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ISBN 978-9941-441-02-4 978-9941-441-89-9

9 789941 48102 44189 4 9

ana kldiaSvili nino RaRaniZe

xelovneba

dafinansebulia `moswavleebis saxelmZRvaneloebiT uzrunvelyofis programis~ farglebSi

6 moswavlis wigni

pirveli nawili


ana kldiaSvili nino RaRaniZe

xelovneba VI klasi moswavlis wigni (pirveli nawili)

grifminiWebulia saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros mier 2018 wels

gam o mce m l o ba `k l i o~


ana kldiaSvili, nino RaRaniZe

xelovneba VI klasi, moswavlis wigni (pirveli nawili)

redaqtori nana kupraSvili Tbilisis saxelmwifo samxatvro akademiis profesori, xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori mxatvari

Tamar jayeli

kompiuteruli dizaini irma liparteliani

Š gamomcemloba `klio~, 2018 Š ana kldiaSvili, nino RaRaniZe, 2018 yvela ufleba daculia ISBN 978-9941-481-01-7 (orive nawilis) ISBN 978-9941-481-02-4 (pirveli nawili)

Sps `gamomcemloba klio~ aRmaSeneblis gamz. #181-2, Tbilisi, 0112 tel.: (+995 32) 234 04 30 E-mail: book@klio.ge www.klio.ge


sarCevi rogor gamoviyenoT wigni..................................................................... 5 I Tavi 1. bednier mogzaurobas gisurvebT..................................................... 6 2. amsterdami......................................................................................... 8 3. holandiuri peizaJi.......................................................................... 10 4. holandiuri mxatvroba..................................................................... 12 5. qalaqis anarekli wyalSi.................................................................. 14 6. qalaqis gerbi da devizi................................................................... 15 7. madridi.............................................................................................. 16 8. madridi _ fexburTis qalaqi........................................................... 18 9. quCis abra.......................................................................................... 20 10. parki gueli...................................................................................... 22 11. saocnebo parki................................................................................ 24 12. aTeni................................................................................................. 26 13. flugeri........................................................................................... 28 14. berZnuli larnakebi........................................................................ 30 15. movxatoT WurWeli.......................................................................... 31 16. didi qalaqebis ezoebi.................................................................... 32 17. ocnebis saxlis fanjara................................................................. 33 18. mogzauroba xelovnebis samyaroSi I.............................................. 34 II Tavi 19. stamboli.......................................................................................... 36 20. dasuraTebuli istoriuli faqti.................................................. 38 21. qristianuli da muslimanuri stamboli....................................... 40 22. ornamenti......................................................................................... 42 23. nisliani albionis dedaqalaqi....................................................... 44 24. rogor ixateba wvima....................................................................... 46


25. inglisuri wignis grafika.............................................................. 48 26. naxatebiani wigni.............................................................................. 50 27. saaxalwlo naZvis xe........................................................................ 52 28. mcxeTa............................................................................................... 54 29. saqarTvelos cixesimagreebi.......................................................... 56 30. qarTuli xelovneba......................................................................... 58 31. qarTuli CuqurTma.......................................................................... 60 32. qarTuli mxatvroba......................................................................... 62 33. mosawvevi.......................................................................................... 64 34. mogzauroba xelovnebis samyaroSi II............................................. 66


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rogor gamoviyenoT wigni ?

1. aRwereT es suraTi. 2. rogor aris agebuli suraTis kompozicia?

kiTxvebi dagexmareba gakveTilSi mocemuli masalis ukeT gaazrebaSi

amsterdamis devizi, droSa da gerbi amsterdamis devizia: `Rirseba, sima­ma­ce, TanagrZno­ ba~. es sami sityva II msoflio omSi qalaqis mcxovrebTa mier gamoCenili simamacisa da simtkicis aRsaniSnavad amsterdamis devizad daadgines holandielebma.

amgvari formiT mocemulia damatebiTi informacia da saintereso ambebi

Tqven Tvalwin tipuri ho­lan­diuri interieria. zurgiT mdgomi gogona Zvelebur musikalur instrumentze _ klavesin­ ze ukravs. daakvirdiT mis anarekls sarkeSi. iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneba, TiTqos musikis bgerebi oTaxSi iRvreba. Tqveni azriT, vin aris gogonas gver­ diT mdgomi mamakaci?

ian vermeeri. musikis gakveTili. 1662-1665 ww.

zogierT gakveTilSi ilustraciasTan erTad warmodgenilia damatebiTi informacia suraTis an mxatvris Sesaxeb da aseve, SekiTxvebi, romlebsac pasuxi unda gasce

 l e q s i ko ni motivi _ gamosaxu­lebis saxasiaTo ganmeore­ badi elementi.

leqsikonSi ganmartebulia ucxo sityvebi

feradi TasmebiT, maqmanebiT, Ri­ lebiT an mZivis bur­ Tule­ biT mza samo­si dekoratiulad gaaformeT, xo­lo STabeWdilebis ga­saZ­ liereblad Tqven mier Seqmnil modelebs Sesaba­ misi garemo mou­ wyveT. SeiZleba, miznad daisaxoT garkveuli epoqis kostiu­ mis Seqmna, an misTvis damaxasiaTebeli elementebis gamoyeneba Tanamed­ rove samosSi. SesaZlebelia, agreTve, Tematuri, ma­ galiTad, saRa­ mos kabebis koleqciis Seqmna. am meTodiT sargeb­ loba saSualebas mogcemT swrafad imuSaoT da, amave dros, gamoavlinoT sakuTari fantazia da gemovneba. vin icis, iqneb romelime Tqvenga­nisaTvis es saqmianoba momavalSi profesiad iqces.

praqtikul gakveTilebSi ZiriTad teqstTan erTad mocemulia rCevebi, romlebic davalebis SesrulebaSi dagexmareba

1. SeqmeniT qalaqis pei­zaJi wyal­ Si areklili tipuri holandiuri saxlebiT.

amgvari niSniT yviTel CarCoSi Casmuli saklaso davalebaa aRniSnuli

2. moiZieT nebismieri qalaqis droSa da gerbi, infor­macia maT Se­ saxeb da gaakeTeT stendi.

