zvali gansakuTrebiT im mimarTulebiT izrdeba, saidanac kunTebis met daWimvasa da moWeras ganicdis. amrigad, rac ufro Zlierad viTardeba sxeulis kunTebi, miT ufro mtkice xdeba ConCxis Zvlebi, myesebi da iogebi. umjobesdeba saxsrebSi moZraoba. regularuli fizikuri aqtivoba aumjobesebs adamianis tanadobas.

sur. 36

5. fizikuri aqtivoba ratom uwyobs xels sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistemis swor ganviTarebas? 6. situacia 1. maRal klasebSi luka gaitaca maTematikam da Cairicxa mosamzadebel kursebze, romelsac skolis Semdeg eswreboda. mecadineoba moiTxovda damatebiT literaturaze muSaobas, romelsac luka mudam Tan atarebda, ufro xSirad marjvena xeliT. `rogor atareb aseT simZimes?~ _ gaukvirda dedas, rodesac scada lukas CanTis aweva. erTxel fizkulturis gakveTilze lukam tkivili igrZno zurgSi. maswavlebelma SeniSna tanadobis darRveva da urCia, eqim-orTopedisTvis miemarTa. ra saxis darRvevas aRmoaCenda eqimi? am SemTxvevaSi ra aris tanadobis darRvevis mizezi? rogor SeiZleba tanadobis am saxis darRvevis Tavidan acileba?

53


7. situacia 2. megobris dabadebis dReze 15 wlis maka fexiT wavida axali, maRalqusliani fexsacmliT, romelic dedisgan iTxova. megobari axlos ar cxovrobda da fexebi swrafad daeRala, magram igi Tavs did adamianad da bednierad grZnobda. sadResaswaulo sufridan yvelam sacekvaod gadainacvla, magram cota xanSi fexebis Zlieri tkivilis gamo, makam uari Tqva cekvaze da saRamos darCenili dro savarZelSi gaatara. rogor fiqrob, ra gaxda makas fexebis tkivilis mizezi? Tu igi xSirad Caicvams maRalquslian fexsacmels, ra SeiZleba gamoiwvios? 8. suraTze romeli figura (a, b Tu g) asaxavs magidasTan swor jdomas? aRwere magidasTan swori jdomisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi.

a

b

g

TanatolebSi tanadobis darRvevis SemTxvevebis kvleva sakvlevi kiTxva: tanadobis darRvevis ra formebia gavrcelebuli skolis mozardebSi da ra aris misi gamomwvevi mizezebi? saWiro resursi: samecniero literatura tanadobis darRvevis Sesaxeb, adamianuri resursebi _ skolis eqimi, respodentebi (skolis me-8-9 klasis moswavleebi), Tabaxis furclebi, kompiuteri. procedura: 1) sakiTxis Sesaxeb moiZie informacia da daamuSave; 2) moipove informacia skolis eqimisgan, Tu skolis moswavleebSi, zogadad (konkretuli moswavlis gvar-saxelis miTiTebis gareSe), tanadobis darRvevis ra formebia ufro gavrcelebuli da ra sixSiriT; 3) moamzade kiTxvarebi TanatolebSi socialuri kvlevisTvis, riTac daadgen tanadobis darRvevis SesaZlo mizezebs; 4) SearCie respodentebi, Caatare kiTxvarebiT maTi gamokiTxva da saTanado formiT gaukeTe organizeba mopovebul informacias. analizi: 1) svetovani diagramis saxiT warmoadgine skolis mozardebSi tanadobis darRvevis SemTxvevebi; 2) gaaanalize gamokiTxvis Sedegebi. gaakeTe daskvna: 1) tanadobis darRvevis ra formebia gavrcelebuli skolis mozardebSi; 2) ra aris tanadobis darRvevis mizezebi. Catarebuli kvlevis Sesaxeb dawere angariSi da waradgine klasis winaSe.

54


sakuTari terfis formis kvleva sakvlevi kiTxva: rogori forma aqvs Cems sakuTar terfs? resursebi: samecniero literatura brtyelterfianobis Sesaxeb, Tabaxis furceli, wyliani WurWeli fexis dasasveleblad. procedurebi: 1) samecniero literaturaSi gaecani brtyelterfianobis gamomwvev mizezebsa da misi Tavidan acilebis RonisZiebebs; 2) Cade terfi wylian WurWelSi; 3) amoiRe terfi WurWlidan, daferTxe zedmeti wyli da dadgi Tabaxis furcelze; 4) furcelze datovebuli Seni terfis anabeWdi Semoxaze fanqriT; 5) fanqriT Semoxazul anabeWds gadauRe foto. analizi: Seni terfis anabeWdi Seadare suraTze mocemul _ normaluri da brtyeli _ terfis anabeWdebs. daskvna: ivaraude, gaqvs Tu ara brtyelterfianoba? Catarebuli kvlevis Sesaxeb dawere angariSi (angariSs daurTe gadaRebuli foto) da waradgine klasis winaSe.

normaluri

brtyeli

Seni swavlis procesis analizisTvis • 2.9-is teqstis Sinaarsis gaazrebaSi rogor dagexmara teqstSi CarTul kiTxvebze muSaoba? • Seavse qvemoT mocemuli sqema (sqema rveulSi gadaitane). ra iyo am gakveTilze SenTvis yvelaze saintereso? ra iswavle am gakveTilze? romeli aqtivoba dagexmara yvelaze metad axali informaciis aRqmaSi? ratom? gakveTilze miRebuli informaciidan ras gaiTvaliswineb/gamoiyeneb Sens cxovrebaSi?

tanadoba aris sxeulis Cveuli mdgomareoba moZraobisa da simSvidis dros; swori tanadoba adamianis sxeuls lamazs xdis da xels uwyobs organizmis normalur funqcionirebas; swori tanadobis darRveva SeiZleba dakavSirebuli iyos xerxemlis gamrudebasTan da/an brtyelterfianobasTan; tanadobis darRveva arTulebs Sinagani organoebis moqmedebas; mniSvnelovania, vicodeT tanadobis darRvevis gamomwvevi mizezebi da prevenciuli RonisZiebebi.

55


Tema

2-is Sejameba

Temis mimoxilva mTavari ideebi • sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistema Sedgeba Zvlebisa da kunTebisgan; • Zvlebi Seicavs organul da araorganul nivTierebebs; organuli nivTierebebi Zvals aniWebs elastikurobas, xolo araorganuli nivTierebebi _ simagres; • Zvlebi qmnian adamianis ConCxs; • kunTis tipebs miekuTvneba: ConCxis kunTebi, gulis kunTi da gluvi kunTebi; ConCxis kunTebi orive boloTi mimagrebulia Zvlebze (gamonaklisia mimikuri kunTebi) da iwvevs maT moZraobas; • mniSvnelovania, vicodeT pirveladi daxmareba ConCxis sxvadasxva saxis dazianebis dros; • fizikuri aqtivoba xels uwyobs sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistemis ganviTarebas. sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistemis funqciebi sayrden mamoZravebeli sistemis funqciebi

magaliTebi

sayrdeni

sxeuli eyrdnoba xerxemals, qveda kidurebis Zvlebs, muclis RruSi moTavsebuli organoebisTvis sayrdenia muclis kunTebi menjis ZvalTan erTad;

mamoZravebeli

Zvlebze mimagrebuli ConCxis kunTebi amoZravebs ConCxis calkeul nawilebs da sruldeba sxvadasxva saxis moZraoba;

damcvelobiTi

tvinis qala icavs Tavis tvins, xerxemali _ zurgis tvins, gulmkerdis Zvlebi mkerdisa da zurgis kunTebTan erTad _ gulsa da filtvebs, menjis Zvali muclis kunTebTan erTad _ muclis RruSi moTavsebul organoebs;

samarago

Zvlebis RruebSi maragdeba cximi, ZvlebSi _ marilebi (mag., kalciumis marilebi);

sisxlmbadi

Zvlis wiTel tvinSi warmoiqmneba sisxlis ujredebi;

Tboregulacia

kunTebis SekumSvis dros organizmSi didZali siTbo gamomuSavdeba, Zlieri sicivis dros kunTebi iwyeben swraf SekumSvas _ kankals, rac sxeuls aTbobs.

davalebebi TviTSefasebisTvis testuri davalebebi (pasuxebi CainiSne rveulSi) 1. kunTebi Zvlebze mimagrebulia: a. xrtiliT; b. iogebiT; g. myesebiT; d. saxsrebiT. 2. gulis kunTi Sedgeba... kunTovani qsovilisgan: a. gluvi; b. ConCxis ganivzoliani; g. gulis ganivzoliani. 3. dabadebamde ConCxi Sedgeba: a. myesebisgan;

g. xrtilovani qsovilisgan;

b. kompaqturi Zvlis qsovilisgan;

d. iogebisgan.

4. Zvlis wiTeli tvinisgan warmoiqmneba: a. cximi; b. sisxlis ujredebi; g. kalciumi; d. Zvlis Rrublisebri nivTiereba. 5. Zvlisazrdela aris Txeli gareTa Sre: a. xrtilis; b. ConCxis kunTis; g. saxsris; d. Zvlis.

56


6. kunTi maSin aamoZravebs Zvlebs, Tu igi: a. dagrZelebulia; b. gafarToebulia; g. SekumSulia; d. modunebulia. 7. rodesac xeli idayvis saxsarSi moxrilia: a. orTava kunTi SekumSulia da samTava _ modunebuli; b. orTava kunTi modunebulia da samTava _ SekumSuli; g. orTava kunTi da samTava kunTi modunebulia; d. orTava kunTi da samTava kunTi SekumSulia. 8. mudmivi fizikuri aqtivoba xels uwyobs ConCxis kunTebis ganviTarebas, radgan: a. kunTis kunTovani boWkoebis ricxvi izrdeba; b. kunTis kunTovani boWkoebi msxvildeba da izrdeba; g. orive pasuxi sworia. 9. orTava da samTava kunTi antagonisturi kunTebia, radgan: a. emsaxurebian sxeulis moZraobas; b. emsaxurebian xelis idayvSi moxrasa da gaSlas; g. emsaxurebian fexis moxrasa da gaSlas; d. asruleben urTierTsapirispiro moqmedebas. 10. ZvalTa naxevrad moZrav SeerTebas uzrunvelyofs: a. Zvlovani gamonazardebi;

g. Zvlovani nakerebi;

b. xrtilovani Sre;

d. sasaxsre zedapiri.

11. Zvlis SemadgenlobaSi arsebuli kalciumis marilebi da cilebi: a. kalciumis marilebi Zvals aniWebs simagres, xolo cilebi _ moqnilobas; b. kalciumis marilebi Zvals aniWebs moqnilobas, xolo cilebi _ simagres; g. arc erTi pasuxi ar aris swori.

davalebebi kritikuli da SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebisTvis 1. Camowere im kunTebis saxelebi, romlebsac gamoiyeneb kldeze cocvisa da siarulis dros. 2. warmoidgine, rom anTropologi* poulobs adamianis uZvelesi winapris TiTqmis mTlian da dauzianebel ConCxs. anTropologs ainteresebs, uZvelesi winapari amarTuli dadioda Tu oTx kidurze. Seni codnidan gamomdinare, ras urCevdi anTropologs, man ConCxis romeli nawilebis agebulebasa da formaze unda gaamaxvilos yuradReba? ratom?

vizualuri masalis gansja 1. suraTze adamianis qalas Zvlebi aRniSnulia cifrebiT. a) amoicani Zvlebi da daasaxele; b) amoicani, romeli cifrebiT aRniSnuli Zvlebi monawileoben saxsris SeqmnaSi.

3

1 2

6

4 5 57


2. ilustraciaze qvemo kiduris ganyofilebebi aRniSnulia cifrebiT. amoicani isini da daasaxele. 1

2

3

4

3. qalsa da mamakacs sxeulis gansxvavebuli aRnagoba aqvT, rac ConCxis agebulebaSic vlindeba. ilustraciaze gamosaxulia sxvadasxva adamianis menjis Zvlebi. amoicani, romeli miekuTvneba qals da romeli _ mamakacs. axseni Seni arCevani.

1

2

4. ilustraciaze Zvlebi aRniSnulia cifrebiT. amoicani isini da daasaxele. 1

2

3 4

5. ilustraciaze xerxemlis ganyofilebebi aRniSnulia ricxvebiT. 1) amoicani isini da daasaxele; 2) gansazRvre me-3 da me-4 ganyofilebaSi ZvalTa SeerTebis forma; 3) romeli ganyofilebis malas eqneba yvelaze masiuri sxeuli da ratom?

58


terminebsa da cnebebs Soris kavSiris dadgena sworia Tu mcdari? gansazRvre yoveli debuleba/mtkicebuleba sworia Tu mcdari. Tu sworia, dawere `sworia~, Tu mcdaria, gaxazuli sityva Secvale iseTi sityviT an fraziT, rom mtkicebuleba swori iyos. 1.

Zvali mkvdari qsovilisgan Sedgeba.

2.

Zvali sigrZeSi izrdeba ZvlisazrdelaTi.

3.

idayvSi Zvlebi qmnian saxsars.

4.

naxevradmoZravi SeerTebis magaliTia mxris Zvlisa da beWis SeerTeba.

5.

myesebi Zvlebs erTmaneTTan akavSirebs.

6.

ganivzoliani kunTovani qsovilis sxvadasxva saxeobaa ConCxisa da gulis kunTovani qsovilebi.

7.

grZel Zvlebs miekuTvneba neknebi.

8.

Zvlis wiTeli tvini aris mxolod Rrublisebr Zvlovan qsovilSi.

terminebs Soris damokidebuleba terminebis yovel nakrebSi sami erTmaneTTan azrobrivad aris dakavSirebuli, erTi ki _ ara. gansazRvre sam termins Soris kavSiris xasiaTi, anu ra aqvT saerTo, xolo Semdeg gansazRvre termini, romelic sami terminis nakrebs ar miekuTvneba. axseni, ratom ar ekuTvnis. 1. ganivzoliani, nebelobiTi, ConCxis kunTi, gluvi; 2. kuWi, sisxlZarRvi, orTava kunTi, nawlavi; 3. menjis Zvali, mala, nekni, mkerdis Zvali; 4. sayrdeni, cilebi, mamoZravebeli, damcvelobiTi; 5. myesebi, sasaxsre CanTa, iogebi, sasaxsre siTxe; 6. kompaqturi Zvlovani qsovili, Rrublisebri Zvlovani qsovili, Zvlis tvini, iogebi; 7. myesebi, ConCxis kunTi, gluvi kunTi, Zvali; 8. saxsari, iogebi, gulis kunTi, xrtili; 9. saReWi kunTebi, xelis kunTebi, kisris kunTebi, kuWis kunTebi. analogia analogia aris or sityvas an frazas Soris damokidebuleba, romelic aseTi formiT iwereba: a : b :: g : d. simbolo ` : ~ ikiTxeba rogorc `aris~, xolo simbolo ` : : ~ _ rogorc `ise~/`iseve~. magaliTad, kata : cxoveli :: vardi : mcenare, ikiTxeba: `kata aris cxoveli, iseve rogorc vardi mcenare~. daasrule qvemoT mocemuli yoveli analogia, amisTvis Casvi Sesabamisi sityva an fraza: 1.

Zvlovani qsovili : osteociti :: kunTovani qsovili:

2.

saxsarSi Zvlebi : iogebi :: kunTebi ZvalTan:

59


3.

cilebi : oragnuli nivTiereba :: kalciumis marilebi:

4.

kiduris Tavisufali nawilis Zvlebi : moZravi SeerTeba :: tvinis qalas Zvlebi:

monacemebis gansja (analizi da daskvna)

moswavleebis %, romlebic dakavebulni arian am aqtivobebiT

kvleviTi proeqtis ganxorcielebisTvis moswavlem Tavisi skolis 200 moswavles sTxova, Tveebis mixedviT, kviraSi minimum 3-jer, aRericxaT iseTi fizikuri aqtivobebi, rogoricaa: sufTa haerze seirnoba, velosipediT siaruli da curva. man moswavleebs aRricxvis furclebi dauriga martSi da Seagrova Semodgomaze, axal saswavlo wels oqtomberSi. isargeble grafikze warmodgenili monacemebiT, rom upasuxo SekiTxvas: moswavleebis aqtivobebi yovel TveSi 70

fexiT siaruli velosipediT siaruli

60

curva

50 40 30 20 10 0 marti

aprili

maisi

ivnisi

ivlisi

agvisto seqtemberi oqtomberi

1) aqtivobis ra saxeobebiT arian moswavleebi umetesad dakavebuli sxvadasxva sezonze? ra monacemis safuZvelze gascem pasuxs am kiTxvas? 2) daadgine, romel sezonze matulobs moswavleebis dakaveba yvela saxeobis fizikuri aqtivobiT? 3) Seni azriT, ratom matulobs moswavleTa fizikuri aqtivoba zafxulis TveebSi? monacemebis organizeba sqemebSi qvemoT mocemuli sqema gadaitane rveulSi da daasrule: adamianis ConCxi

ConCxis funqciebi

ConCxis qsovilebi

ConCxis ganyofileba

ZvalTa SeerTebis forma

Zvlebi formis mixedviT lulisebri naxevradmoZravi

tanis _ ... xrtilovani sisxlmbadi

60


Tema

3. nivTierebaTa mimocvla da transporti

adamianebiT dasaxlebuli adgilebi, Zveladac da axlac, umeteswilad mdinaris piras aris ganlagebuli. mdinare mosaxleobas amaragebs mtknari wyliTa da sakvebiT, aseve adamianebs Soris komunikaciis saSualebaa. adamianTa sazogadoebis ganviTareba SeuZlebelia nedleulis, mza produqciis, sakvebi produqtebisa da narCenebis erTi adgilidan meoreze gadatanis gareSe.

adamianis sxeulis ujredebisa da qsovilebis moTxovnileba saocrad hgavs dasaxlebuli punqtebis moTxovnilebebs. yoveli ujredi gamudmebiT saWiroebs JangbadiTa da sakvebiT momaragebas, erTmaneTTan kavSirs, aseve, cvlis produqtebisgan gaTavisuflebas. ujredebisa da qsovilebis am moTxovnilebas akmayofilebs sunTqvis, saWmlis momnelebeli da gamomyofi sistemebi, xolo organizmSi didi mdinaris rols sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema asrulebs. amrigad, organizmis sicocxle damokidebulia organizmsa da garemos Soris nivTierebaTa mimocvlaze, aseve, TviT organizmSi mimdinare nivTierebaTa transportirebaze. am Temis SeswavliT Sen gaecnobi, Tu es sistemebi rogor uzrunvelyofs Seni organizmis miliardobiT ujredis momaragebas sakvebiTa da JangbadiT, cvlis produqtebisgan gaTavisuflebasa da erTmaneTTan dakavSirebas. Temis Seswavlis dros mogiwevs iseT sakvanZo kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema, rogoricaa: • • • • • • •

ratom aris urTierTdamokidebuli sunTqvis, saWmlis monelebisa da sisxlis mimoqcevis sistemebis funqciebi? rogor xdeba gulis muSaobis/sunTqvis regulacia? rogor qmnis organizmi infeqciis sawinaaRmdego barierebs? rogor davexmaroT adamians sxvadasxva tipis sisxldenis dros? ra mniSvneloba aqvs organizmis mudmivi temperaturis SenarCunebas? rogor xdeba organizmSi wylis balansis SenarCuneba? rogor moqmedebs mavne Cvevebi adamianis janmrTelobaze?

61


sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema

uZveles periodSi adamianebs sjerodaT, rom gulSi aris adamianis suli. Zveli berZnebi gulis masis mixedviT zomavdnen adamianis simarTles. Cveni drois mecniereba uaryofs zemoT gamoTqmul mistikur wamodgenas gulis Sesaxeb da dRes guli ganixileba, rogorc tumbo. igi sisxls amoZravebs sisxlZarRvebSi, romelic Sen sxeulSi aTasobiT kilometris sigrZisaa. jer kidev uZvelesi kulturis xalxebi sisxls miiCnevdnen `sasicocxlo wvenad~. sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema aRmoaCina ingliselma eqimma uiliam harveim mxolod 1628 wels. saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi milionobiT adamiani kvdeboda sxvadasxva infeqciuri daavadebis gamo da ar iyo cnobili sisxlis damcvelobiTi funqcia. Temis Seswavlis procesSi gascem pasuxs Semdeg kiTxvebs: risgan Sedgeba `sasicocxlo wveni~? ra funqciebs asrulebs sisxli organizmSi? rogor icavs sisxli organizms infeqciuri daavadebebisgan? ra funqcias asrulebs guli? rogor Seesabameba gulis agebuleba mis funqciebs?

62


3.1.

organizmis Sinagani garemo

ra komponentebisgan Sedgeba organizmis Sinagani garemo? struqtura _ sisxlis mimoqcevis sistemis komponentebi _ sisxli, guli, sisxlZarRvebi; Sinagani garemos komponentebi _ sisxli, qsoviluri siTxe da limfa; sisxlis struqtura _ plazma, eriTrocitebi, leikocitebi da limfocitebi; funqcia _ Sinagani garemos funqciebi, homeostazi; daavadeba _ limfostazi.

organizmis yoveli ujredi gansazRvrul samuSaos asrulebs da saWiroebs JangbadiTa da sakvebi nivTierebebiT mudmiv momaragebas, aseve nivTierebaTa cvlis produqtebisagan gaTavisuflebas. amisaTvis saWiroa specialuri satransporto sistema. rTuli mravalujrediani cxoveluri organizmebis umravlesobaSi satransporto funqcias asrulebs sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema. sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema sami komponentisgan Sedgeba: sisxli, romelsac mTel sxeulSi gadaaqvs nivTierebebi; kumSvadi organo _ guli, romelic moqmedebs, rogorc tumbo da uzrunvelyofs sisxlis moZraobas mTel sxeulSi; sisxlZarRvebi (arteriebi, venebi, kapilarebi), romelSic sisxli moZraobs. sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema aris Ria da daxSuli. Ria sisxlis mimoqcevis sistemi-

saTvis damaxasiTebelia is, rom sisxlZarRvebi ixsneba sxeulis RruSi da sisxli uSualo kontaqtSia ujredebTan. aseTi sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema gvxvdeba fexsaxsrianebSi, moluskebSi. daxSul sisxlis mimoqcevis sistemaSi sisxli Caketil sisxlZarRvebSi moZraobs da sisxli uSualo kontaqtSi ujredebTan ar Sedis. Caketili sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema damaxasiTebelia zogierTi rgolovani Wiisa da yvela xerxemlianisTvis. daxSuli sisxlis mimoqcevis sistemaa damaxasiaTebeli adamianisTvisac. qsovilebSi Sedis uwvrilesi sisxlZarRvebi _ kapilarebi. kapilarebidan ujredebs Soris sivrceSi sisxlidan ganuwyvetliv gadadis wyali da sxvadasxva qimiuri nivTiereba, maT Soris, Jangbadi da sakvebi nivTierebebi. amrigad, qsovilebSi yovel ujreds gars akravs ujredSorisi siTxe, rasac qsoviluri siTxe ewodeba. qsoviluri siTxidan ujredebSi Sedis sakvebi nivTierebebi da Jangbadi, xolo ujredidan masSi gadmodis naxSirorJangi da sxva cvlis produqtebi; cvlis produqtebi ki qsoviluri siTxidan sisxlSi gadadis (sur. 37). Warbi qsoviluri siTxe gadadis qsovilebSi brmad daboloebul limfur kapilarebSi da warmoiqmneba limfa. dRis gan-

JangbadiTa da sakvebi nivTierebebiT mdidari sisxli

qsoviluri siTxidan naxSirorJangi da sxva cvlis produqtebi gadadis sisxlSi

sisxlis Txevadi nawilidan, romelic Seicavs Jangbadsa da sakveb nivTierebebs, warmoiqmneba qsoviluri siTxe

naxSirorJangiTa da sxva cvlis produqtebiT mdidari sisxli Warbi qsoviluri siTxe gadadis limfur kapilarebSi da warmoiqmneba limfa

qsovilis ujredi _ sakveb nivTierebebsa da Jangbads iRebs qsoviluri siTxidan, qsovilur siTxeSi gamoyofs naxSirorJangsa da sxva cvlis produqtebs

limfuri kapilari sur. 37

63


mavlobaSi 3 litramde siTxe Seiwoveba limfur kapilarebSi da msxvili limfuri sadinarebiT kvlav sisxlSi brundeba _

limfuri sadinarebi uerTdeba venebs (gv. 72, sur. 43). sisxli, qsoviluri siTxe da limfa organizmis Sinagan garemos qmnis.

ra komponentebisgan Sedgeba sisxli? zrdasruli adamianis organizmSi aris 5 litramde sisxli. mosvenebul mdgomareobaSi sisxlis moculobis 45-50% grovdeba elenTaSi, RviZlsa da kanSi. maT sisxlis depoebs uwodeben. sisxli Txevadi SemaerTebeli qsovilia, radgan mis ZiriTad nawils Seadgens ujredSorisi nivTiereba _ moyviTalo, blanti, Txevadi Semadgeneli nawili _ sisxlis plazma. plazmaSi aris 90% wyali, cilebi 7%, cximebi 0.8%, glukoza 0.12%, mineraluri marilebi 0.9%, ujredis cxovelmoqmedebis produqte-

bi da sxva nivTierebebi. rodesac sisxls uyureb SeuiaraRebeli TvaliT, geCveneba, rom igi aris erTi mTliani nivTiereba. magram Tu sisxls movaTavsebT sinjaraSi da cota xans davayovnebT, Tan davamatebT nivTierebas, romelic xels uSlis sisxlis Sededebas, igi Sreebad daiyofa ise, rogorc suraTze vxedavT (sur. 38). plazmaSi ganTavsebulia sisxlis ujredebi _ eriTrocitebi, leikocitebi da ujredis uformo da ubirTvo fragmentebi _ Trombocitebi (sur. 38).

sisxlis plazma _ sisxlis moculobis 55% Trombocitebi da TeTri ujredebi _ leikocitebi wiTeli ujredebi _ eriTrocitebi

sisxlis moculobis 1mm3-Si

5 000 000 eriTrociti

8 000 leikociti

250 000 Trombociti

sisxlis formiani elementebi _ sisxlis moculobis 45% sur. 38

ra aris homeostazi? adamians mudmivad cvalebad pirobebSi uxdeba cxovreba. cvalebadia garemos temperatura, naleqebis raodenoba, organizmSi iWreba daavadebis gamomwvevi mikroorganizmebi da sxv. garemo pirobebis cvlileba moqmedebs organizmis Sinagan garemoze (sxeulis temperaturaze, sisxlis qimiur Sedgenilobaze da sxva). am cvlilebebTan organizmi Seguebas axerxebs homeostazis saSualebiT. homeostazi organizmis unaria, SeinarCunos Sinagani garemo garkveul doneze, miuxedavad Sinagani da garegani pirobebis cvlilebisa.

64

ufro zustad ganvmartoT, Tu ras niSnavs es. magaliTad, cocxal organizms mudmivad ecvleba sisxlis Sedgeniloba drois garkveul periodSi. kvebis dros sisxlSi matulobs sakvebi nivTierebis done, magram sisxlSi sakvebi nivTierebebis Semcvelobis cvlileba ar aris droSi gaxangrZlivebuli movlena, radgan sisxli am nivTierebebs swrafad tovebs ujredebSi. Tu organizms aRar aqvs Tavisi Sinagani garemos SedarebiT mudmiv doneze SenarCunebis unari, homeostazi irRveva, viTardeba paTologia _ daavadeba. home-


ostazis darRveva iwvevs Sinagani garemos gaxangrZlivebul an Seuqcevad cvlilebas. am SemTxvevaSi adamiani saWiroebs samedicino daxmarebas, raTa daareguliros

sakuTari Sinagani garemo medikamentebis, an sxva Terapiuli (samkurnalo) saSualebebis daxmarebiT.

sur. 39

rodesac limfuri ZarRvebi dazianebulia, limfa normalurad ver moZraobs am ubanSi da siTxis dagrovebis gamo SeSupeba warmoiqmneba. am daavadebas limfostazi hqvia. limfostazis/SeSupebis kontroli SeiZleba fizikuri varjiSebis SesrulebiT, specialuri saxvevebisa da masaJebis saSualebiT, rac limfur ZarRvebSi limfis gadaadgilebas Seuwyobs xels.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

ra komponentebisgan Sedgeba sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema? ras niSnavs daxSuli sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema? ra qmnis organizmis Sinagan garemos? ratom miakuTvneben sisxls SemaerTebel qsovils? ratom aris sisxli Txevadi qsovili? romeli ujredebia yvelaze didi raodenobiT sisxlSi? ganmarte homeostazi da misi mniSvneloba. dasaSvebia, rom organizmis Sinagani garemo mudmivad ucvleli iyos? pasuxi daasabuTe. homeostazi SeiZleba SevadaroT `aiwona-daiwonas~ 39-e suraTis mixedviT. moifiqre, raSi mdgomareobs msgavseba? 10. ra gavlenas moaxdens limfis cirkulaciaze xangrZlivi jdoma? ra daavadebis risks qmnis?

organizmSi r nivTierebaTa satransporto funqcias asrulebs sisxlis mimoqcevisa da limfuri sistemebi; sisxli Sedgeba plazmisgan, sisxlis ujredebisa da ujredis fragmentebisgan. organizmis Sinagani garemos mudmivobis (homeostazis) SenarCunebas adamianis janmrTelobisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs.

65


3.2.

adamianis sisxlis komponentebi da funqciebi

ra funqcias asrulebs sisxlis sxvadasxva komponenti? sisxlis struqtura _ plazma, eriTrocitebi, fagocitebi, limfocitebi, Trombocitebi; funqcia _ sisxlis funqciebi: satransporto, damcvelobiTi; janmrTeloba da daavadeba _ anemia, leikozi, hemofilia.

sisxlis formiani elementebi (sur. 40) _ eriTrocitebi, leikocitebi da Trombocitebi _ warmoiqmneba Zvlis wiTel tvinSi. maT gansxvavebuli struqtura, Tvisebebi da funqciebi aqvT (ix. cxrili Semdeg gverdze).

eriTrocitebis wiTel fers ganapirobebs hemoglobini, romlis SemadgenlobaSic Sedis rkina. swored hemoglobins ukavSirdeba Jangbadi filtvebSi. eriTrocitebis daSlisa da warmoqmnis siCqare adamianis asakze, janmrTelobasa da atmosferoSi Jangbadis donezea damokidebuli. magaliTad, zRvis donidan maRal adgilebSi haeri gaiSviaTebulia da, Sesabamisad, garemoSi Semcirebulia Jangbadis raodenoba. amitom alpinistebs maRal mTaSi asvlisas ematebaT sisxlSi eriTrocitebis raodenoba. es aris homeostazis erT-erTi magaliTi.

sisxlis formiani elementebi

sisxlis TeTri ujredi _ fagociti

sisxlis wiTeli ujredebi _ eriTrocitebi

sisxlis TeTri ujredi _ limfociti Trombociti

sisxlis TeTri ujredi _ fagociti

sur. 40

sisxlis erT-erTi funqcia aris satransporto. es funqcia, rogorc cxrilidan Cans, ukavSirdeba eriTrocitebis mier Jangbadisa da naxSirorJangis transportirebas sxeulSi. magram sisxlis plazmac asrulebs satransporto funqcias. masSi gaxsnilia sakvebi nivTierebebi (ma-

66

galiTad, glukoza, aminomJavebi, vitaminebi), nivTierebaTa cvlis produqtebi (magaliTad, Sardovana). radgan plazmis ZiriTadi nawili wyalia, romelic didi TbogamtarobiT xasiaTdeba, sisxli monawileobs sxeulSi siTbos transportirebaSi.


sisxlis formiani elementi

funqcia

struqturisa da Tvisebebis Sesabamisoba funqciasTan

sisxlis wiTeli ujredi _ eriTrociti

filtvebidan qsovilebSi Jangbadis transportireba da qsovilebidan naxSirorJangis gadatana filtvebSi

• ar aqvs birTvi da mis adgilsac citoplazmaSi ikavebs hemoglobini; hemoglobini cilaa, romelsac aqvs JangbadTan dakavSirebis unari; • igi mxolod 120 dRe cocxlobs da iSleba RviZlsa da elenTaSi. axali eriTrocitebi warmoiqmneba Zvlis wiTel tvinSi; • eriTrocits aqvs ormxriv Cazneqili diskos forma, rac zrdis JangbadTan Sexebis zedapirs. eriTrocitis forma da mcire zoma aadvilebs mis moZraobas kapilarebSi.

sisxlis TeTri ujredi _ fagociti

• eriTrocitebze didi zomisaa da gaaCnia danakvTuli birTvi; • SeuZlia formis Secvla da amebis msgavsad organizmis dacva daavadebis gamomwvevi crufexebiT gadaadgileba, maT Soris, kapimikroorganizmebisgan, laris kedelSi gaZroma; ucxo sxeulebisa da • fagocits SeuZlia organizmSi SeWrili nivTierebebisgan mikroorganizmebis STanTqma da moneleba ujredis SigniT. am process fagocitozi ewodeba.

sisxlis TeTri ujredi _ limfociti

• gaaCnia didi zomis sferuli birTvi; organizmis dacva • misi mgrZnobiare plazmuri membrana advilad daavadebis gamomwvevi aRmoaCens mikroorganizms da maT winaaRmdeg mikroorganizmebisgan, gamoyofs cilovani bunebis antisxeuls; ucxo sxeulebisa da • sicocxlis xangrZlivoba zogjer ramdenime nivTierebebisgan welia.

Trombociti

monawileoba sisxlis SededebaSi

• ujredis ubirTvo fragmentia, igi Zvlis wiTel tvinSi warmoiqmneba.

sisxlis Sededeba. sisxlZarRvis dazianebam SeiZleba gamoiwvios sisxldena. sisxlZarRvis dazianebul kedlebTan Sexebis Sedegad Trombocitebi iSleba da sisxlSi gamoiyofa nivTiereba, romelic sisxlis plazmis xsnad cilas fibrinogens gardaqmnis uxsnad cilad fibrinad. fibrinis boWkoebiT warmoqmnil badeSi ixlarTeba sisxlis ujredebi da war-

moiqmneba Trombi, romelic daecoba kapilars da Cerdeba sisxldena (sur. 41). amave dros, Trombi xels uSlis WrilobaSi mikroorganizmebis SeWras. Wrilobis adgilas aris, agreTve, sisxlis bevri TeTri ujredi, raTa gaauvnebelyos WrilobaSi garemodan moxvedrili nebismieri ucxo sxeuli, maT Soris, mikroorganizmebi.

eriTrociti leikociti fibrini

Trombociti

sur. 41

67 7


sisxlis Semswavlel mecniers hematologi hqvia. rodesac hematologi mikroskopiT ikvlevs sisxlis erT pawawina wveTSi sisxlis qimiur Sedgenilobas, ujredebis formasa da raodenobas, mniSvnelovan informacias iRebs adamianis janmrTelobis Sesaxeb. magaliTad: • anemia, rodesac sisxli ver axdens sakmarisi raodenobis Jangbadis transportirebas, SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos sisxlSi normasTan SedarebiT eriTrocitebis SemcirebiT, es ki SeiZleba dakavSirebuli iyos Zvlis wiTeli tvinis funqciebis darRvevasTan an eriTrocitebis namglisebr formasTan (aseTi formis eriTrocitebi iWedeba kapilarebSi da ferxdeba qsovilebis JangbadiT momarageba); aseve, eriTrocitebSi hemoglobinis raodenobis SemcirebiT, ris mizezic SeiZleba sakvebSi rkinis nakleboba iyos. • SesaZlebelia aRmoCenil iqnes didi raodenobiT ucnauri formis leikocitebi, rac leikozze _ TeTri ujredebis kiboze miuTiTebs. • sisxlis qimiurma analizma SeiZleba aRmoaCinis sisxlis plazmis qimiuri Sedgenilobis darRveva, rac avadobaze miuTiTebs. • sisxlis analiziT dgindeba sisxlis SededebasTan dakavSirebuli problema. sisxlis Sededebis daqveiTebis SesaZlo mizezebi: Trombocitebis raodenobis Semcireba, sisxlis plazmaSi zogierTi cilis (mag., fibrinogenis) nakleboba, aseve, memkvidreobiTi daavadeba _ hemofilia. hematologiuri analizis Sedegis mixedviT gadawydeba, Tu ra saxis mkurnaloba sWirdeba adamians da medicinis romel specislists unda mimarTos man.

sisxlis modelis Seqmna masala: mzesumziris an simindis zeTi (SesaZlebelia Txevadi webo, an WurWlis sarecxis Txevadi saSualeba), wiTeli, TeTri da moyviTalo Seferilobis plastilini (an Jelatinis kanfetebi), carieli gamWvirvale plastmasis boTli. procedura: cariel boTlSi Caasxi zeTi an masalSi aRwerili romelime sxva Txevadi siTxe, raTa Seqmna `plazma~. wiTeli feris plastelinisgan daamzade `eriTrocitebi~; gaiTvaliswine maTi forma, zoma da is, rom sisxlis formiani elementebis 40%-s Seadgens; momzadebuli `eriTrocitebi~ moaTavse boTlSi arsebul `plazmaSi~. TeTri feris plastilinisgan daamzade `leikocitebi~ (aseve, SeiZleba gamoiyeno zefiris patara burTulebi an TeTri Jelatinis kanfetebi); gaiTvaliswine maTi ujredis zoma da forma eriTrocitebTan SedarebiT da agreTve, rom eriTrocitebi gacilebiT metia, vidre leikocitebi; momzadebuli `leikocitebi~ moaTavse boTlSi arsebul `plazmaSi~. TeTri feris plastilinisgan daamzade `Trombocitebi~ (aseve, SeiZleba TeTri Jelatinis kanfetebi); gaiTvaliswine am struqturis forma sisxlSi; momzadebuli `Trombocitebi~ moaTavse boTlSi arsebul `plazmaSi~. sisxlis modelis Seqmnis dasrulebis Semdeg CamoTvale sisxlis Semadgeneli komponentebi da TiToeuli komponentis funqcia. ganmarte, ratom aris modelSi sxvadasxva `ujredi~ gansxavebuli raodenobiT. ra SezRudvebi aqvs sisxlis models?

68


dakvirveba sisxlis ujredebze kvleva 1. sakvlevi kiTxva: riT gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisgan sisxlis ujredebi? saWiro masala: sisxlis ujredebis mza mikropreparatebi, sinaTlis mikroskopi. procedura: 1. mikroskopiT daakvirdi maswavleblis mier mocemul adamianis sisxlis mikropreparats; 2. monaxe preparatSi sisxlis wiTeli da TeTri ujredebi; 3. samuSao rveulSi gaakeTe mikroskopiT danaxuli TiTo eriTrocitisa da leikocitis sxvadasxva tipis naxati, gaukeTe warwerebi; 4. aRwere am ujredebs Soris yvela is gansxvaveba, romelsac SeamCnev. analizi: 1. rogoria eriTrocitebis forma? rogor ukavSirdeba misi forma funqcias? 2. Sen mier ganxilul preparatSi sisxlis romeli ujredebia yvelaze didi raodenobiT? daskvna: imsjele sisxlis ujredebis raodenobisa da formis TaviseburebaTa Sesaxeb.

kvleva 2. sakvlevi kiTxva: riT gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisgan adamianisa da bayayis eriTrocitebi? masala: adamianisa da bayayis sisxlis wiTeli ujredebis mza mikropreparatebi, sinaTlis mikroskopi. procedura: 1. daaTvaliere mikroskopiT adamianisa da bayayis sisxlis wiTeli ujredebi; 2. samuSao rveulSi daxate mikroskopiT danaxuli ujredebi. analizi da daskvna: 1. Seadare adamianisa da bayayis eriTrocitebi agebulebis, zomisa da formis mixedviT. monacemebi warmoadgine sqemis saxiT; 2. imsjele jgufSi, drois erTeulSi romeli ufro met Jangbads gadaitans, adamianis Tu bayayis erTi da imave moculobis sisxli.

1. Seadare erTmaneTs sisxlis wiTeli da TeTri ujredebi cxrilis mixedviT: niSnebi Sesadareblad

sisxlis wiTeli ujredi

sisxlis TeTri ujredi

ujredis agebuleba Seferiloba ujredis zoma da forma funqcia raodenoba sisxlis 1 mm3-Si 2. eTanxmebi Tu ara mtkicebulebas: sisxlis ujredis struqtura dakavSirebulia mis funqciasTan. daasabuTe Seni pasuxi. 3. axseni, sisxlis ujredebs Soris ratomaa yvelaze didi raodenobiT eriTrocitebi da ratomaa maTi sicocxle xanmokle?

69 9


4. suraTis mixedviT amoicani: 1) sisxlis formiani elementebi (1, 2, 3); 2) sisxlis romeli preparati ekuTvnis janmrTel da romeli leikoziT daavadebul adamians (a, b). 5. qvemoT cxrilSi mocemulia sami 23 wlis qalis sisxlis analizis nimuSi. cxrilSi mocemuli monacemebis mixedviT upasuxe qvemoT mocemul kiTxvebs da pasuxi daasabuTe:

b

a

2 3 1

raodenoba sisxlis 1mm3-Si eriTrocitebi leikocitebi Trombocitebi

ana

natali

lali

7 500 000

5 000 000

2 000 000

500

6 000

5 000

250 000

255 000

50

a. romeli maTgani cxovrobda sul cota xnis win mTaSi? b. romeli maTgani daavaddeba ufro advilad infeqciuri daavadebiT? g. romel maTgans eqneba daqveiTebuli sisxlis Sededebis unari? d. romlis sakvebSi SeiZleba iyos rkinis deficiti? e. kvlevis mixedviT gakeTebuli daskvnis sandoobisTvis ramdenad mniSvnelovania is, rom kvlevaSi monawile adamianebi erTi sqesisa da asakis arian? 6. hemoglobinTan Jangbadi aramtkice naerTs warmoqmnis da es kavSiri advilad iSleba. hemoglobins SeiZleba daukavSirdes naxSirJangi, romelic gamoiyofa bunebrivi airis arasruli wvis dros, igi aris manqanebis gamonabolqvsa da sigaretis bolSi. naxSirJangi hemoglobins 250-jer ufro Cqara ukavSirdeba, vidre Jangbadi, Tanac mtkice naerTs qmnis da advilad ar iSleba maTi kombinacia. a. daasaxele naxSirJangis wyaro. b. rogor imoqmedebs sisxlis mier transportirebuli Jangbadis raodenobaze, Tu adamiani CaisunTqavs didi raodenobiT naxSirJangs? axseni Seni pasuxi. 7. ratom aris mniSvnelovani leikocitebis arseboba sisxlis koltis SemadgenlobaSi, romelic axSobs dazianebul sisxlZarRvs?

ssisxlis ujredebis struqtura da Tvisebebi Seesabameba maT mier Sesrulebul funqciebs. adamianSi sisxlis funqciebia: I. satransporto: gadaaqvs _ 1) Jangbadi sunTqvis organoebidan sxeulis yvela qsovilSi; 2) sakvebi nivTierebebi wvrili nawlavebidan sxvadasxva organoebsa da qsovilebSi; 3) cvlis produqtebi (maT Soris naxSirorJangi) qsovilebidan gamomyof organoebSi; 4) siTbos transportireba Sinagani organoebidan periferiisken. II. damcvelobiTi: 1) sisxlis Sededeba, rac icavs organizms didi raodenobiT sisxlis dakargvisa da daavadebis gamomwvevi mikroorganizmebis SeWrisagan; 2) fagocitozi _ sisxlis TeTri ujredebis erT-erTi saxeoba STanTqavs da moinelebs sisxlSi SeWril baqteriebs; 3) limfocitebi ki antisxeulebs gamoyofen da ase ebrZvian ucxo sxeulebs.

70 0


3.3.

organizmis Sinagani garemos damcvelobiTi funqcia

rogor qmnis organizmi infeqciis sawinaaRmdego bariers? struqtura da funqcia _ organizmis Sinagani garemos dacviT funqciaSi CarTuli struqturebi: fagociti, limfociti, antigeni, antisxeuli, limfuri kvanZebi da jirkvlebi; maTi damcvelobiTi funqcia, imuniteti. janmrTeloba da daavadeba _ procesebi, romelic icavs organizms paTogenuri mikroorganizmebisgan da unarCunebs janmrTelobas; vaqcinacia.

ra aris infeqciuri daavadeba, epidemia, simptomi, vaqcinacia.

miuxedavad imisa, rom sxvadasxva saxeobis mikroorganizmis garemocvaSi vcxovrobT da zogierTi maTgani adamianSi iwvevs infeqciur daavadebas*, Cven yovelTvis ar avadvmyofobT. Cvens organizms aqvs unari, daicvas Tavi daavadebis gamomwvevi mikroorganizmebisgan (paTogenebisgan), ucxo sxeulebis, ujredebisa

da nivTierebebisgan. organizmis am unars imuniteti ewodeba. imunuri sistema _ es aris organizmis sistema, romelic ibrZvis paTogenebisa da maT mier gamoyofili Sxamiani nivTierebebis winaaRmdeg. imunur sistemas qmnis organizmis sxvadasxva organo, ujredi da nivTiereba. sagnis Seswavlis procesSi Sen gaecnobi imunuri sistemis sxvadasxva komponents. Sen ukve ici, rom sisxlis TeTri ujredebis _ leikocitebis funqciaa organizmis dacva daavadebis gamomwvevi mikroorganizmebisgan, ucxo sxeulebisa da nivTierebebisgan. organizmSi SeWrili paTogeni azianebs ujredebs, dazianebuli ujredebi sapasuxod gamoyofen qimiur nivTierebas, romelic izidavs leikocitebis erT-erT formas _ fagocitebs. fagocitebi STanTqaven paTogenur mikoorganizmebs da moineleben. yvela saxeobis ujreds zedapirze

sisxlis damcvelobiTi meqanizmi 1. organizmSi paTogenuri baqteriebis SeWra limfociti limfociti

2. limfocitebi amoicnoben mikroorganizmebs da sisxlSi gamoyofen specifikur antisxeulebs

antisxeulebi

3. antisxeuli ukavSirdeba Sesabamis paTogens

4. antisxeuli mTlianad Slis baqterias an asustebs mas fagociti 5. dasustebul baqterias advilad moinelebs fagociti

sur. 42

7 71


gaaCnia gansakuTrebuli qimiuri nivTiereba, romelic am ujredisTvis specifikuria. am qimiur nivTierebebs antigenebs uwodeben. rodesac limfocitebi organizmSi aRmoaCenen antigenebs, rogorc organizmisaTvis ucxos, isini gamoyofen sisxlSi e.w. antisxeulebs. antisxeulebi anadgureben ucxo ujredebsa da mikroorganizmebs an asusteben maT ise, rom advilad erevian fagocitebi (sur. 42). limfocitebi didi raodenobiTaa limfaSic. amitom limfuri sistema (sur. 43) imunuri sistemis nawilia. limfuri ZarRvebis gzaze ganlagebulia limfuri kvanZebi. limfur kvanZebSi aris specialuri imunuri ujredebi, romlebic STanTqaven da moineleben mikroorganizmebs. elenTa limfuri sistemis udidesi organoa. misi ZiriTadi funqciaa limfis gafiltvra paTogenuri mikroorganizmebisgan. es organo Seicavs bevr limfocitsa da leikocitebis sxva saxeobebs. elenTaSi xdeba zogierTi saxeobis limfocitis Camoyalibeba. zogierTi infeqciuri daavadebis gadatanis Semdeg adamiani an aRar avaddeba am infeqciiT, anda iol formebSi gadaitans mas. ratom xdeba ase? infeqciis gamomwvevi paTogenis organizmSi SeWris Semdeg igi mravldeba, gamoyofs Sxamian nivTierebebs, rac organizmSi garkveuli simptomebiT* gamoixateba (temperatur-

limfuri sistema limfuri sadinarebi uerTdeba laviwqveSa venebs limfuri kvanZebi elenTa

limfuri kapilari

msxvili limfuri sadinari sur. 43

is momateba, gamonayari kanze da sxva). TandaTan organizmi iwyebs gamojanmrTelebas, radgan paTogenis sawinaaRmdegod adamiani gamoimuSavebs specifikur antisxeulebs, limfocitebs da imunuri sistemis sxva komponentebis erToblivi moqmedebiT organizmi anadgurebs am mikroorganizmebs, xdeba gamojanmrTeleba. amis Semdeg es specifikuri antisxeulebi da limfocitebi didxans (ramdenime Tvidan ramdenime wlamde) rCeba sisxlSi.

cxrili 4.1. imunitetis saxeebi imuniteti bunebrivi Tandayolili: yvela adamians aqvs bunebrivi Tandayolili imuniteti cxovelebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli zogierTi infeqciuri daavadebis mimarT. magaliTad, adamiani ar avaddeba ZaRlis Savi WiriT.

72

daavadebis Sedegad SeZenili: gadatanili infeqciuri daavadebis (mag., wiTela, wiTura) mimarT adamianebi iZenen imunitets.

xelovnuri acrebis Sedegad SeZenili: organizmSi SehyavT dasustebuli mikroorganizmi an misi Sxami mcire doziT, ris sapasuxod organizmSi specifikuri limfocitebi da antisxeulebi gamomuSavdeba.

samkurnalo Sratis* Seyvanis Sedegad SeZenili: rodesac adamiani romelime infeqciiT aris daavadebuli, organizmSi SehyavT samkurnalo Srati, romelic am mikroorganizmis sawinaaRmdego mza antisxeulebs Seicavs. es antisxeulebi (mag., gaSeSebis sawinaaRmdego antisxeulebi) sisxlSi ramdenime weli rCeba.


imave paTogenis ris SemTxvevaSi aRar aZlevs mas da adamiani aRar

organizmSi kvlav SeWimunuri sistema ukve gamravlebis saSualebas avaddeba, e.i. organizms

gamoumuSavdeba imuniteti am infeqciuri daavadebis mimarT. arsebobs imunitetis ramdenime saxe, romlebsac cxrilis gacnobis Semdeg Seityob (gv. 72).

organizmSi adamianis imunodeficitis virusis (aiv) SeWra iwvevs adamianis imunuri sistemis dazianebas. aiv infeqcia _ daavadeba, romelic adamianis organizmSi aiv-is SeWris Sedegad viTardeba, dasawyisSi mimdinareobs usimptomod da SeiZleba gagrZeldes mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi. adamianis organizmSi moxvedris Semdeg, imunodeficitis virusi iwyebs gamravlebas, saSen masalad iyenebs limfocitebs da nel-nela anadgurebs maT. aiv infeqciis saboloo stadia aris Sidsi: SeZenili imunodeficitis sindromi. `imunodeficiti~ _ organizmis mdgomareobaa, rodesac imunuri sistema imdenad dasustebulia, rom nebismier, Tundac umniSvnelo daavadebasTan gamklavebas veRar axerxebs. aiv-iT inficireba SesaZlebelia, ZiriTadad, daavadebulis sisxliT. amitom ar SeiZleba sxvisi nivTebis (mag., kbilis jagrisis, frCxilebis mosawesrigebeli xelsawyoebis) gamoyeneba. eqimebi iyeneben erTjerad nemsebs da sxv. aiv-is Tavidan asacileblad aucilebelia damcavi saSualebebis gamoyeneba intimuri kavSiris dros. adamianSi infeqciuri daavadebis drouli aRmoCena Zalian mniSvnelovania. eqimi xSirad mimarTavs pacientis sisxlis analizs. leikocitebis raodenobis mixedviT SegviZlia vimsjeloT, aris Tu ara organizmi inficirebuli. inficirebis SemTxvevaSi sisxlSi leikocitebis raodenoba momatebuli iqneba. aiv-is diagnostikisTvis tardeba sxva damatebiTi analizebic. infeqciuri daavadebisgan dacvis saukeTeso saSualebaa higienuri wesebis dacva da vaqcinacia.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Sinagani garemos ra komponentebia CarTuli organizmis dacviT reaqciebSi? ra gansxvavebaa fagocitisa da limfocitis damcvelobiT reaqciebs Soris? ra aris antigeni da ra _ antisxeuli? ra gansxvavebaa vaqcinasa da samkurnalo Srats Soris? ganasxvave erTmaneTisgan bunebrivi da xelovnuri imuniteti. imunitets ajgufeben aseve pasiur da aqtiur imunitetad. pasiuria imuniteti, Tu organizmSi SehyavT mza antisxeulebi, xolo aqtiuria, Tu TviT organizmSi gamomuSavdeba antisxeulebi. gaecani cxrilSi (gv. 72) mocemul imunitetis saxeebs da daajgufe pasiur da aqtiur imunitetad. 7. raze miuTiTebs sisxlSi leikocitebis momateba?

organizms r sxvadasxva organo icavs paTogenebisgan; sisxlis ujredebi da cilebi ibrZvian infeqciis winaaRmdeg; imuniteti icavs organizms daavadebisgan.

73


sisxlis jgufebi

3.4.

ra gansazRvravs sisxlis jgufobriobas? sisxlis jgufis oTxi saxeobidan _ A, B, AB, O _ adamians aqvs romelime erTi maTgani. sisxlis jgufis saxeoba damokidebulia eriTrocitis membranaSi arsebuli antigenisa da plazmaSi antisxeulis gvarobaze. qvemoT cxrilSi mocemulia, Tu rogor aris ganawilebuli antigenebi da antisxeulebi sisxlis sxvadasxva jgufSi.

struqtura _ plazmis antisxeulebi, eriTrocitebis antigenebi; janmrTeloba da daavadeba _ sisxlis gadasxma, aglutinacia; kvleva: sisxlis jgufebis SeTavsebadobis gansazRvra.

eriTrocitis saxeoba

antigeni eriTrocitSi

jgufi A

jgufi B

jgufi AB

jgufi O

A

B

AB

O

A antigeni

B antigeni

A da B antigeni

ar aris

antisxeuli plazmaSi

ar aris anti _ B

anti _ A

anti _ A da anti _ B

sisxlis gadasxmis dros ratom iTvaliswineben jgufebis Tavsebadobas? Tu adamians sisxli sWirdeba, magaliTad, operaciis dros an ubeduri SemTxvevis gamo, mas SeiZleba gadausxan sisxli. sisxlis gadasxmis dros iTvaliswineben donoris (vinc gascems sisxls) eriTrocitebSi antigenisa da recipientis (vinc iRebs sisxls) sisxlis plazmaSi antisxeulis saxeobas. plazmaSi arsebuli antisxeuli gansxvavebuli unda iyos eriTrocitis

antigenisgan. sisxlis jgufebis SeuTavsebadobis SemTxvevaSi recipientis sisxlSi warmoiqmneba Sesabamisi antisxeulebi, romlebic donoris eriTrocitebs awebebs _ xdeba aglutinacia. es ki sicocxlisaTvis saSiSia. amrigad, sisxlis jgufebis SeuTavsebadobis drosac imuniteti mJRavndeba. magaliTad, A-antigenis antisxeuli reagirebs A-antigenze da Seawebebs eriTrocitebs.

1. a) qvemoT mocemuli cxrili gadaitane rveulSi da Seavse: `+~-iT aRniSne is grafa, romeli jgufebis sisxlic Tavsebadia, xolo `X~-iT SeuTavsebadi. b) sisxlis jgufebis SeuTavsebadoba dakavSirebulia Tu ara imunitetTan? axseni Seni pasuxi. g) gansazRvre sisxlis jgufi, romelic yvela jgufis sisxls gadaesxmeba. daasabuTe Seni pasuxi. d) romeli jgufis sisxli iRebs yvela jgufis sisxls? ratom? recipientis sisxlis jgufi A B AB O

74

donoris sisxlis jgufi A

B

AB

O


dakvirveba sisxlis jgufebis SeTavsebadobaze eqsperimentis mizani: antigenisa da antisxeulis urTierTqmedebis modelis Seqmna da gamoyeneba sisxlis jgufebis SeTavsebadobis gansazRvris mizniT. masala: sxvadasxva sakvebi saRebaviT Seferili wyalxsnarebi: wiTeli, lurji, mewamuli; sufTa wyali; sinjarebi; sinjarebis sadgami. procedura: 1. monacemebis cxrili gadaitane rveulSi; monacemTa cxrili donoris sisxlis jgufebi recipientis sisxlis jgufebi

A (wiTeli wyali) B (lurji wyali)

AB (mewamuli wyali)

O (sufTa wyali)

A (wiTeli wyali) B (lurji wyali) AB (mewamuli wyali) O (sufTa wyali) 2. maswavlebelma mogamaraga wiTeli, lurji, mewamuli feris wyliT (wiTeli + lurji = mewamuls) da sufTa wyliT; 3. wiTeli feris wyali warmoadgens `A jgufis sisxls~, lurji _ `B jgufis~, mewamuli _ `AB jgufis sisxls~ da sufTa wyali _ `O jgufis sisxls~; 4. moaTavse 4 sinjara sadgamSi da danomre 1-dan 4-mde; 5. #1 sinjaraSi CaasxiT 1 sm3 `A jgufis sisxli~; me-2 sinjaraSi _ 1 sm3 `B jgufis sisxli~; me-3 sinjaraSi _ 1 sm3 `AB jgufis sisxli~; me-4 sinjaraSi _ 1 sm3 `O jgufis sisxli~. TiToeuli sinjara asaxavs sisxlis recipients (mimRebs); 6. TiToeul sinjaras daamate 1 sm3 A jgufis sisxli (donoris sisxli). monacemTa cxrilSi Cawere sinjarebSi momxdari feris (`recipientis sisxlis~) yvela cvlileba; 7. Tu feri Seicvala, es niSnavs, rom adgili aqvs `aglutinacias _ Sewebebas~ da es jgufebi SeuTavsebelia. Tu feri igive darCa, es imas niSnavs, rom sisxlis es jgufebi SeTavsebadia. Sedegebi Cawere monacemebis grafaSi; 8. gaimeore me-4-5 nabiji da Semdeg daamate TiToeul sinjaras `B jgufis sisxli~. monacemebi Cawere; 9. gaimeore me-4-5 nabiji da Semdeg daamate TiToeul sinjaras `AB jgufis sisxli~. monacemebi Cawere; 10. gaimeore me-4-5 nabiji da Semdeg daamate TiToeul sinjaras `O jgufis sisxli~. monacemebi Cawere. analizi da daskvna: 1. sisxlis romeli jgufebia erTmaneTis SeuTavsebeli? axseni ratom? 2. sisxlis romel jgufebs hqondaT SeTavseba? axseni, ratom?

75 5


mniSvnelovania, rom sisxlis bankSi bardebodes sisxli, radgan igi aucilebelia adamianis sicocxlis gadasarCenad. sisxlis Cabareba ar ayenebs zians organizms, radgan sisxlis gaReba biZgs aZlevs ufro meti sisxlis warmoqmnas gaRebuli sisxlis aRsadgenad. Tumca, yvela adamians ar SeuZlia sisxlis Cabareba sisxlis bankSi. kerZod, orsul qalebs, anemiur adamianebs da iseTi infeqciiT daavadebulebebs, rogoricaa aiv-infeqcia, hepatiti, malaria, sqesobrivi gziT gadamdebi daavadebebi da sxv.

2. daasaxele adamianis sisxlis oTxi jgufi. riT gansxvavdeba sisxlis sxvadasxva jgufi erTmaneTisgan? 3. romeli sisxlis jgufs ar gaaCnia antisxeulebi? sisxlis romel jgufs gaaCnia A da B antigenebi? 4. ra aris aglutinacia da ram SeiZleba igi gamoiwvios? 5. ratomaa aucilebeli, rom donorisa da recipientis sisxlis jgufebi iyos Tavsebadi? 6. rogor fiqrob, saWiroa Tu ara sakuTari sisxlis jgufis codna? 7. O jgufis sisxls universalur donors uwodeben. 1) axseni, ratom? 2) rogor fiqrob, romeli jgufis sisxls uwodeben universalur recipients? ratom? Seni swavlis procesis analizisTvis axseni, sisxlis jgufebis Tavsebadobis arsis gageba-gaazrebaSi rogor dagexmara kvleviTi samuSao?

arsebobs r oTxi jgufis sisxli; sisxlis gadasxmis dros aucilebelia sisxlis jgufebis Tavsebadobis gaTvaliswineba, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi adamianis sicocxles did safrTxes Seuqmnis.

76


3.5.

guli

rogoria gulis agebuleba da funqcia? struqtura da funqcia _ winaguli, parkuWi, gulis Zgide, kariani da namglisebri sarqvelebi, maTi funqciebi; janmrTeloba da daavadeba _ gulis sarqvlovani daavadeba, anu gulis manki, kardioqirurgiuli Careva; kvleva _ fizikuri datvirTvis gavlena pulsis sixSireze.

gul-sisxlZarRvTa sistemas qmnis guli da sisxlZarRvebi. guli uzrunvelyofs sisxlis uwyvet moZraobas sisxlZarRvebSi. zrdasruli adamianis gulis masa 250300 gramia. igi mdebareobs gulmkerdis RruSi, Sua xazidan ukan da odnav marcxniv. guli kunTovani Rruiani organoa. garedan SemaerTebel qsovilovani gulis perangiT aris dafaruli. gulis kunTi

Sedgeba ganivzoliani kunTovani qsovilisagan, romlis boWkoebic alag-alag erTmaneTs erwymis (gv. 45, sur. 30). gulis nawilebia (sur. 44): ori winaguli da ori parkuWi. ZgidiT guli or _ marcxena da marjvena naxevradaa gamijnuli. gulis marcxena naxevarSi yovelTvis moZraobs JangbadiT mdidari _ arteriuli sisxli, xolo marjvena naxevarSi _ JangbadiT Raribi _ venuri sisxli. winagulebsa da parkuWebs, aseve parkuWebsa da arteriebs Soris moTavsebulia sarqvelebi. arCeven sami tipis sisxlZarRvs: arteriebs _ gulidan gamoaqvT sisxli, venebs _ gulSi CaaqvT sisxli da kapilarebs _ qsovilebs amaragebs sisxliT da arteriebsa da venebs erTmaneTTan akavSirebs (sisxlZarRvebis Taviseburebebs dawvrilebiT paragraf 3.7-Si gaecnobi).

aorta _ yvelaze didi arteria, romelic gamodis marcxena parkuWidan da mTel sxeuls amaragebs arteriuli sisxliT

filtvis arteria _ gamodis marjvena parkuWidan da venuri sisxli Seaqvs filtvebSi marcxena winaguli _ aqedan arteriuli sisxli gadadis marcxena parkuWSi

zeda Rru vena _ venur sisxls krebs Tavidan, kisridan, zemo kidurebidan

filtvis venebi _ arteriuli sisxli filtvebidan Caaqvs marcxena winagulSi

marjvena winaguli _ aqedan venuri sisxli gadadis marjvena parkuWSi

namglisebri sarqvelebi _ parkuWebsa da arteriebs Soris

kariani sarqvelebi _ winagulebsa da parkuWebs Soris

marcxena parkuWi marjvena parkuWi marcxena parkuWis kedeli _ Sedgeba sqeli kunTovani Srisgan

marjvena parkuWis kedeli _ Sedgeba marcxena parkuWTan SedarebiT Txeli kunTovani Srisgan

gulis Zgide _ erTmaneTisgan gamoyofs gulis marjvena da marcxena naxevars, xels uSlis arteriuli da venuri sisxlis Serevas

qveda Rru vena _ venur sisxls krebs Sinagani organoebidan da qvemo kidurebidan

sur. 44

77 7


ra rols asrulebs gulis sarqvelebi? gulis sarqvelebs erTi movaleoba akisria: maT unda uzrunvelyon sisxlis erTi mimarTulebiT moZraoba _ winagulebidan parkuWebisaken da parkuWebidan sisxlZarRvebSi, kerZod, arteriebSi. gulSi sisxlis erTi mimarTulebiT moZraobas uzrunvelyofs sarqvelebis _ kariani da namglisebri, anu jibisebri sarqvelebis _ morigeobiTi gaReba da daxurva. magaliTad, rodesac parkuWebi ikumSeba, ixsneba namglisebri sarqvelebi, raTa gaataros sisxli gulidan sisxlZarRvSi, xolo am dros kariani sarqvelebi daxurulia, rom sisxli ar Cabrundes winagulebSi. sarqvelebis gaRebas uzrunvelyofs wneva, romelic iqmneba gulis (winagulis, parkuWis) SekumSvisa da sisxlze zewolis Sedegad. parkuWebis SekumSviT ganviTarebuli wneva moqmedebs rogorc namglisebr,

ise karian sarqvelebze, magram kariani sarqvelebi ar iReba, radgan igi myesebiT parkuWebis kedlebSia damagrebuli da ar aZlevs mas winagulebisaken gaRebis saSualebas (sur. 45). myesebi

myesi mimagrebulia parkuWis kedelze sur. 45

dakvirveba ZuZumwovris gulze dakvirvebis mizani: gulis Sinagani agebulebis Seswavla naturalur obieqtze. masala: Zroxis guli, erTjeradi TefSi, pinceti. procedura: 1. maswavlebeli mogcems sigrZivad (winagulebis, parkuWebis, gulis Zgidis gaswvriv) gaWril Zroxis guls; 2. Seecade, 44-e suraTze aRniSnuli gulis yvela Sinagani struqtura ipovo Zroxis gulze. 3. daxate guli samuSao rveulSi da gaukeTe mis struqturebs Sesabamisi warwerebi.

medicinis dargs, romelic gulis daavadebebs Seiswavlis, kardiologia ewodeba, xolo am dargSi momuSave eqims _ kardiologi. 1893 wels eqimma deniel uiliamsma (1856-1931 ww.) pirvelad Caatara gulis Ria wesiT operacia. eqimma CaTvala, rom sxva gziT verafers uSvelida pacients, romelic saavadmyofoSi miiyvanes gulmkerdis RruSi daniT miyenebuli mZime WrilobiT. Ria wesiT operireba niSnavs, rom uiliamsma gaxsna gulmkerdis Rru da gaWra gulis mfaravi garsi _ perikardiumi (gulis perangi). didma drom gaiara, sanam gulis Ria wesiT operireba Cveulebriv operaciad iqca. kardio-qirurgebs Soris iyo afroamerikeli eqimi qalic _ mira logani (1908-1977 ww.). gulis sarqvlovani daavadeba, igive gulis manki, Tandayolili an SeZenili daavadebaa, romlis drosac guli ver uzrunvelyofs sisxlis saWiro raodenobiT gatarebas da misi erTi mimarTulebiT moZraobas. Tandayolili manki yalibdeba mucladyofnis periodSi. misi gamovlena, ufro xSirad, ara dabadebisTanave, aramed cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi xdeba. gulis mankisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli simptomebia: kanis, TiTebis, tuCebis silurje, gaxSirebuli da gaZnelebuli sunTqva.

78


am simptomebis mizezi sisxlSi Jangbadis naklebobaa. aseTi paTologiis dros qirurgiuli CareviT kardio-qirurgi dazianebul sarqvels xelovnuri sarqveliT Caanacvlebs. dRes maRalteqnologiuri masaliT amzadeben xelovnur sarqvels, romelic adamians sicocxlis bolomde emsaxureba. xelovnuri sarqveli

1. Seiswavle 44-e suraTze mocemuli informacia da Seavse cxrili (cxrili rveulSi gadaitane): gulis oTxi ganyofilebis struqturisa da funqciebis Sedareba marjvena nawili marjvena winaguli sarqveli marjvena parkuWi

marcxena nawili marcxena winaguli gulis Zgide

sarqveli marcxena parkuWi

2. daxate sqematurad guli: aRniSne winagulebi da parkuWebi kariani da namglisebri sarqvelebiT. dagWirdeba sami aseTi erTnairi sqema. aRniSne isrebiT sisxlis dineba winagulebidan parkuWebSi da parkuWebidan arteriebSi, aseve sarqvelebis mdgomareoba (Ria, Caketili): a. pirvel sqemaze, rodesac sisxli gadaadgildeba winagulebidan parkuWebSi. b. meore sqemaze, rodesac sisxli miedineba parkuWebidan arteriebSi. g. mesame sqemaze uCvene, rogor Seicvleba sisxsarqvelis lis dinebis mimarTuleba, rodesac namglisebri sarqvelebi deformacia ar iketeba mWidrod. 3. suraTis mixedviT amoicani, romeli sarqvelia dazianebuli da axseni, ra gavlenas moaxdens igi sisxlis moZraobis mimarTulebaze. dRes rogor mkurnaloben aseT daavadebas?

ssisxlis mimoqcevis sistemas qmnis guli da sisxlZarRvebi: arteriebi, venebi da kapilarebi; guli oTxi ganyofilebisgan Sedgeba; wina gulebi sisxls agroveben sxeulidan, xolo parkuWebidan sisxli miemarTeba sxeulisken; arteriebs sisxli gamoaqvT gulidan, xolo venebs sisxli gulSi CaaqvT; gulis sarqvelebi uzrunvelyofs gulSi sisxlis moZraobas erTi mimarTulebiT: winagulebidan parkuWebisa da parkuWebidan arteriebisken; sarqvelebis dazianeba arRvevs sisxlis normalur moZraobas da saWiroebs samedicino Carevas; gulis nawilebis struqtura Seesabameba mis funqciebs.

79 9


3.6.

gulis muSaoba

rogor gadatumbavs guli sisxls sisxlZarRvebSi? devs gulis kunTis saerTo moduneba. amis Semdeg guli kvlav ikumSeba da a.S. amrigad, guli ciklurad muSaobs. TiToeuli cikli sami fazisgan Sedgeba: winagulebis SekumSva, parkuWebis SekumSva da gulis kunTis saerTo moduneba (sur. 47).

funqcia _ gulis cikli, gulis ciklis fazebi; kvleva _ fizikuri varjiSis gavlena pulsis sixSireze.

sxeulis zedapirze gulmkerdis marcxena naxevarSi fonendoskopiT* moZebne adgili, sadac yvelaze kargad gesmis Seni guliscema. yoveli xma Seesabameba gulis erT SekumSvas. guli muSaobs adamianis mTeli sicocxlis manZilze _ gulis kunTi regularulad ikumSeba da dundeba. SekumSvis dros sisxli parkuWebidan gadadis arteriebSi. ikumSeba wuTSi 6575-jer, arteriebSi dRe-RameSi daaxloebiT 10 t sisxls gadaisvris. amitom gulis kunTsac sWirdeba energiisTvis Jangbadi da sakvebi nivTierebebi. gulis kunTs kvebavs gvirgvinovani arteria (sur 46). erTdroulad ikumSeba orive winaguli, Semdeg orive parkuWi. winagulebisa da parkuWebis Tanmimdevrul SekumSvas mos-

marcxena gvirgvinovani arteria

marjvena gvirgvinovani arteria sur. 46

gulis ciklis fazebi 1. winagulebis SekumSvis faza (0.1 wm) _ winagulebi SekumSulia, parkuWebi _ modunebuli, kariani sarqvelebi Riaa, namglisebri _ daxuruli.

2. parkuWebis SekumSvis faza (0.3 wm) _ parkuWebi SekumSulia, winagulebi _ modunebuli, namglisebri sarqvelebi Riaa, kariani _ daxuruli.

1

2

3 3. gulis kunTis saerTo modunebis faza (0,4 wm) _ winagulebi da parkuWebi modunebulia, winagulebi sisxliT ivseba; sarqvelebidan namglisebri daxurulia, kariani ki nawilobriv Riaa, sisxli nel-nela Caedineba parkuWebSi.

sur. 47

80 0


rogor icvleba gulis SekumSvaTa sixSire da Zala? gulis SekumSvaTa sixSire da Zala damokidebulia organizmis Sinagani garemos mdgomareobasa da garegan pirobebze. magaliTad, fizikuri datvirTvis dros ConCxis kunTebis sakveb nivTierebebsa da Jangbadze gaZlierebuli moTxovnis

gamo, gulis SekumSvaTa sixSire da Zala izrdeba. Sedegad, sisxlZarRvebSi, drois garkveul monakveTSi guli met sisxls gadaisvris. gulis SekumSvebis sixSire icvleba sicxesa da siciveSic.

rogor SeiZleba gulis SekumSvaTa sixSiris daTvla? marcxena parkuWis SekumSvis Sedegad sisxli didi wneviT exeTqeba aortis drekad kedels, ris Sedegadac warmoiqmneba rxevis talRa. igi vrceldeba arteriebis kedelze. amitom sxeulis zedapirze mdebare arteriebze SeigrZno-

ba biZgebi. TiToeuli biZgi gulis erT SekumSvas Seesabameba, rasac pulsi ewodeba. pulsi bevr informacias iZleva gulis muSaobis Sesaxeb: rogoria guliscemis/SekumSvaTa sixSire da Zala, ramdenad ritmulad muSaobs guli.

1. gaaanalize 47-e suraTze mocemuli informacia da monacemebi Seitane cxrilSi (cxrili rveulSo gadaitane): gulis ciklis faza

fazis xangrZliv. (wm.)

gulis nawilebis mdgomareoba (SekumSulia/modunebulia) winagulebi

parkuWebi

sarqvelebis mdgomareoba (Riaa /daxurulia) namglisekariani bri

sisxlis dinebis mimarTuleba

2. ratom SeuZlia gulis kunTs mTeli sicocxlis manZilze dauRalavad imuSaos? 3. yoveli SekumSvis dros marcxena parkuWs SeuZlia 70 sm3 sisxlis gadatumbva aortaSi. Tu mosvenebul mdgomareobaSi janmrTeli adamianis pulsis sixSire wuTSi aris 70, ra raodenobis sisxli gadaitumbeba gulidan 1 saaTis ganmavlobaSi? dRe-Ramis ganmavlobaSi? 4. warmoidgine, rom 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi majaze gikeTia specialuri aparati, romelic ganuwyvetliv aRricxavs pulsis sixSires. monacemi aparatis ekranze aisaxeba. Seni azriT, rodis aRiricxeba pulsis yvelaze dabali da maRali sixSire? ratom cvalebadobs Seni pulsis sixSire 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi? 5. ra mniSvneloba aqvs organizmisTvis gulis SekumSvaTa Zalisa da sixSiris cvlilebas?

guli ciklurad muSaobs da yoveli cikli sami fazisgan Sedgeba; gulis kunTs dauRalavad SeuZlia muSaoba, radgan TiToeul gulis ciklSi ramden xansac muSaobs, imden xans isvenebs; guliscemis sixSire da Zala icvleba garegan da Sinagan pirobebze damokidebulebiT.

81


fizikuri varjiSi xels uwyobs gulis kunTis ganviTarebas, radgan am dros gvirgvinovani arteriiT TviT gulis kunTic gaZlierebulad maragdeba JangbadiTa da sakvebi nivTierebebiT; amitom sportsmeni fizikuri datvirTvis dros ConCxis kunTebis moTxovnilebas Jangbadsa da sakveb nivTierebebze ZiriTadad akmayofilebs gulis SekumSvis Zalis gazrdis xarjze.

pulsis sixSireze fizikuri datvirTvis gavlenis kvleva Seasrule saxlSi SeniSvna: sanam am varjiSSi Caebmebi, gaiare konsultacia skolis eqimTan da mSoblebTan. sakvlevi kiTxva: ra gavlenas axdens fizikuri varjiSi pulsis sixSireze? am kvlevisTvis pulsis sixSire gazome ise, rogorc suraTzea naCvenebi. procedura: 1. monacemebis cxrili gadaitane rveulSi; 2. skamze mSvidad mjdomarem daiTvale Seni pulsi 1 wuTis ganmavlobaSi. 3. gadi quCaSi da 2 wuTis ganmavlobaSi irbine. 4. sirbilis dasrulebisTanave dajeqi da maSinve daiTvale Seni pulsi 1 wuTis ganmavlobaSi. 5. kvlav mjdomarem gaagrZele pulsis gazomva yovel wuTSi, sanam ar daubrundeba sawyiss sixSires. 6. Sedegebi daafiqsire qvemoT mocemuli cxrilis nimuSSi. pulsis sixSire wuTSi dro (wT) testi 1

testi 2

saSualo sidide

0 (mSvidi mdgomareoba) 1 (uSualod varjiSis Semdeg) 3 4 6. 1-5 nabiji gaimeore kidev erTxel, rom miiRo monacemebis meore nakrebi da gamoTvalo pulsis saSualo sidide. analizi da daskvna 1. aage grafiki, romelic asaxavs pulsis saSualo sixSires wuTSi droze damokidebulebiT. 2. rogor icvleba Seni pulsi? 3. fizikurma datvirTvam ra gavlena moaxdina gulis SekumSvaTa sixSireze? 4. ra dro dagWirda fizikuri varjiSis Semdeg, rom Seni gulis SekumSvaTa sixSire normas daubrundes? 5. ratom Seicvala pulsis sixSire fizikuri datvirTvis Sedegad? kiTxvebi 1. ram gamoiwvia pulsi, romelic Sen SeigrZeni majaze? Seni sxeulis sxva ra adgilebSi SeiZleba SeigrZno pulsi? 2. aris Tu ara kavSiri Seni pulsis sixSiresa da sunTqvis sixSires Soris? Tu aris, riT axsni am faqts? 3. vambobT, rom `fizikuri varjiSi sasargebloa organizmisTvis~. axseni: 1) ratom aris sasargeblo gulisTvis. 2) ratom aris sasargeblo mTlianad organizmisTvis.

82


3.7.

sisxlZarRvebi

rogor Seesabameba sisxlZarRvebis struqtura maT funqciebs? struqtura _ arteriebis, kapilarebisa da venebis kedlebis struqtura; funqcia _ sxvadasxva sisxlZarRvis daniSnuleba, sisxlis wneva, arteriuli wnevis mniSvneloba da regulacia.

• daasaxele sisxlZarRvis saxeebi da aRwere maTi funqciebi.

sisxlZarRvebi warmoadgens milebs, romelTa saSualebiTac mTels organizmSi moZraobs sisxli. sisxlZarRvebis agebulebis Tavisebureba dakavSirebulia maT funqciebTan. erT-erTi Tavisebureba ukavSirdeba sxvadasxva sisxlZarRvSi sisxlis wnevis cvlilebas.

ra aris sisxlis wneva da ra warmoqmnis mas? parkuWebis SekumSvis Zala iwvevs sisxlis gadaadgilebas arteriebSi. sisxli garkveuli ZaliT awveba sisxlZarRvis

kedels da am Zalas arteriuli wneva ewodeba. igi sxvadasxva sisxlZarRvSi gansxvavebulia. sisxlis wneva yvelaze maRalia aortaSi, radgan uSualod masSi gadaityorcneba didi ZaliT sisxli marcxena parkuWidan. Semdeg arteriebsa da arteriolebSi mcirdeba, kidev ufro mcirdeba kapilarebSi, venulebSi da a.S. (sur. 48). arteriebi uZleben sisxlis maRal wnevas, radgan maTi kedeli sqelia, mdidaria elastikuri boWkoebiT, igi drekadi da elastikuria (sur. 49). kapilarebSi, arteriebTan SedarebiT, sisxlis wneva Zlier dabalia. kapilarebis kedlebi Zalian Txelia _ igi erTSriani brtyeli epiTeliumisgan Sedgeba, rac sisxlsa da qsovilur siTxes Soris nivTierebaTa cvlis saSualebas iZleva. aorta (yvelaze maRali wneva)

zeda da qveda Rru venebi (yvelaze dabali wneva)

vena

arteria

kapilarebi

venula

arteriola

sur. 48

83 3


epiTeluri qsovili gluvkunTovani qsovili elastikuri SemaerTebeli qsovili

arteria

vena kapilarebi

sur. 49

gulidan sisxlZarRvebSi sisxlis gadaadgilebisas sisxlis wneva TandaTan klebulobs da yvelaze dabalia Rru venebSi. wnevis Semcirebis erT-erTi mizezi aris is, rom kapilarebidan sisxlis Txevadi nawili gamoiyofa qsovilur siTxeSi, rac mis moculobas amcirebs. venebis kedeli ufro Txelia da rbili. amitom advilad eqvemdebareba Con-

sarqveli xels uSlis sisxlis ukan dabrunebas

kunTebis SekumSva iwvevs sisxlis gadaadgilebas gulisken

sarqveli Riaa

sarqveli daxurulia kunTebi modunebulia

kunTebi SekumSulia sur. 50

84 4

Cxis kunTebis zemoqmedebas. amavdroulad, venebSi aris sarqvelebi, romlebic mxolod gulisken ixsneba. ConCxis kunTebis SekumSva awveba venebs, sisxls ubiZgebs, xolo sarqvelebi uzrunvelyofen sisxlis gulisken gadaadgilebas (sur. 50). arteriuli wneva bunebrivad izrdeba da mcirdeba gulis ciklis SekumSvisa da modunebis fazebis mixedviT. wneva maRalia/maqsimaluria parkuWebis SekumSvis dros, xolo gulis kunTis modunebisas _ minimaluria. sisxlis wnevas, ZiriTadad, zomaven mxris arteriaSi. janmrTeli axalgazrdas sisxlis wneva mxris arteriaSi aris daaxloebiT 120/80, rac imas niSnavs, rom maqsimaluri wneva 120-s Seadgens, xolo minimaluri _ 80-s. arteriuli wnevis sidide cvalebadia, magaliTad, icvleba varjiSis dros, rom meti sisxliT moamaragos momuSave ConCxis kunTebi. sisxlis wneva izrdeba maSin, rodesac parkuWi Zlierad ikumSeba da arteriis diametric viwrovdeba. sisxlis wnevas zrdis stresi, aseve, Zalian mariliani an cximovani sakvebis miReba, arteriis kedlis dazianeba (gv. 89). arteriuli wnevis sidide damokidebulia adamianis asakze, misi sxeulis masaze. organizmSi gamudmebiT mimdinareobs sisxlis gadanawileba: organo, romelic


mocemuli momentisaTvis aqtiurad muSaobs, masSi Semavali arteriolebis sa-

naTuri farTovdeba da meti Jangbadi da sakvebi nivTierebebi miewodeba.

praqtikuli samuSao _ arteriuli wnevis gazomva saWiro masala: wnevis sazomi aparati, fonendoskopi. klasels an ojaxis wevrs gauzome arteriuli wneva suraTze mocemuli instruqciis mixedviT. ar dagaviwydes, rom wina mxari magidaze unda idos mxris perependikularulad. manJetSi Catumbuli haeris wneva 120-ze meti unda iyos

mxris arteria

1

1. mxarze SemoWeril manJetSi CaWirxne rezinis tumboTi haeri (manJeti daawveba mxris arterias da masSi sisxli aRar gaivlis. pulsis xmas veRar gaigeb)

2

2. manJetidan haeri nel-nela gamouSvi, rodesac gaigeb pulsis pirvel dartymas, daafiqsire manometris Cveneba. es iqneba parkuWebis SekumSviT gamowveuli maqsimaluri wneva.