amgvari niSniT yviTel CarCoSi saSinao davalebaa aRniSnuli

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1. bednier mogzaurobas gisurvebT 1. msoflioSi mravali saintereso qalaqia. isini erTmaneTs ar hgavs. yovel maTgans Tavisi ganu­ meorebeli saxe aqvs, yoveli maTgani Ta­viseburad saintereso da mim­zidvelia, Tavisi klimatiT, kul­ turiT, tra­ dici­ ebiT, adamianebiT, cxovrebis we­ siT: xmelTaSuazRvis margaliti aTeni, `maradiuli qalaqi~ romi, nisliani albionis dedaqalaqi lon­ doni, caTambjenebis qalaqi niu iorki, mso­ flio modis dedaqalaqi parizi da sxva da sxva. am wignSi Tqven swored msoflios yvelaze cnobil qalaqebs SexvdebiT, warmosaxviT imogzau­ rebT maT quCebSi; gaecnobiT am qalaqebis isto­ rias, maT Taviseburebebsa da RirsSesaniSnaobebs: Zvelsa Tu Tanamedrove arqiteqturul Zeglebs, muzeumebs, iq dacul xelovnebis nimuSebs; aseve, gaecnobiT im xelovanTa moRvaweobas, romlebic Ta­visi cxovrebiTa da SemoqmedebiT am qalaqebTan iyo dakavSirebuli.

?

1. Tu gifiqriaT odesme, romel qalaqSi isur­ vebdiT mogzaurobas da ratom?

2. yvela did da cnobil qa­ laqSi aris raRac ise­ Ti, rac am qa­ laqis saxes gansazRvravs, mis simbolod qceula.

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2. amoicaniT msof­lios cnobili qala­ qebi aq mocemuli Zeglebis mixedviT.

 leqsiko ni originali (laT. origina­lis Tavdapirveli) _ deda­ni.

vfiqrobT, TqvenTvis saintereso unda iyos msof­ lios sxvadasxva qveynis qalaqebis gacnoba. momavalSi, imedia, yovel Tqvengans saSualeba miecema am qalaqebSi imogzauros da maSin zustad gecodinebaT, sad unda waxvideT da ra unda naxoT. imasac aRmoaCenT, rom, Turme, xelovnebis nimuSis originali bevrad ufro did STabeWdilebas axdens, vidre wignSi nanaxi ilustracia; ama Tu im qalaqsa Tu xelovnebis nawarmoebze Camo­ ya­ libebuli Tqveni warmodgena da STabeWdileba iq mog­ zaurobis Semdeg SeiZleba Seicvalos, magram manamde, sanam es moxdeba modiT, am qalaqebs swored am wignis saSualebiT gaecaniT. maS, bednier mogzaurobas gisurvebT. SearCieT msoflioSi cnobili romelime qalaqi, ro­ melSic mogzaurobas isur­vebdiT, moiZi­eT mis Sesaxeb informacia da warmoadgineT klasis winaSe. axse­niT, ratom SearCieT es qalaqi. davaleba warmoadgineT werilobiT.

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2. amsterdami 1. amsterdami niderlan­ debis dedaqalaqia. misi saxelwodeba ori sityvi­ sagan Sedgeba: amsteli da dami. amsteli im mdinares qvia, romelzec qalaqia gaSenebuli, dam ki holandiurad dambas niSnavs. sityvasityviT amsterdami niSnavs `damba amstelze~. arsebobs legenda, rome­ lic mogviTxrobs, rom ori meTev­ ze qariSxals Zlivs gadaurCa da zRvam isini swored im Waobian adgilze gamoriya, sadac mdinare amsteli zRvaSi Caedineboda. maT am mdinaris xeobaSi pirveli dasa­ xleba daaarses da aages damba, raTa TavianTi saxlebi wyaluxvi mdinarisa da zRvis Semotevisagan daecvaT. SeiZleba iTqvas, maT wyals miwa `gamos­taces~. cnobilia, rom XII s-Si am adgilas ukve meTevzeTa sakmaod didi dasaxleba arsebobda. droTa ganmavlobaSi ki amsterdami did qalaqad iqca. XV s-Si is ukve niderlandebis didi savaWro qalaqia.

?

1. ras uwodeben sxvagvarad niderlandebs? 2. evropis romel nawilSi mdebareobs ni­ der­lan­debi?

 leqsiko ni

amsterdamis devizi, droSa da gerbi amsterdamis devizia: `Rirseba, sima­ma­ce, TanagrZ­ noba~. es sami sityva II msoflio omSi qalaqis mcxovreb­ Ta mier gamoCenili simamacisa da simtkicis aRsaniSna­ vad amsterdamis devizad daadgines holandielebma. amsterdamis droSasa da gerbze gamosaxulia wminda andrias X-is formis sami jvari, romlebic simbolu­ rad swored Rirsebas, simamacesa da TanagrZobas gana­ saxierebs.

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damba _ sagangebo nage­ boba, jebiri, romelic wyals akavebs.


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2. mdinare amsteli qalaqis centrSi mi­ edineba da mas arxebiT qselavs, amito­mac amsterdams `CrdiloeTis venecias~ uwodeben. arxebze ulamazesi xidebia gadebuli, xolo arxebis gaswvriv Camwkrivebulia umSvenieresi sax­ lebi, romelTa fasadebi amstelis wylebSi irekleba. arsebobs aseTi gamoTqma _ tipuri ho­lan­­diuri saxli. diax, amsterdamSi swo­red aseT saxlebs SexvdebiT. esaa maRa­li saxle­bi, romelTa viwro fasa­ debze bevri fanjaraa gaWrili. fanjrebs garedan xis darabebi aqvs, Tumca am saxlebis binadarni praqtikulad ar xu­raven maT. TiTqos macxovreblebs surT, darabebze areklili mzis Suqi TavianT binebSi `Seityuon~.

?