3

3. gaagrZele manJetidan haeris gamoSveba. pulsis xma TandaTan Semcirdeba da rodesac sul gaqreba, daafiqsire manometris Cveneba, es iqneba gulis kunTis saerTo modunebiT gamowveuli minimaluri wneva.

manJeti manometri haeris tumbo

fonendoskopi

1. ra aris sisxlis wneva da ra ganapirobebs mas? 2. ra aris arteriuli wnevis maqsimalur da minimalur mniSvnelobebs Soris gansxvavebis mizezi? 3. 48-e suraTis mixedviT upasuxe kiTxvebs: a) romel sisxlZarRvSia yvelaze maRali sisxlis wneva? ratom? b) romel sisxlZarRvSia yvelaze dabali sisxlis wneva? ratom?

85 5


arteriuli wnevis asakze damokidebulebis kvleva kvlevis mizani: rogor aris damokidebuli arteriuli wnevis sidide asakze? saWiro resursi: wnevis sazomi aparati, fonendoskopo, adamianuri resursi_ sxvadasxva asakobrivi jgufis adamianebi. procedura: • monacemebis cxrili gadaitane rveulSi; • winaswar Seadgine cdispirebis sia asakis mixedviT; • gauzome maT arteriuli wneva mosvenebis mdgomareobaSi; • kvlevis Sedegebi Seitane cxrilSi cdispirebis asakobrivi jgufebisa da arteriuli wnevis maCveneblebis mixedviT. asakobrivi jgufi (wlovaneba) 14-18 35-44 65 da meti

cdispiri

arteriuli wnevis maCvenebeli

arteriuli wnevis gasaSualebuli maCvenebeli asakobriv jgufSi

1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3.

.analizi da daskvna: 1. cxrilis mixedviT Seadgine saTanado diagrama. horizontalur RerZze daitane asakobrivi jgufebis asakis saSualo maCveneblebi, vertikalur RerZze _ asakobrivi jgufebis arteriuli wnevis saSualo maCveneblebi. 2. diagramis mixedviT upasuxe kiTxvebs: 1) rogoria arteriuli wnevis saSualo maCvenebeli asakobriv jgufebSi? 2) aris sxvaoba am maCveneblebs Soris? daaxasiaTe es sxvaoba; 3) ra iyo kvlevaSi damokidebuli da damoukidebeli cvladi? 4) aris kavSiri am cvladebs Soris? daaxasiaTe es kavSiri. 3. Camoayalibe daskvna kvlevis Sedegebis mixedviT?

4. cxrili gadaitane rveulSi da 49-e suraTze mocemuli informaciis mixedviT Seavse: sisxlZarRvi

struqturis Tavisebureba

funqciebi

arteria vena kapilari 5. isargeble venis diagramiT, rom Seadaro arteriebisa da venebis struqtura. 6. arteriolebi rogor aregulireben qsovilebis momaragebas saWiro JangbadiTa da sakvebi nivTierebebiT? 7. fexze gaunZrevlad didxans dgomam SeiZleba venebSi sisxlis Segubeba gamoiwvios. rogor fiqrob, ratom?

pparkuWebis SekumSva arteriebSi warmoqmnis wnevas, romelic uzrunvelyofs sisxlis moZraobas sxeulSi da sxeulis ujredebis saWiro nivTierebebiT momaragebas; maqsimaluri da minimaluri arteriuli wneva ukavSirdeba gulis ciklis fazebs; arteriebidan venebisken sisxlis wneva mcirdeba.

86


3.8.

sisxlis moZraoba organizmSi

rogor cirkulirebs sisxli organizmSi? adamianis organizmSi aris sisxlis mimoqcevis ori wre, romlebSic sisxli moZraobs gulidan qsovilebisaken/organoebisken da organoebidan gulisaken. es aris: filtvis wre, anu mcire wre _ gulis marjvena parkuWidan sisxli gadaitumbeba filtvebSi; sistemuri, anu didi wre _ gulis marcxena parkuWidan sisxli gadaitumbeba sxeulSi.

funqcia _ sisxlis mimoqcevis didi wre, anu sistemuri wre, sisxlis mimoqcevis mcire wre, anu filtvis wre; sisxlis dinebis siCqare.

daasaxele gulis nawilebi, ganmarte arteriuli da venuri sisxlis raoba.

didi wris kapilarebi

filtvis arteriiT venuri sisxli Sedis filtvebSi

zeda da qveda Rru venebiT venuri sisxli Cadis marjvena winagulSi

venuri sisxli arteriulad gardaiqmneba filtvebi aorta

arteriuli sisxliT maragdeba Tavi, kiseri da zemo kidurebi aorta itoteba mcire zomis arteriebad filtvis veniT arteriuli sisxli Cadis marcxena winagulSi

marjvena winaguli

marcxena winaguli

marjvena parkuWi

marcxena parkuWi

didi wris kapilarebi

sxeulis sxvadasxva organosken moZravi arteriuli sisxli didi wris kapilarebSi arteriuli sisxli venurad gardaiqmneba

sur. 51

sisxlis mimoqcevis wreebi iwyeba parkuWebidan da mTavrdeba winagulebSi. sisxlis mimoqcevis didi wre iwyeba marcxena parkuWidan. gulis marcxena parkuWs aqvs Zalian sqeli kunTovani kedeli, romelic SekumSvisas didi ZaliT gadatyorcnis arteriul sisxls aortaSi. aortidan sisxli moZraobs arteriebSi da sabolood aRmoCndeba organizmis sxvadasxva organos kapilarebSi (sur. 51). sisxli kapilarebis Txeli kedlis gavliT qsovilur siTxeSi tovebs Jangbads da STanTqavs

naxSirorJangs. amrigad, didi wris kapilarebSi arteriuli sisxli gardaiqmneba venur sisxlad, romelic ikribeba venebSi da sabolood zeda da qveda Rru venebis saSualebiT venuri sisxli Cadis marjvena winagulSi. aq mTavrdeba didi wre. Semdeg mcire wreSi venuri sisxli filtvis arteriiT marjvena parkuWidan gadaitumbeba filtvebSi, sadac sisxli tovebs naxSirorJangs da mdidrdeba JangbadiT. amrigad, filtvis kapilarebSi venuri sisxli gardaiqmneba arteriul sisxlad, ro-

87 7


melic filtvis venebis saSualebiT Cadis marcxena winagulSi (aq mTavrdeba mcire wre), winagulidan is gadadis marcxena parkuWSi da kvlav ubrundeba did wres. sisxlis mimoqcevis mcire da didi wreebis sisxlZarRvebs sisxli 27 wamSi moivlis, magram sxvadasxva ZarRvSi sisxli gansxvavebuli siCqariT moZraobs: yvelaze maRali siCqariT moZraobs aortaSi _ 0,5 m/wm; yvelaze dabali siCqariT kapilarebSi _ 0,5-1,2 mm/wm (amitom aris, rom eswreba sisxlidan qsovilur siTxeSi Jangbadisa da sakvebi nivTirebebis gasvla, xolo iqidan sisxlSi cvlis produqtebis gadasvla); zeda da qveda Rru venebSi kvlav izrdeba sisxlis dinebis siCqare _ 0,2 m/wm. Tu ujredebi ori saaTis ganmavlobaSi ar momaragda JangbadiTa da sakvebi nivTierebebiT, isini kvdebian.

sisxlis mimoqcevis sistemis nawili gulidan

gulisken

arteria

vena

F

A arteriola

venula

kapilarebi

arteria

kapialri

vena

sur. 52

1. 51-e suraTze mocemuli informaciis gamoyenebiT upasuxe kiTxvebs _ daasaxele sisxlZarRvi: a. romelSic yvelaze maRalia sisxlis wneva; b. romelSic yvelaze maRalia Jangbadis raodenoba; g. romelSic yvelaze maRalia naxSirorJangis raodenoba; d. romlis funqciaa naxSirorJangiT mdidari sisxlis Segroveba qvemo kidurebisa da Sinagani organoebidan; e. romelSic maRalia sisxlis wneva da dabalia Jangbadis raodenoba; v. romel venebSi moZraobs arteriuli sisxli da romel arteriaSi _ venuri sisxli? 2. 52-e suraTis mixedviT upasuxe: a. rogor icvleba sisxlis wneva A-dan F sisxlZarRvamde? ratom? b. yvelaze maRali wneva arteriebSia. ratomaa es mniSvnelovani ujredebamde nivTierebaTa misatanad? g. venas aqvs struqtura, romelic exmareba sisxlis gulisken gadaadgilebaSi. ra ewodeba am struqturas? d. suraTze mocemuli informaciis gamoyenebiT axseni, kapilaris struqtura rogor iZleva sisxlsa da qsovilebs Soris nivTierebaTa cvlis saSualebas? e. romel sisxlZarRvSi moZraobs sisxli yvelaze dabali siCqariT da ra biologiuri mniSvneloba aqvs am faqts? 3. gaakeTe daskvna: ra ganapirobebs organizmSi sisxlis erTi mimarTulebiT _ gulidan organoebisken/periferiisken da organoebidan/periferiidan gulisaken moZraobas? 4. marcxena parkuWis kedeli marjvena parkuWis kedelze sqelia. ratom?

organizmSi r sisxlis moZraobas erTi mimarTulebiT (wina gulebidan parkuWebisaken, parkuWebidan periferiisaken da periferiidan gulisaken) uzrunvelyofs: gulSi arsebuli sarqvelebi, parkuWis SekumSviT ganviTarebuli wneva, sxvadasxva sisxlZarRveSi Seqmnili wnevaTa sxvaoba (siTxeebi maRali wnevidan dabali wnevisken moZraoben), venebis rbili kedeli da maTze ConCxis kunTebis SekumSvis zemoqmedeba, venebSi arsebuli sarqvelebi.

88 8


3.9.

gul-sisxlZarRvTa daavadebebi

gul-sisxlZarRvTa ra tipis daavadebebia gavrcelebuli? daavadeba da janmrTeloba _ aTerosklerozi, iSemiuri insulti, anevrizma, hipertenzia da hipotenzia, sisxldena; stentireba, Suntireba, pirveladi daxmareba sisxldenis dros.

sisxlZarRvTa gavrcelebuli daavadebaa aTerosklerozi. is arteriebis kedaTerosklerozuli arteria

normaluri arteria

lebis SigniTa mxridan cximovani nivTiereba _ qolesterinis dagrovebis Sedegad, egreT wodebuli aTerosklerozuli folaqebis formirebiT xasiaTdeba. aTerosklerozi iwvevs arteriebis kedlebis gauxeSebasa da Seviwroebas, zogjer ki mis srul daxSobas (sur. 53), rac aferxebs organoTa momaragebas sisxliT da iwvevs maTi funqciebis darRvevas. gvirgvinovani arteria

sisxlis kolti

folaqi

sisxlis moZraoba

aTerosklerozuli folaqi sur. 53

aTerosklerozi gamovlindeba sxvadasxva niSniT, rac damokidebulia imaze, Tu sad mdebareobs dazianebuli sisxlZarRvi. Tu gvirgvinovani arteriis romelime ganStoebaa aTerosklerozuli, SesaZlebelia aman gulis kunTis momarageba JangbadiTa da sakvebi nivTierebebiT Seaferxos/Sewyvitos, gulis kunTis nawili wyvets SekumSvas, sisxlis moZraoba ferxdeba da viTardeba gulis iSemiuri daavadeba (gid), iwvevs gulis Setevebsa da gulis infarqts (sur. 54). gulis infarqtma SeiZleba adamianis sikvdilic

gulis kunTis dazianebuli ubani sur. 54

gamoiwvios, radgan organizmis sxva qsovilebi aRar maragdeba JangbadiTa da sakvebi nivTierebebiT. Tavis tvinis sisxlZarRvTa aTerosklerozis Sedegad viTardeba iSemiuri insulti, _ organos sisxliT momaragebis Seferxeba. xolo periferiuli sisxlZarRvebis aTerosklerozma pacienti, SesaZloa, miiyvanos kidurebis dakargvamdec ki, radgan gamudmebiT Seviwroebuli sisxlZarRvebiT qsovilebs ar miewodeba sakmarisi raodenobis Jangbadi, sakvebi nivTierebebi da qsovilebi kvdomas iwyebs.

ra iwvevs arteriebis dazianebas? • araswori kveba, rac iwvevs qolesterinisa da cximis maRal Semcvelobas sisxlSi; • cxovrebis araswori wesi _ Tambaqosa da alkoholis Warbi moxmareba, naklebi

fizikuri aqtivoba, stresuli cxovreba; • memkvidreobiTi faqtorebi _ gulsisxlZarRvovani daavadebebis ojaxuri istoriebi.

89 9


mkurnalobis ra meTodebiT ebrZvian aTerosklerozs? gul-sisxlZarRvTa daavadebebi ukve didi xania safrTxes uqmnis sazogadoebas. magram medicina ganuwyvetliv miiwevs win da izrdeba samkurnalo preparatebisa da qirurgiuli manipulaciebis raodenoba, romelTac ZaluZT mniSvnelovnad Seamciron am daavadebaTa riski. mxolod saWiroa, droulad gamovlindes cvlilebaTa pirveli niSnebi. sisxlZarRvebis specialist eqims angiologs uwodeben. Tu eqim-angiologs eWvi epareba, rom pacients dazianebuli aqvs sisxlZarRvebi, ukeTeben sisxlZarRvebis gamokvlevas. gulis sisxlZarRvebis dazianebis gamovlenis saukeTeso meTodad ki koronarografia iTvleba. am dros rentgenis sxivebis daxmarebiT irkveva gulis mkvebavi gvirgvinovani arteriebis Seviwroebis adgili da xarisxi. Seviwroebuli sisxlZarRvis mkurnalobis erT-erTi Tanamedrove meTodia stentireba _ kritikulad Seviwroebuli sisxlZarRvis liTonis konstruqciiT _ stentiT gafarToebaa, romelic gulis mkvebavi sisxlZarRvebis normaluri muSaobis aRdgenasa da gulis JangbadiT normaluri momaragebis uzrunvelyofas isaxavs miznad. am meTodis wyalobiT uamravi adamiani gadaurCa gulis kunTis mZime dazianebas, kidurebis amputacias, insults.

stentireba

Suntireba operaciamde

operaciis Semdeg

Sunti

Seviwroebuli gvirgvinovani arteria

pirveli stentireba 1986 wels Catarda da eqsperimentulad am manipulaciis efeqtianoba mxolod 1993 wels damtkicda. Suntireba _ es aris operacia, romlis drosac iReben venis garkveuli sigrZis ubans da mas aortas akereben. venis meore bolo ki uerTdeba arteriis totis im nawils, romelic Seviwroebuli nawilis qvemoTaa. amgvarad, iqmneba arteriis Seviwroebuli adgilis SemovliTi gza, romlis gavliTac sisxli gulis kunTs normalurad miewodeba. bolo dros, SuntirebisTvis venis garda, sul ufro xSirad iyeneben arterias (xelidan amokveTils), romelic venasTan SedarebiT ufro xangrZlivad da srulfasovnad muSaobs.

90 0


sisxlZarRvis dazianebis kidev erT saxes warmoadgens anevrizma. anevrizma _ es aris arteriis (iSviaTad _ venis) gamoberva misi ganlevisa da elastikurobis dakargvis gamo. Sedegad warmoiSoba e.w. anevrizmuli tomara (sur. 55), romelic SesaZloa Camoyalibdes maRali wnevis,

aTerosklerozis fonze. anevrizma SesaZloa irgvliv arsebul qsovilebs daawves da gaskdes kidec. anevrizma SeiZleba ganviTardes sxvadasxva organos arteriaSi. gansakuTrebiT saSiSia anevrizma da misi gaskdoma Tavis tvinSi (sur. 55)

sur. 55

sisxlis momatebuli wneva normaluri movlenaa fizikuri varjiSis an Sromis pirobebSi. magram, Tu adamiani kargavs sisxlis wnevis regulaciis unars da sisxlis wneva momatebulia mosvenebis periodSic, es ukve daavadebaa _ hipertenzia. rodesac adamians awuxebs hipertenzia, es imas niSnavs, rom arteriebis kedelze aris didi zewola, gansakuTrebiT ki gulis SekumSvis dros. amrigad, maqsimaluri wneva 120-ze bevrad metia. hipertenziis mizezi SeiZleba iyos aTerosklerozi, rodesac arteriebi Seviwroebulia da dakarguli aqvs elastikuroba, ris gamoc sisxlis gadatyorcnis dros arteriebi aRar farTovdeba. hipertenzia gulsac

azianebs, radgan meti Zalisxmeva uxdeba sisxlis gadatumbvaze ufro Seviwroebul arteriebSi. daavadebaa hipotenziac _ mudmivad dabali arteriuli wneva. arteriuli wnevis Semcirebis mizezi SeiZleba iyos organizmis mier siTxis an sisxlis didi raodenobiT dakargva. siTxis dakargvis mizezi SeiZleba iyos gaZlierebuli Rebineba an faRaraTianoba. am dros adamians usxamen egreT wodebul fiziologiur xsnars*. sisxlis dakargvis mizezi ki sisxlZarRvebis dazianebis Sedegad gamowveuli sisxldenaa. sisxldenis dros 2-2,5 l sisxlis dakargva adamianisTvis momakvdinebelia.

1. daasaxele da aRwere aTerosklerozis mkurnalobis Tanamedrove meTodebi. 2. gul-sisxlZarRvTa sistemis janmrTelobis SenarCunebisaTvis gacemul rekomendaciebSi yovelTvis aris rCeva, romelic gulisxmobs jansaR kvebasa da fizikur varjiSs. axseni, ratom? 3. aTerosklerozma ratom SeiZleba gamoiwvios hipertenzia? 4. insultis dros Tavis tvinis romelime ubnis sisxliT momarageba wydeba. es movlena ra gavlenas axdens uSualod Tavis tvinis ujredebze?

9 91


rogor davexmaroT adamians sisxldenis dros? pirveladi daxmarebis aRmoCenis RonisZieba dakavSirebulia sisxldenis saxes-

kapilaruli sisxldena

Wriloba iodiT unda daimuSaoT da sufTa marliT SeixvioT, sisxlisdena advilad SeCerdeba.

Tan. sisxldena SeiZleba iyos kapilaruli, venuri da arteriuli (sur. 56).

venuri sisxldena

dazaralebuls kiduri zeviT avawevinoT da mWidroT davadoT naxvevi.

arteriuli sisxldena

dazaralebuls dazianebuli kiduri zeviT avawevinoT da arterias, Wrilobisgan cota moSorebiT, maRla rezinis laxti an dagrexili zonari gadavuWiroT.

sur. 56

pirveladi samedicino daxmarebis simulacia saWiro masala: bandi, rezinis laxti. procedura: isargeble 56-e suraTze mocemuli informaciiT da ivarjiSe megobrebTan, rogor unda aRmouCino pirveladi daxmareba sxvadasxva saxis sisxldenis dros.

5. Tu pirovneba didi raodenobiT wyals dakargavs, siTxis naklebobis gamo Semcirdeba misi sisxlis moculoba, es rogor imoqmedebs mis sisxlis wnevasa da guliscemis sixSireze? 6. sisxldenis dros warmoqmnili sisxlis kolti aCerebs mxolod kapilarul sisxldenas. ratom? 7. ratom aris yvelaze saSiSi arteriuli sisxldena? 8. arteriuli sisxldenis dros naxvevs urTaven baraTs, sadac miTiTebulia naxvevis dadebis zusti dro. rogor fiqrob, ratom aris aucilebeli naxvevis dadebis zusti dros miTiTeba?

ssisxlZarRvebis gavrcelebuli daavadebaa aTerosklerozi, romelmac SeiZleba gamoiwvios sxvadasxva organos infarqti, magaliTad, gulis infarqti, insulti, hipertenzia da sxva; aTerosklerozs mkurnaloben iseTi meTodebiT, rogoricaa stentireba da Suntireba. aucilebelia sisxldenis dros pirveladi daxmarebis wesebis codna.

9 92


Tema

3-1-is Sejameba

Temis mimoxilva mTavari ideebi • organizmis Sinagan garemos qmnis sisxli, qsoviluri siTxe da limfa; • organizmis Sinagani garemos Sedgenilobisa da temperaturis mudmivobis (homeostazi) SenarCunebas adamianis janmrTelobisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs; • sisxlis mimoqcevisa da limfuri sistema organizmSi nivTierebaTa transports uzrunvelyofs; • sisxlis mimoqcevis sistemas miekuTvneba sisxli, guli da sisxlZarRvebi (arteriebi, venebi, kapilarebi); • sisxli Seicavs formian elementebs (eriTrocitebs, leikocitebsa da Trombocitebs), TiToeul maTgans garkveuli funqcia akisria; • Jangbadi sisxlSi xvdeba sunTqvis sistemidan, xolo sakvebi nivTierebebi _ saWmlis monelebis sistemidan; • sisxlis plazma monawileobs nivTierebaTa transportSi, sisxlis SededebaSi; • gulis SekumSva warmoqmnis sisxlis wnevas da ganapirobebs sisxlis moZraobas sisxlZarRvebSi; • pulsis sixSireze gavlenas axdens fizikuri aqtivoba; • sxvadasxva saxis (arteriuli, venuri, kapilaruli) sisxldenis dros SesaZlebelia specifikuri pirveladi daxmarebis gaweva.

davalebebi TviTSefasebisTvis testuri davalebebi (pasuxebi CainiSne rveulSi) 1. plazmis 90%-s qmnis: a. marilebi; b. cilebi; g. wyali; d. cximebi. 2. sisxli, romelic Sedis xelis kapilarebSi, gamodis gulis nawilidan: a. marcxena winagulidan;

g. marcxena parkuWidan;

b. marjvena winagulidan;

d. marjvena parkuWidan.

3. Tu sisxlis nakadi mimarTulia gulisaken, maSin am sisxlZarRvs ewodeba: a. arteriola; b. kapilari; g. arteria; d. vena. 4. sisxlis momwifebul eriTrocitebs ar aqvs birTvi. amis gamo maT ar aqvT: a. wiTeli feri;

g. gamravlebis unari;

b. Jangbadis transportirebis unari;

d. hemoglobini.

5. zogierTi infeqciuri daavadebis winaaRmdeg profilaqtikis mizniT warmatebiT iyeneben e.w. vaqcinebs, romelic Seicavs dasustebul mikroorganizmebs an maT mier gamoyofili toqsikuri nivTierebis mcire dozas. vaqcinis moqmedebis meqanizmi SemdegSi mdgomareobs: I. dasustebuli mikroorganizmi an toqsikuri nivTiereba ukavSirdeba Trombocitebs, ris gamoc SemdgomSi xdeba daavadebis Tavidan acileba; II. dasustebuli mikroorganizmebis cilebi rCebian sxeulSi da SemdgomSi organizmSi SeRweuli cocxali mikroorganizmis `msxverpli~ xdeba zemoxsenebuli cilebi, nacvlad maspinZeli organizmis ujredebisa;

93


III. dasustebuli mikroorganizmebi an maTi toqsikuri nivTierebebi astimulireben organizmSi specifikuri limfocitebisa da antisxeulebis gamomuSavebas; IV. Tu vaqcinaciis Semdeg organizmSi moxvda am saxeobis cocxali mikrorganizmebi, gamomuSavebuli specifikuri limfocitebi da antisxeulebi maT gamravlebis saSualebas ar aZleven. pasuxi: a. I da III; b. I da II; g. I da IV; d. II da III; e. II da IV; v. III da IV. 6. qvemoT mocemuli komponentebi daalageT adamianis organizmSi Jangbadisa da sakvebi nivTierebebis gadaadgilebis mimarTulebis mixedviT: 1) sisxli, 2) ujredi, 3) qsoviluri siTxe. pasuxi: a. 1, 3, 2; b. 2, 1, 3; g. 3, 2, 1; d. 3, 1, 2. 7. qvemoT mocemuli magaliTebi Seusabame imunitetis formebs da Sesabamis ujraSi dasviT niSani `X~: magaliTebi: 1. infeqciuri daavadebis mqone adamianebs swrafi daxmarebis mizniT gadausxamen samkurnalo Sratebs; 2. bavSvebs infeqciuri daavadebebisagan dacvis mizniT utardebaT acrebi; 3. muclad yofnis periodSi Canasaxs dedis sisxlidan gadaecema zogierTi infeqciuri daavadebis sawinaaRmdego mza antisxeulebi; 4. zogierTi infeqciuri daavdebis gadatanis Semdeg adamiani aRar avaddeba am infeqciiT. imunitetis formebi: a. bunebrivi imuniteti, b. xelovnuri imuniteti. pasuxi: 1

2

3

4

a b

8. qvemoT mocemuli CamonaTvalidan SearCieT adamianis organizmis mcire wreSi sisxlis moZraobis swori mimarTuleba: a. marjvena parkuWi _ filtvis arteriebi _ filtvis kapilarebi _ Rru venebi _ marcxena winaguli; b. marcxena parkuWi _ filtvis venebi _ filtvis kapilarebi _ filtvis arteriebi _ marjvena winaguli; g. marjvena parkuWi _ filtvis arteriebi _ filtvis kapilarebi _ filtvis venebi _ marcxena winaguli; d. marjvena winaguli _ filtvis arteriebi _ filtvis kapilarebi _ filtvis venebi _ marcxena parkuWi. 9. monaxeT Sesabamisoba sisxlis mimoqcevis wreebsa da mocemul debulebebs Soris, Sesabamis ujraSi dasviT niSani `X~. sisxlis mimoqcevis wre:

debuleba

1. didi wre

a. arteriuli sisxli gadaiqceva venurad

2. mcire wre

b. venuri sisxli gadaiqceva arteriulad g. gaivlis filtvis sisxlZarRvebSi d. ujredebi maragdeba JangbadiTa da sakvebi nivTierebebiT

94


pasuxi: a

b

g

d

1 2

10. daadgine Sesabamisoba sisxlZarRvis tipebsa da mis Tvisebebs Soris _ sisxlZarRvis Tvisebebi:

sisxlZarRvebi:

a. sisxli CaaqvT gulSi

1. arteriebi

b. arteriebs akavSirebs venebTan

2. venebi

g. gulidan gamoaqvT sisxli

3. kapilarebi

d. Sedgeba mxolod epiTeliumisgan e. kedlis Sua Sre sqelia, Sedgeba elastikuri da kunTovani boWkoebisgan v. kedlis Sua Sre Txelia, Sedgeba mcire raodenobis elastikuri da kunTovani boWkoebisgan z. gaaCniaT jibisebri sarqvelebi pasuxi: a

b

g

d

e

v

z

11. daadgine Sesabamisoba sisxlZarRvebis tipsa da mis Tvisebebs Soris _ sisxlZarRvis Tvisebebi:

sisxlZarRvebi:

a. sisxlis wneva dabalia

1. arteriebi

b. sisxlis wneva maRalia

2. venebi

g. sisxlis wneva yvelaze dabalia

3. kapilarebi

d. sisxlis dinebis siCqare yvelaze dabalia e. sisxlis dinebis siCqare maRalia v. sisxlis dinebis siCqare SedarebiT dabalia pasuxi: a

b

g

d

e

v

12. daadgine Sesabamisoba sarqvelebis tipebsa da maT mdebareobas Soris da dasviT `X~ niSani cxrilis Sesabamis ujraSi. sarqvelebis mdebareoba: a. venebSi b. parkuWebsa da arteriebs Soris g. winagulebsa da parkuWebs Soris.

sarqvelebi: 1. kariani sarqvelebi 2. namglisebri sarqvelebi

pasuxi: a

b

g

1 2

13. sisxlZarRvebi ganalage maTSi sisxlis dinebis siCqaris Semcirebis mimarTulebiT: a. zeda Rru vena; b. aorta; g. mxris arteria; d. kapilarebi.

95


pasuxi:

14. sisxlZarRvebi ganalage maTSi sisxlis wnevis Semcirebis mimarTulebiT: a. qveda Rru vena; b. aorta; g. mxris arteria; d. kapilarebi. pasuxi:

davalebebi kritikuli da SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebisTvis 1. rodesac adamiani swevs did simZimes, misi venebi xSirad ibereba da kanqveS kargad Cans. rogor fiqrob, ratom xdeba ase? 2. adamiani, romelic xanZris dros aRmoCnda didi dakvamlianebis garemoSi, gadaiyvanes saavadmyofoSi sisxlSi Jangbadis raodenobis gamosakvlevad. aseT SemTxvevaSi arteriidan aRebul sisxls gamoikvleven Tu venidan? daasabuTe Seni pasuxi. 3. eqimebi fexebis masaJs utareben im adamianebs, romlebsac siaruli ar SeuZliaT. ratom uwyobs masaJi xels sisxlis mimoqcevas? 4. warmoidgine, rom xelovnur guls qmni. ra sam faqtors gaiTvaliswineb, rom gulma kargad imuSaos organizmSi? 5. aTerosklerozi aris daavadeba, romlis drosac arteriis Sida kedelze ileqeba qolesterini da cximovani nivTiereba. ra gavlenas axdens es darRveva sisxlis mimoqcevis sistemaze? 6. warmoidgine, rom Sen erTi cida xar da zixar eriTrocitSi. dawere sisxlis mimoqcevis sistemaSi Seni Tavgadasavlis mokle aRwera.

monacemebis gansja (analizi da daskvna) 1. grafiki uCvenebs pulsis sixSires mosvenebul mdgomareobaSi, velosipedis tarebis dros da mis Semdeg. yvelaze mkveTrad rodis moimata pulsis sixSirem? rogori iyo pulsis sixSire velosipedis tarebis dawyebidan 15 wuTis Semdeg? rogor Seicvala pulsis sixSire velosipedis gaCerebis Semdeg?

pulsis sixSire 220 180 140 100 60

dawyeba 5 10 15 20 25 dasruleba wuTebi

2. adamianis pulsis sixSire damokidebulia mraval faqtorze, maT Soris asakzec. qvemoT mocemulia pulsis sixSiris cvlilebis asakze damokidebulebis amsaxveli ori grafiki A da B pirovnebisaTvis. mocemuli grafikebis mixedviT gansazRvre: 1) ras udris pulsis sixSire 5 wlis asakSi TiToeuli cdispirisTvis? 2) romel asakobriv intervalSi icvleba pulsis sixSire ufro mkveTrad, 1-10, Tu 10-20 wlebis intervalSi?

96


3) romeli grafiki asaxavs gul-sisxlZarRvTa sistemis muSaobis gauaresebas 20-50 wlebis intervalSi? pulsis sixSire 1 wuTSi 140

A

120 100

B

80 60 40 20 0 10

20 30 asaki (wlebi)

50

40

vizualuri masalis gansja 1. daakvirdi ilustracias: 1) rogori sisxli moZraobs ilustraciaze gamosaxul D da C sisxlZarRvebSi? 2) axseni, ra gansxvavebaa A da B sisxlZarRvebSi moZrav sisxls Soris?

B

A

D C 8

2. ilustraciis mixedviT: 1) suraTze miTiTebuli ricxvebis gamoyenebiT dawere, ra gzas gaivlis sisxli sisxlis mimoqcevis mcire wreSi; 2) aRwere, ra cvlilebebs ganicdis sisxli sisxlis mimoqcevis mcire wreSi; 3) suraTze miTiTebuli ricxvebis gamoyenebiT dawere, ra gzas gaivlis sisxli sisxlis mimoqcevis did wreSi;

6 12 9

5 12 11 7

13

13 14

1

10

3

2 14 4

4) aRwere, ra cvlilebebs ganicdis sisxli sisxlis mimoqcevis did wreSi.

8

97


3. gulis ciklis fazebidan romels asaxavs ilustracia? daasabuTe Seni pasuxi.

4. suraTze mocemulia sxeulis ujredebi da organizmis Sinagani Txevadi garemos nawilebi. isrebi uCvenebs siTxis moZraobis mimarTulebas. 1) daasaxele A, B da C-Ti aRniSnuli Sinagani garemos nawili; 2) daasaxele ori nivTiereba, romelic SeiZleba ujredSi gadavides B siTxidan; 3) aRwere, C siTxe rogor ubrundeba sisxls.

B

C

A

limfuri ZarRvi sisxlis kapilari

terminebsa da cnebebs Soris kavSiris dadgena . terminebs Soris damokidebuleba qvemoT mocemuli terminebis yoveli wyvilisTvis dawere winadadeba, romelic asaxavs am or termins Soris kavSirs. magaliTad, Jangbadi, naxSirorJangi: yvela ujredi sunTqvis procesSi gamoiyenebs Jangbads da gamoyofs naxSirorJangs, rogorc cvlis produqts. 1.

vena, kapilari

2.

winaguli, parkuWi

3.

arteria, guli

4.

sisxlis mimoqcevis didi (sistemuri) wre, filtvis wre

5.

arteriuli sisxli, venuri sisxli

6.

Trombocitebi, plazma

7.

limfa, limfociti

98


sakvanZo samecniero terminebis gamoyeneba 1.

terminebi: arteria, aTerosklerozi, sisxlis wneva, kapilari, arteriuli wnevis paTologiuri mateba _ hipertenzia, pulsi, vena. gamoiyene zemoT mocemuli terminebi da gaxazuli sityva/sityvebi Secvale swori sakvanZo terminebiT:

1) sisxlidan Jangbadi da sakvebi nivTierebebi advilad gadaecema ujredebs Zalian patara da wvrili sisxlZarRvebis kedlebis gavliT. 2) Caketili sisxlis mimoqcevis sistemis mqone cxovelebSi SeiZleba SeigrZnoT arteriebis ritmuli SekumSva da gafarToeba. 3) rac ufro daSorebulia sisxli gulidan, Zala, romelic moqmedebs sisxlZarRvis Sida kedelis farTobis erTeulze, miT ufro mcirdeba. 4) sxeulis Warbi masa, Tambaqos moweva, cximiani sakvebis miReba da arasakmarisi fizikuri aqtivoba _ es is faqtorebia, romelTac SeiZleba gazardos arteriis Sida kedlebze cximovani nivTierebis daleqvis riski. 5) winagulebTan dakavSirebulia sisxlZarRvebi, romelTac sisxli gulSi CaaqvT, xolo parkuWebTan dakavSirebulia sisxlZarRvebi, romelTac gulidan sisxli gamoaqvT. 2. waikiTxe teqsti da gamotovebul adgilze Casvi Sesabamisi sityvebi: 1. marcxena parkuWSi, 2. marcxena winagulSi, 3. marjvena winagulSi, 4. filtvebSi. mcire wreSi moZravi sisxli filtvebSi mdidrdeba JangbadiT, aqedan venebiT jer Caedineba , Semdeg , aqedan ki didi wris sisxlZarRvebiT Jangbadi aRwevs yvela qsovilamde da ujredebamde; didi wris venebSi moZrav sisxls naxSirorJangi miaqvs jer , aqedan sisxli marjvena parkuWSi gadadis da filtvis arteriebis gziT Sedis. sworia Tu mcdari? gansazRvre yoveli debuleba/mtkicebuleba sworia Tu mcdari. Tu sworia, dawere `sworia~, Tu mcdaria, gaxazuli sityva Secvale iseTi sityviT an sityvebiT, rom mtkicebuleba swori iyos! 1) sisxlis Txevad nawils plazma ewodeba. 2) ujredis fragmentebs, romlebic monawileoben sisxlis SededebaSi, warmoadgenen leikocitebi. 3) organizmSi yvelaze didi arteria aris filtvis arteria. 4) sisxlis mier ujredSoris sivrceSi dakargul siTxes isev sisxlSi abrunebs limfa. 5) sisxlZarRvebidan sarqvelebi gaaCnia kapilarebs. analogia analogia aris or sityvas an frazas Soris damokidebuleba, romelic aseTi formiT iwereba: a : b :: g : d. simbolo `:~ ikiTxeba rogorc `aris~, xolo simbolo `::~ _ rogorc `ise~/`iseve~. mag., kata : cxoveli :: vardi : mcenare, ikiTxeba: `kata aris cxoveli, iseve rogorc vardi _ mcenare~. daasrule qvemoT mocemuli yoveli analogia, amisTvis Casvi Sesabamisi sityva an fraza: 1) gulidan : arteria :: gulSi :

99


2) marcxena parkuWi : aorta :: marjvena parkuWi : 3) hemoglobini : Jangbadis transporti :: fibrinogeni : 4) gadamtubavi ganyofileba gulSi : parkuWi :: mimRebi ganyofileba gulSi : 5) sisxli : plazma :: eriTrociti : monacemebis organizeba sqemebSi qvemoT mocemuli sqemebi gadaitane rveulSi da daasrule. 1. sisxli Sedgeba ...

formiani elementebi

...

...

... f

u

...

n

q

c

i

a ...

...

2. guli ori nawili ...

marjvena nawili

...

marjvena parkuWi

sisxls gadatumbavs ...

100

marcxena winaguli

...

sisxls gadatumbavs ...


sasunTqi sistema

suraTi asaxavs sasunTq sistemas, romelic Sen sisxls amaragebs JangbadiT da aTavisuflebs naxSirorJangisgan. filtvebi ramdenime aseuli milioni pawawina haeriT savse buStukisgan Sedgeba. Tu sisxli ganuwyvetliv moZraobs sisxlZarRvebSi, haeriT ki ganuwyvetliv ivseba da sufTavdeba filtvis buStukebi. rogorc Seni guli 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi agrZelebs muSaobas, Seni filtvebic ganuwyvetliv muSaobs. am Temis Seswavlis dros gaecnobi, Tu sasunTqi organoebis agebuleba rogor Seesabameba maT funqciebs, ra gavlena axdens sunTqvaze garegani da Sinagani faqtorebis cvlileba, sasunTqi organoebis ra saxis daavadebebi arsebobs da rogor SeiZleba misi Tavidan acileba.

101 101


3.10.

sunTqva. sunTqvis mniSvneloba?

ra aris sunTqva da ra mniSvneloba aqvs mas? sasicocxlo Tviseba _ sunTqva; struqtura: cxviris Rru, xorxi, traqea, bronqi, bronqioli, alveoli; funqcia: sunTqvis arsi, airTa cvla alveolebsa da sisxls Soris, airTa cvla sisxlsa da qsovilebs Soris, ujreduli sunTqva.

• daasaxele magaliTebi, Tu sxvadasxva sistematikuri jgufis cxoveli ra saSualebiT iRebs garemodan Jangbads; • romel xerxemlianebs aqvT yvelaze kargad ganviTarebuli sunTqvis organoebi?

sunTqva aris procesi, romlis saSualebiTac organizmi iRebs sicocxlisaTvis aucilebel energias sakvebi organuli nivTierebebis daSlis Sedegad. ici, rom es procesi ujredSi mimdinareobs da mas ujreduli sunTqva ewodeba. organizmebis umravlesoba organuli sakvebi nivTierebis dasaSlelad iyenebs Jangbads, romlis Sedegadac gamoiyofa energia, naxSirorJangi da wyali. Sesabamisad, ujredebi saWiroeben mudmivad momaragebas JangbadiT da organizmidan daJangvis produqtebis (naxSirorJangisa da wylis) gamoyofas. haeris komponenti airi

Jangbadi naxSirorJangi azoti inertuli airebi wylis orTqli

sxvadasxva organizmi gansxvavebuli saSualebiT iRebs garemodan Jangbads. cxovelebis umravlesobas ganuviTarda sunTqvis specialuri organo. magaliTad, xmeleTis xerxemlianebi filtvebiT sunTqaven. rac ufro maRalorganizebulia organizmi, miT ufro metia organizmis moTxovnileba Jangbadze. amitom ZuZumwovrebi didi raodenobiT Jangbads saWiroeben. Sesabamisad, maTi sasunTqi sistema Zalian kargad aris ganviTarebuli. adamians, rogorc ZuZumwovars, kargad ganviTarebuli sasunTqi sistema aqvs. igi Sedgeba haergamtari gzebisa (cxviris Rru, xorxi, traqea, bronqebi da bronqiolebi) da filtvebisgan (sur. 57). Tu gaaanalizeb 57-e da 58-e suraTebze mocemul informacias, sunTqva SeiZleba ase ganvmartoT: sunTqva aris fiziologiuri procesebis erToblioba, romelic moicavs: 1. airTa cvlas organizmsa da garemos Soris (alveolis haersa da sisxls Soris); 2. airTa cvlas sisxlsa da qsovilebs Soris; 3. ujredul sunTqvas. haeris Sedgeniloba da sunTqvaSi monawile airebi warmodgenilia cxrilSi.