3. rogor fiqrobT, ratom aqvT amsterdamis saxlebs aseTi viwro fasadebi? 4. Tqveni azriT, ratomaa fasadebze bevri fan­ jara?

holandiuri saxlebis zeda nawili kibiseburad viwrovdeba. es nawili xSirad Semkulia reliefe­ biT, ornamentebiT, qandakebebiT. holandielebs Zalian uyvarT yvavilebi. isini saxlebis fasadebze, fanjris rafebze xSirad ula­ mazes baRnars aSeneben. 3. holandia cnobilia qaris wis­ qvilebiT. maT jer kidev Sua saukuneebSi gamoiyenes qaris Zala, aages koSkurebi, romlebzec uzarmazari frTebi daamagres. am frTebs qari amoZravebda da mi­Re­bu­ li ener­giiT ifqveboda xorbali, ixerxeboda SeSa, am gziT qaCavdnen wyals, dRvebdnen karaqs da sxv. amsterdamis qaris wisqvilebis Sesaxeb informa­ cias jer kidev 1307 wlis dokumentSi vxvdebiT. cnobilia, rom XVIII s-Si amsterdamSi 140 qaris wis­ qvili iyo. amJamad ki SemogarenSi mxolod ramde­ nime Zveli qaris wisqvilia SemorCenili. moiZieT cnobebi amsterdamis erT-erTi RirsSe­saniSnaobis, vin­sent van go­ gis muzeumis Sesaxeb. Seq­meniT am mxatvris Semoqmedebis am­saxveli stendi. nebismieri teqnikiT daxateT qaris wisqvili.

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3. holandiuri peizaJi XVII saukuneSi holandiaSi gamoCndnen mxat­ vrebi, romlebic Tavi­ anTi samSoblos xedebs asaxavdnen namuSevrebze. isini xatavdnen ukacri­el velebs, myudro da wynar dasaxlebebs, soflebs, arxebSi mosriale meTevzeTa navebs. erTi sityviT, isini asaxavdnen holandiuri soflis bunebas, mis mSvid yo­ fas. am namuSevrebze holandiis gaSlili, ukidegano sivrceebia naCvenebi. cas didi adgili uWiravs. is umetesad monacrisfro cisferia da ara kaSkaSa lurji; xan nisliania, xanac masze didi Rrublebis qulebi micuraven. amgva­ rad iqmneba am suraTebze ukidegano sivrcis STabeWdileba. peizaJebi savsea sinaTliTa da haeriT. raRa Tqma unda, holandiuri peizaJis ganuyofeli nawilia qaris wisqvile­ bi, romelTa koSkurebi Tvaluwvdenel velebze goliaTebiviT wamomarTula. si­mSvide sufevs am peizaJebSi da mSobliuri bunebisadmi siyvaruli gamos­ Wvivis.

iakob van reisdali. wisqvili veikSi. 1670 w.

Tavdapirvelad SearCieT ra zomisa da formis fur­ celze imuSavebT. cis dasaxatad akvarelis cisferi saRebavi ga­ moiyeneT. jer furceli daasveleT da Semdeg mis zeda nawilSi frTxilad dadeT saRebavi. acaleT gaSroba. Semdeg sveli Rrublis, bambis an xelsaxocis saSuale­ biT frTxilad `amorecxeT~ cisferi saRebavi ise, rom TeTri Rrublebis STa­beWdileba Seiqmnas.

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formatis qveda nawilSi wyali gamosaxeT. es nawilic Tavdapirvelad daasve­ leT da Semdeg daitaneT masze mwva­ne da Ria iisferi, rogorc es ilustraciebzea naCvenebi. rodesac furceli gaSreba, wvrili funjiT gaavleT sxvadasxva zomis odnav klaknili horizontaluri xa­ zebi. am xazebis saSualebiT Tqven damdgari, molivlive wylis zedapiris STabeWdilebas SeqmniT.

amgvarad gamzadebul fonze fanqriT moxazeT qaris wisqvilis konturebi. kompozicia ise gaanawi­ leT, rom wonasworobis principi daicvaT. Segi­ ZliaT asimetriuli kompoziciis Seqmnac. Semdeg zemodan mSral zedapirze feri daitaneT. ra feris iqneba qaris wisqvili, Tqveni nebaa. aseve SearCieT feri wisqvilis sa­ xuravisa da frTebisaTvis. Segi­ ZliaT feris gradaciis gamoyenebac.

akvareliT daxateT holandiuri pe­izaJi qa­ris wisqviliT.

giga. 11 wlis

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4. holandiuri mxatvroba XVII saukunis holandiuri mxatvroba Taviseburi, gamorCeuli movlenaa xe­ lovnebis istoriaSi. am periodis mxatvrebma _ ian vermeerma, piter de hooh­ ma, ian stenma da sxvebma SesaniSnavad aRwereTs TavianTi drois holandia. maT namuSevrebSi SexvdebiT Cveulebriv adamianebs Cveul garemoSi, sadac asa­ xulia maTi yofisTvis damaxasiaTebeli interieri, saojaxo nivTebi, samosi, Sinauri cxovelebi, garemo, adamianebs Soris urTierTobebi, situaciebi _ erTi sityviT, yvelaferi, rac im periodis moqalaqis yoveldRiurobas exeba. swored yoveldRiurobaSi poulobdnen holandieli mxat­vrebi mSve­nierebasa da silamazes da didi siTboTi da rudunebiT asa­xavdnen TavianT namuSevrebSi adamiansa da mis irgvliv arsebul garemos. Tqven Tvalwin tipuri ho­lan­diuri interieria. zurgiT mdgomi gogona Zvelebur musikalur instrumentze _ klavesin­ ze ukravs. daakvirdiT mis anarekls sarkeSi. iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneba, TiTqos musikis bgerebi oTaxSi iRvreba. Tqveni azriT, vin aris gogonas gver­ diT mdgomi mamakaci?

ian vermeeri. musikis gakveTili. 1662-1665 ww.

ase gamoiyureboda XVII s-is holandie­ li mxatvris saxelosno. ra rols asrulebs farda am kompozi­ ciaSi? mxatvris saxelosno kargad aris gana­ Tebuli. daakvirdiT, saidan Semodis sinaTle. qalis lurji kaba da yviTeli wigni mis xelSi feradovan aqcents qmnis suraTSi.

ian vermeeri. mxatvris saxelosno. 1666 w.