CasunTquli haeris Semadgenloba (%)

amosunTquli haeris Semadgenloba (%)

21 0,03-0,04 78 daaxloebiT 1 umniSvnelo

16 4 78 daaxloebiT 1 meti

1. 57-e suraTze mocemuli informaciis mixedviT _ a. cxrilis saxiT warmoadgine: `sunTqvis organoebis struqtura da funqciebi~. b. gansazRvre: ratom difundireben airebi advilad? g. romel sisxlZarRvs Seaqvs filtvebSi sisxli da romels gamoaqvs? 2. ratom aris sasurveli cxviriT sunTqva piriT sunTqvasTan SedarebiT? 3. CamoTvale struqturebi, romelsac gaivlis Jangbadis molekula atmosferos haeridan ujredamde. 4. cxrilSi mocemuli informaciis mixedviT, daasaxele atmosferos airebidan romeli monawileobs sunTqvaSi?

1102 02


wamwamebi _ ganuwyvetliv ixreba Signidan gareT da gamodevnis mikroorganizmebsa da mtvris nawilakebs.

cxviris Rru struqtura: Zval-xrtilovani ZgidiT or naxevradaa gayofili; cxviris Rru amofenilia lorwovani garsiT, romelic mdidaria wamwamebiT, sisxlZarRvebiTa da lorwos gamomyofi ujredebiT. funqciebi: SesunTquli haeris gaTboba, datenianeba, gasufTaveba mtvrisa da mikrobebisgan, haeris cxvir-xaxisken gatareba.

ujredi, romelic gamoimuSavebs lorwos da gamoyofs ujredebis zedapirze

saylapavi mili traqea struqtura: 10-12 sm-is sigrZis naxevarrgolovani xrtilebisagan Seqmnili milia (misi ukana rbili kedeli emijneba saylapav mils); kedeli wamwamovani epiTeluri qsoviliTaa amofenili. funqcia: uzrunvelyofs haeris Tavisufal gatarebas, SesunTquli haeris gasufTavebas mtvrisa da mikrobebisgan.

xorxi struqtura: ramdenime xrtilisagan Sedgeba; maT Sorisaa xorx-sarqveli, farisebri xrtili; xorxis xrtilebs Soris moTavsebulia mbgeravi iogebi; xorxis kedeli lorwovani garsiTaa amofenili. funqcia: haeris gatareba, amosunTquli haeri arxevs mbgerav iogebs da warmoiqmneba bgerebi.

bronqi struqtura: traqeas ganStoebaa, yovel filtvSi TiTo bronqi Sedis, kedeli Sedgeba rgolovani xrtilebisgan, Signidan amofenilia wamwamovani epiTeluri qsoviliT. funqcia _ uzrunvelyofs haeris Tavisufal gatarebas, SesunTquli haeris gasufTavebas mtvrisa da mikrobebisgan.

filtvi struqtura: filtvis buStukebi (alveolebi) warmoqmnis filtvis masas. maTi saerTo zedapiri 100m2-ze metia. alveolis kedlebi warmoqmnilia erTSriani epiTeliumiTa da elastikuri boWkoebiT (amitom filtvebs aqvs gaWimvis unari); buStukebs garss akravs mcire wris kapilaruli qseli. funqcia: airTa cvla alveolebisa da kapilarebis kedlebis saSualebiT.

filtvis arteria _ marjvena parkuWidan venuri sisxli didi wneviT Seaqvs filtvSi. filtvis vena _ arteriuli sisxli Caaqvs marcxena winagulSi.

bronqiolebi _ bronqebis Zalian wvrili ganStoeba, romelic Sedis filtvis alveolebSi.

haeris moZraoba alveolSi venuri sisxli alveoli

arteriuli sisxli

kapilari

bronqioli kapilaruli qseli

sisxlidan naxSirorJangi gadadis aveolis haerSi

alveolebi eriTrocitebi

alveolis haeridan Jangbadi gadadis sisxlSi

sur. 57

1103 10 03


ra ganapirobebs airTa moZraobis mimarTulebas? airTa cvla organizmsa da garemos Soris mimdinareobs filtvebSi, kerZod, alveolebis haersa da sisxls Soris. alveolis kedlebSi arsebul mcire wris kaO2 _ Jangbadi; CO2 _ naxSirorJangi arteriuli sisxli

didi wris kapilari qsoviluri siTxe

O2 O2

venuri sisxli

O2 CO2

sur. 58

CO2

pilarebis venur sisxlSi naxSirorJangis done ufro maRalia, xolo Jangbadis done dabali, vidre alveolebis haerSi. amitom sisxlidan alveolebis haerSi difuziiT gadadis naxSirorJangi, xolo haeridan sisxlSi _ Jangbadi. airTa cvla sisxlsa da qsovilebs Sorisac difuziiT xdeba – qsovilebSi yovelTvis naklebia Jangbadis done, vidre didi wris kapilarebSi gamaval arteriul sisxlSi; amitom Jangbadi sisxlidan gadadis qsovilur siTxeSi, iqidan ki _ ujredebSi. Sesabamisad, qsovilebSi maRalia naxSirorJangis done, vidre sisxlSi, radgan ujredebSi ganuwyvetliv mimdinareobs organuli nivTierebebis JangviTi procesebi; amitom naxSirorJangi qsovilebidan, qsoviluri siTxis gavliT, gadadis sisxlSi da igi venur sisxlad gardaiqmneba (sur. 58).

5. ra faqtorebi ganapirobebs alveolebidan sisxlis kapilarebSi Jangbadis difudirebas? 6. riT gansxvavdeba filtvebSi airTa cvla qsovilebSi mimdinare airTa cvlisgan?

ssunTqvis ZiriTadi daniSnulebaa organizmis momarageba JangbadiT, romelic monawileobs organuli nivTierebebis daJangvaSi, rac organizms energiiT uzrunvelyofs; airTa cvlis efeqtianoba damokidebulia Semdeg faqtorebze: 1. garemoSi Jangbadis raodenobaze; 2. sasunTqi sistemis ganviTarebaze. alveolebis erToblioba Zlier zrdis filtvebis moculobas da amgvarad, CasunTquli haeris raodenobas; 3. alveolis kedeli, rogorc kapilaris, erTSriani epiTeluri qsovilisgan Sedgeba da notioa, rac aadvilebs alveolis haersa da sisxls Soris airTa cvlas; 4. alveolebs garss akravs sisxlis kapilarebi, rac uzrunvelyofs airTa intensiur mimocvlas sisxlsa da haers Soris; sunTqvisa da sisxlis mimoqcevis sistemebi erTd muSaoben homeostazis SesanarCuneblad: a. sasunTqi sistema sisxls amaragebs JangbadiT da aTavisuflebs mas Warbi naxSirorJangisgan, b. sisxls gamoaqvs filtvebidan Jangbadi da amaragebs qsovilebs, qsovilebidan ki filtvebisaken gadaaqvs naxSirorJangi, g. guli uzrunvelyofs sisxlis moZraobas sisxlZarRvebSi.

1104 04


3.11.

sunTqviTi moZraobebi

ra uzrunvelyofs filtvebis ventilacias? struqtura _ neknebi, neknTaSua kunTebi, diafragma, filtvis plevra, gulmkerdis kedlis amyoli plevra, plevris Rru; funqcia _ sunTqviTi moZraobebi _ CasunTqva da amosunTqva. janmrTeloba da daavadeba _ xelovnuri sunTqva, xelovnuri sunTqvis aparati.

filtvebSi haeris mudmiv ganaxlebas _ naxSirorJangiani haeris gamodevnasa da JangbadiT mdidari haeris Casvlas, (filtvebis ventilacias) _ uzrunvelyofs sunTqviTi moZraobebi: CasunTqva da amosunTqva. ganvixiloT is struqturebi (sur. 59), romlebic monawileoben am pro-

cesebSi. yovel filtvs garedan ekvris SemaerTebelqsovilovani garsi _ filtvis plevra, gulmkerdis Rrus Sida zedapiri ki amofenilia kedlis amyoli plevriT. filtvis plevrasa da kedlis amyol plevras Soris moTavsebulia hermetuli plevris Rru, romelic notio da uhaero sivrcea. plevris Rrus sinotives ganapirobebs plevris siTxe, romelic sasunTqi moZraobebis dros xaxuns amcirebs. radgan filtvis plevra ekvris filtvs da plevris Rru uhaero da hermetulia, amitom filtvebi avtomaturad mihyveba gulmkerdis moZraobas. magaliTad, Tu gulmkerdis Rru gafarTovdeba, filtvis moculobac gaizrdeba da, piriqiT.

filtvi neknTaSua sasunTqi kunTebi

neknebi kedlis amyoli plevra

diafragma

filtvi filtvis plevra plevris Rru

struqtura, romelic monawileobs sunTqviT moZraobebSi sur. 59

rogor sruldeba sunTqviTi moZraoba? Caatare patara sunTqviTi varjiSi. daide TiTebi neknebze, daakvirdi neknebis moZraobas CasunTqvisa da amosunTqvis dros. SeamCnev, rom Seni neknebi zeviT iweva CasunTqvis dros, xolo amosunTqvisas _ qvemoT. CasunTqvis dros diafragma

brtyeldeba, amosunTqvis dros ki TaRis formas iZens. diafragmis formisa da neknebis mdebareobis cvlileba gulmkerdis Rrus moculobas zrdis CasunTqvis dros da amcirebs amosunTqvis dros. filtvebis moculobac aseve izrde-

1105 10 05


ba CasunTqvisas da mcirdeba amosunTqvis dros. CasunTqvis dros haeris wneva filtvebSi mcirdeba da garemodan atmosferuli haeri Cadis filtvebSi. amosunTqvis

dros filtvebSi haeris wneva matulobs da is filtvebidan atmosferoSi gamodis, radgan airebi yovelTvis moZraoben maRali wnevidan dabali wnevisken (sur. 60).

CasunTqva

amosunTqva

gulmkerdis Rru gafarToebulia, filtvebis moculoba gazrdilia da masSi haeris wneva Semcirebulia

gulmkerdis Rru Seviwroebulia, filtvebis moculoba Semcirebulia da masSi wneva gazrdilia

neknTaSua kunTebi SekumSulia

neknTaSua kunTebi modunebulia

diafragma SekumSulia da Sebrtyelebuli

modunebulia da

diafragma amozneqili

sur. 60

gulmkerdis modelis Seqmna masala: rezinis sacobi masSi gatarebuli miliT (an plastilini da sawrupi plastmasis mili), plastmasis boTli, 1 cali rezinis xelTaTmani (an ufro didi zomis gasaberi rezinis buSti), patara gasaberi rezinis buSti. procedura: 1. polieTilenis boTli daawvine gverdze, patara makratliT boTlze daaweqi erT wertilze, gadaWeri igi boTlis fskeridan 1 sm-ze. 2. boTls gadaWril boloze mWidrod Semoakari Txeli rezinis xelTaTmani an gasaberi rezinis buStis monaWeri. 3. boTls Tavze moarge sacobi, romelSic gadis mili (SeiZleba gamoiyeno plastilini boTlis hermetulad dasacavad, rom masSi gaataro sawrupi plastmasis mili). gaiTvaliswine, rom milis erTi bolo Tavisuflad unda gamodiodes boTlis gareT, milis meore boloze mWidrod miamagre gasaberi rezinis buSti. 4. qvemoT Camoswie boTlis boloze gadaWimuli rezinis xelTaTmani/buSti, daakvirdi, ra daemarTeba am dros milze mimagrebul buSts. 5. boTlSi Seswie boTlis boloze gadaWimuli rezinis xelTaTmani/buSti, daakvirdi, ra daemarTeba am dros milze mimagrebul buSts. analizi da daskvna: 1. daadgine, ra msgavsebaa modelsa da adamianis sasunTq sistemas Soris: modelis TiToeuli struqtura _ boTli, mili, milze mimagrebuli buSti, boTlis boloze gadaWimuli rezinis xelTaTmani/buSti _ Seusabame adamianis sasunTqi sistemis struqturebs da maT funqciebs; 2. axseni buStis moculobis cvlilebis mizezi TiToeuli SemTxvevisTvis; 3. imsjele, ra moxdeboda, Tu dairRveoda boTlis kedlis mTlianoba? ratom? 4. axseni, ramdenad dagexmara modelis Seqmna da gamoyeneba sunTqviTi moZraobebis meqanizmis gagebaSi.

1106 06


1. CamoTvale sunTqviT moZraobebSi monawile struqturebi da maTi funqciebi. 2. cxrili gadaitane rveulSi da Seavse: gulmkerdis Rrus mdgomareoba

filtvebis moculoba _ gazrdilia/ Semcirebulia

haeris wneva filtvebSi _ gazrdilia/ Semcirebulia

sunTqviTi moZraoba _ CasunTqva/amosunTqva

gulmkerdis Rru gafarToebulia gulmkerdis Rru Seviwroebulia 3. ra moxdeba, Tu dairRveva kedlis amyoli plevris mTlianoba? 4. ra gavlenas moaxdens sunTqviT moZraobebze plevris RruSi siTxis dagroveba? 5. ratom aZnelebs sunTqviT moZraobas saWmlis didi raodenobiT miReba?

filtvebis ventilacias sunTqviTi moZraobebi _ CasunTqva/amosunTqva _ ganapirobebs; sunTqviT moZraobebSi monawileobs Semdegi struqturebi: neknTaSua kunTebi, diafragma, plevris Rru; diafragmisa da neknis mdebareoba cvlis gulmkerdis moculobas da qmnis sxvaobas garemosa da filtvebSi arsebul haeris wnevas Soris. es sxvaoba ganapirobebs CasunTqva/ amosunTqvas.

1107 10 07


3.12.

sunTqviTi moZraobebis regulacia

razea damokidebuli sunTqvis sixSire? funqcia _ sunTqvis regulacia, filtvebis sasicocxlo tevadoba; janmrTeloba _ fizikuri varjiSis mniSvneloba adamianis janmrTelobisTvis; kvleva _ sunTqvis sixSiris damokidebuleba fizikur aqtivobaze.

sunTqviTi moZraobebis/sunTqvis sixSire icvleba garemosa da TviT organizmis Sinagan garemoSi momxdari cvlilebebis

Sesabamisad. sunTqvis sixSire damokidebulia adamianis fizikur da emociur mdgomareobaze, asakze, garemoSi Jangbadisa da naxSirorJangis raodenobaze da sxv. yvela SemTxvevaSi icvleba sisxlSi naxSirorJangisa da Jangbadis done, organizms ki, rogorc ukve ici, axasiaTebs Sinagani garemos Sedgenilobis garkveul doneze SenarCunebis unari _ homeostazi. qvemoT mocemul sqemaze naCvenebia, Tu sunTqvis sixSire rogor aregulirebs sisxlSi naxSirorJangis Semcvelobas.

sqema: sisxlSi naxSirorJangis donis regulacia

sunTqva gaxSirdeba da naxSirorJangi ganidevneba sisxlSi naxSirorJangis maRali done

rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, sunTqvis sixSire damokidebulia adamianis fizikur aqtivobazec. magaliTad, mSvid mdgomareobaSi wuTSi mozrdili adamiani daaxloebiT 16 sunTqviT moZraobas akeTebs, bavSvi 10 wlamde ki _ 20-25 sunTqviT moZraobas. Semdeg gverdze mocemul cxrilSi warmodgenilia, Tu rogor icvleba mozrdil adamianSi sunTqvis sixSire fizikur

sunTqvis sixSire normalur ritms ubrundeba sisxlSi naxSirorJangis normaluri done

aqtivobaze damokidebulebiT. cxrilSi mocemuli monacemebi aCvenebs, rom fizikuri datvirTvis dros izrdeba sunTqvis sixSire. rogor fiqrob, ratom? daZabuli varjiSis dros ConCxis kunTebi aqtiurad muSaoben, maT energiisTvis sWirdebaT meti Jangbadi, amitom organizmma unda uzrunvelyos Jangbadis Sesabamisi raodenobiT kunTebis momarageba.

1. ra faqtorebzea damokidebuli sunTqvis sixSire? 2. sqemis mixedviT aRwere, rogor aregulirebs organizmi naxSirorJangis dones sisxlSi? 3. gaaanalize cxrilSi (gv. 109) mocemuli monacemebi da gaakeTe daskvna, rogor aris sunTqvis sixSire damokidebuli fizikur aqtivobaze?

1108 08


fizikuri aqtivoba

sunTqviTi moZraobis raodenoba wT.-Si

mSvidi mdgomareoba

15

neli siaruli

25

15-jer Cajdoma-adgomis Semdeg

44

velosipediT seirnoba

20-40

100 m-ze sirbili

70-90

Zili

10-15

rogor muSaobs sisxlis mimoqcevisa da sunTqvis sistemebi SeTanxmebulad? sunTqvis sistema: fizikuri datvirTvis dros unda gaizardos CasunTquli da amosunTquli haeris moculoba, rac SesaZlebelia ori cvlilebiT: 1) sunTqvis sixSiris gazrdiTa da 2) Rrma CasunTqviTa da amosunTqviT. sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema: momuSave ConCxis kunTebSi unda gaZlierdes sisx-

lis moZraoba, rac miiRweva Semdegi saSualebebiT: 1) guli yovel wuTs met sisxls gadaisvris arteriebSi _ is swrafad da Zlierad ikumSeba; 2) ConCxis kunTebSi arteriolebi farTovdeba, xolo am periodSi naklebad datvirTul organoebSi (magaliTad, nawlavebSi) _ viwrovdeba.

ra gavlenas axdens regularuli fizikuri varjiSi gul-sisxlZarRvTa da sunTqvis sistemebis ganviTarebaze? fizikuri datvirTvis dros TviT gulis kunTic gaZlierebulad maragdeba JangbadiTa da sakvebi nivTierebebiT. amitom regularulma, guldasmiT dagegmilma fizikurma varjiSma SeiZleba gamoiwvios: 1) gulis kunTis ganviTareba da misi Zalis gazrda; 2) arteriebis kedeli ufro drekadi xdeba; 3) kapilaruli qselis gazrda gulis kunTSi. regularuli varjiSi xels uwyobs sasunTqi kunTebis ganviTarebasac imave

mizeziT, ra mizeziTac viTardeba gulis kunTi. amitomaa, rom kargad momzadebuli sportsmeni, fizikuri datvirTvis dros, ConCxis kunTebis moTxovnilebas ZiriTadad akmayofilebs gulis SekumSvis Zalis gazrdis xarjze, arasportsmeni ki _ gulis SekumSvaTa sixSiris gazrdis xarjze; CasunTquli da amosunTquli haeris moculobis gazrdas _ gaRrmavebuli sunTqvis xarjze, arasportsmeni ki _ ZiriTadad, sunTqvis sixSiris gazrdis xarjze.

rogor SeiZleba CasunTquli da amosunTquli haeris moculobis gazomva? filtvebidan amosunTquli haeris moculobis gazomva SeiZleba xelsawyoTi, romelsac spirometri ewodeba. mSvidi CasunTqvis dros zrdasruli axalgazrda adamiani CaisunTqavs daaxloebiT 500 ml. moculobis haers da amdenives amoisunTqavs (sasunTqi haeri). mSvidi CasunTqvis Semdeg filtvebSi kidev SeiZleba Cavides

1500 ml. haeri (damatebiTi haeri). mSvidi amosunTqvis Semdeg kidev SesaZlebelia 1500 ml. haeris amosunTqva (sarezervo haeri). Tu maqsimalurad Rrmad CavisunTqavT da Semdeg maqsimalurad Rrmad amovisunTqavT, maSin amosunTquli haeris maqsimaluri raodenoba (sasunTqi haeri + damatebiTi haeri + sarezervo haeri) qmnis

1109 10 09


filtvis sasicocxlo tevadobas. Tumca filtvebSi yvelaze Zlieri amosunTqvis Semdeg mainc mudmivad rCeba kidev 1100 ml.

haeri (narCeni haeri). filtvebis saerTo moculoba = sasunTqi haeri + damatebiTi haeri + sarezervo haeri + narCeni haeri.

fizikuri varjiSis gavlena sunTqvis sixSireze Seasrule saxlSi SeniSvna: sanam am varjiSSi Caebmebi, gaiare konsultacia skolis eqimTan da mSoblebTan. sakvlevi kiTxva: ra gavlenas axdens fizikuri varjiSi sunTqvis sixSireze? procedura: 1. monacemebis cxrili gadaitane rveulSi; 2. skamze mSvidad mjdomarem daiTvale CasunTqvis sixSire 1 wuTis ganmavlobaSi. monacemi CainiSne; 3. gadi quCaSi da 2 wuTis ganmavlobaSi irbine; 4. sirbilis dasrulebisTanave dajeqi da saswrafod daiTvale CasunTqvis sixSire 1 wuTis ganmavlobaSi; 5. kvlav mjdomarem gaagrZele daTvla yovel wuTSi 5 wuTis ganmavlobaSi; 6. Sedegebi daafiqsire qvemoT mocemuli cxrilis nimuSSi. sunTqvis sixSire wuTSi dro (wT) testi 1

testi 2

sunTqvis sixSiris saSualo sidide

0 (mSvidi mdgomareoba) 1 (uSualod varjiSis Semdeg) 2 3 6. 1-5 nabiji gaimeore kidev erTxel, rom miiRo monacemebis meore nakrebi da gamoTvalo sunTqvis sixSiris saSualo sidide. analizi da daskvna: 1. aage grafiki, romelic asaxavs sunTqvis saSualo sixSires wuTSi droze damokidebulebiT. 2. rogor icvleba Seni sunTqvis sixSire? 3. fizikurma datvirTvam ra gavlena moaxdina sunTqvis sixSireze? 4. ra dro dagWirda fizikuri varjiSis Semdeg, rom Seni sunTqvis sixSire svenebis maCvenebels dabruneboda? 5. ratom Seicvala sunTqvis sixSire fizikuri datvirTvis Sedegad? kiTxvebi: 1. Seni Sedegebi Seadare sxva moswavleebis Sedegebs. ra aris gansxvavebis mizezi? 2. aris Tu ara kavSiri Seni pulsis sixSiresa da sunTqvis sixSires Soris? Tu aris, riT axsni am faqts? 3. vambobT, rom `fizikuri varjiSi sasargebloa organizmisTvis~. axseni: 1) ratom aris sasargeblo sunTqvis organoTa sistemisTvis? 2) ratom aris sasargeblo mTlianad organizmisTvis?

4. ratom izrdeba pulsisa da sunTqvis sixSire fizikuri datvirTvis dros? 5. ratom uwyobs xels regularuli fizikuri varjiSi gul-sisxlZarRvTa da sunTqvis sistemebis ganviTarebas? 6. romeli adamianis sasicocxlo tevadoba iqneba ufro meti _ sportsmenis Tu arasportsmenis? ratom?

110 110


kvlevis analizi or students surda aexsna, rogor sunTqaven mwerebi: isini iTvlidnen kaliis sunTqviT moZraobebs sxvadasxva situaciaSi suraTze mocemuli aparatis daxmarebiT. kaliis sxeuls garedan etyoba (muceli odnav ibereba), rodesac is haers traqeebSi CaisunTqavs. studentebma 5-jer gaimeores eqsperimenti, gamoTvales monacemebis saSualo sidide. maTi eqsperimentis monacemebi warmodgenilia cxrilSi: kaliis garSemo arsebuli haeri

sunTqviTi moZraobebis raodenoba wuTSi

normaluri haeri

16

mSrali haeri

3

studentebis mier amosunTquli haeri

37

kalia kameraSi

kameraSi Sesuli haeri

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

kameridan gamosuli haeri

cxrilSi warmodgenili monacemebis mixedviT aage svetovani diagrama; studentebma monacemebis misaRebad ratom gaimeores eqsperimenti 5-jer? ra aris am eqsperimentSi damoukidebeli da ra damokidebuli cvladi? romeli faqtorebi unda gaiTvaliswinon studentebma, rogorc kontrolirebadi faqtorebi? axseni miRebuli Sedegebis mizezi.

fizikuri varjiSis dros kunTebis gaZlierebul moTxovnas Jangbadsa da sakveb nivTierebebze sisxlis mimoqcevisa da sunTqvis sistemebi erToblivi muSaobiT akmayofileben; regularuli fizikuri varjiSi xels uwyobs gul-sisxlZarRvTa da sunTqvis organoTa sistemebis ganviTarebas. uecarma da daugegmavma varjiSma SeiZleba gadatvirTvos guli, ramac SeiZleba gamoiwvios mkerdis areSi tkivili. gansakuTrebuli riskis qveS arian: asakovani adamianebi, gulis daavadebis mqoneni da isini, vinc regularulad ar arian dakavebuli sportiT.

111 111


3.13.

sasunTqi organoebis daavadebebi

ra iwvevs sasunTqi organoebis daavadebebs? janmrTeloba da daavaadeba: bronqiti, asTma, pnevmonia, laringiti, filtvis kibo, difteria.

CasunTqvis dros, JangbadTan erTad, sunTqvis organoebSi xvdeba mavne airebi, mtvris nawilakebi da mikroorganizmebi. rogorc ukve ici, sasunTqi gzebis wamwamovani epiTeluri qsovili mikroorganizmebsa da mtvers akavebs da lorwosTan erTad gareT gamodevnis (gv. 103). am dros mikrodaavadeba

organizmTa umravlesoba uvnebeli xdeba, magram zogierTma SeiZleba sunTqvis organoebSi SeaRwios da gamoiwvios sxvadasxva daavadeba: gripi, tuberkulozi, angina, filtvebis anTeba da sxv. me-7 klasSi zogierT daavadebas (mag., gripi, tuberkulozi), maT gamomwvev mizezebs, simptomebsa da prevenciul RonisZiebebs ukve gaecani, sasunTqi organoebis zogierTi sxva daavadeba ki qvemoT mocemul cxrilSia warmodgenili.

gamomwvevi mizezi

simptomebi

bronqiti

bronqebis anTeba - bronqiti maSin viTardeba, rodesac baqteriuli da virusuli infeqciis gamo bronqebi gaRizianebuli da anTebiTi xdeba, es procesebi haergamtar gzebSi lorwos gamoyofas aZlierebs. moweva qronikuli bronqitis gamomwvevi yvelaze gavrcelebuli mizezia.

organizmi Warbi raodenobis lorwos gamodevnas cdilobs xvelebis saSualebiT. Tu xvela 3 Tveze met xans grZeldeba, mas qronikuli bronqiti ewodeba.

asTma

asTma SeiZleba sxvadasxva mizezma gamoiwvios, magram yvelaze xSirad igi gamowveulia dabinZurebul garemoze, mtverze, cxovelebis bewvze, kvamlze, qimiur nivTierebebze, baqteriebsa da sxva gamRizianeblebze alergiiT.

asTmis dros haergamtari gzebis ZiriTadi nawili anTebadia da xdeba maTi xangrZlivi spazmi. sasunTqi gzebis Seviwroebas, agreTve, xels uwyobs bronqebis mier gamoyofili lorwo. es sunTqvas aZnelebs da iwvevs qoSins.

filtvebis anTeba _ pnevmonia

filtvebis anTebas anu pnevmonias iwvevs baqteriebiT an virusebiT dainficireba.

pnevmonias Tan axlavs sxeulis maRali temperatura, rac Zalian saSiSia sicocxlisaTvis da saWiroa medikamenturi mkurnaloba.

filtvis kibo

filtvis kibo aris erT an orive filtvSi anomaluri ujredebis ukontrolo zrda. es anomaluri ujredebi swrafad iyofian da simsivnes warmoqmnian (sur. gv. 113). filtvis kibos iwvevs samuSao an sacxovrebeli garemos dabinZureba, Tambaqos moxmareba. iwvevs difteriis gamomwvevi baqteria. igi gadaecema haer-wveTovani gziT, aseve, piradi Tu sayofacxovrebo moxmarebis saerTo nivTebis gamoyenebiT. zogjer baqterias Seicavs rZe da rZis produqtebi, rac iwvevs difteriis farTod gavrcelebas.

filtvis qsovilebis gadagvarebis gamo filtvi veRar muSaobs saWiroebisamebr. kibom SeiZleba gamoavlinos iseTi simptomebi, rogoricaa bronqiti an alergia, gamudmebiTi xvela, advilad gaciveba.

difteria

112 112

daavadebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia Semdegi saxis simptomebi: lorwovan-Cirqovani gamonadeni cxviridan, Zlieri yelis tkivili (gansakuTrebiT ylapvis dros), xorxis SeSupeba, Tavis Zlieri tkivili, Rebineba.


sasunTqi organoebis zemoT aRwerili yvela daavadeba aferxebs sasunTqi sistemis saTanado doniT funqcionirebas. sunTqvis Seferxeba, da zogjer SeCerebac ki, SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos sasunTqi gzebis daxSobiT. sasunTqi gzebis lorwovani SeSupebis garda, sunTqvis SeCereba SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos sasunTq gzebSi wylis an raime ucxo sxeulis moxvedriT, eleqtrodenis dartymiT, travmuli SokiT da a.S.

sunTqviTi moZraobis Seferexebis dros (rac sxvadasxva mizeziT SeiZleba moxdes) saWiroa xelovnuri sunTqvis Catareba. zogjer, am mizniT, iyeneben xelovnuri sunTqvis aparats da adamiani gadahyavT marTviT sunTqvaze. filtvebis xelovnuri ventilaciis Sesaxeb azri pirvelad gauCnda antikuri saberZneTis erT-erT cnobil eqims, galens. is werda: „Tu mkvdari cxovelis sasuleSi CadgamT lerwmis Reros da masSi mTeli ZaliT CaberavT haers, naxavT, rogor Seivseba bronqebi haeriT da rogor gaibereba filtvi maqsimalurad“. amis Semdeg vezaliusma aRwera cxovelis filtvebis ventilaciis SesaZlebloba traqeaSi Cadgmuli lerwmis Reros daxmarebiT. XVIII saukunis samocdaaTiani wlebidan gamoCnda ingliseli da holandieli eqimebis Sromebi, romlebSic aRwerilia SemTxvevebi, Tu rogor gadarCnen wylidan amoyvanili adamianebi xelovnuri sunTqvis daxmarebiT. ukve 1858 wlidan xelovnuri sunTqvis mizniT xSirad gamoiyeneboda eqim silvesteris mier SemoTavazebuli meTodi: dazianebuli adamiani wevs zurgze, orive xels ganvzidavT da gadavitanT Tavs zemoT; am dros izrdeba gulmkerdis Rrus moculoba da xdeba CasunTqva. amis Semdeg xelebs gadmovitanT da maqsimalurad mivawvebiT gulmkerdze; am dros gulmkerdis moculoba Zalian mcirdeba da xdeba amosunTqva. silvesteris am meTodma TiTqmis mTeli saukune iarseba da mraval adamians SeunarCuna sicocxle.

1. sunTqvis organoebis problemebis mqone adamians ratom urCeven, rom saxlSi darCes garemos mtvriT an sxva faqtoriT Zlieri dabinZurebis dros? 2. ratom aris sasurveli Senobebis xSiri ganiaveba? 3. sasunTqi gzebis daavadebis mizezi yvelaze xSirad aris higienuri wesebis daucveloba. jgufTan erTad Camoayalibe ramdenime higienuri wesi, axseni misi dacvis mniSvneloba da warmoadgine qvemoT mocemuli cxrilis saxiT: higienuri wesi

misi dacvis mniSvneloba

4. xelovnuri sunTqvis aparati wneviT tumbavs haers adamianis filtvebSi, Semdeg aparatSi wneva mcirdeba da filtvebidan haeri amodis. axseni, rogor Seesabameba am aparatis muSaoba bunebriv sunTqvas?

ssasunTqi organoebis daavadeba SeiZleba gamoiwvios mikroorganizmebma, garemos dabinZurebam, Tambaqos moxmarebam; sasunTqi organoebis daavadebisgan dacvis yvelaze kargi saSualebaa higienuri wesebis dacva da mikroorganizmebisgan dacvis mizniT vaqcinacia.

113 113


Tema

3-2-is Sejameba

Temis mimoxilva mTavari ideebi • sunTqva aris fiziologiuri procesebis erToblioba, romelic moicavs: 1. airTa cvlas organizmsa da garemos Soris; 2. airTa cvlas sisxlsa da qsovilebs Soris; 3. ujredul sunTqvas: organuli nivTierebebis daJangva, romlis drosac gamoiyofa naxSirorJangi, wyali da energia; • sunTqva organizms uzrunvelyofs energiiT; • sunTqvis organoTa sistema Sedgeba haergamtari gzebisa da filtvebisgan; • adamianis filtvebi akmayofilebs idealuri sasunTqi zedapiris* moTxovnebs: alveolebi zrdian sasunTqi zedapiris farTobs, alveolebis Sida zedapiri aris notio da airebi gaxsnili saxiT difundireben, alveolebisa da sisxlis kapilarebis kedeli Txelia, rac aadvilebs airebis difuzias; • haeri aris airTa narevi, romelTaganac sunTqvaSi monawileobs Jangbadi da naxSirorJangi; • alveolebSi haeris mudmiv ganaxlebas uzrunvelyofs sunTqviTi moZraobebi _ CasunTqva da amosunTqva; • sunTqviTi moZraobebis _ sunTqvis sixSire damokidebulia garemoSi airTa Semadgenlobaze, organizmis fizikur aqtivobaze, emociasa da Sinagan garemoSi mimdinare cvlilebebze; • organizmis Sinagani garemos homeostazis SenarCunebaSi erToblivad monawileoben sisxlis mimoqcevisa da sunTqvis sistemebi; • fizikuri varjiSi xels uwyobs sisxlis mimoqcevisa da sunTqvis sistemebis ganviTarebas.

davalebebi TviTSefasebisTvis testuri davalebebi (pasuxebi CainiSne rveulSi) 1. daadgineT swori Tanmimdevroba _ cxviris Rrudan filtvebamde haeri gadis Semdeg gzas: a. cxviris Rru _ xaxa _ xorxi _ traqea _ bronqebi _ filtvebi; b. cxviris Rru _ xaxa _ xorxi _ bronqebi _ traqea _ filtvebi; g. cxviris Rru _ xorxi _ xaxa _ traqea _ bronqebi _ filtvebi; d. cxviris Rru _ xorxi _ xaxa _ bronqebi _ traqea _ filtvebi. 2. rogoria airTa done amosunTqul haerSi CasunTqul haerTan SedarebiT? a. naklebi Jangbadi, meti naxSirorJangi; b. naklebi Jangbadi, naklebi naxSirorJangi; g. meti Jangbadi, meti naxSirorJangi; d. meti Jangbadi, naklebi naxSirorJangi. 3. piriT sunTqva janmrTelobisaTvis sazianod iTvleba, radgan piris RruSi SesunTquli haeri: a. ar sufTavdeba mtvris nawilakebisgan, ar Tbeba da ar notivdeba;

114


b. ar sufTavdeba mikrobebisa da mtvris nawilakebisgan, ar Tbeba da ar notivdeba; g. ar sufTavdeba mikrobebis, mtvris nawilakebisgan da ar Tbeba; d. srulyofili moculobiT ar xvdeba filtvebSi. 4. ipoveT mcdari debuleba _ adamianis: a. filtvebi gulmkerdis RruSi arsebuli bronqebis ganStoebebia; b. filtvebi uwvrilesi bronqebis daboloebebze arsebuli Txelkedliani buStukebis Rrublisebri masaa; g. filtvis buStukebis kedeli erTSriani epiTeliumisgan Sedgeba; d. filtvebi dafarulia filtvis plevriT. 5. adamianis sunTqvis sixSire izrdeba sisxlSi: a. Jangbadis donis gazrdisas; b. naxSirorJangis donis gazrdisas; g. azotis donis Semcirebisas; d. naxSirorJangis donis Semcirebisas. 6. mSvidi sunTqvis dros CamoTvlilTagan gulmkerdis Rrus moculobis cvlilebaSi monawileobs: 1) diafragma; 2) neknTaSua kunTebi; 3) zurgis kunTebi. pasuxi: a. mxolod 1;

b. mxolod 2;

g. 1 da 2;

d. 1, 2 da 3.

7. CasunTqvis dros ikumSeba da brtyeldeba: a. bronqiolebi; b. diafragma; g. alveolebi; d. filtvebi. 8. haeri pirvelad teniandeba, ifiltreba da Tbeba a. xorxSi; b. bronqSi; g. cxviris RruSi; d. traqeaSi. 9. airTa cvla mimdinareobs

-sa da kapilarebs Soris:

a. alveolebi b. bronqebi g. bronqiolebi d. arcerTSi. davalebebi kritikuli da SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebisTvis 1. rogor fiqrob, ra cvlileba moxdeba sunTqvis procesSi, Tu Rru venaSi Seereva marcxena parkuWidan gamomavali sisxli? 2. ZilTan SedarebiT, ratom izrdeba gulis SekumSvaTa da sunTqvis sixSire gaRviZebis Semdeg? 3. TiTqmis yovel zamTars mediasaSualebebidan vigebT TavianT saxlebSi naxSirJangiT _ mxuTavi airiT gaguduli adamianebis Sesaxeb. igi Jonavs arasworad damontaJebuli gamaTbobelidan bunebrivi airis arasruli wvis Sedegad. axseni, ratom aris sicocxlisaTvis saSiSi misi didi raodenobiT CasunTqva? 4. Tu adamians mkerdze daawva didi tvirTi, mokle xanSi sunTqva gauWirdeba, miuxedavad imisa, rom misi pirisa da cxviris Rru daxSuli ar aris. axseni, ratom? 5. Tu amoisunTqav civi sagnis zedapirze, masze gaCndeba wylis orTqli. gaakeTe daskvna _ ratom moxdeba ase?

115


6. rodesac organizmis qsovilebs ar miewodeba sakmarisi raodenobis Jangbadi, anu hipoqsiis dros adamianis organizmSi ori mniSvnelovani cvlileba xdeba: 1) Zvlis wiTel tvinSi meti eriTrocitebi warmoiqmneba, 2) xSirdeba sunTqviTi moZraobebi. daakavSire mizezi da Sedegi erTmaneTTan: axseni, ratom xdeba es cvlilebebi? 7. haeri, romelsac iReben marTvad sunTqvaze (miliT haeri pirdapir Cadis traqeaSi) myofi pacientebi, unda iyos gafiltruli da teniani. gamoiyene Seni codna da axseni, ratom? 8. xalxiT savse oTaxSi adamianebze dakvirveba aCvenebs, rom maTi sunTqvis sixSire gazrdilia. axseni, ratom? monacemebis gansja (analizi da daskvna) 1. or moswavles sTxoves monawileoba mieRo fizikuri varjiSis sunTqvaze gavlenis Sesaxeb kvlevaSi. yoveli naxevari wuTis ganmavlobaSi iTvlidnen maT CasunTqvis ricxvs sxvadasxva fizikur mdgomareobaSi. miRebuli monacemebi mocemulia cxrilSi. CasunTqvis ricxvi yovel naxevar wuTSi dro (wT.-ebSi)

aqtivoba

0.0 0.5

mjdomare mdgomareoba 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 fizikuri varjiSi 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 fizikuri varjiSis Semdeg 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5

moswavle a. b. 7 7 7 7 28 30 30 30 26 24 22 18 15 12 10 8 8 7

moswavle q. C. 8 8 8 8 25

26 26 26 24 17 13 10 10 9 8 8 8 8

1) aage grafiki, romelic uCvenebs sunTqvis sixSiris cvlilebas kvlevis procesSi. kvlevaSi monawile orive pirisaTvis grafiki erT RerZze warmoadgine. 2) rogor fiqrob, romeli moswavlea fizikurad ufro ukeTesad momzadebuli? axseni Seni pasuxi. 3) ivaraude, sunTqvis paralelurad, rogor Seicvleba cdispirebSi gulis muSaoba? axseni Seni pasuxi.

116


2. suraTze warmodgenili diagramebidan (I da II) romeli asaxavs CasunTquli da romeli amosunTquli haeris Semadgenlobas. pasuxi daasabuTe. airebis done % 25

Jangbadis done

20

naxSirorJangis done

15 10 5 0

I

II

3. diagramaze mocemulia sportsmenisa da fizikurad gauvarjiSebeli adamianis (arasportsmenis) sunTqvis sixSiris cvlileba 10-wuTiani intervalebiT fizikuri datvirTvis dros. gaaanalize diagramaze mocemuli monacemebi da gansazRvre, romeli grafiki asaxavs arasportsmenis sunTqvis sixSiris cvlilebas da romeli _ sportsmenis.

sunTqvis sixSire 1 wuTSi 35 30 A

25 20

B

15 10 5 0

10

20

30

40

dro (wT)

vizualuri masalis gansja 1. suraTze amoicani cifrebiT aRniSnuli organoebi da maTi struqturebi. aRwere TiToeulis funqcia.