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es holandiuri saxlis patara, myud­ ro ezoa. rogori ganwyobileba sufevs ezoSi da ra qmnis mas? suraTze Cveulebrivi adamianebis yoveldRiurobaa asaxuli. ra qmnis am STabeWdilebas?

piter de hoohi. ezo. 1658 w.

am suraTze sakmaod SeZlebuli oja­ xia asaxuli. amis Tqmis saSualebas gvaZlevs qalbatonis mdidruli samo­ si da ... (gaagrZeleT CamonaTvali)

ian steni. ???. 1658-1662 w.

am suraTze myudro interierSi ho­ landiuri ojaxis trapezis scenaa asaxuli. suraTze warmodgenili TiToeuli nivTi holandielTa imdroindeli yofis tipuri nimuSia. aRwereT, rogor urTierToben erTma­ neTTan aq gamosaxuli adamianebi. ian steni. locva Wamis win. 1663-1665 ww.

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5. qalaqis anarekli wyalSi Tqven ukve iciT, rom amsterdamis saxle­ bi ezos mxares wagrZelebulia, xolo Tavisi viwro fasadebiT quCaze gamodis. mijriT miwyobili sarkmlebiT `dacxriluli~ sxvadasxva feris ulamazesi fasadebi quCaze cocxal ritms qmnis da amsterdamis mravalricxovani ar­xebis sarkisebur zedapirze umSve­ nieres anarekls warmoSobs. daakvirdiT fotoze, rogor iklakneba yvela swori xazi wylis lurj ze­ dapirze areklvisas.

Tamuna. 11 wlis

aiReT nebismieri formis fur­ celi, horizontalurad gayaviT Suaze da Tavdapirvelad zeda na­wi­l­ze daxateT saxlebi. Semdeg suraTis qveda nawilze SeudeqiT muSaobas. Tavdapirvelad moxazeT saxlebis anareklis klaknili siluetebi, fanjrebi, saxuravebi. Semdeg daita­ neT saRebavi. daakvirdiT, rom anareklis SemTxvevaSi feri ufro mqrqalia. saRebavis gaSrobis Semdeg lurji saRebavis farTo monasmebiT daxateT wyali. areklili nagebobebi SeiZleba martivi anabeWdis _ monopitiis teqnikiT SeqmnaT. amisaTvis furclis qveda carieli nawili frTxilad gadakeceT da saRebavis gaSrobamde daafareT ukve daxatul nagebobebs. 1. SeqmeniT qalaqis pei­zaJi wyal­ Si areklili tipuri holandiuri saxlebiT.

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2. moiZieT nebismieri qalaqis droSa da gerbi, infor­macia maT Se­ saxeb da gaakeTeT stendi.


6. qalaqis gerbi da devizi iciT Tu ara, rom yvela evropul qalaqs sakuTari devizi, droSa da gerbi aqvs. es tradicia Sua saukuneebSi Camoyalibda da dResac arsebobs. metad saintereso gerbi aqvs litvis dedaqalaqs, vilniuss.

?

1. gaixseneT amsterdamis de­ vizi, droSa da gerbi. 2. aRwereT vilniusis gerbze war­ modgenili figurebi. da­ak­­vir­diT maT atributebs. 3. rogori kompozicia aqvs vilniusis gerbs?

qalaq vilniusis gerbi

vilniusis gerbis wiTel farze gamosa­xulia wyalSi mimavali mamakaci mxar­ ze bavSviT. es wminda qristeforea. gadmocemis mixedviT, wminda qristefore zorba, tanadi romaeli iyo da mefis samsaxurSi idga, Tumca mas es ar akmayo­ filebda. igi erT qristian berTan mivida da sTxova, eswavlebina rogor ga­ mxdariyo qristes msaxuri. berma igi wya­luxv mdinaresTan miiyvana da saku­ Tari zurgiT adamianTa mdinareze gadayvana daavala. erTxel mas patara biWi gadahyavda zurgiT, romelic Sua mdinareSi ise damZimda, rom qristefores misi tareba gauWirda. biWma uTxra goliaTs, rom is iesoa da mTeli samyaros simZime moaqvs Tan. Semdeg iesom monaTla romaeli da mas axali saxe­li _ qris­ tefore daarqva, rac `qristes mtarebels~ niSnavs. vilniusis devizi aseTia _ `erToba, samarTlianoba, imedi~. am sam cnebas ganasaxierebs gerbze warmodgenili nivTebi: Zvelromauli iaraRi (fascia), romelic erTobis niSania, saswori _ samarTlianobis, Ruza ki _ imedis.

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3. aRwereT, ra aris gamosaxuli romis gerbze da axseniT ratom. 4. rogori kompoziciuri principia gamoyenebuli am gerbze?

romis gerbze Tqven xedavT laTinur asoebs S.P.Q.R., es gaxlavT romis devizis sityvebis pir­ veli asoebi. romis devizi ki aris `romis xalxi da senati~. umetes SemTxvevaSi gerbis kompozicia simet­ riisa da wonasworobis principiT igeba

SeqmeniT Tqveni qalaqis an da­saxlebis devizi da gerbi.

qalaq romis Tanamedrove gerbi

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7. madridi 1. rogor ucnauradac unda mogeC­venoT, madridis, espaneTis dedaqalaqis saxelwodeba arabuli sityvidan iR­ebs saTa­ves. `maxer-it~ arabulad wya­luxv wyaros niSnavs. es adgili, marTlac, cnobili iyo ankara wyaroebiT, romli­ Tac qalaqi maragdeboda.

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1. rogor fiqrobT, ratom daedo safuZvlad espaneTis dedaqalaqis sa­ xelwodebas arabuli sityva? Sem­TxveviTia Tu ara es?

madridis simbolo madridis simboloa daTvi, romelic xis kenkrovan na­ yofs miirTmevs. Zvelad am adgilas marTlac binadrobdnen daTvebi da kenkrac mravlad iyo. madridis centrSi erTerT centralur moedanze dgas daTvis qandakeba, romelic xis nayofs Seeqceva. madridi. daTvi

2. madridi daaxloebiT 852 wels daaarsa kordovis emiris Svilma muhamed I-ma. man erT-erT borcvze cixesimagre aago. arabebisagan espaneTis ganTavi­ suflebis Semdeg (1085 w.) madridma mniSvnelovani adgili daikava qristia­ nuli espaneTis istoriaSi. am dros espaneTis dedaqalaqi toledo iyo. 1561 wels espaneTis mefem, filipe II-m dedaqalaqi madridSi gadmoitana. patara dasaxleba nel-nela did samefo qalaqad iqca. gaCaRda mSenebloba, gaizarda mosaxleoba. madridi nel-nela, saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi Sendeboda. misi arqiteqtu­ ra, nagebobebi, moednebi, parkebi, Sadrevnebi, quCebi ganumeorebeli da mom­ xiblavia. madridis erT-erTi umSvenieresi adgilia mTavari moedani _ plaza maiori, romlis aSeneba filipe III-m arqiteqtor xuan gomes de moras daavala. moednis mSenebloba 1617 wels qalaqis Zveli, uswormasworo formis mqone savaWro moednis adgilas daiwyo. arqiteqtorma SeinarCuna ramdenime Zveli Senoba (e.w. puris saxli, yasbis saxli), magram mTliano­baSi sruliad axali, mowesrigebuli gegmarebis mqone Caketili moedani Seqmna.

madridi. plaza maiori

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sworkuTxa formis moedanze 437 aivani gamodis, TaRebiT gaxsnil qve­ da nawilSi ki maRaziebia ganTavsebuli. winaT aq saxalxo dResaswaulebi, raindTa turnirebi da koridac ki ewyoboda. 50 000-mde adamians SeeZlo Tvalyuri edevnebina moedanze mimdinare movlenebisaTvis. 1847 wels es­ paneTis princesa izabela II-is qorwinebis aRsaniSnavad am moedanze ukanas­ knelad Catarda korida. garda amisa, am moedanze espaneTis mefeTa kurTxe­ vis ceremonia tardeboda; aqve ewyoboda autodafe, kviraobiT imarTeboda bazroba, aseve, am moedanze Zvelad saxalxod sjidnen damnaSaveebs.

?

2. Tu iciT, ra aris ko­ rida? 3. aRwereT da gaaanali­zeT francisko riCis suraTi.

francisko riCi. autodafe. 1683 w.

3. madridi muzeumebis qalaqia. aq aris cnobili reina (dedofali) sofias muzeumi, tisenis muzeumi da a.S. madridis muzeumebs Soris, raRa Tqma unda, gamorCeulia prados muzeumi, romelSic xelovnebis nimuSTa msoflioSi erT-erTi umdid­re­­si koleqciaa daculi. 1819 wels mefe ferdi­ nand VII-s brZanebiT saze­ imod gaixsna samefo muzeumi, romelSic espa­ neTis mefeTa karze daculi su­­ra­Tebi Sevida. mas mere muzeums emateboda da ema­te­bo­da xelovnebis nimuSebi da dReisaTvis aq 5 000-mde eqsponati inaxeba. raRa Tqma unda, prados muzeumSi espanuri mxatvrobis um­ didresi koleq­ cia aris daculi. aqaa gamoCenili espaneli mxat­ vrebis: el grekos, velaskesis, goias, surbaranis da sxvaTa namuSevrebi. reina sofias muzeumi

 l e q sikoni autodafe _ religiuri cere­ moniebi, procesiebi, RvTismsa­xurTa qa­da­gebebi, damnaSaveTa ganaCenis sajaro wakiTxva da misi aRsruleba.

prados muzeumi

aRwereT aq mocemuli muze­u­mebis fasadebi. Seada­ reT isini erTmaneTs. miaqcieT yuradReba, sad aris ga­ moyenebuli Tanamedrove arqi­teqturis elementebi.

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8. madridi _ fexburTis qalaqi 1. madridi fexburTis qalaqicaa. madridis `reali~ msoflioSi erT-erTi uZlieresi safexburTo gundia. misi mSobliuri santiago bernabeus stadioni 1947 wels aSenda da is 80 000-ze met mayurebels itevs.

?

1. xom ar iciT, visi saxeli hqvia am stadions? 2. aRwereT es stadioni.

madridi. santiago bernabeus stadioni

santiago bernabeus stadions ara aqvs morbenalTa biliki, tribunebi Zal足 ze daxrilia, TiTqmis dakidebulia saTamaSo mindvris Tavze. mayurebelTa adgilebi gadaxurulia da, Tu zemodan davxedavT stadions, is marTlac same足 fo gvirgvins waagavs. kuTxeebSi koSkebia datanebuli, romliTac stadioni swrafad ivseba da aseve swrafad icleba mayureblisgan.

madridis `realis~ logo

madridi. santiago bernabeus stadioni

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3. madridis `realis~ ro足mel fexburTelebs icnobT? 4. mouyeviT klass am gundis warmatebebis Sesaxeb. 5. aRwereT madridis `re足alis~ logo. gamoTqviT Tqveni azri misi Semadgeneli elementebis Sesaxeb.

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2. madridSi meore stadionicaa, romelic aseve cnobil gunds, madridis `atletikos~ ekuTvnis da is visente kalderonis saxelobisaa. stadioni 55 000 mayurebels itevs. `atletikos~ stadionze ukanaskneli matCi 2017 wlis maisSi Catarda. stadioni ver emsaxureboda bevr mayurebels, amitom ufro didi zomis stadioni madridis erT-erT ubanSi Sendeba.

?

6. aRwereT kalderonis stadioni. 7. SeadareT is santiago bernabeus. ra gansxvavebaa maT Soris? 8. msoflioSi cnobil kidev romel stadionebs icnobT? madridis safexburTo klubebis prezidentebi

santiago bernabeu madridis `realis~ moTamaSe iyo da am gundSi 1912-1927 ww-Si TamaSobda. 1943-1978 ww-Si igi realis klubis ucvleli prezidenti iyo. visente kalderoni ki madridis `at­le­tikos~ prezidenti iyo 1964-1987 ww-Si.

madridi. visente kalderonis stadioni

1. klasSi daxateT namuSevari fex­ burTis Te­maze. SeecadeT, namuSevarSi nebismieri xerxiT gamoyoT mTavari.