2. adamianis organizmSi mimdinare ra procesebs asaxavs mocemuli suraTebi I da II? Seni pasuxi daasabuTe.

I.

1 8 7 6

2 3 4 5

II.

117


terminebsa da cnebebs Soris kavSiris dadgena terminebs Soris damokidebuleba 1. qvemoT mocemuli terminebidan romel sams aqvs erTmaneTTan kavSiri da romeli ar aris am samTan dakavSirebuli? 1) naxSirorJangi, Jangbadi, azoti, wylis orTqli; 2) cxviris Rru, saylapavi, traqea, xorxi; 3) xrtilovani rgolebi, alveolebi, airTa cvla, Txeli elastikuri garsi; 4) filtracia, datenianeba, daJangva, gaTboba. 2. qvemoT mocemuli wyvili terminebis gamoyenebiT Seadgine winadadeba, romelic azrobrivad daakavSirebs am terminebs. magaliTad, arteriuli sisxli JangbadiTaa mdidari, xolo venuri _ naxSirorJangiT. 1) Jangbadi, naxSirorJangi 2) traqea, bronqebi 3) CasunTqva, amosunTqva 4) alveolis haeri, kapilaruli sisxli sakvanZo samecniero terminebis gamoyeneba 1. waikiTxe teqsti da gamotovebul adgilze Casvi Sesabamisi sityvebi: 1. kapilarebi, 2. filtvis venebi, 3. Jangbadi, 4. alveoli, 5. filtvis arteriebi, 6. naxSirorJangi, 7. arteriuli sisxli. venuri sisxli filtvebSi Sedis . yoveli arteria itoteba uwvriles , romelic garss ekvris filtvis . maTi kedlebi kargadaa Seguebuli airTa cvlas: airi sisxlidan gadadis alveolebSi, xolo airi alveolidan gadadis sisxlSi. filtvebidan sisxli Cadis marcxena winagulSi. sworia Tu mcdari? gansazRvre yoveli mtkicebuleba sworia Tu mcdari. Tu sworia, miawere `sworia~, Tu mcdaria, Secvale saWiroebisamebr gaxazuli sityvebi, rom mtkicebuleba swori iyos! 1) saylapavi milis win mdebareobs bronqi. 2) sisxlis cila, romelic Jangbads ikavSirebs, aris Trombini. 3) didi kunTovani organo, romelic neknTaSua kunTebTan erTad aregulirebs sunTqviT moZraobebs, aris zurgis uganieresi kunTi. 4) gulmkerdis Rrus gafarToebis dros filtvebSi haeris wneva izrdeba da xdeba amosunTqva. 5) ujredebSi organuli nivTierebebis daJangvaSi monawileobs naxSirorJangi, am dros energia STainTqmeba.

118


saWmlis momnelebeli sistema

adamianTa umravlesoba, albaT, eTanxmeba im mosazrebas, rom kveba siamovnebis momgvrelia. marTlac, ra Seedreba imas, Tu zafxulis cxel dRes dalev yinulian forToxlis an alublis wvens, anda miirTmev sagangebod damzadebul kerZebs. magram Tu Tvli, rom kveba sasiamovno `saqmianobaa~, es imas ar niSnavs, rom mas araseriozulad unda miudge. SenTvis albaT araerTxel uTqvamT, rom swori da jansaRi kveba aucilebelia Seni janmrTelobisTvis. magram ra aris swori kveba? ra mniSvneloba aqvs kvebas organizmisTvis? ra cvlilebas ganicdis sakvebi organizmSi moxvedris Semdeg? ra kavSiria satransporto da saWmlis momnelebel sistemebs Soris? am da sxva kiTxvebs rom upasuxo, unda icode, ra aris sakvebi produqtebi da ra _ sakvebi nivTierebebi, Seni organizmi rogor moinelebs da SeiTvisebs sakvebs saWmlis monelebis procesSi. am sakiTxebs gaecnobi mocemuli Temis Seswavlis dros.

119 119


3.14.

sakvebi nivTierebebi da sakvebi produqtebi

ra mniSvneloba aqvs kvebas organizmisTvis? sasicocxlo Tviseba _ kveba. funqcia _ sakvebi nivTierebebis samSeneblo da energetikuli funqciebi; janmrTeloba da daavadeba _ avitaminozi, sufris marilis Warbi moxmarebiT gamowveuli arteriuli hipertenzia.

• kvebis ra tipebia SenTvis cnobili? • daasaxele heterotrofuli kvebis saxeebi da moiyvane Sesabamisi magaliTebi.

yvela cocxali organizmisTvis damaxasiaTebelia kveba. ukve ici, rom kvebis xa-

siaTis mixedviT organizmebi or jgufad iyofa _ avtotrofebad da heterotrofebad. avtotrofebi organul nivTierebebs TviTon qmnian araorganuli nivTierebebisgan, xolo heterotrofebi mza organul nivTierebebs iReben garemodan (sur. 61). yvelaferi, rasac Cven vWamT da vsvamT, Cvens sakvebs warmoadgens. sakvebi Seicavs organul da araorganul sakveb nivTierebebs. organuli sakvebi nivTierebebia: cilebi, cximebi, naxSirwylebi, vitaminebi; wyali da mineraluri marilebi ki araorganuli sakvebi nivTierebebia.

yvela cocxali organizmisTvis sakvebs qmnis mcenare sur. 61

sakvebi nivTierebebi organizmSi asruleben samSeneblo da energetikul funqcias, rac SemdegSi gamoixateba: • sakvebi nivTierebebi aris saSeni masala organizmis zrdisa da dazianebuli ujredebisa da qsovilebis aRdgenisTvis; • ujreduli sunTqvis dros sakvebi organuli nivTierebebi iJangeba da gamoTa-

visuflebuli energia xmardeba fizikur Tu gonebriv muSaobas, sxeulis temperaturis SenarCunebas da sxva sasicocxlo procesebis warmarTvas. adamiani sakveb nivTierebebs, ZiriTadad, iRebs mcenareuli da/an cxoveluri sakvebi produqtebis saxiT.

1. daasaxele mizezebi, ris gamoc organizms ar SeuZlia arseboba kvebis gareSe. 2. ra gansxvavebaa mcenareebisa da cxovelebis kvebis tips Soris? 3. ra gziT iRebs Zroxa mza organul nivTierebebs? kvebis tipis mixedviT organizmTa romel jgufs miakuTvneb? 4. adamians, kvebis tipis mixedviT, romel jgufs miakuTvneb? ratom? 5. gaecani cxrilSi (gv. 121) mocemul informacias da imsjele TiToeuli sakvebi nivTierebis mniSvnelobaze. 6. ra saxis darRvevebs gamoiwvevs organizmSi sakvebSi cilebis nakleboba? naxSirwylebis nakleboba? 7. romeli mineraluri nivTierebis naklebobam SeiZleba gamoiwvios anemia? ratom?

1120 20


ra mniSvneloba aqvs TiToeul sakveb nivTierebas organizmisTvis? TiToeuli tipis sakveb nivTierebas garkveuli mniSvneloba aqvs organizm-

Si, ris Sesaxebac informacia mocemulia cxrilSi.

sakvebi nivTiereba cila

wyaro/sakvebi produqti xorci, kvercxi, rZis produqti, lobio, barda, soio.

naxSirwyali

kartofili, energetikuli (glukoza ujredSi iJangeba da energia xili, bostneugamoTavisufldeba). li, marcvleuli.

cximi

zeTi, karaqi, energetikuli (cximi iJangeba da energia gamoTavisuflyveli, margarini. deba), samarago (warmoiqmneba muclis RruSi badeqoni da kanqveSa cximovani Sre), Tboregulacia (cximi siTbos cudi gamtaria), damcvelobiTi (icavs Sinagan organoebs).

wyali

xili, bostneuli, satransporto (sakvebi nivTierebebisa da cvlis promtknari sasmeli duqtebis transporti), xels uwyobs saWmlis monelebasa wyali. da gamoyofas, Tboregulacia.

mineralebi: 1. rkina 2. kalciumi 3. natriumi 4. qlori 5. fTori

xili, bostneuli, xorci, rZe da rZis produqtebi.

mniSvneloba/funqcia organizmisTvis samSeneblo (Sedis ujreduli membranebis, myesebisa da iogebis SemadgenlobaSi), mamoZravebeli (kunTebSi aris kumSvadi cilovani boWkoebi), damcvelobiTi (antisxeulebi da sisxlis SededebaSi monawile cilebi), satransporto (hemoglobini), fermentuli (zogierTi cila aregulirebs ujredSi mimdinare qimiur procesebs).

xels uwyobs organizmis jansaR ganviTarebasa da Camoyalibebas, kerZod: 1. Sedis hemoglobinis SemadgenlobaSi; 2. Zvlebis simtkices ganapirobebs; 3. aregulirebs sisxlis wnevas, kunTebis muSaobas; 4. kuWis wvenis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis; 5. Sedis kbilis emalis SemadgenlobaSi da amagrebs mas.

sakvebSi vamatebT sufris marils, romelic natriumsa da qlors Seicavs. Zvelad marili imdenad fasobda, rom misi gulisTvis omebic ki xdeboda. safrangeTis didi revoluciis gamomwvevi erT-erTi mizezi lui XVI-is mier sufris marilze dawesebuli maRali gadasaxadi iyo. marili fulis magivrobasac swevda. mavritaneli vaWrebi marils oqroze cvlidnen da erT gram marilSi erT gram oqros iTxovdnen. dRes sufris marilis Warbi moxmareba globaluri problemaa, msoflios mosaxleobis 75% dozaze orjer met sufris marils moixmars. Warbi marilis miReba arteriuli hipertenziis erT-erTi mizezia, radgan igi sisxlis plazmaSi akavebs wyals da izrdeba sisxlis moculoba. eqimebis rekomendaciaa _ SevzRudoT sufris marilis Warbi moxmareba.

sakveb nivTierebebs Soris aucileblad unda Sediodes vitaminebi. maTi dRiuri norma Zalian mcirea, magram Tu organizmma ver miiRo sakmarisi raodenobiT, viTardeba avitaminozi: organizmSi mniSvnelovnad irRveva nivTierebaTa cvlis

procesebi, rac sxvadasxva daavadebis saxiT vlindeba. aseve, arc vitaminebis Warbad miRebaa sasurveli, radgan seriozul darRvevebs iwvevs adamianis organizmSi. dawvrilebiTi informacia vitaminebis Sesaxeb mocemulia cxrilSi (gv. 122).

121 121


B1

naxSirwylebis cvla, nervuli sistemis regulacia

vitaminebis Semcvleli sakvebi produqtebi Tevzis qoni, karaqi, rZe, kvercxis guli, RviZli, Tevzis xizilala, stafilo, ispanaxi, gargari, pomidori qerqgaucleli brinji da sxva marcvleuli, parkosani mcenareebi, wiwibura

B2

mxedveloba, lorwovani garsebi

marcvleuli, RviZli, xorci, rZe, kvercxi

mxedvelobis darRveva, piris Rrus lorwovani garsis dazianeba

C

aZlierebs imunitets, gavlenas axdens Zvlebsa da sisxlis Semadgenlobaze

askili, Savi mocxari, kombosto, limoni, forToxali, kivi, mwvane xaxvi, niori

imunitetis daqveiTeba, daavadeba suravandi _ RrZilebidan sisxldena, kbilebis cvena, Zvlebi myife xdeba, saxsrebis tkivili

aZlierebs nawlavebidan kalciumis Sewovas

Tevzis qoni, RviZ- ZvlebSi kalcili, kvercxis guli, umis marilebis karaqi da sxva Semcireba, bavSvebSi raqiti _ ConCxis araswori ganviTareba

vitamini mniSvneloba

A

D

mxedveloba, zrda da kanis ganaxleba

nakleboba iwvevs irRveva bavSvis zrda-ganviTareba, irRveva kbilebis, Tmis Camoyalibeba, mxedveloba nervuli sistemis moqmedebis darRveva, kunTebis krunCxva, dambla

yoveldRiuri norma (mg)

1,1 _ 1,6

0,4 _ 1,8

Tvisebebi sinaTleze mgrZnobiarea, ixsneba cximSi

gacxelebisadmi mdgradia, ixsneba wyalSi

ixsneba wyalSi 1,6 _ 2,6

iSleba gacxelebiT, ixsneba wyalSi 75

0,01

sinaTlisadmi mgrZnobiare, mdgradia gacxelebisadmi, ixsneba cximebSi

Catarebuli kvlevis analizi 1881 wels eqimma luninma Caatara cdebi Tagvebis or jgufze. Tagvebis erT jgufs naturaluri rZiT kvebavda, xolo meores _ cilebiT, cximebiT, naxSirwylebiT, mineraluri marilebiTa da wyliT imave proporciiT, romelic naturalur rZeSi iyo. meore jgufis Tagvebi male daixocnen. Seni azriT, ra nivTierebebs ver iRebdnen meore jgufis Tagvebi?

8. ra aris avitaminozi? 9. cxrilis mixedviT (gv. 122) gaarkvie: 1) romeli vitamini sWirdeba organizms yvelaze meti raodenobiT? 2) romeli vitaminis nakleboba iwvevs _ a) zrdis SeCerebas, b) nervuli sistemis moqmedebis darRvevas, g) imunitetis daqveiTebas, d) raqits?

sicocxlisaTvis s aucilebelia garemodan sakvebis miReba; sakvebi nivTierebebi organizmSi asrulebs samSeneblo da energetikul funqciebs; sakvebi nivTierebebis nakleboba iwvevs organizmis normaluri funqcionirebis darRvevas.

1122 22


3.15.

sakvebi produqtebis kvebiTi Rirebuleba

rogor SeiZleba sakveb produqtebSi sakvebi nivTierebebis aRmoCena da maTi kvebiTi Rirebulebis gansazRvra? kvleva _ sakveb produqtebSi sakvebi nivTierebebis aRmoCena, sakvebi produqtis kvebiTi Rirebulebis gansazRvra.

sakveb produqtebSi sakvebi nivTierebebi sxvadasxva raodenobiTaa da Sesabamisad, arCeven cilovan, cximovan da naxSirwylovan sakvebs. sxvadasxva sakveb sakvebi produqtebi

produqts gansxvavebuli kvebiTi, maT Soris, energetikuli Rirebuleba aqvs (ix. cxrili). energias zomaven sxvadasxva erTeulebSi. sakveb produqtebSi energiis sazom erTeulad, ZiriTadad, kalorias iyeneben. kaloria* aris siTbos is raodenoba, romelic saWiroa 1 grami wylis 1°C-mde gasaTbobad. 1 kkal = 1000 kal.

100 gram sakveb produqtSi sakvebi nivTierebis raodenoba (g)

energetikuli Rirebuleba (kkal)

cilebi

cximebi

naxSirwylebi

Wvavis puri

5,4

0,6

39,3

230

xorblis puri

5,7

0,4

56

250

brinji

6,5

1,8

77,7

360

kartofili

1,3

0,1

18,5

80

stafilo

0,7

0,2

7,4

25

axali kombosto

1,1

0,1

4,1

15

axali pomidori

0,7

0,2

3

15

axali kitri

0,7

0,1

1,8

12

axali vaSli

0,2

10,9

45

saSualo cximianobis saqonlis xorci

19,0

8,0

200

lori

14,5

37,3

450

axali Tevzi

8,6

1,2

100

yveli

24,9

29,9

2,3

400

Zroxis rZe

3,1

3,4

4,9

65

naRebis karaqi

0,5

79,3

0,4

700

1. mocemuli informaciis safuZvelze: 1) SearCie 2-3 sakvebi produqti da Seadgine svetovani diagrama, romelic asaxavs TiToeul 100 g sakveb produqtSi cilebis, cximebisa da naxSirwylebis Semcvelobas. 2) qvemoT mocemuli cxrili gadaitane rveulSi da daajgufe sakvebi produqtebi cilovan, cximovan da naxSirwylovan sakveb produqtebad.

cilovani

sakvebi produqti cximovani

naxSirwylovani

3) romel sakveb nivTierebas aqvs yvelaze meti energetikuli Rirebuleba?

1123 12 23


sakvebi nivTierebebis aRmoCena sakveb produqtebSi kvleva 1. sakvlevi kiTxva: rogor aRmovaCinoT sakveb produqtSi saxamebeli? saWiro masala: pipeti, iodis spirtxsnari, kartofili, banani, brinji, TeTri puri, moxarSuli kvercxi, lori da Saqari. procedura: yvela sakveb produqts pipetiT daawveTe iodis xsnari; daakvirdi, romeli sakvebi produqtis Seferiloba Seicvala da rogor (Segaxseneb, rom saxamebeli iodis Tanaobisas lurj fers iRebs; analizi da daskvna: romelma sakvebma produqtma miiRo lurji Seferiloba? gamoitane Sesabamisi daskvna, romeli sakvebi produqti Seicavs saxamebels? kvleva 2. sakvlevi kiTxva: rogor aRmovaCinoT sakveb produqtSi cximi? saWiro masala: filtris qaRaldebi, pipeti, fanqari, wyali, zeTi, rZe, karaqi, cximiani lori, Tafli da nigozi. procedura: aiRe filtris ori qaRaldi da fanqriT gaavle perpendikularuli da horzontaluri xazi ise, rom oTx Tanabar ujrad daiyos; Sens xelT arsebuli masala daitane qaRaldze: Txieri pipetiT daawveTe (erTi wveTi), myari ki gausvi qaRaldis zedapirs; 10 wuTis Semdeg aiRe filtris qaRaldi da gaxede sinaTleze. analizi da daskvna: romelma sakvebma produqtma datova laqa filtris qaRaldze? gamoitane Sesabamisi daskvna, romeli sakvebi produqti Seicavs cxims?

rogor angariSoben sakvebis energetikul Rirebulebas? mecnierebma gamoikvlies da daadgines sakvebi nivTierebebis energetikuli Rirebuleba: cximebi _ 9, 3 kkal/g, cilebi _ 4,8 kkal/g, naxSirwylebi _ 4 kkal/g. martivi aRWurvilobiT (sur. 62) SesaZlebelia skolis pirobebSi gansazRvro sakvebis energetikuli Rirebuleba. amisaTvis sakvebi unda dawva da gazomo wvis dros gamoyofili energiis raodenoba. am mizniT sinjaraSi asxamen wyals da zomaven wylis sawyis temperaturas (T1), Semdeg sakvebis naWers wvaven da als mimarTaven sinjarisken. sakvebis bolomde dawvis Semdeg isev zomaven wylis temperaturas (T2) da gansazRvraven, Tu ramdeni gradusiT gaTba wyali (T2-T1). sakvebis energetikuli Rirebulebis gamoTvla SeiZleba Semdegi formuliT: sakvebis energetikuli Rirebuleba kal/g = temperaturuli sxvaoba

1124 24

(T2-T1) X wylis masa (g)/sakvebis masa. vTqvaT, 10 g Saqris natexis dawviT 20 g wyali 2°C-iT gaTba. es monacemebi CavsvaT am formulaSi da gamovTvaloT Saqris energetikuli Rirebuleba: 2X20/10 = 4 kal/g. sakvebis energetikuli Rirebulebis dadgena

Termometri wyali

sakvebis kvebis dawva

sur. 62


sakvebis energetikuli Rirebulebis kvleva sakvlevi kiTxva: romeli sakvebis _ nigozis, Txilis Tu badagis energetikuli Rirebulebaa ufro maRali? saWiro masala: nigvzis lebani, Txilis guli, CurCxelis badagis fenis naWeri, wyali, sinjarebi, wylis temperaturis sazomi Termometri, spirtqura, pinceti, sapreparacio nemsi. procedura: samuSao rveulSi gadaitane monacemTa cxrili: sakvebis nimuSi

sakvebis masa (g)

wylis masa

wylis temperatura (°C) sawyisi (T1)

saboloo (T2)

sakvebis energetikuli Rirebuleba (kal/g)

nigozi Txili badagis fenis naWeri sinjaraSi Caasxi 20 g. wyali da sinjara Caamagre sadgamSi; Cade sinjaraSi wylis temperaturis sazomi Termometri, gazome wylis temperatura da CainiSne monacemebis cxrilSi; awone sakvebis samive nimuSi. isini erTnairi masis unda iyos; aiRe pincetiT sakvebis erTi nimuSi, spirtquras moukide cecxli da sakvebi miuSvire cecxls, raTa daiwyos wva. rogorc ki sakvebis nimuSs cecxli moekideba, gadaitane is sinjaris qveS da geWiros, sanam sakvebi bolomde daiwveba. Semdeg gazome wylis temperatura da CainiSne; igive procedura gaimeore sakvebis sxva nimuSebisaTvis, monacemebi Seitane cxrilSi. (SeniSvna: es procedura unda Caataro skolaSi, saklaso oTaxSi da mxolod maswavleblis zedamxedvelobis qveS, saxlSi nu gaakeTeb). analizi da daskvna Segrovebuli monacemebis mixedviT gamoiangariSe TiToeuli sakvebis energetikuli Rirebuleba SenTvis nacnobi formulis gamoyenebiT da es maCvenebelic cxrilSi Seitane. monacemebis analizis safuZvelze gaakeTe daskvna: romeli sakvebia ufro maRali energetikuli Rirebulebis? davuSvaT, midixar Soreul mgzavrobaSi, sadac sakvebs ver iyidi. amitom unda waiRo rac SeiZleba metad kaloriuli sakvebi. gaqvs CurCxelebi: nigvzisa da Txilisgan damzadebuli. romels mianiWeb upiratesobas? pasuxi ganmarte.

adamiani racionalurad unda ikvebebodes. ras niSnavs racionaluri kveba? termini `racionaluri~ momdinareobs laTinuri sityvisagan `Rationalis~, rac gonivruls niSnavs. racionaluri kvebis arsi swored gonierebaSia. sakvebTan erTad organizms unda miewodos yvela saWiro da, rac mTavaria, sa-

sargeblo sakvebi nivTiereba, Tanac aucilebeli raodenobiT. mecnierebs miaCniaT, rom Cvens fizikur Tu gonebriv janmrTelobas yoveldRiurad miRebuli sakvebi ganapirobebs. racionaluri da dabalansebuli kvebis arss dawvrilebiT gaecnobi me-4 TemaSi (gv. 174).

sx sxvadasxva sakvebs aqvs sakvebi nivTierebebis gansxvavebuli Semadgenloba da energetikuli Rirebuleba; sakvebi produqtebis dajgufeba SeiZleba cilovan, cximovan da naxSirwylovan sakvebad; dRis ganmavlobaSi adamianis mier daxarjuli energia damokidebulia asakze, sqesze, profesiasa da fizikur aqtivobaze.

1125 12 25


mamrobiTi

energia (kj/dRe)

sqesi mdedrobiTi

12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000

0

7-10

1-3 4-6

15-18 11-14

19-22

23-26 31-26 39-42 47-50 60-64 75+ 27-30 35-38 43-46 51-59 65-74

asaki (wlebi) energia (kj/dRe) 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0

ofisis TanamSromeli

mSenebeli

maswavlebeli

2. ganixile diagramebze mocemuli informacia da upasuxe kiTxvebs: 1) rogor aris damokidebuli dRis ganmavlobaSi daxarjuli energia asaksa da sqesze; romel asakSi xarjavs yvelaze met energias orive sqesis adamiani? ratom? 2) icvleba Tu ara dRis ganmavlobaSi daxarjuli energia profesiis mixedviT da rogor? 3) gaakeTe daskvna, kvebiTi racionis Sedgenis dros mravalferovani sakvebis garda gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos sakvebis energetikuli Rirebuleba? ratom? 3. gamoiyene cxrilSi mocemuli monacemebi da Seavse cxrilSi gamotovebuli adgilebi:

1126 26

wylis masa (g)

sakvebis masa (g)

78

20

0,45

22

74

20

0,52

21

75

20

0,47

T1 (°C)

T2 (°C)

22

T2 – T1 (°C)

sakvebis energetikuli Rirebuleba (kal./g)


3.16.

saWmlis momnelebeli sistemis struqtura da funqciebi

ra ZiriTadi funqciebi aqvs saWmlis momnelebel sistemas? struqtura _ saWmlis momnelebeli arxi da saWmlis momnelebeli jirkvlebi, saWmlis momnelebeli arxis kedlis struqtura; funqciebi _ sakvebis meqanikuri da qimiuri cvlilebebi, Sewova, narCenebis gamoyofa; kvleva _ saWmlis momnelebeli sistemis kvlevis Tanamedrove meTodi.

sakvebi nivTierebebis umravlesobas organizmi winaswari gadamuSavebis gareSe ver SeiTvisebs. ucvleli saxiT Seiwovs organizmi wyals, mineralur marilebsa

da vitaminebs. gadamuSaveba gamoixateba sakvebis rogorc meqanikur daqucmacebaSi, ise qimiur gardaqmnaSi _ sakvebi nivTierebebis daSla ufro martiv nivTierebebad, romelic wyalSi gaixsneba da organizmisaTvis advilad SesaTvisebeli iqneba. sakvebis meqanikur da qimiur gadamuSavebas saWmlis moneleba ewodeba. saWmlis moneleba mimdinareobs saWmlis momnelebel sistemaSi. igi Sedgeba saWmlis momnelebeli arxisa da saWmlis momnelebeli jirkvlebisgan (sur. 63).

sanerwyve jirkvali piris Rru

saylapavi

RviZli kuWi naRvlis buSti

pankreasi wvrili nawlavi

msxvili nawlavi swori nawlavi anusi sur. 63

saWmlis momnelebeli arxi calkeuli ganyofilebebisgan Sedgeba. TiToeuli maTgani gansakuTrebul rols asrulebs saWmlis monelebaSi. es ganyofilebebia: piris Rru, saylapavi, kuWi, wvrili da msxvili nawlavi, romelic swori nawlaviTa da ukana xvreliT (anusiT) mTavrdeba. saWmlis momnelebeli arxis kedeli samSriania da Sedgeba SemaerTebelqsovilovani, gluvkunTovani da lorwovani

garsebisgan. lorwovan garss qmnis jirkvlovani epiTeliumi, romelic Seicavs saWmlis momnelebel wvril jirkvlebs. arxis kedlebis gluvi kunTebis SekumSva uzrunvelyofs sakvebis meqanikur daqucmacebas, sakvebis saWmlis momnelebel wvenebTan Serevas. sakvebis gadaadgilebas xels uwyobs gluvi kunTebis talRiseburi SekumSva _ peristaltika (sur. 64).

1127 12 27


saWmlis momnelebel organoTa sistemaSi Sedis msxvili jirkvlebic: sami wyvili msxvili sanerwyve jirkvali, RviZli da pankreasi. am jirkvlebis sadinarebi saWmlis momnelebel arxSi ixsneba. saWmlis momnelebeli organoebis ZiriTadi funqciebia: meqanikuri _ sakvebis meqanikuri daqucmaceba, sekretoruli _ saWmlis momnelebeli jirkvlebis mier saWmlis momnelebeli fermentebis sinTezi da gamoyofa saWmlis momnelebel arxSi; qimiuri _ fermentis moqmedebiT sakvebi nivTierebebis qimiuri gadamuSaveba (rTuli naxSirwylebi, mag., saxamebeli, iSleba glukozad, cilebi _ aminomJavebad, cximebi _ cximovan mJavebad da glicerinad); sakvebis qimiur gadamuSavebas ori daniSnuleba aqvs: 1) martivi, mcire zomis molekulebi advilad Seiwoveba nawlaveb-

Si da 2) martivi sakvebi nivTierebebisgan ujredebSi warmoiqmneba adamianisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli da saWiro nivTierebebi. peristaltika saylapav milSi

saylapavi mili kuWi

ulufa peristaltikuri talRa sur. 64

saWmlis momnelebeli sistemis calkeul ganyofilebebSi mimdinare procesebi

sakvebis meqanikuri daqucmaceba da qimiuri gadamuSaveba

nerwyvis gamoyofa

sakvebi gundis gadaadgileba kuWSi

sekretoruli _ gamoyofs naRvlis wvens

sakvebis daqucmaceba, gamoiyofa kuWis wveni, sakvebis qimiuri gadamuSaveba

nawlavis wvenis gamoyofa, sakvebis qimiuri gadamuSaveba, monelebuli sakvebi nivTierebebis Sewova, mounelebeli sakvebis narCenebis gadaadgileba msxvil nawlavSi

wylis ZiriTadi nawilis Sewova, sakvebis narCenebis fekaliebad Camoyalibeba, narCenebis garemoSi gamoyofa

sur. 65

1128 28


Semwovi funqcia uzrunvelyofs monelebuli sakvebi nivTierebebis Sewovas sisxlsa da limfaSi; sisxli miitans ujredebSi, sadac maTgan sinTezirdeba organizmis-

Tvis saWiro da damaxasiaTebeli rTuli nivTierebebi; eqskretoruli _ mounelebeli sakvebis narCenebis gamoyofa.

1. ra gansxvavebaa qvemoT mocemul terminebs Soris: a) meqanikuri da qimiuri gadamuSaveba; b) ylapva da Sewova; g) moneleba da eqskrecia/gamoyofa; 2. daasaxele saWmlis momnelebli jirkvlebi, romlebic saWmlis momnelebeli arxis kedlis gareT mdebareoben; 3. 65-e suraTis mixedviT daasaxele saWmlis momnelebeli sistemis struqturebi, romlebic asruleben funqcias _ a) meqanikurs, b) qimiurs, g) sekretoruls, d) Semwovsa da eqskretoruls. 4. daasaxele ori mizezi, ratom unda daiSalos rTuli sakvebi nivTierebebi ufro martiv nivTierebebamde saWmlis momnelebel arxSi.

saWmlis momnelebeli sistemis normalurad muSaobas didi mniSvneloba aqvs adamianis janmrTelobisaTvis. arsebobs kvlevis sxvadasxva meTodi, romelic Tanamedrove teqnologiebSi TandaTan ufro ixveweba da inergeba. saWmlis momnelebeli arxis kvlevis uaxlesi meTodia Olympus-is endokafsulis gamoyeneba. pacienti Cveulebriv umtkivneulod ylapavs wamlis zomis endokafsulas. kafsula aRWurvilia specialuri kameriTa da elementiT. misi zoma ar aRemateba nebismieri medikamentis kafsulis zomas. gadaylapvidan 9-12 saaTis ganmavlobaSi kafsula iRebs sistemis kedlebis fotoebs. Canaweris kompiuteruli damuSaveba iZleva saWmlis momnelebeli arxis mdgomareobis zusti diagnostirebis saSualebas.

sakvebis s meqanikur da qimiur gadamuSavebas da Sewovas saWmlis moneleba ewodeba; saWmlis momnelebeli sistema Sedgeba saWmlis momnelebeli arxisa da saWmlis momnelebeli jirkvlebisgan; saWmlis momnelebeli sistemis funqciebia: meqanikuri, qimiuri, sekretoruli, Semwovi da eqskretoruli.

1129 12 29


3.17.

saWmlis moneleba piris RruSi

ra cvlilebebs ganicdis sakvebi piris RruSi? struqtura _ diferencirebuli kbilebi, kbilis struqtura, ena, sanerwyve jirkvlebi; funqcia _ sakvebis meqanikuri damuSavebis mniSvneloba, nerwyvis Sedgeniloba da misi funqciebi; janmrTeloba da daavadeba _ kbilis daavadeba, piris Rrus higienis mniSvneloba janmrTelobisTvis, gegmuri viziti eqim-stomatologTan.

piris RruSi sakvebi meqanikurad qucmacdeba kbilebis saSualebiT. bavSvs 6 Tvis asakidan amosdis kbilebi, romlebic TandaTan sZvreba da 10-12 wlisaTvis mudmivi kbilebiT ecvlebaT. zrdasrul adamians aqvs 32 kbili (sur. 66) _ TiToeul ybaze 16-16. kbilebis forma mis funqcias Seesabameba: brtyeli saWreli da konusiseburi eSvebis saSualebiT sakvebis CakbeCa xdeba, xolo brtyeli danaoWebulzedapiriani ZiriTadi kbilebiT _ sakvebis meqanikuri daqucmaceba. kbilis agebuleba (sur. 67). yovel kbils aqvs fesvi (ybis Zvlis fosoSi Camjdari), yeli (RrZiliT dafaruli kbilis nawili) da gvirgvini (piris RruSi gamodis). gvirgvini dafarulia magari minanqriT/emaliT, romelic icavs kbils dazianebisagan; mis qveS moTavsebulia magari nivTiereba _ dentini; kbils aqvs pulpis Rru, igi amovsebulia SemaerTebelqsovilovani rbili qsoviliT, romelSic Sedis sisxlZarRvebi da nervebi. kbilis fesvi dafarulia Zvlis msgavsi nivTierebiT _ cementiT, romelic kbils ybis Zvlis fosoSi amagrebs. Tumca kbili ramdenadme moZravicaa fosoSi, ris gamoc nakleb mosalodnelia, rom ReWvis dros kbili motydes. zojer kbili ziandeba. magaliTad, magari sagnis kbiliT gatexvis, Zalian cxeli da civi sakvebis miRebis, tkbileulis Warbi moxmarebis gamo. tkbileulSi Semaval Saqars baqteriebic iyeneben da mrav-

1130 30

adaminis kbilis tipebi saWreli kbilebi mcire ZiriTadi kbilebi eSvi

sibrZnis kbili

didi ZiriTadi kbilebi

sur. 66

kbilis agebuleba minanqari gvirgvini

dentini pulpa

yeli

RrZili

fesvi cementi ybis Zvali

sur. 67

ldebian, kbilebze warmoqmnian nadebs, romelic maTi gamravlebisTvis kidev ufro karg garemos qmnis. baqteriebi Saqars iyeneben da gamoyofen mJavebs, romelic minanqars azianebs da iwyeba kariesis ganviTareba (sur. 68). SesaZlebelia adamians dascvides kbilebi RrZilebis daavadebis gamo.


kariesis dawyeba

momatebuli kariesi

azianebs pulpas

Cirqovani grova iwyeba emalis dazianeba, ar aris tkivilis SegrZneba

azianebs dentins da aRwevs pulpamde _ kbilis Zlieri tkivili

baqteriebi ainficireben pulpas da fesvTan Cndeba Cirqi _ kbilis autaneli tkivili

sur. 68

rogor SevinarCunoT janmrTeli kbilebi? janmrTeli kbilebis SesanarCuneblad saWiroa: 1) Tavis Sekaveba kbiliT magari sakvebis gatexva-daReWvisgan; 2) Zalian tkbili sakvebis moxmarebis SezRudva; 3) dReSi 2-jer kbilebis swori da efeqturi gaxexva jagrisiT (sur. 69); Tu situacia Wamis damTavrebisTanave amis saSualebas ar iZleva, aucilebelia piris Tbili wyliT gamorecxva (kbilis nadebis warmoqmna xdeba 24 sT-is ganmavlobaSi); 4) xarisxiani, anTebis sawinaaRmdego kbilis pastebis gamoyeneba; 5) prevenciis mizniT eqim-stomatologTan gegmuri viziti; 6) kbilis dazianebis pirveli niSnebis gamovlenisTanave eqimi-stomatologisaTvis mimarTva.

fermenti

sakvebis didi zomis molekula

sakvebis mcire zomis molekulebi sur. 70

sanerwyve jirkvlebi

kbilebis swori gaxexvis wesi

ybayura enisqeSa

sur. 69

ybisqveSa

sur. 71

131 131


ra qimiur cvlilebebs ganicdis sakvebi piris RruSi? sakvebis qimiur monelebaSi monawileoben saWmlis momnelebeli jirkvlebis mier gamoyofili wvenebi. saWmlis momnelebeli wveni ki Seicavs fermentebs, romlebic sakvebi nivTierebis did molekulebs ufro mcire zomis molekulebad Slian (sur. 70). sakvebis meqanikur daqucmacebas didi mniSvneloba aqvs _ rac ufro kargadaa daqucmacebuli sakvebi, miT advilad iJRenTeba igi saWmlis momnelebe-

li wveniT da advilad moqmedebs saWmlis momnelebeli fermentebi. piris Rrus lorwovan garsSi aris bevri wvrili sanerwyve jirkvali, aseve, piris RruSi ixsneba sami wyvili msxvili sanerwyve jirkvlis (ybayura, ybisqveSa da enis qveSa) sadinari (sur. 71). sanerwyve jirkvlebi piris RruSi gamoyofen saWmlis momnelebel wvens _ nerwyvs, romlis Semadgeneli komponentebi da maTi funqciebi warmodgenilia cxrilSi.

nerwyvis Sedgeniloba

cilebi wyali 98-99% mucini asvelebs sakvebs

amilaza

awebebs sakvebis namcecebs saxamebels Slis ufro da enasTan erTad monawil- martiv naxSirwylebad eobs lukmis formirebaSi, _ glukozad igi nerwyvs siblantes aZlevs da aadvilebs lukmis moZraobas

lizocimi aqvs antibaqteriuli moqmedeba _ igi Slis baqteriebis ujredis kedels.

fermenti _ amilaza

rTuli naxSirwyali _ saxamebeli martivi naxSirwyali _ glukozis molekulebi sur. 72

rogorc cxrilidan Cans, nerwyvis amilaza moqmedebs naxSirwylebze (sur. 72). amrigad, piris RruSi iwyeba naxSirwylebis moneleba. amilazas aqtivoba mraval faqtorzea damokidebuli, magaliTad, amilaza yvelaze aqtiuria 36-37°C-ze.

1. 2. 3. 4.

enis saSualebiT sakvebis gunda gadadis enis Zirisken da xorcieldeba ylapva. piris Rrudan sakvebis gunda xvdeba saylapav milSi, romelic 25 sm-is sigrZis milia. misi kunTovani Sris SekumSvis Sedegad sakvebi gunda Cadis kuWSi.

rogoraa kbili Camagrebuli ybis ZvalSi? romeli avitaminozi iwvevs RrZilebis dazianebas da kbilebis cvenas? 68-e suraTis mixedviT aRwere kariesis ganviTareba. zogierTi adamiani Tvlis, rom dReSi 2-jer piris RruSi Rvinis Zmris gamovleba kariesis ganviTarebisgan daicavs. eTanxmebi Tu ara? pasuxi daasabuTe. 5. ra mniSvneloba aqvs sakvebis meqanikur daqucmacebas? 6. daasaxele nerwyvis cilebi da aRwere TiToeulis funqcia. 7. Tu Sen didxans daReWav purs, SeigrZnob tkbil gemos. axseni, ratom?

1132 32


Catarebuli kvlevis analizi moswavleebma Caatares kvleva amilazas Tvisebebisa da aqtivobis pirobebis dadgenis mizniT. kvlevisTvis gamoiyenes Semdegi masala: sinjarebi, saxameblis xsnari, nerwyvi an 1%-iani amilazas xsnari, iodi (igi saxameblis Tanaobisas lurjdeba), benediqtis xsnari (glukozis Tanaobisas xsnari narinjisferi xdeba). kvleva 1 aiRes ori sinjara _ a da b da orive maTganSi Caasxes erTnairi moculobis saxameblis xsnari da 1 sm3 nerwyvi (an 1%-iani amilazas xsnari); • a sinjaraSi daamates iodis xsnari da datoves 10 wuTiT oTaxis temperaturaze; • b sinjarSi daamates benediqtis xsnari da gaaTbes. kiTxvebi: 1. romeli sinjaris SigTavsi SeiRebeba lurjad? es raze miuTiTebs? 2. romeli sinjaris SigTavsi SeiRebeba narinjisfrad? es raze miuTiTebs? 3. axseni TiToeul sinjaraSi damdgari Sedegis mizezi. 4. Camoayalibe am eqsperimentis sakvlevi kiTxva. 5. gansazRvre damoukidebeli da damokidebuli cvladebi. 6. romel sinjaras CaTvli sakontrolod? ratom? kvleva 2 aiRes ori sinjara _ g da d, orive maTganSi Caasxes erTnairi moculobis saxameblis xsnari; g sinjaraSi daamates iodis xsnari; d sinjarSi daamates benediqtis xsnari da 1 sm3 nerwyvi (an 1%-iani amilazas xsnari); orive sinjara gaaTbes. kiTxvebi: 1. romeli sinjaris SigTavsi SeiRebeba lurjad? es raze miuTiTebs? 2. romeli sinjaris SigTavsi SeiRebeba narinjisfrad? es raze miuTiTebs? 3. axseni TiToeul sinjaraSi damdgari Sedegis mizezi. 4. Camoayalibe am eqsperimentis sakvlevi kiTxva. 5. gansazRvre damoukidebeli da damokidebuli cvladebi. 6. romel sinjaras CaTvli sakontrolod? ratom?

zr zrdasrul adamians aqvs 32 kbili, kbilebi diferencirebulia struqturisa da Sesrulebuli funqciis mixedviT; kbilebis janmrTelobis SenarCunebisaTvis saWiroa Sesabamisi RonisZiebebis gatareba; kargad daqucmacebuli sakvebi ufro advilad moineleba; piris RruSi iwyeba naxSirwylebis moneleba; nerwyvis fermentis _ amilazas aqtivoba damokidebulia sxvadasxva faqtorze.

1133 13 33


3.18.

saWmlis moneleba kuWSi

ra cvlilebebs ganicdis sakvebi kuWSi? struqtura _ kuWis kedlis struqtura; funqcia _ kuWis kedlis TiToeuli struqturis funqcia, kuWis wvenis komponentebis funqciebi; janmrTeloba da daavadeba _ swori kvebis wesebi, kuWis daavadebebi.

piris RruSi kbilebiT daqucmacebuli da nerwyviT gaJRenTili sakvebis gunda saylapavi miliT kuWSi (sur. 73) xvdeba. kuWi moTavsebulia muclis RruSi diafragmis qveS; igi aris saWmlis momnelebeli arxis gafarToebuli 3-5 l tevadobis ganyofileba. misi Sida zedapiri gamofenilia danaoWebuli lorwovani garsiT, romelic mdidaria kuWis jirkvlebiT. kuWis kedlebis gluvi kunTebis SekumSva xels uwyobs sakvebis meqanikur daqucmacebas, kuWis wvenTan Serevasa da gadaadgilebas saWmlis momnelebeli arxis Semdeg ganyofilebaSi. SemaerTebelqsovilovani garsi

gluvkunTovani Sre

kuWis wveni Sedgeba lorwos, marilmJavasa da ferment pefsinisgan. lorwoTi amofenilia kuWis kedeli da icavs mas pefsinis zemoqmedebisgan, marilmJava uvnebelyofs baqteriebs da aaqtiurebs pefsins. kuWSi sakvebi 4-8 saaTi Cerdeba da mTeli am xnis ganmavlobaSi gamoiyofa kuWis wveni. kuWSi iwyeba cilebis moneleba pefsinis moqmedebiT. pefsini sakvebSi arsebuli cilebis rTul molekulas Slis aminomJavebis ufro martiv molekulebad (sur. 74). pefsinis aqtivobac, rogorc nebismieri fermentis, sxvadasxva pirobazea damokidebuli, magaliTad, temperaturaze (pefsinis aqtivobisaTvis optimaluri temperaturaa 38-39°C), kuWis wvenSi marilmJavas arsebobaze, sakvebis meqanikuri daqucmacebis xarisxze da a.S. Tu kuWSi didxans ar Cavida saWmeli, misi kunTebi iwyeben gaZlierebul SekumSvas, rac SimSilis grZnobasTan dakavSirebul usiamovno SegrZnebebs iwvevs da adamiani iswrafvis, miiRos sakvebi. unda gvaxsovdes: 1) ar SeiZleba swrafi Wama, radgan am dros saTanadod ar xdeba kbilebiT sakvebis meqanikuri daqucmaceba, ris gamoc kuWs uWirs misi moneleba. 2) saWiroa WamaSi zomierebis dacva: gaZneldeba erTdroulad miRebuli didi raodenobis sakvebis moneleba; garda amisa, gadavsebuli kuWi aferxebs sunTqviT moZraobebs. fermenti _ pefsini

lorwovani garsi

cila

aminomJaveebi

sur. 73 sur. 74

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

1134 34

73-e suraTis mixedviT aRwere kuWis kedlis agebuleba. ra funqcias asrulebs kuWis gluvkunTovani Sre? ra komponentebisgan Sedgeba kuWis wveni da ra aris TiToeulis funqcia? Seadare meqanikuri da qimiuri monelebis procesi piris Rrusa da kuWSi. erTma adamianma saqonlis katleti SeWama 2-3 mokbeCiT, xolo meorem ki aseTive katleti patar-patara ulufebis saxiT miiRo. Tu sxva danarCeni pirobebi erTnairi iqneba, saqonlis xorcs es ori adamiani erTnair droSi moinelebs? axseni, ratom fiqrob ase.


kuWis wvenis fermentis aqtivobis pirobebis kvleva kvleva 1 sakvlevi kiTxva: rogor aris pefsinis aqtivoba damokidebuli temperaturaze? saWiro masala: moxarSuli kvercxis cila, pefsinis abebi, sami sinjara, minis wkiri, saswori, oTaxis temperaturis wyali, Termometri, 38°-39°C-mde gamTbari wyali da yinuliani wyali. procedura: sinjarebi danomre: #1, #2 da #3; yvela sinjaraSi Caasxi 50 ml oTaxis temperaturis wyali, Cayare kargad dafquli pefsinis TiTo abi da samive sinjaras minis wkiriT mourie pefsinis gaxsnamde; yvela sinjaraSi moaTavse erTi masis moxarSuli kvercxis cilis naWeri; #1 sinjara datove oTaxis temperaturaze, #2 sinjara moaTavse 38°-39°C-mde gamTbar wylian abazanaSi da #3 sinjara _ yinulian wylian abazanaSi; sinjarebi datove 10-15 wuTiT; daakvirdi, romel sinjaraSi ganileva ufro swrafad kvercxis cilis naWeri. analizi da daskvna: romel sinjaraSi ganilia yvelaze swrafad cilis naWeri? Camoayalibe daskvna, romelic upasuxebs sakvlev kiTxvas. kiTxvebi: 1) gansazRvre am eqsperimentisaTvis damoukidebeli da damokidebuli, kontrolirebadi cvladebi. 2) ra nomeri sinjara asrulebda sakontrolo cdis rols? kvleva 2 sakvlevi kiTxva: rogor aris fermentis efeqturi moqmedeba damokidebuli sakvebis meqanikuri daqucmacebis xarisxze? saWiro masala: moxarSuli kvercxis cila, pefsinis abebi, sami sinjara, minis wkiri, saswori, oTaxis temperaturis wyali, Termometri, 38°-39°C-mde gamTbari wyali, procedura: sinjarebi danomre: #1, #2 da #3; yvela sinjaraSi Caasxi 50 ml oTaxis temperaturis wyali, Cayare kargad dafquli pefsinis TiTo abi da samive sinjaras minis wkiriT mourie pefsinis gaxsnamde; moamzade moxarSuli kvercxis cilis erTi masis 3 naWeri; cilis erTi naWeri daniT Zalian wvrilad daaqucmace, meore orad gaWeri, mesame ki ucvleli datove. #1 sinjaraSi Caagde cilis mTliani naWeri, #2 sinjaraSi moaTavse orad gaWrili cilis naWrebi da #3 sinjaraSi _ wvrilad daqucmacebuli cila; yvela sinjara moaTavse 38°-39°C-mde gamTbar wylian abazanaSi da datove 10-15 wuTiT; daakvirdi, romel sinjaraSi ganileva ufro swrafad kvercxis cila. analizi da daskvna: romel sinjaraSi ganilia yvelaze swrafad cila? Camoayalibe daskvna, romelic upasuxebs sakvlev kiTxvas. kiTxvebi: 1. gansazRvre am eqsperimentisaTvis damoukidebeli da damokidebuli, kontrolirebadi cvladebi. 2. ra nomer sinjaraSi daayene sakontrolo cda? 3. ra mniSvneloba aqvs sakvebis meqanikur daqucmacebas?

kuWSi xdeba sakvebis meqanikuri da qimiuri gadamuSaveba; kuWSi iwyeba cilebis moneleba; sakvebis meqanikuri daqucmaceba aadvilebs saWmlis monelebas.

1135 13 35


3.19.

saWmlis moneleba nawlavSi

ra funqciebs asrulebs nawlavi sakvebis monelebaSi? struqtura _ Tormetgoja nawlavi, pankreasi, RviZli, wvrili nawlavis xaoebi; funqcia _ saWmlis momnelebeli wvenebis (naRveli, pankreasis wveni, wvrili nawlavis wveni) sekrecia, sakvebis moneleba, Sewova da eqskrecia; kvleva _ wvrili nawlavis xaoebis modelis Seqmna da gamoyeneba.

sakvebis fafa kuWidan wvril nawlavSi gadadis. wvrili nawlavi aris saWmlis momnelebeli arxis yvelaze grZeli nawili (5 m-mde). Tormetgoja nawlavi wvrili nawlavis pirveli ganyofilebaa. masSi ixsneba RviZlisa da kuWqveSa jirkvlis sadinarebi (sur. 75). RviZlSi gamomuSavdeba sekreti _ naRveli, romelic grovdeba naRvlis buStSi da naRvlis sadinariT Cadis Tormetgoja nawlavSi. pankreasi gamoimuSavebs wvens, romelic Seicavs fermentebs: tripsins (cilebis RviZli

damSleli), amilazasa (naxSirwylebis damSleli) da lipazas (cximebis damSleli). Tormetgoja nawlavSi grZeldeba cilebisa da naxSirwylebis moneleba, iwyeba cximebis moneleba ferment lipazas moqmedebiT (sur. 76). saWmlis momnelebeli wveni _ naRveli aaqtiurebs kuWqveSa jirkvlis wvenis fermentebs; igi cximebs meqanikurad Slis patara wveTebad (es aadvilebs lipazas moqmedebas) da xels uwyobs cximovani mJavebis Sewovas wvril nawlavebSi; naRvels aqvs antibaqteriuli moqmedebac. wvrili nawlavebis kedlebis peristaltikiT saWmlis fafa TandaTan gadainacvlebs nawlavis Semdeg ganyofilebebSi. wvrili nawlavis lorwovan garsSi moTavsebulia wvril-wvrili jirkvlebi, romlebic nawlavis RruSi wvrili nawlavis wvens gamoyofen. wvrili nawlavis wveni Seicavs saWmlis momnelebel fermentebs: amilazas, maltazas, laqtazas (naxSirwylebis damSleli), lipazas, erefsins (cilebis damSleli). fermenti lipaza cximovani mJava

saylapavi kuWi

cximi

glicerini sur. 76

naRvlis buSti

pankreasi Tormetgoja nawlavi sur. 75

aq mTavrdeba sakvebi nivTierebebis moneleba: rTuli naxSirwylebi iSleba martiv naxSirwylebad, cilebi _ aminomJavebad, cximebi ki glicerinad da cximovan mJavebad; monelebuli sakvebi nivTierebebi Seiwoveba wvrili nawlavis kedlebis mier.

ra kavSiria satransporto da saWmlis momnelebel sistemebs Soris? wvrili nawlavis kedeli Signidan amofenilia (sur. 77) mravalricxovani xaoebiT, rac zrdis Semwovi zedapiris farTs

1136 36

da swrafad xdeba monelebuli sakvebi nivTierebebis Sewova. xaoebis kedeli Sedgeba erTSriani epiTeliumisgan da mdidaria


sisxlisa da limfuri kapilarebiT. wyalSi xsnadi nivTierebebi (aminomJavebi, glukoza, vitaminebi, mineraluri marilebi) Seiwoveba xaoebis epiTeluri ujredebis mier da Semdeg igi gadadis sisxlis kapilarebSi. cximovani mJavebi da glicerini

gadadis xaoebis epiTelur ujredebSi da aq maTgan warmoiqmneba adamianisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli cximebi, romelic gadadis limfur kapilarebSi, limfiT ki xvdeba sisxlSi. limfaSi gadadis, agreTve, wyalSi uxsnadi vitaminebi.

erTSriani epiTeliumi

wvrili nawlavis SigniTa xaverdovani kedeli

xaos epiTeluri ujredi

xaoebi sur. 77

nawlavebidan gamosuli sisxli karis veniT RviZlSi Sedis (sur. 78), sadac xdeba sakvebTan erTad Sewovili Sxamiani nivTierebebis gauvnebelyofa/detoqsikacia. amaSi gamoixateba RviZlis barieruli funqcia. RviZli mraval funqcias asrulebs organizmSi, mag.: glukozis nawili RviZlSi gardaiqmneba glikogenad, romelic samaragod grovdeba RviZlsa da ConCxis kunTebSi; glikogeni kvlav glukozad RviZlis sisxliT momaragebis Tavisebureba RviZlis vena _ Rru venaSi Caaqvs sisxli, romelSic sakvebi nivTierebebi ( mag., glukoza, aminomJavebi) idealuri raodenobiTaa

RviZlis arteria _ RviZls amaragebs JangbadiT mdidari sisxliT

RviZlis karis vena _ nawlavebidan RviZlSi Seaqvs sakvebi nivTierebebiT mdidari sisxli sur. 78

gardaiqmneba, rodesac sisxlSi Semcirdeba misi raodenoba; RviZlSi samaragod grovdeba Đ?, Đ’ da D vitaminebi; cilebis daSlis produqti amiaki gardaiqmneba Sardovanad; RviZlSi aqtiurad mimdinare procesebis gamo bevri siTbo warmoiqmneba, rac sxeuls siTbos unarCunebs, radgan sisxli aqedan siTbos mTel sxeulSi anawilebs.

ra roli aqvs msxvil nawlavs? msxvili nawlavi 1,5 m sigrZisaa. misi zedapiric gamofenilia danaoWebuli lorwovani garsiT, romelsac xaoebi ar gaaCnia. lorwovan garsSi aris jirkvlebi, romlebic bevr lorwos gamoyofen. msxvil nawlavSi gadadis wyali da mounelebeli sakvebi, maT Soris, celuloza an sakvebis sxva uxeSi nawili. msxvil nawlavSi Seiwoveba wylis ZiriTadi masa; msxvil nawlavSi mcxovrebi baqteriebi asinTezeben zogierT aminomJavasa da vitamins (mag., K vitamins), monawileoben celulozis daSlaSi. mounelebeli narCenebi Camoyalibdeba gamosayof masebad _ fekaliebad, romelic Cerdeba iqamde, sanam ar gadava swor nawlavSi da ar gamoiyofa garemoSi. am process defekacia ewodeba.

1137 13 37


modelis Seqmna da gamoyeneba Seqmeni wvrili nawlavis kedlis xaoebis modeli mizani: wvrili nawlavis xaoebis funqciis Seswavla. masala: sami erTjeradi gamWvirvale Wiqa, sakvebi saRebaviT SeRebili wyali, 3 cali qaRaldis xelsaxoci, makrateli, wamzomi. procedura 1. samive WiqaSi Caasxi erTnairi moculobis sakvebi saRebaviT SeRebili wyali ise, rom Wiqas odnav ufaravdes fskers; 2. sami qaRaldis xelsaxoci gadakece Suaze, erTi ucvlelad datove, meoris erTi bolo makratliT orad gaWeri, xolo mesamisa _ eqvsad (daaxloebiT 3 sm simaRlis ganaWeri gaakeTe); 3. xelsaxocebi Cade cal-calke WiqebSi. meore da mesame xelsaxoci gaWrili boloebiT Cade; 4. erTi wuTis Semdeg xelsaxocebi amoiRe da saxazaviT gazome TiToeul xelsaxocze SeRebili ubnis simaRle. analizi da daskvna: 1. romel modelSia yvelaze maRali SeRebili ubani? 2. romelma modelma aCvena yvelaze efeqturad xaoebis roli? ratom fiqrob ase?

1. romeli organoebi monawileoben wvril nawlavSi saWmlis monelebaSi? 2. saWmlis momnelebeli wvenebi Seicaven fermentebs, wyalsa da zogierT sxva nivTierebas. daasaxele es ori sxva nivTiereba, romeli saWmlis momnelebeli wveni Seicavs; miuTiTe maTi roli; 3. xaoebis agebuleba rogor Seesabameba mis funqciebs? 4. zogierTi mikroorganizmi azianebs nawlavis lorwovan garss da aRar xdeba wylis Sewova. aman ra efeqti SeiZleba moaxdinos dainficirebul adamianze? 5. warmoidgine, rom Sen miirTmev brinjsa da bardas Semwvar qaTamTan erTad. CamoTvale saWmlis momnelebeli fermentebi, romlebic miiReben monawileobas Sen mier miRebuli sakvebis monelebaSi; 6. TanmimdevrobiT aRwere loris buterbrodSi (romelic miirTvi) Semavali cilebisa da saxameblis monelebisa da Sewovis procesebi. warmoadgine sqemis saxiT; 7. raSi gamoixateba RviZlis sisxliT momaragebis Tavisebureba? 8. nawlavidan gamosuli sisxli ratom gaivlis RviZlSi?

wvril w nawlavSi mTavrdeba saWmlis moneleba da aqve Seiwoveba monelebuli sakvebi nivTierebebi; wvril nawlavSi sakvebis monelebaSi monawileobs RviZli da pankreasi; wvrili nawlavis struqtura _ xaoebi _ zrdis Semwovi zedapiris farTobs; yoveli ujredi uzrunvelyofili unda iyos JangbadiTa da sakvebi nivTierebebiT: Jangbadi sisxls ujredebSi miaqvs sunTqvis organoebidan, xolo sakvebi nivTierebebi _ saWmlis momnelebeli sistemidan.

1138 38


3.20.

kuW-nawlavis daavadebani da maTi Tavidan acileba

kuW-nawlavis ra daavadebebia SenTvis cnobili? janmrTeloba da daavadeba _ kvebiTi mowamvla, gastriti, mikroorganizmebiTa da paraziti WiebiT gamowveuli daavadebebi; kvebis higienuri wesebis dacva, eqim-infeqcionistTan da eqim-parazitologTan mimarTva.

miuxedavad saWmlis momnelebel sistemaSi organizmis dacvis sxvadasxva meqanizmis arsebobisa, adamiani avaddeba saWdaavadeba kvebiTi mowamvla

CamoTvale saWmlis momnelebel sistemaSi arsebuli mikroorganizmebisa da Sxamiani nivTierebebisgan dacvis meqanizmebi.

mlis momnelebeli organoebis sxvadasxva daavadebiT. qvemoT, cxrilSi, mocemulia saWmlis momnelebeli sistemis yvelaze gavrcelebuli daavadebebi. maTgan bevri SenTvis ukve nacnobia me-7 klasSi naswavli masalidan.

gamomwvevi mizezi simptomebi Termulad arasakmarisad damuSavebuli tkivili kuWis areSi, Rebinesakvebis miReba, daZvelebuli sakvebi ba, faRaraTi, Tavis tkiviproduqtebis, Sxamiani sokoebis, teq- li, Tavbrusxveva. nologiurad arasworad momzadebuli konservebis moxmareba. kuWis kedlis lorwovani garsis dazianeba da kuWis wveni iwyebs masze moqmedebas.

gastriti kuWis lorwovani garsis anTebaa, romelic sxvadasxva formiT vlindeba, mag., kuWis wyluli.

Zalian cxare da mwvave saWmelebis xSirad miReba, alkoholisa da Tambaqos gadaWarbebuli moxmareba, umeteswilad Semwvar-moxrakuli sakvebiT kveba, zogierTi medikamenti.

qolera baqteruli daavadeba, azianebs nawlavis kedlebs.

gamomwvevi baqteriebis moxvedra orga- faRaraTi/diarea, wyurvili, nizmSi, inficirebuli adamianebis feka- nawlavebis Zlieri tkivili, liebiT dabinZurebuli sakvebi an wyali. maRali temperatura.

botulizmi baqteriuli daavadeba. botulizmis baqteriis Sxami azianebs kunTebsa da nervul sistemas.

baqteruli Sxamis moxvedra organizmSi mxedvelobis gaoreba, Re_ arasaTanadod damuSavebuli sakvebi, bineba, ylapvis gaZneleba. gansakuTrebiT ki saxlSi momzadebuli konservebi, Sebolili Tevzi, Zexvi, lori.

dizenteria kuW-nawlavis dazianeba dizenteriuli amebis mier.

adamiani dasnebovndeba maSin, rodesac igi gadaylapavs amebis cistebs. cistebis gavrcelebasa da infeqciis gadatanaSi mTavar rols asrulebs dabinZurebuli wyali da buzebi.

igi parazitobs adamianis msxvil nawlavSi da mis kedlebze Rrma wylulebs warmoqmnis. amas Tan erTvis sisxliani faRaraTi, sxeulis maRali temperatura.

paraziti Wiebi: Roris soliteri, askarida da maxvila azianeben nawlavis kedlebs, gamoyofen Sxamebs, romlebic azianebs mTels organizms.

Roris soliteri _ Seumowmebeli, cudad Semwvari an moxarSuli Roris xorcis gamoyeneba sakvebad. askarida da maxvila _ maTi kvercxebi vrceldeba qariT, wyliT, buzebiT da SeiZleba moxvdes sakvebze; daubaneli xelebiT Wama, gaurecxavi xilisa da bostneulis moxmareba.

avadmyofi gamxdari da uferulia; awuxebs sisuste, Tavbrusxveva, zedmeti nerwyvis dena da muclis tkivili. nerwyvis gaZlierebuli dena, kbilebis kraWuni, gulisreva, muclis tkivili, madis daqveiTeba.

1139 13 39


xSirad saWmlis momnelebeli organoebis daavadeba SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos araswori kvebiT. rogorc ici, RviZli gamoyofs saWmlis momnelebel wvens _ naRvels. naRveli sxvadasxva nivTierebis wyalxsnaria, romelic aucilebelia wvril nawlavebSi cximebis monelebisaTvis. naRvelis nawili grovdeba naRvlis buStSi, aqedan ki sadinariT nawlavSi maSin gadadis, rodesac adamiani miiRebs cximian sakvebs. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi naRveli naRvlis buStSi rCeba. Tu naRveli naRvlis buStSi didxans gaCerda, mis SemadgenlobaSi myofi nivTierebebi

kristalebad gadaiqceva da warmoqmnis kenWebs (sur. 79). isini wvetiania da rodesac naRvlis buStis kedlebs exeba, Zlier tkivils iwvevs.

sur. 79

rogor aviciloT Tavidan kuW-nawlavis daavadebani? sakvebiT mowamvlis SemTxvevaSi saWiroa saswrafo daxmarebis gamoZaxeba da paralelurad xelovnurad Rebinebis gamowveva. amisaTvis dazaralebulma unda dalios ramdenime Wiqa Tbili wyali da gulisreva gamoiwvios kovziT an sxva mosaxerxebeli sagniT enis Ziris an xaxis ukana kedlis meqanikuri gaRizianebiT. daavadebis gamomwvevi mikroorganizme-

bi, paraziti Wiebi da Sxamiani nivTierebebi, ZiriTadad, maSin xvdebian organizmSi, rodesac adamiani ar icavs kvebis higienur wesebs, bavSvebSi ar xdeba regularuli gamokvleva paraziti WiebiT dasnebovnebis gamovlenis mizniT. ukve daavadebis SemTxvevaSi ki saWiroa Sesabamisi profilis eqimTan (eqimi-infeqcionisti, eqimi-parazitologi) mimarTva.

1. yuradRebiT gaecani cxrilSi (gv. 139) mocemul informacias da upasuxe kiTxvas: ram SeiZleba gamoiwvios saWmlis momnelebeli sistemis organoebis daavadebebi? 2. ra SeiZleba iyos sakvebiT mowamvlis mizezi? 3. ratom iwveven parazitebi (mikroorganizmi da Wia) organizmis daavadebas? 4. sakvebiT mowamvlis SemTxvevaSi swrafad, sanam sakvebi kuWidan wvril nawlavSi gadava, unda moxdes xelovnurad Rebinebis gamowveva. ratom? 5. kuW-nawlavis daavadebis mizezi yvelaze xSirad aris kvebis higienuri wesebis daucveloba. jgufTan erTad Camoayalibe kvebis ramdenime higienuri wesi, axseni misi dacvis mniSvneloba da warmoadgine qvemoT mocemuli cxrilis saxiT: higienuri wesi

misi dacvis mniSvneloba

kuW-nawlavis daavadeba SeiZleba gamoiwvios sakvebiT mowamvlam, arasworma kvebam, mikroorganizmebma da parazitma Wiebma; kuW-nawlavis daavadebisgan dacvis yvelaze kargi saSualebaa higienuri wesebis dacva da mikroorganizmebisgan dacvis mizniT vaqcinacia.

1140 40


Tema

3-3-is Sejameba

Temis mimoxilva mTavari ideebi • adamianis sakvebi nivTierebebia: cilebi, naxSirwylebi, cximebi, vitaminebi, wyali da mineraluri marilebi; • adamiani sakveb nivTierebebs iRebs mcenareuli da cxoveluri sakvebi produqtebis moxmarebiT, e.i. adamiani nairmWamelia; • sakvebi nivTierebebi organizmis saSeni masalisa da energiis wyaroa; • sakvebis meqanikur da qimiur gadamuSavebas saWmlis moneleba ewodeba; • sakvebi nivTierebebidan saWmlis momnelebel sistemaSi qimiur cvlilebebs ar ganicdis vitaminebi, wyali da mineraluri marilebi; • saWmlis momnelebeli sistemis funqciebia: meqanikuri, qimiuri, sekretoruli, Semwovi da eqskretoruli; • sakvebis qimiur gadamuSavebas ori daniSnuleba aqvs: 1) martivi, mcire zomis molekulebi advilad Seiwoveba nawlavebSi da 2) martivi sakvebi nivTierebebisgan ujredebSi warmoiqmneba adamianisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli da saWiro nivTierebebi; • saWmlis moneleba iwyeba piris RruSi da mTavrdeba wvril nawlavSi; • saWmlis momnelebeli fermentebis moqmedebis efeqturoba damokidebulia temperaturaze, sakvebis meqanikuri daqucmacebis xarisxsa da sxva faqtorebze; • wvrili nawlavis kedlebis mier Sewovili sakvebi nivTierebebi gamoaqvs sisxlsa da limfas; • nawlavidan gamosuli sisxli karis veniT RviZlSi Sedis, sadac xdeba sakvebTan erTad Sewovili Sxamiani nivTierebebis gauvnebelyofa/detoqsikacia da Warbi glukozis glikogenad gardaqmna.

davalebebi TviTSefasebisTvis testuri davalebebi (pasuxebi CainiSne rveulSi) 1. saWmlis moneleba ewodeba: a. saWmlis momnelebel arxSi sakvebi nivTierebebis meqanikur da qimiur cvlilebebs; b. ujredebSi sakvebi nivTierebebis meqanikur da qimiur cvlilebebs; g. saWmlis momnelebel arxSi sakvebi nivTierebebis mxolod meqanikur cvlilebebs; d. saWmlis momnelebel arxSi sakvebi nivTierebebis mxolod qimiur cvlilebebs. 2. sakvebi nivTierebebidan saWmlis momnelebel arxSi qimiur cvlilebebs ganicdis: a. mxolod cilebi, cximebi da naxSirwylebi; b. mxolod wyali da mineraluri marilebi; g. mxolod vitaminebi; d. cilebi, cximebi, naxSirwylebi da vitaminebi. 3. rodesac sakvebi am organoSi moxvdeba, meqanikurad qucmacdeba, rbildeba, iJRinTeba saWmlis momnelebeli wvenebiT da cilebi nawilobriv qimiurad iSleba. romel organozea saubari? a. piris Rru; b. Tormetgoja nawlavi; g. kuWi; d. msxvili nawlavi.

141


4. ra procesebi mimdinareobs saWmlis monelebis pirvel etapze piris RruSi? a. sakvebis kbilebiT meqanikuri damuSaveba; b. naxSirwylebis gardaqmna da ylapva; g. nerwyviT darbileba, sakvebis gemos SegrZneba; d. yvela zemoT CamoTvlili. 5. saWmlis momnelebeli organoebis CamonaTvalidan iseTi TanmimdevrobiT amowere organoebi, romelic sworad aRwers monelebis procesSi sakvebis gadaadgilebas saWmlis momnelebel arxSi: 1. kuWi, 2. saylapavi mili, 3. piris Rru, 4. msxvili nawlavi, 5. wvrili nawlavi. pasuxi:

6. SearCieT yvelaze marTebuli debuleba _ saWiroa lukmis kargad daReWva da ise gadaylapva, radgan: a. sanerwyve jirkvlebi ReWvis dros gamoyofen fermentis Semcvel nerwyvs, romelic arbilebs sakvebs; b. ReWvis dros nerwyviT kargad damuSavdes lukma da masSi Semavali fermentis meSveobiT sakvebSi daiSalos naxSirwylebi; g. piris RruSi nerwyvis moqmedebiT lukma rbildeba, meqnikurad muSavdeba da masSi Semavali naxSirwylebi iSleba d. kargad daqucmacebuli sakvebi advilad iJRenTeba saWmlis momnelebeli wvenebiT da masze advilad moqmedebs saWmlis momnelebeli fermenti. 7. saWmlis momnelebeli traqtis romel nawilSi Seiwoveba wylis ZiriTadi raodenoba? a. kuWSi; b. msxvil nawlavSi; g. swor nawlavSi; d. wvril nawlavSi. 8. adamiani ZiriTadad moixmars Termulad damuSavebul sakvebs, radgan Termulad damuSavebuli sakvebi: a. iolad moineleba saWmlis momnelebeli fermentis mier; b. inarCunebs yvela vitamins; g. nivTierebebi gardaiqmneba, rac mniSvnelovnad zrdis sakvebis sargeblianobas; d. ufro gemrieli xdeba. 9. daadgineT Sesabamisoba saWmlis momnelebeli arxis ganyofilebasa da mis funqciebs Soris da cxrilSi Sesabamisi adgili moniSneT `X~-iT. funqciebi:

saWmlis momnelebeli arxis ganyofileba:

a.

sakvebis meqanikuri cvlileba

1. kuWi

b.

naxSirwylebis moneleba

2. piris Rru

g. cilebis moneleba

3. wvrili nawlavi

d. cximebis moneleba

4. Tormetgoja nawlavi

e.

sakvebi nivTierebebis Sewova

5. msxvili nawlavi

v.

wylis didi nawilis Sewova

z. fekaluri masebis Camoyalibeba

142


pasuxi: a

b

g

d

e

v

z

1 2 3 4 5

10. Sewovis procesi kuWSi umniSvnelod mimdinareobs, radgan: a. kuWSi martiv nivTierebamde sakvebi nivTierebebis mcire nawilia daSlili; b. Semwovi zedapiris farTobi mcirea; g. kuWis kedlebi ar aris mdidari sisxlisa da limfuri kapilarebiT; d. yvela pasuxi sworia. 11. monelebuli sakvebi nivTierebebis Sewovis ZiriTadi procesi mimdinareobs sakuTriv wvril nawlavSi, rasac aadvilebs: a. sakvebi nivTierebebis ZiriTadi nawili martiv nivTierebebadaa daSlili; b. wvrili nawlavis kedeli mofenilia uamravi xaoebiT, romelic mniSvnelovnad zrdis Semwovi zedapiris farTobs; g. xaoebis kedeli erTSriani epiTeliumisgan Sedgeba da mdidaria sisxlisa da limfuri kapilarebiT; d. yvela pasuxi sworia. 12. ipoveT Sesabamisoba adamianis kbilis Sreebsa da CamoTvlil debulebebs Soris, cxrilSi Sesabamisi adgili moniSneT `X~-iT. kbilis Sreebi:

debulebebi:

1.

dentini

a. Zvlis msgavsi mkvrivi nivTierebaa

2.

minanqari

b. amagrebs kbilis fesvs ybis Zvlovan fosoSi

3.

pulpa

g. icavs kbils mikrobebis SeRwevisagan

4.

cementi

d. Seicavs sisxlZrRvebsa da nervebs

pasuxi: a

b

g

d

1 2 3 4

13. daadgineT Sesabamisoba saWmlis momnelebel fermentebsa da im sakveb organul nivTierebebs Soris, romlebsac Slian. fermentis moqmedebis mixedviT cxrilSi Sesabamisi adgili moniSneT `X~-iT. pasuxi: fermentebi: sakvebi organuli nivTierebebi: 1. amilaza

a. cximebi

2. pefsini

b. naxSirwylebi

3. lipaza

g. cilebi

a

b

g

1 2 3

143


davalebebi kritikuli da SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebisTvis 1. Seni megobari ambobs, rom saxameblis moneleba iwyeba kuWSi, Sen ki varaudob, es procesi iwyeba piris RruSi. dagegme eqsperimenti, riTac Seamowmeb Sens varauds. 2. mozardebSi D vitaminis dRiuri moxmarebis normaa 0,1mg, xolo mozrdilebSi _ 0,02 mg. axseni, ratom xdeba ase. 3. mouZebne dasabuTebuli axsna gamoTqmas: `kargad daReWili sakvebi naxevrad monelebulia!~ 4. daavadebis simptomi: erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi pacientis sakvebis gareT gamoyofili narCeni zedmetad Txevadia. dasvi savaraudo diagnozi: saWmlis momnelebeli sistemis romeli ganyofileba ver asrulebs jerovnad Tavis funqcias. 5. klinikaSi Semovida pacienti – 16 wlis axalgazrda, naRvlis buStis Zlieri tkiviliT. gamokvlevam uCvena naRvlis buStSi kenWebis arseboba. amonaweri pacientis anamnezidan*: `sxeulis minimaluri wonis SenarCunebis mizniT, dietidan sruliad amoRebulia nebismieri cximis Semcveli sakvebi~. upasuxe: 1) rogor auxsni pacients, rom misi janmrTelobis problema SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes dietas? 2) rogor dietas dauniSnav? Camowere sakvebi produqtebis sia. 3) dafiqrdi: ar SeiZleba, rom kenWebis warmoSobis mizezi sxva ram iyos da ara dieta? ramdenime variantidan amoarCie erTi da arCevani ganmarte: • RviZli ar gamoyofs sakmao raodenobiT naRvels; • pacienti, savaraudod, bevr Sokolads miirTmevs, SokoladSi ki bevri cximia; • daxSulia naRvlis buStidan nawlavSi Semavali sadinari.

monacemebis gansja (analizi da daskvna) 1. giorgim da elisabedma skolis sasadiloSi isadiles. mogvianebiT maT gadawyvites, SeemowmebinaT biologiis wignSi mocemuli cxrili, romelic aRwerda zogierTi sakvebi produqtis kvebiT Rirebulebas: 100 g sakveb produqtSi sakvebi nivTierebebis Semcvelobasa da energetikul Rirebulebas.

144

sakvebi produqti

energia (kj)

cxoveluri cila (g)

mcenareuli cila (g)

kalciumi (mg)

rkina (mg)

vitamini C (mg)

orcxobila

2000

2

5

100

1,5

0

puri

900

_

9

100

1,7

0

karaqi

3000

0,5

0

15

0,2

0

yveli

1600

26

0

800

0,4

0

kitri

40

0

0

25

0,3

8


1) isargeble zemoT mocemuli cxriliTa da Seni biologiuri codniT, rom upasuxo Semdeg kiTxvebs: a. cxrilSi mocemuli sakvebi produqtebidan romeli ufro metad daicavs organizms suravandisgan? b. giorgim SeWama sendviCi, romelic Seicavs 100 g purs, 50 g yvelsa da 10 g karaqs. ramdeni energia miiRo man am sakvebiT? aCvene Seni gamoTvlebi. g. elisabedma miirTva 200 g puri, 50 g kitri da 10 g, yveli. ramdeni energia miiRo elisabedma? aCvene gamoTvlebi. 2) elisabedi drodadro uCioda Wamis Semdeg tkivilebs muclis RruSi da amitom wavida eqimTan. eqims surda gamoekvlia, elisabeds xom ar hqonda alergia* romelime sakveb produqtze. eqimma urCia elisabeds, yovel kvebaze SeeWama ori romelime produqti da Sedegi daefiqsirebina. qvemoT marcxena cxrilSi mocemulia misi dakvirvebis Sedegebi. miRebuli sakvebi puri da karaqi puri da yveli yveli da orcxobila yveli da kitri puri da kitri

tkivili diax diax diax ara diax

sakvebi

tkivili

puri yveli orcxobila kitri karaqi

eqimma elisabeds sTxova cxrilis (marjvena cxrili) Sevseba, sadac yovel sakveb produqts calke Camowerda da produqti, romelic iwvevda tkivils, aRniSnavda `+~-iT, romelic ar iwvevda _ `X~-iT da romelzedac ar hqonda pasuxi _ `_~-iT. isargeble elisabedis mier Sedgenili monacemebis cxriliT da eqimis davaleba Senc Seasrule. a)

Seqmnili meore cxrilidan eqimma gansazRvra produqtebi, romelic elisabedSi alergias iwvevda. romelia es produqtebi?

b)

isargeble sakvebi produqtebis kvebiTi Rirebulebis cxriliT da gansazRvre produqtSi sakvebi nivTiereba, romelic aris alergiis mizezi.

g) eqimma Tqva, rom elisabedis organizmSi alergiis gamomwvevi nivTiereba azianebs wvrili nawlavis xaoebs, ramac SeiZleba elisabedis zrda Seanelos. axseni, xaoebis dazianebam ratom unda Seanelos mozardis zrda? 2. mocemuli grafiki asaxavs, Tu rogor icvleba sakvebis monelebis siCqare temperaturaze damokidebulebiT. gansazRvre yvelaze optimaluri temperatura sakvebis monelebisaTvis. reaqciis siCqare

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

°C

145


vizualuri masalis gansja 1.

suraTze mocemulia zeda da qveda yba- gegma a ze ganlagebuli kbilebis gegma. gegma a ekuTvnis 27 wlis qals _ saxelad anas, xolo gegma b _ 27 wlis ias. es ori qali sxvadasxva qalaqSi cxovrobs. erT qalaqSi bunebrivi sasmeli wyali Seicavs fToris marilebs, xolo meore qalaqis _ ara.

a) romeli qali cxovrobs im qalaqSi, romlis sasmeli wyali Seicavs fTors? Seni pasuxi ganamtkice ricxobrivi monacemebiT.

gegma b

zeda yba

zeda yba

qveda yba

qveda yba

aRniSnavs dacvenil kbilebs

b) daasaxele sxva mizezebic, ramac SeiZleba gamoiwvios kbilebis cvena am qalebSi. g) ratomaa mniSvnelovani, rom kbilebis orive gegma ekuTvnis erTi asakis adamianebs? d) axseni, ratom ziandeba ufro xSirad saReWi kbilebi? e) rogor Seicvleboda kbilebis gegma, Tu igi miekuTvneboda 10 wlis gogonebs? ratom? 2.

suraTze amoicani cifrebiT aRniSnuli saWmlis momnelebeli sistemis organo, TiToeul cifrs miuwere Sesabamis organos dasaxeleba da misi roli saWmlis monelebaSi.

terminebsa da cnebebs Soris kavSiris dadgena terminebs Soris damokidebuleba 1.

qvemoT mocemul terminebis yovel nakrebSi sami erTmaneTTan kavSirSia, xolo erTi termini ar miekuTvneba maT. gansazRvre, ra aqvs saerTo sam termins da Semdeg ki daasaxele termini, romelsac maTTan kavSiri ar aqvs.

1)

cilebi, ujredis kedeli, cximebi, saxamebeli

2)

pankreasi, RviZli, sanerwyve jirkvlebi, saylapavi

3)

mWrelebi, emali/minanqari, eSvebi, ZiriTadi kbilebi

4)

warmoqmnis mJavebs, Slis cilebs, gardaqmnis glukozas, gamoyofs lorwos

2.

qvemoT mocemuli terminebis yoveli wyvilisTvis dawere winadadeba, romelic asaxavs am or termins Soris kavSirs. magaliTad, arteriuli sisxli, venuri sisxli: arteriuli sisxli JangbadiTaa mdidari, xolo venuri _ naxSirorJangiT.

1)

kbilebi, meqanikuri

2)

naRveli, cximebi

3)

xaoebi, Sewova

4)

msxvili nawlavi, wyali

146


sakvanZo samecniero terminebis gamoyeneba 1.

waikiTxeT teqsti da gamotovebul adgilze CasviT Sesabamisi sityvebi: 1. Tormetgoja nawlavi, 2. cilebi, 3. saSeni masala, 4. naxSirwylebi, 5. energetikuli, 6. cximebi, 7. vitaminebi. sakvebi nivTierebebi organizmSi asruleben da funqcias. organuli nivTierebebidan sakveb nivTierebebs miekuTvneba , , , da . naxSirwylebi ZiriTadad asruleben funqcias. piris RruSi iwyeba moneleba, xolo kuWSi ; naxSirwylebisa da moneleba grZeldeba Si; cximebis moneleba iwyeba Si.

2.

waikiTxeT teqsti da gamotovebul adgilze CasviT Sesabamisi sityvebi: 1. limfa, 2. wvrili nawlavi, 3. sisxli, 4. aminomJavebi, 5. glukoza, 6. glicerini, 7. cximovani mJava. sakvebis moneleba sruldeba wvril nawlavSi da sabolood rTuli naxSirwylebi iSleba , cilebi , cximebi da ; monelebuli sakvebi nivTierebebi Seiwoveba , saidanac gamoaqvs da kapilarebs.

sworia Tu mcdari? gansazRvre yoveli mtkicebuleba sworia Tu mcdari. Tu sworia, dawere `sworia~, Tu mcdaria, gaxazuli sityva Secvale iseTi sityviT an sityvebiT, rom mtkicebuleba swori iyos! 1)

wvrili nawlavis zedapiris farTobi izrdeba xaoebis xarjze.

2)

naRveli organizms exmareba cilebis monelebaSi.

3)

saWmlis moneleba kuWSi iwyeba.