Temuri. 11 wlis

2. moiZieT in­formacia msof­ lioSi sta­dione­bi­ s Se­saxeb da gaakeTeT stendi.

nino. 11 wlis

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9. quCis abra dakvirvebixarT, rogoraa aRniS­ nu­ li quCebis dasaxeleba Tqvens qalaqSi, dabaSi, dasaxlebaSi? rogorc wesi, es ubralo liTonis abrebia, romlebzec quCis saxelwodebaa dawerili. madridi am mxriv Zalze saintereso da ori­ ginalur gadawyvetas gvTavazobs. madridis quCebSi SexvdebiT keramikuli filebiT awyobil abrebs, romleb­ zec, quCis saxelwodebasTan erTad, metad gamZle saRebaviT Sesabamisi ga­ mosaxulebebia daxatuli.

?

1. aRwereT aq mocemuli quCis abrebis nimuSebi. imsjeleT, maT kompoziciur da feradovan ga­ dawyvetaze. 2. SeecadeT, gansazRvroT, ra­ m­ denad Seesabameba gamosaxuleba warweris Sinaarss.

arenalis quCis abra

arenali espanurad qviSian adgils niSnavs. Se­ saba­misad, am abraze xedavT qalaqis mSe­nebare pei­ zaJsa da adamianebs, romle­ bic qviSisagan wmenden am ad­gils. am mcire zomis scenaze asaxulia quCis istoria.

servantesis quCis abra

zog abraze adamianis portretia mocemuli, zogze _ gerbi an Tavad am ad­ gilis xedi; zogierT quCas wmindanis saxeli hqvia da abrebze am wmindanebis simboloebi an maTi gamosaxulebebia daxatuli.

mkeravebis quCis abra

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cxovelTa rigis quCis abra

alkalas quCis abra


puerta del sol _ `mzis karibWe~ _ ase hqvia moedans, romelic madrid­ is guls warmoadgens. am moednidan sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT mra­vali quCa gadis, rac, marTlac, mzis sxivebs mogvagonebs. am abraze `mzis karibWis~ re­ aluri xedia asaxuli, romelsac TiTqos bavSvis xeliT daxatuli mze anaTebs.

moedani `mzis karibWe~. abra

wminda martinis quCis abra

wminda ieronimes quCis abra

wminda ieronime IV s-Si moRvaweobda. man laTinur enaze Targmna biblia, amitom igi Tarjiman-mTar­gm­nelTa mfarvelad aRiares. gadmocemiT cnobilia, rom erT­xel wm. ieronime beTlemSi, monastris win sxva berebTan erTad ijda. am dros lomi gamoCnda, mas fexSi xiWvi SerWoboda, tkivilisagan koWlobda da sawyalob­lad bRaoda. amis danaxvaze SeSinebu­li ber-monazvnebi gaiq­c­nen, wminda ieronime ki loms miegeba. lomma mtki­vani TaTi morCilad gauwoda da wminda mamam mas TaTidan xiWvi gamouRo. mad­lieri lomi amis Semdeg monas­ terSi darCa da berebs emsaxureboda. amitomac am wmindans mxat­vrobaSi xSi­ rad lomTan erTad gamosaxaven.

gaakeTeT Tqveni qu­Cis abra misi saxelwo­ debis gaT­valiswinebiT. gaazrebulad gaana­ wileT gamosaxulebebi sibrtyeze.

albrext diureri. wm. ieronime senakSi. 1514 w.

pirvel rigSi, moifiqreT, ra masalisagan gaakeTebT abras. amis Semdeg moi­ fiqreT, ra gamosaxulebas daxatavT zed. am SemTxvevaSi aucileblad unda gaiTvaliswinoT Tqveni quCis saxelwodeba. winaswar gansazRvreT, ra ferebs da xerxebs gamoiyenebT, rogor gaanawilebT gamosaxulebebs kompoziciu­ rad da rogori iqneba warwera. gaiTvaliswineT, rom Tqvens abraze datanili gamosa­xuleba Soridan kargad unda aRiqmebodes.

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10. parki gueli `bunebaSi ar arsebobs swori xazebi...~ _ ambobda didi espaneli arqiteqto­ ri antonio gaudi. am ideiT xelmZRvanelobda is Tavisi nagebobebis Seqmnisas. am genialurma arqiteqtorma XX saukunis dasawyisSi barselonaSi 15 heqtarze gadaWimuli parki aago da masSi mravali nageboba Cadga. am parks dResac `sa­ ocrebaTa qveyanas~ uwodeben. parkSi ormag kibes SevyavarT; SesasvlelSi Sadrevani gvxvdeba, rome­ lic gaformebulia mozaikiT mopirkeTebuli cxovelebis qandakebebiT.

Sesasvleli. Sadrevnis detali parki gueli. Sesasvleli

parkSi Sesul mnaxvels erT-erTi pirveli e.w. assvetiani darbazi xvde­ ba. ucnauri formis svetebi da talRovani Weri iseT STabeWdilebas qmnis, TiTqos mTeli darbazis interieri `Relavs~ da moZraobs. gaudis eqsperimenti darbazis kedlebs gars uvlis gaRunuli for­ mis skami. cnobilia, rom gaudi sagangebo eqsperi­ ments atarebda: TabaSirisgan daZer­wil jer kidev svel formaze SiSvel adamians svamda, raTa skams parkis damTvaliereblebisaTvis mosaxerxebeli, adamianis sxeulis Sesabamisi moyvaniloba hqono­ da da maT dasvenebis SesaZlebloba miscemodaT. amitom darbazis mTeli kedlebis gayolebaze mde­ bare mosasvenebel skams uCveulod denadi, aras­ wori moyvaniloba aqvs.

assvetiani darbazi

moedani

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parkSi uamravi nagebobaa, maT Soris Tavad arqiteq­toris saxli. es nage­ bobebi uCveulo formisaa _ moklebulia swor xazebs, kuTxeebs da uxvadaa Semkuli mozaikuri dekoriT. zogjer saxlebis fasadebi lamazi ornamente­ biTaa moxatuli. gaudis saxli

parki gueli. `Saqarlamis saxli~

baRSi mowyobilia fanCaturebi, xelovnuri gamoqvabulebi, moednebi, sadac damTvaliere­bels SeuZlia daisvenos. parki `daserilia~ fexiT mosiaruleTa gze­biTa da bilikebiT. xSi­rad gza sxvadasxva ucnauri formis TaRis qveS gadis.

parki gueli. konstruqciebi fexiT mosiaruleTaTvis

?