4)

wylis ZiriTadi nawili Seiwoveba msxvil nawlavSi.

5)

adamiani nairmWamelia.

6)

organizmi energiis ZiriTad nawils iRebs cilebidan.

7)

ZiriTadi cximebis moneleba iwyeba kuWSi.

8)

sakvebis moneleba mTavrdeba da monelebuli sakvebi nivTierebebi Seiwoveba msxvil nawlavSi.

analogia analogia aris or sityvas an frazas Soris damokidebuleba, romelic aseTi formiT iwereba: a : b :: g : d. simbolo `:~ ikiTxeba rogorc `aris~, xolo simbolo `::~ _ rogorc `ise~/`iseve~. magaliTad, kata : cxoveli :: vardi : mcenare, ikiTxeba: `kata aris cxoveli, iseve rogorc vardi - mcenare~. daasrule qvemoT mocemuli yoveli analogia, amisTvis Casvi Sesabamisi sityva an fraza: 1)

glukoza : saxamebeli :: aminomJavebi :

2)

piris RruSi meqanikuri moneleba : kbilebi :: qimiuri moneleba :

3)

wyalSi xsnadi : vitamini C :: cximSi xsnadi :

147


4)

cilebi : pefsini :: cximebi :

5)

piris Rru : saxamebeli :: kuWi :

6)

marilmJava : kuWis wvenis ferments :: naRveli :

monacemebis organizeba sqemebSi qvemoT mocemuli sqema gadaitane rveulSi da daasrule: sakvebi nivTierebebi

cilebi

wyali

moneleba

glukoza

148

cximovani mJava


gamomyofi sistema

Tu saWmlis momnlebeli sistema hgavs obieqtebis im xazs, sadac xdeba rTuli struqturis daSla da ganawileba, maSin gamomyofi sistema gavs obieqtTa jgufs, romelic gadaamuSavebs da gamoyofs narCenebs. gamomyofi sistema _ es aris organoTa sistema, romelic organizmidan gamoyofs mounelebel narCenebs, ofls, Sards da naxSirorJangs, riTac monawileobs homeostazis SenarCunebaSi da icavs organizms toqsikuri nivTierebebisgan. am TemaSi gaecnobi, Tu ra organoebi qmnian gamomyof sistemas, rogor funqcionireben isini da ra nivTerebebis gamoyofaSi monawileoben; Tu rogor aris urTierTdamokidebuli sisxlis mimoqcevis, sunTqvis, saWmlis monelebisa da gamomyofi sistemebis funqciebi.

1149 14 49


3.21.

nivTierebaTa cvla organizmsa da garemos Soris

rogor aris urTierTdamokidebuli sisxlis mimoqcevis, sunTqvis, saWmlis monelebisa da gamomyofi sistemebis funqciebi? sasicocxlo Tviseba _ nivTierebaTa da energiis cvla organizmsa da garemos Soris; cvlis saboloo produqtebis garemoSi gamoyofa.

organizmsa da garemos Soris ganuwyvetliv xdeba nivTierebaTa da energiis cvla. garemosTan nivTierebaTa cvla iwyeba maSin, rodesac sakvebi xvdeba piris RruSi, Semdeg moineleba sakvebi _ rTuli organuli nivTierebebi iSleba ufro martiv nivTierebebad, romlebic wvrili nawlavis kedlebiT Seiwovebian da sisxlsa da limfaSi xvdebian, mounelebeli narCenebis ki defekacia xdeba. sakvebi nivTierebebi gadadis sisxliT ujredebSi, sadac CaerTvebian ujredSida gardaqmnebSi: nawili nivTierebebidan kvlav warmoiqmneba organizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli rTuli organuli nivTierebebi (cilebi, glikogeni, cximebi), nawili ki CaerTveba ujredul sunTqvaSi da iSleba araorganul nivTierebebad, romelTac cvlis gamomyofi organo

saboloo produqtebs uwodeben. amrigad, nivTierebaTa cvla aris nivTierebis qimiuri gardaqmnebis procesebis erToblioba am nivTierebis organizmSi moxvedris momentidan cvlis saboloo produqtebis garemoSi gamoyofis CaTvliT. ukve ici, rom ujreduli sunTqva aris biologiurad Zalian mniSvnelovani procesi, romlis drosac organuli nivTierebebis daJangvis Sedegad gamoTavisufldeba energia. energiis nawili xmardeba organizmis sxvadasxva sasicocxlo process, nawili ki siTbos saxiT garemoSi gamoiyofa. cximebisa da naxSirwylebis daJangvis Sedegad warmoiqmneba wyali da naxSirorJangi, xolo cilebis daJangvisas _ momwamvleli nivTiereba amiakic, romelic Sardovanad gardaiqmneba RviZlSi. es cvlis saboloo produqtebi sisxliT gadaitaneba gamomyof organoebSi: filtvebSi, Tirkmlebsa da kanSi (ix. cxrili). es organoebi cvlis produqtebs gamoyofen garemoSi.

gamoyofil nivTierebaTa narevi

Semadgeneli nivTierebebi wyali, Sardovana, Sardis mJava, marilebi

Tirkmlebi

Sardi

kani

ofli

wyali, marilebi, Sardovana

filtvebi

amosunTquli haeri

naxSirorJangi, wyali

swori nawlavi

fekaliebi

sakvebis mounelebeli narCenebi

cvlis produqtebi organizmidan unda gamoiyos. cvlis produqtebis dagroveba ujredebSi gamoiwvevs maTi funqciis moSlasa da mowamvlas. organizmsa da garemos Soris nivTierebaTa da energiis cvlaSi monawileobs sxvadasxva organoTa sistemebi: saWmlis momnelebeli, sunTqvis, sisxlis mimoqce-

1150 50

visa da gamomyofi sistemebi (sur. 80). es organoTa sistemebi uzrunvelyofs homeostazis SenarCunebas, rac gulisxmobs ujredebisaTvis mudmivi saarsebo garemos Seqmnas: ganuwyvetliv maT momaragebas sakvebi nivTierebebiT da gaTavisuflebas cvlis produqtebisgan.


organoTa sistemebis urTierTqmedeba nivTierebaTa da energiis cvlis dros nivTierebaTa STanTqma garemodan

saWmlis momnelebeli sistema

sakvebis miReba da moneleba: sakvebi nivTierebebis gardaqmna glukozad, aminomJavebad, glicerinad da cximovan mJavebad

sunTqvis sistema

Jangbadis STanTqma sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema

sakvebi nivTierebebisa da Jangbadis mitana ujredebTan

organizmis ujredi

1. organizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli nivTierebebis (cilebis, cximebis, naxSirwylebis) warmoqmna. 2. sakvebi nivTierebebis nawili erTveba ujredul sunTqvaSi da iSleba cvlis saboloo produqtebamde (wyali, naxSirorJangi, Sardovana).

sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema nivTierebaTa cvlis saboloo produqtebis transportireba gamomyof organoebSi

kani

Tirkmlebi filtvebi nivTierebaTa cvlis produqtebis garemoSi gamoyofa

Sardi: wyali, Sardovana, Sardis mJava, marilebi

ofli: wyali, Sardovana, marilebi

amosunTquli haeri: wyali, naxSirorJangi

sur. 80

151 151


Sejamebis saxiT SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom organizmsa da garemos Soris nivTierebaTa cvla oTx ZiriTad etapad mimdinareobs: • pirveli etapi: sakvebi nivTierebebis moxvedra garemodan saWmlis momnelebel sistemaSi da sakvebi cilebis, naxSirwylebisa da cximebis qimiuri gardaqmnebi fermentebis saSualebiT; • meore etapi: monelebuli sakvebi nivTierebebis sisxlis mier, qsoviluri siTxis gavliT, ujredebSi mitana da maTi

CarTva ujredSida qimiur gardaqmnebSi: organizmisaTvis saWiro rTuli nivTierebebis warmoqmna, an cvlis saboloo produqtebamde daSla; • mesame etapi: cvlis saboloo produqtebis (wyali, naxSirorJangi, Sardovana da sxv.) ujredebidan, qsoviluri siTxis gavliT, sisxlSi gadasvla da gamomyof organoebSi mitana; • meoTxe etapi: cvlis saboloo produqtebis gamoyofa garemoSi gamomyofi organoebis mier.

1. me-80 suraTis mixedviT: a) daasaxele organoTa sistemebi, romlebic monawileoben nivTierebaTa cvlaSi organizmsa da garemos Soris; b) aRwere TiToeuli maTganis roli nivTierebaTa cvlaSi organizmsa da garemos Soris; g) daasabuTe, ratomaa saWiro am organoTa sistemebs Soris urTierTdamokidebuleba nivTierebaTa transportsa da maT mimocvlaSi. 2. daasabuTe cvlis saboloo produqtebis organizmidan garemoSi gamoyofis aucilebloba. 3. daasaxele gamomyofi organoebi da TiToeulis mier gamoyofili cvlis produqti. 4. sqema gadaitane rveulSi da daasrule:

garemodan iRebs

adamianis organizmi garemoSi gamoyofs

5. me-80 suraTis mixedviT, Seqmeni naxSirwylebis cvlis sqematuri modeli.

organizmis r arseboba damokidebulia mudmivad mimdinare nivTierebaTa da energiis cvlaze; organizmSi nivTierebaTa transports da organizmsa da garemos Soris nivTierebaTa mimocvlas uzrunvelyofs sisxlis, sunTqvis, saWmlis monelebisa da gamomyofi sistemebis erToblivi da SeTanxmebuli moqmedeba.

1152 52


3.22.

Tirkmlebi, rogorc gamomyofi organo

raSi gamoixateba Tirkmlis, rogorc gamomyofi organos roli? sasicocxlo Tviseba _ gamoyofa; struqtura da funqcia _ Tirkmlebi, nefroni, SardsawveTi, saSarde buSti, Sardsadeni; Sardgamomyofi sistemis struqturis funqciebi.

Tirkmeli Sardgamomyofi sistemis ZiriTadi organoa. Sardgamomyof organoTa

sistemas qmnis ori Tirkmeli, SardsawveTi, saSarde buSti da Sardsadeni. wyvili Tirkmeli moTavsebulia muclis Rrus ukana kedelze xerxemlis orive mxares (sur. 81). igi lobios Teslis formis moyavisfro-mowiTalo Seferilobis gluvzedapiriani organoa. Tirkmlebs organizmidan gamoaqvs cvlis produqtebi da aregulireben sisxlSi wylis Semcvelobas. aortis daRmavali toti

diafragma

qveda Rru vena

marjvena Tirkmeli

SardsawveTebi

saSarde buSti Tirkmlis menji

Tirkmlis arteria Sardsadeni

Tirkmlis vena

marcxna Tirkmeli (ganivi Wrili)

sur. 81

Tirkmlebi TavianTi struqturiT kargadaa Seguebuli Tavis funqciebTan. Tirkmlis funqciur erTeuls warmoadgens nefroni (sur. 82). nefroni milionobiT aris yovel TirkmelSi. TiToeuli nefroni Sedgeba baumanis kafsulisa da Tirkmlis uwvrilesi milakebisgan. nefronSi warmoiqmneba Sardi, romelic Tirkmlis menjSi grovdeba, TiToeuli Tirkmlis menjidan gamodis TiTo SardsawveTi, romelic Cadis Sardis buStSi. aq Sardi

droebiT grovdeba da Semdeg garemoSi gamoiyofa SardsadeniT. Tirkmlebs sxva organoebisagan gansxvavebuli sisxlmomarageba gaaCnia. wuTSi masSi organizmis sisxlis 20% gaedineba. TirkmelSi sisxli Sedis arteriiT, romelic wvril arteriolebad itoteba. wvrili arteriolebi yovel nefronSi 2-jer warmoqmnian kapilarebs: kafsulebSi kapilarul gorgalsa da Tirkmlis milakebis garSemo kapilarul qsels. Semdeg sisxli

1153 15 53


venulebSi ikribeba, sabolood ki Tirkmlis veniT gamodis gafiltruli sisxli, romelic qveda Rru venas uerTdeba. amrigad, Tirkmlis arterias TirkmelSi Se-

aqvs nivTierebaTa cvlis produqtebiT mdidari sisxli, xolo Tirkmlis vena sxeuls `gawmendili~ sisxliT amaragebs.

nefroni

nefronis adgili TirkmelSi

Tirkmlis daklaknili milaki baumanis kafsula kapilaruli gorgali

arteria

filtracia _ pirveladi Sardis warmoqmna kafsulaSi: wyali, aminomJavebi, vitaminebi, glukoza, marilebi, Sardovana

vena

ukuSewova _ sisxlSi brundeba: wylis didi nawili, aminomJavebi, vitaminebi, glukoza, marilebi

Tirkmlis Semkrebi milaki

kapilaruli qseli

sur. 82

Sardis warmoqmna iwyeba kafsulebSi. rodesac sisxli wneviT moZraobs kapilarul gorgalSi, kafsulebSi sisxlidan gadadis wyalSi gaxsnili plazmis nivTierebebi iseTi, rogoricaa glukoza, Sardovana, marilebi da sxv. kafsulidan es siTxe gadadis Tirkmlis daklaknil milakebSi. ramdenadac kapilarebis kedelSi Zalian wvrili forebia, masSi ver gava cilebi, sisxlis formiani elementebi, anu xdeba filtracia. Tirkmlebi biologiuri filtris rols asruleben. orive Tirkmlis gamfiltravi zedapiris farTi 5-6 m2-ia. dReSi warmoiqmneba 180 l pirveladi Sardi. igi Seicavs sisxlis plazmaSi gaxsnil, cilebis garda, TiTqmis yvela nivTierebas. ramdenadac Cven arasodes

1154 54

gamovyofT dReSi 180 l Sards (maqsimalurad _ 2 l-s), amitom unda arsebobdes meqanizmi, romelic Seamcirebda pirveladi Sardis moculobas. es xdeba Tirkmlis daklaknil milakebSi, romelsac Semoxveuli aqvs kapilaruli qseli. masSi wylis didi nawili da organizmisaTvis saWiro nivTierebebi ukuSeiwoveba da brundeba sisxlSi. Tirkmlis daklaknili milakebidan meoradi Sardi, an ubralod Sardi xvdeba Tirkmlis Semkreb milakSi, romelic Tirkmlis menjSi ixsneba. aqedan Sardi dRe-Ramis ganmavlobaSi SardsawveTiT grovdeba Sardis buStSi. amrigad, Sardis warmoqmnas ori ZiriTadi procesi ganapirobebs: filtracia da ukuSewova (reabsorbcia).


1. Sardgamomyofi sistemis qvemoT mocemuli struqturebis CamonaTvali daalage iseTi TanmimdevrobiT, romelic sworad asaxavs Sardis warmoqmnisa da garemoSi gamoyofis process: 1. Tirkmlis daklaknili milakebi, 2. SardsawveTi, 3. Semkrebi milaki, 4. baumanis kafsula, 5. saSarde buSti, 6. Tirkmlis menji, 7. Sardsadeni. 2. romeli cvlis produqti gamoiyofa Tirkmlebis mier? 3. zrdasruli adamianis TirkmlebSi wuTSi daaxloebiT 1,2 l sisxli moZraobs. gamoTvale dRe-Ramis ganmavlobaSi TirkmlebSi gavlili sisxlis moculoba. 4. Seadare erTmaneTs pirveladi da meoradi Sardis Sedgeniloba. axseni ukuSewovis biologiuri roli.

Sardi

wyali

natriumis marilebi

glukoza

Sardovana

pirveladi Sardi

150 l

1500 g

180 g

50 g

meoradi Sardi/ Sardi

1,5 l

5g

umniSvnelo raodenoba

50 g

5. moiZie informacia Sardgamomyofi sistemis daavadebebis Sesaxeb da warmoadgine referati Semdegi gegmiT: • daavadebis dasaxeleba; • daavadebis simptomebi; • daavadebis gamomwvevi mizezebi; • daavadebis Tavidan acilebis saSualebebi; • gamoyenebuli literatura.

Tirkmeli specialur gamomyof organos rols asrulebs; Tirkmlebi cvlis produqtebidan garemoSi gamoyofs Sardovanas, Sardis mJavas da aregulirebs sisxlSi wylis raodenobas; Sardis warmoqmnas ori ZiriTadi procesi _ filtracia da ukuSewova _ ganapirobebs.

1155 15 55


3.23.

wylis balansis regulacia

ra biologiuri mniSvneloba aqvs organizmSi wylis balansis regulacias? sasicocxlo Tviseba _ wylis balansis regulacia; janmrTeloba da daavadeba _ Tirkmlis ukmarisoba, dializi, Tirkmlis gadanergva.

wyali yvelaze didi raodenobiTaa organizmSi da bevr funqcias asrulebs (gv. 121). igi Seni sxeulis 2/3-s Seadgens.

ujredebSi, sisxlis plazmaSi wyali gacilebiT metia, vidre sxva nivTierebebi. organizmi ganuwyvetliv kargavs wyals, amitom wylis raodenoba mudmivad unda Seivsos sxvadasxva gziT. saSualod dRis ganmavlobaSi miRebuli da dakarguli wylis raodenoba gamosaxulia qvemoT mocemul suraTze (sur. 83).

miRebuli wyali

dakarguli wyali

sasmelebi 1500 sm3

Sardi 1500 sm3 3

ofli 500 sm3

wyali sakvebSi 800 sm

sxeuli daaxloebiT 40·103 sm3 wylisgan Sedgeba

ujreduli sunTqvidan 200 sm3

amosunTquli haeri 400 sm3 ganavali 100 sm3

15·103 sm3 qsovilur siTxesa da plazmaSi

25·103 sm3 ujredebSi gaZlierebuli oflianobis dros gamoyofili Sardis moculoba mcirdeba. sur. 83

uwylod adamiani mxolod ramdenime dRe cocxlobs. amitom Zalian mniSvnelovania organizmSi wylis balansis SenarCuneba da regulacia. wylis balansis regulaciaSi mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs Tirkmlebi. davuSvaT, organizmma didi

raodenobiT miiRo garemodan wyali. Sedegad, Sesustdeba Tirkmlis daklaknil milakebSi wylis ukuSewova da Sardis moculoba gaizrdeba. sisxlSi wylis done normalur maCvenebels daubrundeba (sur. 84).

wylis balansis regulacia sisxlSi wylis donem moimata

sisxlSi wylis donem daiklo Tirkmelebi

Tirkmlis daklaknil milakebSi Semcirdeba wylis ukuSewova

gaizrdeba gamoyofili Sardis moculoba

Tirkmlis daklaknil milakebSi gaizrdeba wylis ukuSewova sisxlSi wylis normaluri done sur. 84

1156 56

Semcirdeba gamoyofili Sardis moculoba


infeqciis an ubeduri SemTxvevis Sedegad SeiZleba ise daziandes Tirkmlebi, rom xeli SeeSalos nefronis muSaobas. organizms ukve aRar SeuZlia warmoqmnili Sardis Sedgenilobisa da moculobis kontroli, amitom irRveva sisxlis plazmisa da qsoviluri siTxis Sedgenilobis optimaluri done, e.i. irRveva homeostazi. Tu saswrafod ar aRmoifxvra Tirkmlis ukmarisoba, es sicocxles saSiSroebas Seuqmnis. SesaZlebelia mkurnalobis ori varianti: Tirkmlis aparatis (xelovnuri Tirkmlis) saSualebiT dializi*; Tirkmlis transplantacia/gadanergva. dializi da xelovnuri Tirkmeli Tirkmlis aparatSi Sedis pacientis sisxli, romelsac aparati `asufTavebs~ (magaliTad, Sardovanasgan) da abrunebs pacientis sisxlis mimoqcevis wreSi. Tirkmlis gadanergva Tirkmlis gadanergva gulisxmobs erTi adamianis (donoris) janmrTeli Tirkmlis qirurgiuli gadacema Tirkmlis ukmarisobis mqone adamianze (recipienti). qirurgiuli teqnologiis TvalsazrisiT advilia donoris Tirkmlis Canergva recipientis sxeulSi. sirTule dakavSirebulia qsovilebis SeTavsebasTan. SeuTavsebadobis SemTxvevaSi recipientis imunuri sistema utevs donoris Tirkmels da nel-nela Slis mas, Tu mimRebi ar miiRebs Sesabamis medikamentebs am procesis dasaTrgunad. amitomaa, rom gulmodgined ikvleven da arCeven donorisa da recipientis sisxlis jgufebsa da qsovilis tipebs, rom Seamciron imunuri reaqciis uaryofiTi moqmedeba. Tirkmlis warmatebul gadanergvas aqvs upiratesoba dializiT mkurnalobasTan SedarebiT: Soreuli perspeqtiviT gadanergva ufri iafia, vidre wlebis ganmavlobaSi Catarebuli dializi; operaciis Semdeg pacientis sicocxle naklebad zaraldeba.

1. organizmma unda SeinarCunos wylis balansi. a) raSi sWirdeba organizms wyali? b) rogor iRebs adamiani wyals? g) rogor kargavs organizmi wyals? 2. 83-e suraTze mocemuli informaciis mixedviT gamoTvale miRebuli da dakarguli wylis moculoba. 3. rodis svams adamiani bevr wyals _ siciveSi Tu sicxeSi? ratom? 4. davuSvaT, rom adamianma didi xnis ganmavlobaSi ver miiRo wyali, an dakarga didi raodenobis siTxe. aRwere, rogor daaregulirebs adamiani Tirkmlebis saSualebiT wylis balanss sisxlis plazmaSi? 5. Tirkmlis ukmarisobis mkurnalobis ukeTes saSualebad ratom iTvleba Tirkmlis gadanergva, vidre dializi? 6. ra problema SeiZleba iyos dakavSirebuli Tirkmlis gadanergvasTan?

w wylis balansis regulaciazea damokidebuli adamianis sicocxle. wylis balansis regulaciaSi umniSvnelovaness rols asrulebs Tirkmlebi.

1157 15 57


3.24.

kani, rogorc gamomyofi organo

raSi gamoixateba kanis, rogorc gamomyofi organos roli? kanis struqtura _ epidermisi, derma, kanqveSa cximovani qsovili, saofle da cximovani jirkvlebi, Tma, mgrZnobiare ujredebi; kanis funqciebi _ damcvelobiTi, gamomyofi, mgrZnobelobiTi, Termoregulacia, samarago; kvleva _ kanis gamomyofi funqciis kvleva, TermoregulaciaSi kanqveSa cximovani Sris rolis kvleva.

adamianis organizmSi kani daaxloebiT 2 m2 farTobs ikavebs. kani organizms akavSirebs garemosTan da amave dros, icavs mas garemos zemoqmedebisgan. adamianis kani sami Srisgan Sedgeba (sur. 85): epidermisi, derma da kanqveSa cximovani qsovili (kanqveSa ujredisi). yvelaze zedapirul Sres _ epidermiss _ qmnis mravalSriani epiTeluri qsovili. igi Sedgeba gareTa mkvdari, garqovanebuli ujredebis Srisgan (sur. 85 (1)) da mis qveS mdebare cocxali ujredebis Srisgan (sur. 85 (2)). cocxali ujredebis Sris ujredebi Seicaven pigment melanins, romelic kans icavs ultraiisferi sxivebisgan. kanis Seferiloba damokidebulia kanSi pigment melaninis raodenobaze. cocxali ujredebis Sre1

mkvdari ujredebis Sre

2

cocxali ujredebis Sre

Si ultraiisferi sxivebis zemoqmedebiT warmoiqmneba D vitamini. epidermisis qveS moTavsebulia derma. dermas qmnis elastikuri boWkoebiT mdidari SemaerTebeli qsovili. dermaSi moTavsebulia kanis sxvadasxva struqtura. saofle jirkvlebi gamoyofen ofls, romlis 99% wyalia. saofle jirkvlebi dReSi saSualod 1 litramde ofls gamoyofen, xolo fizikuri muSaobis dros 10-jer metsac. oflis aorTqlebaze ixarjeba energia, amitom saofle jirkvlebi ara marto gamomyof funqcias asruleben, aramed monawileoben sxeulis temperaturis regulaciaSic. oflis arasasurveli suni gamowveulia oflSi baqteriebis gamravlebiT. cximovani jirkvlebis sadinari ixsneba kanze, rac kansa da Tmebs acximianebs, icavs maT dasvelebisgan, unarCunebs tens da aZlevs elastikurobas. dermas qveS kanqveSa cximovani qsovilia. igi Sinagan organoebs icavs wnevisa da ryevebisgan. aq cximi samaragod grovdeba. igi siTbos cudi gamtaria da asrulebs Termoizolatoris rols: icavs sxeuls siTbos dakargvisgan. cxrilSi (gv. 159) mocemulia kanis TiToeuli funqciis kavSiri kanis struqturul komponentTan.

1 2

epidermisi

sisxlis kapilarebi

cximovani jirkvali

derma

saofle jirkvlebi kanqveSa cximovani Sre

mgrZnobiare ujredebi

Tmis Ziri sur. 85

1158 58


kanis funqciebi damcvelobiTi _ icavs: • gamoSrobisgan; • meqanikuri dazianebisgan; • ultraiisferi sxivebisgan; • baqteriebisgan; • wnevisa da ryevebisgan.

kanis struqturuli komponenti • epidermisis garqovanebuli Sre; • epidermisis cocxali ujredebis SreSi pigmenti melanini; • kanqveSa cximovani Sre.

mgrZnobelobiTi organo

dermaSi arsebuli mgrZnobiare ujredebi

gamomyofi

saofle jirkvlebi cximovani jirkvlebi

samarago

kanqveSa cximovani qsovili

Termoregulacia

saofle jirkvlebi sisxlis kapilarebi kanqveSa cximovani qsovili

kanis mier gamomyofi funqciis dadastureba polieTilenis paketi an 800 ml moculobis minis qila, xelsaxoci. procedura: xeli Cade polieTilenis paketSi da meore xeliT daxure Ria mxare; anda xeli moaTavse qilaSi da qilas daaxure xelsaxoci; 10 wuTis ganmavlobaSi daakvirdi xels da paketis/qilis Sida zedapirs; analizi da daskvna: ra SeniSne paketis/qilis Sida zedapirze? raze miuTiTebs es faqti? gamoitane daskvna: asrulebs Tu ara kani gamomyofi organos rols?

ra mniSvneloba aqvs Termoregulacias? homeostazi ara marto Sinagani garemos qimiuri Sedgenilobis mudmivobas niSnavs, aramed mudmivi temperaturis SenarCunebasac. sxeulis Sinagan temperaturas didi mniSvneloba aqvs fiziologiuri procesebis mimdinareobisTvis. magaliTad, fermentebis aqtivoba damokidebulia temperaturaze da Tu temperatura mkveTrad gadaixara optimaluri mniSvnelobidan, fermenti SeiZleba daiSalos

da Sewyvitos moqmedeba; aseve, nivTierebaTa transporti garemodan ujredSi da, piriqiT, didadaa damokidebuli temperaturaze da sxv. amitom didi mniSvneloba aqvs organizmebSi Sinagani temperaturis TviTregulaciis unaris ganviTarebas. am unaris mixedviT, rogorc ukve ici me-7 klasidan, cxoveluri organizmebi or jgufad iyofa _ civsisxlianebad (ar aqvT Sinagani

1. daasaxele kanis funqciebi. 2. cvlis romeli komponentebi gamoiyofa saofle jirkvlebiT? 3. ra wesebi unda davicvaT mzeze garujvis dros? ratom?

1159 15 59


temperaturis kontrolis/TviTregulaciis unari) da Tbilsisxlianebad (aqvT Sinagani temperaturis kontrolis/TviT-

regulaciis unari). Tbilsisxlianebi arian frinvelebi da ZuZumwovrebi.

ra rols asrulebs kani organizmis TermoregulaciaSi? ra aris organizmSi Sinagani temperaturis _ siTbos ZiriTadi wyaro? rasakvirvelia, siTbos ZiriTadi wyaro aris ujreduli sunTqva, romlis drosac gamoyofili energiis nawili xmardeba organizmis Sinagani temperaturis Seqmnas. magram mxolod es ver uzrunvelyofs

mudmivi temperaturis SenarCunebas da TermoregulaciaSi monawileobs sxvadasxva organoTa sistema. maTgan umniSvnelovanes rols asrulebs kani. sxeulsa da garemos Soris barieris roli akisria kans, romlis saSualebiTac xdeba rogorc siTbos gacema, ise SenarCuneba (sur. 86).

Tboregulaciis meqanizmi I

II

1

1 2

2

I _ garemoSi maRali temperaturaa: 1. ofli gamoiyofa, romlis aorTqlebazec energia ixarjeba; 2. sisxlis kapilarebi farTovdeba da sxeuli siTbos gascems.

II _ garemoSi dabali temperaturaa: 1. ofli ar gamoiyofa; 2. sisxlis kapilarebi viwrovdeba da sxeulis mier siTbos gacema mcirdeba;

garemoSi maRali temperaturaa

garemoSi dabali temperaturaa

organizmis reaqcia • • • •

kanSi sisxlZarRvebi farTovdeba; ofli gamoiyofa; siTbos gacema izrdeba; Sinagan organoebSi ujreduli sunTqva mcirdeba.

• • • •

sxeulis normaluri temperatura

sur. 86

1160 60

kanSi sisxlZarRvebi viwrovdeba; ofli ar gamoiyofa; siTbos gacema mcirdeba; Sinagan organoebSi ujreduli sunTqva Zlierdeba.


kanqveSa cximovani qsovilis funqciis kvleva sakvlevi kiTxva: ra roli aqvs kanqveSa cximovan qsovils sxeulis temperaturis regulaciaSi? gamoTqvi varaudi: saWiro masala: 2 sinjara, 2 wylis Termometri, yinuliani wylis abazana, zeTiani qimiuri Wiqa, carieli qimiuri Wiqa, 35°C-mde gamTbari wyali. procedura aiRe ori sinjara da TiToeul maTganSi Tanabari raodenobiT Caasxi Tbili wyali; oriveSi moaTavse wylis Termometri da aRniSne temperatura; erTi sinjara Cade zeTian WiqaSi da ise Cadgi yinulian abazanaSi, xolo meore cariel WiqaSi moaTavse da ise Cadgi yinulian abazanaSi; 30 wuTis ganmavlobaSi yovel 10 wuTSi gazome temperatura sinjarebSi da monacemebi CainiSne. Termometri

zeTi

Tbili wyali

analizi da daskvna: romel sinjaraSi Semcirda wylis temperatura ufro swrafad? ra aris droSi temperaturis Semcirebis gansxvavebis mizezi? daukavSire Sedegi kanis agebulebas da gaakeTe daskvna kanqveSa cximovani qsovilis rolis Sesaxeb.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

ra mniSvneloba aqvs organizmisTvis mudmivi Sinagani temperaturis SenarCunebas? rogor iRebs sxeuli siTbos? kanis romeli struqturebi monawileoben sxeulis temperaturis kontrolSi? 86-e suraTis mixedviT aRwere organizmis reaqcia garemoSi temperaturis cvlilebaze. oflis aorTqleba ratom uwyobs xels sxeulis mier siTbos gacemas? kanqveSa cximovani Sre rogor exmareba sxeuls temperaturis kontrolSi?

kani sxeulis umniSvnelovanesi nawilia; kani mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs, rogorc gamomyofi organo da rogorc sxeulis temperaturis makontrolebeli organo.

161 161


3-4 Temis Sejameba Temis mimoxilva mTavari ideebi •

organizmis arseboba damokidebulia mudmivad mimdinare nivTierebaTa da energiis cvlaze;

nivTierebaTa cvla aris nivTierebis qimiuri gardaqmnebis procesebis erToblioba am nivTierebis organizmSi moxvedris momentidan cvlis saboloo produqtebis garemoSi gamoyofis CaTvliT;

organizmSi nivTierebaTa transports da organizmsa da garemos Soris nivTierebaTa mimocvlas uzrunvelyofs sisxlis, sunTqvis, saWmlis monelebisa da gamomyofi sistemebis erToblivi da SeTanxmebuli moqmedeba;

Tirkmeli specialur gamomyof organos rols asrulebs, romelic cvlis produqtebidan garemoSi gamoyofs Sardovanas, Sardis mJavas da aregulirebs sisxlSi wylis raodenobas;

wylis balansis regulaciazea damokidebuli adamianis sicocxle;

kani mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs, rogorc gamomyofi organo da rogorc sxeulis temperaturis makontrolebeli organo.

davalebebi TviTSefasebisTvis testuri davalebebi (pasuxebi CainiSne rveulSi) 1. romeli organoebi asruleben gamomyofi organos funqcias? a. kani da guli; b. filtvebi da guli; g. RviZli da pankreasi; d. filtvebi da Tirkmlebi. 2. Tirkmlis funqciur erTeuls warmoadgens: a. nefroni; b. baumanis kafsula; g. SarsawveTi; d. kapilaruli gorgali. 3. TirkmlebSi filtraciis procesi mimdinareobs: a. Tirkmlis daklaknil milakSi; b. Semkreb milakSi; g. baumanis kafsulaSi; d. saSarde buStSi.

162


4. nivTierebaTa cvla es aris: a. nivTierebaTa Sesvla garemodan organizmSi; b. mounelebeli sakvebis narCenebis garemoSi gamoyofa; g. cvlis saboloo produqtebis garemoSi gamoyofa; d. nivTierebis qimiuri gardaqmnebis procesebis erToblioba am nivTierebis organizmSi moxvedris momentidan cvlis saboloo produqtebis garemoSi gamoyofis CaTvliT. 5. Tirkmlebis funqciebia: a. organizmidan gamoaqvs glukoza; b. organizmidan gamoyofs mounelebeli sakvebis narCenebs; g. organizmidan gamoyofs Sardovanasa da Warb wyals; d. glukozas glikogenad gardaqmnis. 6. garemoSi acivebisas: a. kanSi sisxlZarRvebi viwrovdeba; b. kanSi sisxlZarRvebi farTovdeba; g. sisxlZarRvebis sanaTuri ar icvleba; d. kanSi sisxlZarRvebi SeiZleba gafarTovdes an Seviwrovdes. 7.

ultraiisferi sxivebis gavleniT adamianis kanSi SeiZleba warmoiqmnas: a. D vitamini; b. kanqveSa cximovani Sre; g. C vitamini; d. qolesterini.

8. cximovani jirkvlebis funqciaa: a. sxeulis zedapiris gagrileba; b. kanisa da TmisTvis elastikurobis miniWeba; g. baqteriebisgan dacva; d. nawilobriv Tirkmlis funqciis Sesruleba. 9. saofle jirkvlebi gamoyofen: a. wyals; b. Sardovanas; g. marilebs; d. yvela CamoTvlils. 10. sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema organizms exmareba sxeulis stabiluri temperaturis SenarCunebaSi fizikuri varjiSis dros. qvemoT mocemuli romeli debuleba aRwers yvelaze ukeTesad am process? a. kunTebis mier gamoyofil siTbos STanTqavs sisxli, sadac grildeba; b. kunTebidan Warbi siTbo sisxls miaqvs kanSi, saidanac garemoSi gamoiyofa; g. sisxlisa da limfis sistemebi erTad muSaoben, rom gaagrilon kunTebi; d. kunTebidan Warbi siTbo gadaitaneba gulsa da filtvebSi, sadac grildeba.

163


davalebebi kritikuli da SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebisTvis 1. axseni, Tirkmlis ukmarisobam ratom SeiZleba gamoiwvios adamianis sikvdili maSin, rodesac guli jer kidev Zlierad muSaobs? 2. cxel dRes SardSi wylis raodenoba gazrdili iqneba, Tu Semcirebuli? áƒ?xseni Seni pasuxi. 3. warmoidgine, rom xar studenti-mediki da Sens profesors ainteresebs Sengan pasuxi, ra daemarTeba pacients, romelsac Tirkmlis arteriebi Zlierad Seuviwrovda. Camoayalibe Seni pasuxi. 4. Teoriuli gamoTvlebi aCvenebs, rom 1 saaTis ganmavlobaSi fexburTis aqtiurma TamaSma sportsmenis sxeulis temperatura 11,5°C-iT SeiZleba gazardos. praqtikulad ki ase ar xdeba. axseni, ratom? vizualuri masalis gansja 1. romeli suraTi aRwers kanSi sisxlis kapilarebis gafarToebas da rogor garemo pirobebSi xdeba es procesi?

2. suraTze amoicani cifrebiT (1, 2-3, 4) aRniSnuli nefronis struqturebi da aRwere TiToeulis funqcia Sardis warmoqmnis procesSi. 2

3

1

4

164


terminebsa da cnebebs Soris kavSiris dadgena terminebs Soris damokidebuleba 1. qvemoT mocemul terminebis yovel nakrebSi sami erTmaneTTan kavSirSia, xolo erTi termini ar miekuTvneba maT. gansazRvre, ra aqvs saerTo sam termins da Semdeg ki ipove termini, romelsac maTTan kavSiri ar aqvs. 1) naxSirorJangi, saxamebeli, wyali, Sardovana; 2) SardsawveTi, saSarde buSti, nefroni, Sardsadeni; 3) baumanis kafsula, Tirkmlis menji, Tirkmlis daklaknili milaki, Tirkmlis Semkrebi milaki; 4) saofle jirkvlebi, cximovani jirkvlebi, sisxlis kapilarebi, epiTeluri qsovili. 2. qvemoT mocemuli terminebis yoveli wyvilisTvis dawere winadadeba, romelic asaxavs am or termins Soris kavSirs. magaliTad, arteriuli sisxli, venuri sisxli: arteriuli sisxli JangbadiTaa mdidari, xolo venuri _ naxSirorJangiT. 1) baumanis kafsula, filtracia; 2) Tirkmlis daklaknili milaki, ukuSewova; 3) saofle jirkvlebi, gamoyofa; 4) kani, Termoregulacia. sakvanZo samecniero terminebis gamoyeneba 1. waikiTxeT teqsti da gamotovebul adgilze CasviT Sesabamisi sityvebi: 1. energiis, 2. saWmlis momnelebeli sistema, 3.cilebi, 4. saSeni, 5. naxSirwylebi, 6 sakvebi nivTierebebi, 7. cximebi, 8. ujredebi, 9. naxSirorJangi, 10. ujreduli sunTqva, 11. wyali, 12. Sardovana. organizms ganuwyvetliv sWirdeba , rogorc masala da wyaro. sakvebi nivTierebebis meqanikuri da qimiuri gardaqmna xdeba . monelebuli sakvebi nivTierebebi sisxlisa da limfis saSualebiT miitaneba yvela , sadac maTgan warmoiqmneba organizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli nivTierebebi , da . sakvebi nivTierebebis nawili CaerTveba Si, ris Sedegadac warmoiqmneba cvlis saboloo produqtebi da gamoiyofa energia. naxSirwylebisa da cximebis cvlis saboloo produqtebia da , xolo cilebis saboloo cvlis produqtebia , da . sworia Tu mcdari? gansazRvre yoveli debuleba/mtkicebuleba sworia Tu mcdari. Tu sworia, dawere `sworia~, Tu mcdaria, gaxazuli sityva Secvale iseTi sityviT an sityvebiT, rom mtkicebuleba swori iyos! 1) msuqani adamianebi yinvaSi ufro advilad civdebian, vidre gamxdari. 2) gaZlierebuli oflianobisas mcirdeba Tirkmlebis funqcionireba.

165


3) Sardi Tirkmlidan saSarde buStSi Cadis SardsadeniT. 4) baumanis kafsulaSi kapilarebis qsels ewodeba nefroni. 5) TirkmelebSi wylisa da organizmisaTvis sxva saWiro nivTierebebis ukuSewova xdeba Semkreb milakSi. monacemebis organizeba sqemebSi qvemoT mocemuli sqema gadaitane rveulSi da daasrule:

cvlis saboloo produqtebi , miaqvs , organoebSi

sakvebis cilebi

cilebis moneleba iwyeba

Warbi cilebi iSleba , , da

mTavrdeba da warmoiqmneba

aminomJavebs Seiwovs epiTeluri ujredebi da miaqvs ujredebSi

166

.

ujredebSi aminomJavebisgan warmoiqmneba organizmisaTvis saWiro


Tema

4. janmrTeloba da mavne Cvevebi

mavnea mravaljer avtomaturad ganmeorebadi qmedeba, romelsac Tan sdevs rogorc sazogadoebisTvis, ise Tavad am qmedebis Semsrulebeli pirisTvis uaryofiTi Sedegebi. amgvari avtomaturi qmedebebi meordeba, radgan maTi gavlenis qveS moqceuli adamiani, susti nebisyofis gamo, ver axerxebs maTze uaris Tqmas. amgvar qmedebebs mavne Cvevebs uwodeben da medicinaSi daavadebad an paTologiur damokidebulebad ganixilaven. ras SeiZleba vuwodoT mavne Cveva? mavne Cvevaa: alkoholizmi, Tambaqos weva, medikamentebis aradaniSnulebisamebr xSiri gamoyeneba, azartul TamaSebze damokidebuleba, sakvebis Warbi miReba da swrafi kvebis obieqtebiT xSiri sargebloba, teledamokidebuleba, internetdamokidebuleba, frCxilebis kvneta, fanqris an kalmis RrRna da sxva. adamiani Tavisi sicocxlis manZilze ara mxolod karg da sasargeblo Cvevebs iZens, aramed mavnesac da es Cvevebi gansazRvraven mis yofas/socialur statuss. individualuria mavne CveviT gamowveuli problemis sixSire da xarisxi. Sen am TemaSi gaecnobi yvelaze gavrcelebul im mavne Cvevebs, romelic saxelmZRvanelos Tematikas Seesabameba. pasuxs gascem iseT SekiTxvebs, rogoricaa: • rogor SeiZleba Seicvalos mavne Cvevebis Sedegad Cemi garegnoba? • rogor SeiZleba aisaxos adamianis janmrTelobaze e.w. `swrafi kvebiT~ xSiri sargebloba? • rogor SeiZleba aisaxos mavne nivTierebebis mimarT damokidebulebis Camoyalibeba adamianis janmrTelobaze? • rogor gvexmareba fizikuri aqtivoba janmrTelobis SenarCunebaSi?