1. aRwereT park guelis aq moce­ muli TaRebisa da svetebis forma. 2. ra aris maTSi uCveulo?

amgvari fantastikuri formis TaRe­bis qveS moseirne adamians iseTi STa­ beWdileba uCndeba, TiTqos is zRaparSi iyos. qva TiTqos cocxldeba, uCveu­ lo formebs qmnis da amiT Sesa­niSnavad erwymis bunebas. adamianis naxelavis da bunebis harmoniuli Serwyma gaudis Semoqmedebis mTavari principi iyo. moifiqreT zRapruli gmi­ri an gmirebi, romlebic am parkSi icxovreben, da­ wereT da Semdeg daasuraTeT ambavi maT Sesaxeb.

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11. saocnebo parki antonio gaudis barselonaSi Seqmnilma parkma naTlad dagvanaxa, rom ada­ mianma Tavis yvelaze Tamam ideebsac ki SeiZleba Seasxas xorci. xom ar ga­ giCndaT survili Tqvenc SeqmnaT amgvari saocnebo parki? iqneb gaudis mier parkSi Cadgmuli saxlebi gaixsenoT da SeecadoT, Tqveni fantaziiT Seqm­ naT fantastikuri nagebobebi, romlebsac Semdeg klasis mier Seqmnil saerTo parkSi CadgamT.

sxvadasxva feris furclebisgan maRali koSkebis ga­ keTeba SeiZleba. amisaTvis isini mTel sigrZeze mrgva­ lad unda daaxvioT, daaweboT da Tavze feradi sam­ kuTxa saxuravebi daaxuroT.

galavnis gasakeTeblad qaRalds erTi mxridan kbi­ lanebi gaukeTeT. marTkuTxedis forma mieciT da na­ pirebiT erTmaneTs daawebeT. sxva­dasxva formis feradi qaRaldebi daxieT da zed daawebeT. SegiZliaT erTi mxridan galavans karibWec `miaSenoT~.

gamzadebuli koSkebi galavnis SigniT erTmaneTis gverdigverd ganalageT. koS­ kebze, rogorc wesi didi saaTic aris xolme. saaTis ciferblatis gakeTeba da koSkze misi damagreba arc Tqven ga­ giWirdebaT. Tqven mier gakeTebuli cixesimagre namdvils daemsgavseba Tu mis aivanze mzeTunaxavi princesac ga­ moCndeba.

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plastilinisgan sxvadasxva zomis kvadratuli da marTkuTxa formebi gamoZer­ weT. saxuravebad samkuTxa formebi gamoiyeneT. rogori formis fanjrebi gindaT rom hqondes am nagebobebs: mrgvali, ovaluri Tu oTxkuTxa? aq yvelaferi Tqvens xelSia. egeb scadoT, romelime Tqveni sayvareli literaturuli nawarmoebis gmiris saxli gaakeToT an iqneb originaluri formis Sadrevnis Seqmna girCevniaT. SegiZliaT, mgzavrebis gadasayvani patara manqanebi gamoZerwoT, an sulac, rkinigza moawyoT. namdvili arqiteqtoriviT gasaqani mieciT Tqvens fantazias.

es saxlebi axla mTeli klasis mier Seqmnil parkSi unda CadgaT. maT gaswvriv buCqebi unda CaamwkrivoT, mwvane moSriale xeebi dargoT da yvavilebiT SeamkoT parki. danarCeni Tqveni fantaziiT moifiqreT.

TqvenTvis sasur­veli nebismi­eri ma­saliT SeqmeniT zRapruli nagebobebi sa­ ocnebo parkisaTvis. Tavad parki ki mTelma klasma erTad gaakeTeT.

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12. aTeni 1. saberZneTis dedaqalaqi aTeni msofli­os erT-erTi uZvelesi qalaqia. an­ tikur xa­naSi is ZvelberZnuli kulturis umniSvnelovanesi centri iyo. aTe­ nis mSvenebaa misi akropolisi. sparselebTan omis Sedegad dangreuli aTenis akropolisi Zv. w. V s-is II naxevarSi aRadgines, ufro sworad, xelaxla aaSenes. aTenis akropolisi SesaniSnavi ansamblia. iciT, ras niSnavs ansambli? esaa erTiani organizmi, romelic sxvadasxva nawilebisagan Sedgeba da es nawilebi erTmaneTTan harmoniulad aris SeTanxmebuli. da marTlac, aTenis akropo­ lisi, esaa maRal borcvze agebuli ramdenime nagebobis erToblioba. parTenoni erexTeioni

propileebi

pinakoTeka propileebi propileebi Sesasvlels niSnavs. age­ bulia arqiteqtor mnesiklesis mier Zv. w. 437-432 ww-Si. es aris gamWoli fanCa­ turi, romelic ori mxridan gaxsnil­ ia svetebiT da orqanoba saxuraviTaa gadaxuruli. aqedan Sediodnen akropo­ lisis moedanze.

pinakoTeka pinakoTeka Zvel saberZneTSi fer­ werul namuSevarTa sacavs warmoadgen­ da. es iyo yru kedlebiT SemosazRvruli ma­siuri Senoba.

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nike apTerosis taZari

nike apTerosis taZari nike apTeros ufrTo nikes niSnavs. mci­re zomis patara, msubuqi da moxde­ nili taZari agebulia arqiteqtor ka­ likratesis mier Zv. w. 427-421 ww-Si.


I parTenoni akropolisis mTavari taZari agebu­ lia iqtinosisa da kalikratesis mier Zv. w. 447-438 ww-Si. Tbili, moyviTalo feris marmarilosgan nagebi yovelmxriv sve­ tebiT garSemortymuli taZari aTenas saxelobisaa da ansamblis yvelaze did nagebobas warmoadgens.

erexTeioni Zv. w. 421-406 ww-Si agebuli parTe­ nonTan SedarebiT momcro, asimetriuli erexTeioni, moxdenili proporciebiT xasiaTdeba.