167


4.1.

Tambaqos moxmarebis gavlena janmrTelobaze

ra ziani moaqvs Tambaqos mowevas adamianisaTvis? janmrTeloba da daavadeba: Tambaqos sigaretis bolSi Semavali mavne nivTierebebi da maTi uaryofiTi gavlena adamianis janmrTelobaze.

Zalian bevr sareklamo kampaniaSi miTiTebulia, rom moweva sazianoa janmrTelobisTvis. Tambaqos sigaretebis mwarmoeblebi kolofebze akeTeben gamafrTxilebel warwerebs, magaliTad: `moweva

seriozul zians ayenebs Tqvens janmrTelobas~. sicocxlis damzRvevi kompaniebi Cveulebriv ekiTxebian dazRvevis msurvels: `Tqven eweviT?~, imitom rom mwevelebi ufro adreul asakSi ixocebian. mwevelebis didi nawili odesme dgeba arCevanis winaSe _ ra aris misTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovani: moweva Tu janmrTeloba da sicocxle. yvelam unda icodes Tambaqos moweviT gamowveuli SesaZlo Sedegebi.

ramdenad mavnea Tambaqos moxmareba? mcenare Tambaqos foTlebidan amzadeben sigarets. sigaretis mweveli CaisunTqavs Tambaqosa da qaRaldis wvis Sedegad warmoqmnil bols. es boli, upirvelesad azianebs filtvebsa da sasunTq gzebs mTeli rigi mizezebis gamo: 1) sigaretis wvis Sedegad gamowveuli maRali temperatura; 2) aqvs gamoSrobis efeqti; 3) sigaretis boli bevr mavne qimiur nivTierebas Seicavs. maRali temperatura da simSrale azianebs filtvebs, magram mowevis riskebi ZiriTadad dakavSirebulia Tambaqos sigaretis bolSi arsebul qimiur nivTierebebTan. Tambaqos sigaretis bolSi aRmoCenilia 1000-mde qimiuri nivTiereba. maT Soris: fisi, naxSirJangi (mxuTavi airi), nikotini, mcire raodenobiT dariSxani, amiaki, webo da sxva momwamvleli nivTiereba. rodesac eqimebi filtvis daavadebas mkurnaloben wamlebiT, am wamals aZleven aerozolis saxiT, radgan aero-

zolSi arsebul wylis wveTebs wamali advilad Seaqvs sasunTqi gzebis gavliT Rrmad filtvebSi. Tambaqos wvis Sedegadac warmoiqmneba wylis wveTebi, romelsac filtvebamde iseve advilad miaqvs mavne nivTierebebi, rogorc aerozols _ wamali. Znelia filtvebSi mavne nivTierebebis moxvedris sxva iseTi efeqturi saSualebis povna, rogorc Tambaqos mowevaa! Tambaqos moweva yvela organoTa sistemaze moqmedebs (sur. 87), radgan: • nikotini iwvevs sisxlZarRvebis Seviwroebas da organoebi veRar maragdebian saWiro raodenobis JangbadiTa da sakvebi nivTierebebiT; • Tambaqos bolSi arsebuli mxuTavi airi amcirebs sisxlSi Jangbads da, Sesabamisad, organoebis momaragebas JangbadiT; • sigaretis bolis Sxamiani nivTierebebi da smogi* sxvadasxva organoebSi iwvevs avTvisebian simsivnes _ kibos*.

ratom aris rTuli Tambaqos mowevis mitoveba? Tambaqos bolSi Semavali nivTierebebidan erT-erTi yvelaze saSiSi nivTiereba nikotini aramarto pirdapir gavlenas axdens sxvadasxva organoze, aramed adamians xdis mowevaze damokidebuls. damokidebuleba ori saxis arsebobs: • fizikuri damokidebulebisas organizms ar SeuZlia normaluri funqcionireba qimiuri nivTierebis gareSe.

1168 68


• fsiqologiuri damokidebulebis Camoyalibebisas adamiani mowevas ukavSirebs komforts an stresTan gamklavebas _ rodesac stresul mdgomareobaSia, igi avtomaturad iwyebs sigaretis mowevas.

Tambaqos moxmarebis gavlena adamianis janmrTelobaze nikotini aCqarebs gulis cemas da amavdroulad, aviwroebs sisxlZarRvebs. es ori efeqti iwvevs sisxlis wnevis momatebas. momatebuli gulis cemis sixSire zrdis Jangbadisadmi moTxovnilebas, magram Tambaqos bolSi arsebuli mxuTavi airi amcirebs garemodan sisxlSi Jangbadis SeTvisebas, rac azianebs gvirgvinovan arteriebs da gulis kunTs.

nikotinis gavleniT aqtiuri mwevelebis sisxlZarRvebi TiTqmis mudmivad Seviwroebulia, rac aferxebs qsovilebis momaragebas sisxliT, gansakuTrebiT qvemo kidurebSi.

nikotini azianebs epiTelur qsovils, wamwamebs, rac imas niSnavs, rom lorwo grovdeba sasunTq gzebSi, masTan erTad mtveri da mikrobebi, es iwvevs xvelebas, bronqits, mikrobebi iWrebian filtvebSi da iwveven filtvis anTebas. am daavadebebiT 20-jer ufro xSirad avaddebian mwevelebi.

Tambaqos mwevelebis filtvebi kargaven elastikurobas, rac amcirebs maT sasicocxlo tevadobasa da ventilacias.

nikotinis moqmedeba piris Rrudanve iwyeba: kbili iRebs moyviTalo fers, azianebs emals da viTardeba kariesi; iwvevs RrZilebis anTebas.

1

nikotini mwevelebs ukargavs madas, iwvevs saWmlis monelebis moSlas, mkveTrad matulobs kuWis wvenis sekrecia, rac mwevelebSi 2-3-jer zrdis kuWis wylulis ganviTarebas. Tambaqos wevis niadagze kibo viTaredeba piris RruSi, xaxasa da saylapav milSi. Tambaqos mwevelebi sistematurad nerwyvTan erTad ylapaven da kuWSi xvdeba Tambaqos sigaretis wvis iseTi produqtebi, romlebic kuWis kibos iwveven.

2

smogi (Wvartli) iwvevs xorxis, filtvebis kibos. filtvis kiboTi daavadebis Sansi mwevelebSi 10-jer ufro metia, vidre aramwevelebSi. suraTze janmrTeli filtvi (1) da kiboTi daavadebuli mwevelis filtvi (2).

sur. 87

1. ratomaa Tambaqos boli saziano sxvadasxva organosTvis? 2. 87-e suraTze mocemuli informaciis safuZvelze aRwere Tambaqos moxmarebis gavlena adamianis janmrTelobaze. 3. sunTqvis organoebis infeqciebiT ratom avaddebian ufro xSirad mwevelebi, vidre aramwevelebi? 4. ratomaa Zneli Tambaqos moxmarebaze uaris Tqma? 5. ra gansxvavebaa fizikur da fsiqologiur damokidebulebas Soris? 6. jgufTan erTad SeimuSave rekomendaciebi mwevelebisTvis, rom daZlion damokidebuleba.

1169 16 69


saidan viciT, rom moweva iwvevs daavadebebs? mecnierebi, janmrTelobis dacvis organizaciebi ikvleven mwevelebis raodenobas, amuSaveben statistikur monacemebs da adgenen sxvadasxva daavadebis kavSirs Tambaqos moxmarebasTan (sur. 88 .da 89). statistikuri monacemebis Tanaxmad, msoflioSi saSualo asakis sami gar-

dacvlili mamakacidan erTi sigaretis mowevis msxverplia, xolo qalebSi rva gardacvlili qalidan _ erTi. amitom janmrTelobis dacvis msoflio organizaciam aseTi `ganaCeni~ gamoutana Tambaqos: `Tambaqo saocrad gavrcelebuli momakvdinebeli iaraRia!~

filtvis koboTi daavadebis riski

55 da meti asakis cocxali adamianis %

x35

100 90 80 70 60

x30 x25 x20

50 40 30 20 10

x15 x10 x5 1 0 0

aramweveli

aramweveli mweveli

0 10

20

30

40

55

60 65 70 75

80 85

sur. 88

90 95 asaki (wlebi)

dRis ganmavlobaSi moweuli sigaretis Reris raodenoba sur. 89

7. 88-e suraTis mixedviT gaaanalize grafikze mocemuli informacia da upasuxe kiTxvebs: a) monacemebi, amtkicebs Tu ara mowevis kavSirs filtvebis kibosTan? b) aramwevelTan SedarebiT ramdenad maRalia filtvis kiboTi daavadebis riski adamianSi, romelic dReSi 25 Rer sigarets eweva? 8. 89-e suraTis mixedviT grafikze mocemuli informaciis safuZvelze gansazRvre: a) rogoraa damokidebuli 55 welze meti asakis cocxali adamianebis raodenoba Tambaqos mowevaze? b) 80 wlis asaks mweveli adamianebis ramdeni % aRwevs? aramwevelebis? 9. saqarTveloSi mozardebis mier Tambaqos moxmarebis statistikis mixedviT _ 13-15 wlis moswavleTa 7% (10% biWi da 4% gogo) da 16 wlis moswavleTa 18% (26% biWi da 9% gogo) sigaretis mwevelia. am monacemebis safuZvelze aage svetebiani diagrama. 10. jgufTan erTad SearCie sakiTxebidan erT-erTi, moiZie Sesabamisi informacia da warmoadgine posteris an eleqtronuli prezentaciis saxiT: 1) mcenare Tambaqos samSoblo da misi evropaSi Semotanis istoria; 2) Tambaqos mowevis istoria; 3) Tambaqos moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo regulaciebi; 4) mozardebSi Tambaqos moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo regulaciebi. 11. Seqmeni Tambaqos moxmarebis sawinaaRmdego sareklamo posteri.

1170 70


sigaretis bolis Sedgenilobis kvleva saWiro masala: qimiuri kolba kiriani wyliT, Stativi, mili orive boloSi sacobiT, bamba, sigareti. bamba

kiriani wyali

procedura: aawye aparati, rogorc suraTzea mocemuli; sigarets moukide asanTi; ramdenime wuTis ganmavlobaSi gaxseni onkani, romelic Semwovis rols asrulebs, Tambaqos boli gaivlis aparaturaSi; daakvirdi, ra cvlilebebs ganicdis bamba da kiriani wyali kolbaSi. analizi da daskvna: raze miuTiTebs bambis feris Secvla? raze miuTiTebs kiriani wylis SemRvreva? gaakeTe daskvna: ras Seicavs sigaretis boli?

mozardebSi Tambaqos moxmarebisa da misi mizezebis kvleva Camoayalibe sakvlevi kiTxva; Seqmeni kiTxvari Tanatolebis gamokiTxvisTvis, riTac daadgen: a) Seni Tanatolebi ewevian Tu ara Tambaqos, Tu ewevian _ ra sixSiriT; b) rogor moipoveben sigarets; g) sad, ra garemoSi ewevian sigarets; d) ra ician Tambaqos mowevis mavneblobis Sesaxeb; e) ratom daiwyes sigaretis moweva. daamuSave gamokiTxvis Sedegebi da warmoadgine saTanado formiT.

Tambaqos moxmareba iwvevs adamianis fizikur da fsiqologiur damokidebulebas; Tambaqos moweva, praqtikulad, yvela organoze uaryofiTad moqmedebs; Tambaqos aqtiuri mwevelebi sicocxles did safrTxes uqmnian.

171 171


4.2.

alkoholis moxmarebis gavlena janmrTelobaze

rogor SeiZleba aisaxos alkoholis moxmareba adamianis janmrTelobaze? struqtura da funqcia _ alkoholis gavlena sxvadasxva organos janmrTelobaze; janmrTeloba da daavadeba _ kuWis wyluli, cirozi, organizmis dehidratacia; kvleva _ mozardebSi alkoholis moxmarebis xarisxis dadgena.

alkoholi yvelaze farTod gamoyenebadi narkotikuli nivTierebaa. igi bevr qveyanaSi, maT Soris saqarTveloSi, legalurad xelmisawvdomia zrdasruli mosaxleobisaTvis. arasrulwlovanisaTvis alkoholis miyidva kanoniT akrZalu-

lia. samwuxarod, arasrulwlovanebs mainc aqvT wvdoma alkoholze, rac mozardebis mier alkoholis moxmarebisadmi ufrosebis mxridan araseriozuli damokidebulebis, uyuradRebobisa da maRaziebis mier kanondarRvevis bralia xolme. alkoholis gadaWarbebulma moxmarebam SeiZleba didi ziani moutanos adamians. bevri adamiani ver acnobierebs, ramden alkohols moixmars da ra gavlenas axdens igi mis janmrTelobaze. qvemoT mocemuli informacia (sur. 90) xsnis, Tu ra gavlenas axdens alkoholze damokidebuleba sxvadasxva organoze.

alkoholis Warbad moxmarebis gavlena adamianis janmrTelobaze iwvevs anemias (alkoholi wamlavs Zvlis wiTeli tvins) da aZlierebs arteriis kedlebze cximebis daleqvas.

kanis sisxlZarRvebi farTovdeba alkoholis gavleniT, amitom Tbili sisxli miedineba kanisken. sxeuli siTbos SeigrZnobs da komfortulad grZnobs Tavs, magram es aris droebiTi SegrZneba da garemoSi dabali temperaturis dros SesaZlebelia sxeulis gadaciveba.

nawlavebs aRizianebs, iwvevs kuW-nawlavis moqmedebis darRvevas, Rebinebas, diareas da wyluls.

enisa da saylapavi milis kibo gacilebiT xSiria alkoholizmiT daavadebul adamianebSi (gansakuTrebiT, Tu isini Tambaqos mwevelebic arian).

RviZlis ujredebi datvirTviT muSaoben, rom moaxdinon alkoholis detoqsikacia. Warbi alkoholis zemoqmedebiT ziandeba RviZlis ujredebi da iwvevs cirozs: RviZlis funqciebi irRveva.

TirkmlebSi ferxdeba wylis ukuSewova, Sesabamisad, organizmidan gamoiyofa didi raodenobis wyali, rac iwvevs organizmis gauwyloebas/dehidratacias (amitom axasiaTebs nabaxusevze* adamians Tavis tkivili). sur. 90

1172 72


1. 90-e suraTze mocemuli informaciis mixedviT, aRwere alkoholze damokidebulebam ra gavlena SeiZleba moaxdinos adamianis janmrTelobaze. 2. Seiswavle qvemoT mocemuli monacemTa cxrili. masSi naCvenebia sikvdilianobis maCvenebeli parizSi 1934-1966 wlebSi. meore msoflio omis periodSi qveyanaSi Semcirda Rvinis warmoeba da 1950 wlamde normas ar dabrunebia. a) am monacemebis mixedviT aage grafiki. b) monacemebi metyveleben raime kavSirze cirozsa da alkoholis moxmarebas Soris? Seni pasuxi ganamtkice cxrilSi mocemuli ricxvebiT. sikvdilianoba (ricxvi 100 000 macxovrebelze)

wlebi

yvela mizezi 1000 1010 1435 1100 1000 998 1012 1000 1188

1934 1938 1942 1946 1950 1952 1958 1962 1966

RviZlis cirozi 45 44 6 7 23 35 43 42 45

3. daakvirdi diagramas, romelic uCvenebs TirkmelebSi warmoqmnili Sardisa (lurji) da adamianis mier miRebuli alkoholis (wiTeli) moculobas (pirobiT erTeulebSi). a) axseni, rogoria damokidebuleba miRebuli alkoholisa da gamoyofili Sardis moculobebs Soris. b) rogor aisaxeba es adamianis janmrTelobaze? 40 30 20 10 0 1

2

3

4

5

mozardebSi alkoholis moxmarebis xarisxis dadgena Sen unda daadgino: a. moixmaren Tu ara Seni Tanatolebi alkohols, ra sixSiriT da raodenobiT; b) ician Tu ara maT alkoholis mavneobis Sesaxeb? g) ra saxiT aqvT wvdoma alkoholze, sad moipoveben mas? gamokiTxvis Sedegebis mixedviT imsjele, ra xelSemwyobi pirobebia Sens sacxovrisSi mozardebisTvis alkoholis moxmarebis kuTxiT. gamokiTxvis Sedegebi warmoadgine Sesabamisi diagramis mixedviT.

alkoholze damokidebuleba uaryofiTad moqmedebs adamianis yvela organoTa sistemaze, mis fsiqikasa da socialur aqtivobaze; cxovrebis jansaRi wesi ganapirobebs ara mxolod organizmis janmrTelobas, aramed pirovnebis socialur warmatebas.

1173 17 73


4.3.

jansaRi kveba da kvebiTi darRvevebi

ra gavlenas axdens adamianis janmrTelobaze araswori kveba? struqtura da funqcia _ araswori kvebis gavlena mozardis zrda-ganviTarebaze; janmrTeloba da daavadeba _ araswori kvebiT gamowveuli kvebiTi darRvevebi _ anoreqsia, simsuqne; kvleva _ sakuTari sxeulis masis indeqsis gamoTvla; mza produqtebis etiketebze mocemuli informaciis damuSaveba.

janmrTelobisa da kargi guneba-ganwyobilebis safuZveli aris jansaRi _ mravalferovani da dabalansebuli _ kveba. termini `dabalansebuli~ niSnavs, rom miRebuli sakvebi Seicavs sicocxlisaTvis aucilebel yvela sakveb nivTierebas saWiro raodenobiT. am moTxovnilebas ar akmayofilebs arcerTi calke aRebuli romelime sakvebi produqti. yoveli sakvebi produqti Seicavs aucilebeli sakvebi nivTierebebis mxolod nawils. `kvebis seqtorul diagramaze~ (sur. 91) sakvebi produqtebi 8 jgufadaa dayofili. Seni kveba jansaRad CaiTvleba, Tu Sen, yovel dRe Tu ara, kviris ganmavlobaSi mainc, TiToeuli jgufidan moixmar sakveb produqts.

ras niSnavs araswori kveba? araswori kveba niSnavs: zogadad, bevri an Zalian cota sakvebis moxmarebas.

xangrZlivad erTferovan kvebas _ zogierT sakveb nivTierebas organizmi Warbad, sxva saWiro nivTierebas ki saerTod ver iRebs. sakvebis miRebas araswori proporciiT, magaliTad: 1) tkbileulisa da Saqris Warbad miRebas, radgan zedmeti naxSirwylebi organizmSi cximebad gardaiqmneba da grovdeba; 2) cximisa da cximiT mdidari produqtebis miReba (cximebs organizmi ganusazRvreli raodenobiT igrovebs kanqveS da badeqonis saxiT muclis RruSi); 3) xil-bostneulis naklebi raodenobiT moxmareba. Tu sakvebi imaze metad an naklebad kaloriulia, vidre sWirdeba organizms. dRis ganmavlobaSi erTbaSad bevri sakvebis miRebas, miT ufro didi intervalebiT. moxarSulze metad Semwvar-moxrakuli sakvebis moxmarebas. swrafad Wamas, kvebis dros sxva saqmianobiT dakavebas, magaliTad, kiTxviT, telefoniT saubriT, televizoris yurebiT da sxv. swrafi kvebis obieqtebiT xSir sargeblobas. iseTi mza sakvebi produqtebis xSir moxmarebas, romelic sakveb danamatebs Seicavs.

marcvleuli produqtebi xili tkbileuli cxoveluri da mcenareuli cximebi xorci sasmeli rZis nawarmi bostneuli sur. 91

1174 74


ra aris sakvebi danamatebi? aqamde, ZiriTadad, vsaubrobdiT axal produqtebze, magram Cven aseve mivirTmevT mza da dakonservebul produqtebs. adamianma produqtebis damuSavebisa da Senaxvis bevri meTodi SeimuSava, magaliTad, damarileba, Sebolva da sxva. sakvebis damuSaveba iwvevs zogierTi misi sakvebi nivTierebis daSlas. aseve, produqtma damuSavebis procesSi SeiZleba dakargos

Tavisi mimzidveloba. amitom sakvebis ferisa da gemos gasaumjobeseblad dRes kvebis mrewvelobaSi farTod iyeneben sakveb danamatebs, magaliTad, sakvebi saRebavebi, aromatizatorebi*, emulgatorebi*, konservantebi* da sxva. aseT sakveb danamatebs araviTari sakvebi Rirebuleba ar aqvs, piriqiT, SeiZleba adamianSi alergia gamoiwvios.

ra tipis kvebiTi daavadebebia SenTvis cnobili? yvelaferi, rac kvebasTan aris dakavSirebuli da iwvevs janmrTelobis gauaresebas, kvebiT darRvevebs uwodeben. araswori kveba bevri daavadebis mizezia. gavrcelebuli darRvevebia, magaliTad, wonaSi dakleba da simsuqne. wonaSi daklebis mizezi SeiZleba iyos socialuri problemebiT gamowveuli arasrulfasovani kveba, an wonaSi momatebis SiSiT sakvebis SezRudviT miReba. wonis dasaklebma/gasaxdomma dietam SeiZleba, gamoiwvios kvebiTi aSliloba _ anoreqsia. anoreqsiis dros adamians daqveiTebuli aqvs mada, rac, Tavis mxriv, iwvevs nivTierebaTa cvlis darRvevas da wonis Seuqcevad klebas. sakvebi nivTierebebis ukmarisoba seriozulad azianebs sxvadasxva organosa da sistemas. fataluri Sedegi _ sikvdili _ dgeba 10%-is SemTxvevaSi. anoreqsias Semdegi maxasiaTeblebi aqvs: • gasuqebis SiSi, romelic ar mcirdeba wonis progresuli klebis drosac ki. am dros sakvebze uaris Tqmis mizezi da gasuqebis SiSi sruliad usafuZvloa; • adamiani mudmivad amowmebs ara mxolod sxeulis wonasa da formas, aramed sxeulis sxvadasxva nawilebsac da eCveneba, rom esa Tu is nawili `msuqania~ (sur. 92). statistikuri monacemebi adastureben, rom bolo 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi ganviTarebul qveynebSi mniSvnelovnad gaizarda bavSvTa anoreqsiis SemTxvevebi. daa-

vadebis gamovlinebis riski izrdeba orive sqesis 14-18 wlis asakSi. SemTxvevaTa 25% modis 13 wlis asakamde bavSvebze. kvebiT aSlilobis warmoSobis xelSemwyobi mizezi pirovnebis fsiqikis Taviseburebaa, magaliTad, dabali TviTSefaseba. aseve, xSirad am mdgomareobis ganviTarebis xelSemwyobia alkoholis, wamlis arasworad moxmareba, fsiqologiuri travma da sxv. anoreqsiis simptomebis pirveli niSnebisTanave (mkacri dietis dacva, wonis indeqsis swrafi kleba) saWiroa seriozuli mkurnalobis dawyeba rogorc dietologis, aseve eqim-fsiqiatris da fsiqologis zedamxedvelobiT, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, klinikaSi hospitalizacia. adamians, romelic didi raodenobiT cxims igrovebs, Warbwonianoba awuxebs. Warbwoniani adamiani aris mTeli rigi

sur. 92

1175 17 75


daavadebis riskis winaSe: sunTqvis gaZneleba, aTerosklerozi, hipertenzia, saxsrebis anTeba (arTriti) da sxv. Warbi wona sicocxlis xangrZlivobas 6-7 wliT amcirebs. Warbwonianobis gavrceleba matulobs rogorc zrdasrulebSi, aseve, bavSvebSi. erT-erTi amis mizezi sakvebis didi raodenobiT miReba da fizikuri aqtivobis naklebobaa.

simaRle (m)

sxeulis masis kontrolis yvelaze kargi saSualebaa jansaRi kveba, eqimi-dietologis mier SerCeuli dieta da fizikuri aqtivobis SeTavseba. bevr adamians mxolod dietis dacviT uWirs Tavisi sxeulis masis kontroli. adamianis sxeulis `idealuri~ masa damokidebulia simaRleze, sqessa da asakze (sur. 93).

simaRle (m)

mamakaci

1.9

1.8

1.8

1.7

1.7

1.6

1.6

1.5 1.4

40

50

60

sigamxdre

70

80

90 sxeulis masa (kg)

40

50

60

idealuri masa

Warbi masa

qali

70

80

90 sxeulis masa (kg)

simsuqne

sur. 93

sxeulis masis indeqsis kvleva sxeulis masis indeqsi (smi) dagexmareba gansazRvro, aris Tu ara Seni sxeulis masa normis farglebSi. es maCvenebeli iTvleba ufro damajereblad, vidre calke aRebuli masis maCvenebeli. isargeble sxeulis masis indeqsis gamosaTvleli formuliT _ smi = sxeulis masa (kg)/simaRle 2 (m2), gamoTvale sakuTari smi da qvemoT mocemuli cxrilis daxmarebiT gansazRvre, romel jgufSi xvdebi smi-is mixedviT. sxeulis masis indeqsi (smi)

1176 76

raze miuTiTebs smi?

16-ze naklebi

metismeti sigamxdre

16-dan 18,5-mde

sigamxdre

18,5-dan 25-mde

normaluri masa

25-dan 30-mde

zedmeti masa

30-ze meti

simsuqne


sakvebi produqtebis etiketis damuSaveba praqtikuli samuSao: mza produqtebis etiketebze mocemuli informaciis damuSaveba procedura: aiRe 10 dakonservebuli qilis an boTlis sakvebi produqtis etiketi; faqizad Caakari es etiketebi Sens samuSao rveulSi; rveulSi yoveli etiketis gaswvriv Cawere etiketSi miTiTebuli sakvebi produqtis energetikuli Rirebuleba, masSi sakvebi nivTierebebis _ naxSirwylebis, cilebisa da cximebis Semcveloba (gaiTvaliswine, rom etiketze xSirad naxSirwyali warmodgenilia saxameblis an Saqris saxiT). gansazRvre, am sakvebi nivTierebebidan, romelia produqtSi ZiriTadi; yoveli etiketis gaswvriv miuTiTe, Sesabamis sakveb produqtSi gamoyenebuli sakvebi danamatebi. upasuxe kiTxvebs: 1) ramdenad uzrunvelyofs erTi romelime produqtis gamoyeneba dabalansebul kvebas? 2) ratom gamoiyeneba sakvebi produqtebis damuSavebisas sakvebi danamatebi? 3) ratom gaurbis zogierTi adamiani sakvebi danamatebiT sargeblobas?

1. ras niSnavs dabalansebuli kveba? 2. 91-e suraTze mocemuli diagramis mixedviT gansazRvre marcvleulisa da misi produqtebis jgufis Semdeg romeli jgufis produqtebi unda miiRo yvelaze meti? romeli jgufis produqtebi unda miiRo yvelaze naklebi raodenobiT? 3. jgufTan erTad gaecani araswori kvebis maxasiaTeblebs (gv. 174) da Seadgine swori kvebis wesebi. 4. ra saxis kvebiT darRvevebs iwvevs araswori kveba? 5. Seni saukeTeso megobari ambobs, rom man sauzmeze miirTva cota xili xilis wvenTan erTad da sadilze Semwvari bostneuli wyalTan erTad. qvemoT CamoTvlili produqtebidan romeli gaxdis mis kvebas ufro dabalansebuls? daasabuTe Seni pasuxi. produqtebi: cota miwis Txili, Sokoladis tortis naWeri, qaTmis naWeri, qila iogurti, tkbileuli.

sw swori kveba niSnavs dabalansebul kvebas da swori kvebis mTeli rigi wesebis dacvas; dabalansebuli kveba da fizikuri aqtivoba mniSvnelovania janmrTelobisaTvis da xels uwyobs mis SenarCunebas; araswori kveba iwvevs kvebiT darRvevebs.

1177 17 77


4.4.

fizikuri aqtivobis gavlena janmrTelobaze

rogor gvexmareba fizikuri aqtivoba janmrTelobis SenarCunebaSi? struqtura da funqcia _ fizikuri varjiSisa da moZraobiTi aqtivobis SezRudvis gavlena sxvadasxva organoTa sistemaze; janmrTeloba da daavadeba _ hipodinamia, internetadiqcia; kvleva _ TanatolebSi internet-adiqciis gavrcelebis xarisxis kvleva.

jansaRi cxovrebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani komponentia fizikuri aqtivoba. im faqtorebs Soris, romlebic gavlenas axdenen mozardis zrda-ganviTarebasa da janmrTelobaze, regularul fizikur aqtivobas pirvelxarisxovani roli aqvs (sur. 94). fizikuri aqtivoba aucilebelia jan-

mrTelobisTvis, magram saWiroa zogierTi wesisa da zomierebis dacva. uecarma da arasworad dagegmilma varjiSma SeiZleba gamoiwvios gulisa da kunTebis gadatvirTva, xerxemalze zewola da sxva. es gansakuTrebiT saSiSia xandazmulTaTvis da, zogadad, maTTvis, vinc regularulad ar aris dakavebuli sportiT. 14-15 wlis mozardebisTvis gansakuTrebiT saWiroa datvirTvis SerCeva. am asakSi mozardis gulis kunTis ganviTarebas CamorCeba sisxlZarRvebis ganviTareba, sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistema jer kidev formirebis stadiaSia, amitom es faqti aucileblad unda gaiTvaliswinos sportis maswavlebelmac da mwvrTnelmac.

sayrden-mamoZravebeli sistema _ izrdeba kunTebis moculoba, maTi elastikuroba, SekumSvis Zala da siCqare; mtkice xdeba ConCxis Zvlebi, myesebi da iogebi; umjobesdeba saxsrebSi moZraoba, adamianis tanadoba.

gulisisxlZarRvTa sistema _ viTardeba gulis kunTi; navarjiSeb adamianis guli advilad egueba fizikur datvirTvas da datvirTvis Semdeg advilad ubrundeba Cveul mdgomareobas; arteriebis kedeli ufro elastikuri da drekadia; izrdeba sisxlZarRvebSi moZravi sisxlis moculoba; organizmi ufro mdgradia infeqciebisadmi.

sunTqvis sistema _ umjobesdeba airTa cvla filtvebSi; viTardeba sasunTqi kunTebi; izrdeba filtvebis sasicocxlo tevadoba; formirdeba swori sunTqviTi moZraobebi.

saWmlis momnelebeli sisitema _ umjobesdeba saWmlis monelebis procesi; Zlierdeba nawlavebis peristaltikuri SekumSvebi.

nervuli sistema _ fizikuri aqtivoba aumjobesebs Tavis tvinSi nivTierebaTa cvlas da umjobesdeba misi moqmedeba; matulobs gonebrivi Sromisunarianoba. sur. 94

ras niSnavs termini _ „hipodinamia“? termini „hipodinamia“ gulisxmobs organizmis funqciebis darRvevas, romelic

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cxovrebis mjdomare wesiTa da moZraobiTi aqtivobis SezRudviT aris ganpirobebuli. dRes _ Tanamedrove cxovrebaSi mo-


zardTa hipodinamiis erT-erTi mizezi aris damokidebulebis ganviTareba (adiqcia) internetze, kompiutersa da mobilur telefonze. mozardebi Zalian did dros atareben kompiuterTan an mobilur telefonTan (sur. 95 da 96). zogierTi maTgani adiqturi xdeba _ mudmivad surs zemoT xsenebuli teqnikuri saSualebebiT garToba da mis gareSe fsiqologiur diskomforts ganicdis. mraval sxva problemebTan erTad, rasac internet an mobilur _ adiqcia iwvevs, aris hipodinamia. bavSvebSi da mozardebSi hipodinamia: • aferxebs sxeulis jansaR formirebas; • kunTebi sul ufro naklebad itvirTeba, sustdeba da TandaTan atrofirdeba kidec; • kunTebis dasustebisa da ganlevis kvaldakval icvleba Zvlovani qsovilis struqturac; • zogadad, organizmSi irRveva nivTierebaTa cvla, rac Warbwonianobas iwvevs; • sustdeba gulis kunTi; • mcirdeba filtvebis sasicocxlo tevadoba da filtvebis ventilacia; • ecema gonebrivi Sromisunarianoba. Tumca hipodinamia internet-adiqciis mxolod erTi uaryofiTi Sedegia. kompiuterze an mobilur telefonebze damokidebul mozards ekargeba swavli-

sur. 95

sur. 96

sadmi interesi, aRarc dro aqvs amisTvis, amitom misi inteleqtualuri ganviTareba ferxdeba. ekranTan didxans yofnis gamo ziandeba mxedveloba, gansakuTrebiT im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac adamiani kompiuteriT an mobiluriT TamaSobs wamowolili, metic, Cabnelebul oTaxSi.

1. gaecani 94-e suraTze mocemul informacias da upasuxe kiTxvas: ra gavlenas axdens regularuli fizikuri aqtivoba TiToeul organoTa sistemaze da ratom? 2. ratom aris gansakuTrebiT saSiSi fizikuri aqtivobis SezRudva mozardebisTvis? 3. ra ziani SeiZleba moutanos mozards internet-adiqciam? 4. Zveli berZnebi gvirCeven: `ginda iyo janmrTeli _ irbine!“ „ginda iyo lamazi _ irbine!“ „ginda iyo gonieri _ irbine!~ eTanxmebi Tu ara Zveli berZnebis SemoTavazebul rekomendaciebs? ratom? 5. jgufTan erTad posterze Seqmeni reklama, romliTac Tanatolebs mouwodeb, misdion regularul fizikur varjiSs!

fizikuri aqtivoba mniSvnelovania janmrTelobisaTvis da xels uwyobs janmrTelobis SenarCunebas; mozardebSi fizikuri aqtivobis SezRudva iwvevs hipodinamias da did zians ayenebs mozardis janmrTelobas; hipodinamiis erT-erTi mizezia internet da telefon-adiqcia.

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Tema

4-is Sejameba

dawereT da ganaxorcieleT saswavlo proeqti qvemoT mocemuli instruqciis mixedviT: • klasSi jgufebSi gainawileT saswavlo proeqtebis qvemoT mocemuli Tematika; • gansazRvreT proeqtis mizani; • TiToeuli proeqtis gansaxorcieleblad, SemoTavazebuli amocanebis Sesabamisad, gansazRvreT yoveli amocanis Sesasruleblad saWiro aqtivobebi da gainawileT jgufis wevrebma; • ganaxorcieleT proeqti, gaakeTeT przentacia da warmoadgineT angariSi ganxorcielebuli proeqtis Sesaxeb. saswavlo proeqti 1 _ Tambaqos moxmarebis gavlena adamianis janmrTelobaze proeqtis amocanebi: 1.

sxvadasxva wyarodan informaciis moZieba, ra gavlenas axdens Tambaqo _ 1) mweveli adamianis janmrTelobaze, 2) pasiuri mwevelis* janmrTelobaze;

2.

kvleva: TanatolebSi Tambaqos moxmarebis xarisxisa da gamomwvevi mizezebis dadgena;

3.

Tambaqos moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo regulaciebi;

4.

mozardebSi Tambaqos moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo regulaciebi;

5.

Tambaqos moxmarebis sawinaaRmdego _ plakatis, bukletebis an audio/video _ masalis Seqmna da misi prezentacia.

saswavlo proeqti 2 _ alkoholizmis gavlena adamianis janmrTelobaze proeqtis amocanebi: 1.

sxvadasxva wyarodan informaciis moZieba, Tu ra gavlenas axdens alkoholis Warbi moxmareba adamianis janmrTelobaze;

2.

alkoholis moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo regulaciebi;

3.

mozardebSi alkoholis moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo regulaciebi;

4.

kvleva: TanatolebSi alkoholis moxmarebis xarisxisa da mizezebis dadgena;

5.

alkoholis moxmarebis sawinaaRmdego _ plakatis, bukletebis an audio/video _ masalis Seqmna da misi prezentacia.

saswavlo proeqti 3 _ araswori kvebis gavlena adamianis janmrTelobaze proeqtis amocanebi: 1.

180

sxvadasxva wyarodan informaciis moZieba, Tu ra gavlenas axdens adamianis janmrTelobaze: 1) araswori kveba, 2) sakvebi danamatebi, 3) swrafi kvebis obieqtebiT xSiri sargebloba;


2.

TanatolebSi kvlevis Catareba, raTa daadgindes: 1) dRis ganmavlobaSi sakvebis miRebis ganawileba, 2) dRis ganmavlobaSi ZiriTadad gamoyenebuli sakvebi produqti, 3) swrafi kvebis obieqtebiT sargeblobis sixSire;

3.

swori kvebis saagitacio _ plakatis, bukletebis an audio/video _ masalis Seqmna da misi prezentacia.

saswavlo proeqti 4 _ mozardebSi internet-damokidebulebis xarisxisa da mizezebis dadgena proeqtis amocanebi: 1.

sxvadasxva wyarodan informaciis moZieba, Tu ra gavlenas axdens mozardis janmrTelobaze internet-damokidebuleba;

2.

kvleva: TanatolebSi internet-damokidebulebis xarisxisa da mizezebis dadgena;

3.

internet-damokidebulebis sawinaaRmdego _ plakatis, bukletebis an audio/ video _ masalis Seqmna da misi prezentacia.

SeniSvna: saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi TiToeuli proeqtis Sesaxeb damatebiT instruqciebsa da informacias miiRebT maswavleblisgan.

181


ganmartebiTi leqsikoni alergia _ aris gaZlierebuli reaqcia iseTi faqtoris mimarT, romelic Cveulebriv ar unda iwvevdes raime saxis darRvevas adamianis organizmSi. anamnezi _ cnobebi avadmyofis cxovrebis pirobaTa Sesaxeb daavadebamde da avadmyofobis ganviTarebis istoria; am cnobebs eqimi moipovebs avadmyofis an misi axloblebis monaTxrobis mixedviT. anTropologi _ mecnieri, romelic Seiswavlis adamianis warmoSobasa da ganviTarebis istorias. aromatizatori _ sakvebi danamati, romelic mza sakvebis gemosa da aromats aumjobesebs, aZlierebs. dializi _ organizmidan nivTierebaTa cvlis produqtebisa da Warbi siTxis xelovnurad moSoreba. emulgatori _ sakvebi danamati, romelic mza sakvebs unarCunebs garkveul struqturas. epidemia _ infeqciuri daavadebis farTod gavrceleba. eqsploatacia _ moxmareba, moqmedebaSi Sesvla. infeqciuri daavadeba _ daavadeba, romelic erTi organizmidan meores gadaecema. kaloria _ 1 kilokaloria = 1000 kaloria, 1 kaloria = 4,186 jouli. kibo _ qsovilebSi anomaluri (gadagvarebuli) ujredebis ricxvis ukontrolo zrda. konservantebi _ sakvebi danamati, romelic zrdis mza sakvebis Senaxvis xangrZlivobas. kutikula _ mcenaris Txel kanze (epidermisze) garedan gadakruli afski, romelic gaJRenTilia wylisa da airebisTvis SeuRwevadi nivTierebiT. nabaxusevi _ usiamovno niSnebisa da simptomebis erToblioba, romelic viTardeba Warbi alkoholis miRebis Semdeg. orTopedi _ Zval-kunTovani sistemis eqimi specialisti. pasiuri mweveli _ adamiani, romelic SeisunTqavs Tambaqos momxmareblis mier amosunTqul kvamls. postoperaciuli periodi _ operaciis Semdgomi periodi. samkurnalo Srati _ adamianis an cxovelis sisxlis Srati (sisxlis Txevadi nawilia), romelic Seicavs konkretuli daavadebis sawinaaRmdego mza antisxeulebs (sisxlis Srats plazmisgan gansxvavebiT ar aqvs Sededebis unari). sasunTqi zedapiri _ zedapirs, romlis saSualebiTac mimdinareobs airTa cvla organizmsa da garemos Soris. simptomi _ daavadebis Sedegad organizmSi gamovlenili cvlilebebi. smogi _ Savi sqeli nisli, romelic warmoiqmneba bolisa da mWvartlisagan. fiziologiuri xsnari _ romelSic mineraluri marilebis done iseTivea, rogorc sisxlis plazmaSi. fonendoskopi _ gulisa da filtvebis mosasmeni xelsawyo. cdispiri _ piri, romelzedac cdas atareben.

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