2. maS ase, aTenis akropolisze idga: propileebi, pinakoTeka, nike apTe­ rosis taZari, parTenoni da erexTeioni, magram saqme isaa, rogor aris isini ganlagebuli erTmaneTis mimarT?

akropolisis moednis xedi. sqema propileebis xedi. sqema

akropolisis SesasvlelTan mdgari mnaxveli centrSi propileebs xedavs. misgan marcxniv mZime, masiuri pinakoTekaa, marjvniv ki _ nike apTerosis msu­buqi da patara taZari. amgvarad, mnaxveli, SeiZleba iTqvas, `calgverddamZi­mebulia~, radgan aq darRveulia wonasworoba. gaivlis ra propileebs, mnaxveli mo­edanze aRmoCndeba, sadac simZime sruliad sapirispirod gadanawildeba: axla marjvniv metia datvir­Tva, radgan swored am mxares dgas ufro didi parTenoni, xolo marcxniv _ ufro momcro erexTeioni. swored am momentSi aRdgeba propileebis win darRveuli wonasworoba.

amgvarad qmnian akropolisis nagebobebi erTian harmoniul ansambls. ada­ miani ki Tavad monawileobs am harmoniis SeqmnaSi da es bunebrivicaa, radgan Zveli berZnebi Tvlidnen, rom `adamiani yvelafris sazomia~.

moiZieT aTenis sa­xelwo­de­basTan dakav­Sirebuli ber­­Znuli miTi. daasura­ TeT am miTis romelime epizodi da warmoadgineT klasis winaSe.

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13. flugeri ?

1. aRwereT aq mocemuli nageboba. 2. Tqveni azriT, is Zvelia Tu Tanamedrove? 3. rogor fiqrobT, ra daniSnuleba unda hqonoda mas?

1. aTenis erT-erT ubanSi mdgari es mokrZale­ buli rvawaxnaga koSkura Senoba Zv. w. I s-Sia age­ buli. am sada nagebobis erTaderTi samkaulia mis zeda nawilSi waxnagebze moTav­sebuli reliefi. aq rva qaris gamosaxulebaa mocemuli. swored amitom hqvia am nagebobas `qarebis koSki~. misi erT-erTi funqciac qarTan iyo dakavSirebuli. odesRac, mis Tavze flugeri idga, romliTac aTenelebi qaris mimarTulebas gansazRvravdnen. garda amisa, koSkis SigniT moTavsebuli iyo wylis saaTi, e.w. klepsid­ ra. amgvarad, qarebis koSki uZvelesi meteorolo­ giuri Zeglia, romliTac aminds gansazRvrav­ dnen da drosac igebdnen. 2. flugeri martivi, mobiluri mo­wyobilobaa, romliTac qaris mimar­Tu­ lebasa da siZlieres gansazRvraven. is ori nawilisagan Sedgeba. qveda, ver­ tikalur RerZze damagrebulia horizontaluri firfita an isari, romelic RerZis garSemo Tavisuflad brunavs. qaris RvTaebebi berZnebis warmodgeniT, arsebobda qvey­ nierebis rva kuTxis qari da yovel maTgans sakuTari saxe­ li hqonda: boreasi _ CrdiloeTis qari, zefirosi _ dasavleTis, afelitesi _ aRmosavleTis, notosi _ samxreTis, kaikiasi _ Crdilo-aRmosavleTis, eurosi _ samxreT-aRmosavleTis, lipsosi _ samxreT-dasav­ leTis da skironi _ Crdi­lo-dasavleTis. firfitis an isris viwro mxare mianiSnebs, Tu saidan uberavs qari.

firfitis an isris erTi mxare ganieri unda iyos.

flugeri gansakuTrebiT popularuli iyo evropaSi, ufro metad zRvis­ pira qalaqebSi. mas saxlis saxuravebze, xSirad taZris gumbaTebze amagrebd­ nen. ume­teswilad, flugeri gaformebuli iyo xolme horizontalur RerZze wamos­kupebuli raime gamosaxulebiT. maT Soris, yvelaze popularuli mam­ lis gamosa­xuleba iyo.

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I 3. flugeris damzadeba Tqvenc SegiZliaT.

Tavdapirvelad daam­zadeT isrebi. SegiZliaT gamoiy­ enoT xe an magari muyao da xis viwro da grZel naWerze miamagroT is. isari SegiZliaT Tqveni survilisamebr sxva­dasxvafrad SeReboT. muyaoze TqvenTvis sasurveli gamosaxulebis silu­ eti moxazeT, gamoWeriT da kontrastuli ferebiT mo­ xateT.

Tu gindaT, SeamowmoT, rogor muSaobs Tqven mier gakeTebuli flugeri, ezoSi an aivanze gadiT, flugeri win gawvdil xelSi daiWireT. amiT Tqven SeamowmebT romeli mxridan uberavs qari. moifiqreT, rogor sad­ gamze daamagrebT Tqvens flugers.

 l eqsi koni meteorologia _ mecniereba dedamiwis at­­mos­­fe­ ros Sesaxeb; me­teoro­logiuri na­geboba _ nageboba, saidanac bunebriv movlenebs akvirdebian.

sakuTari xeliT gaakeTeT flugeri.

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14. berZnuli larnakebi Zveli saberZneTi ganTqmuli iyo keramikuli nawarmiT, romelic berZnebs mTel xmelTaSuazRvispireTis qveynebSi gahqondaT. ZvelberZnuli keramikuli WurWlis formebi mravalferovani da daxvewili iyo da, rogorc wesi, es nakeTobebi moxatulobiT iyo Semkuli. pirvel larnakze wiTel fonze figurebi Savi feriTaa daxatuli. amgvar larnakebs Savfigurians uwodeben.

?

1. ra ferisaa meore larnakze fo足 ni da figurebi? 2. ras uwodebdiT amgvari fera足 dov足nebis mqone larnakebs? 3. rogor fiqrobT, ra daniSnuleba unda hqonoda mas?

berZnebi sakuTar keramikul nawarmze miTologiur siuJetebsa da personaJebs gamosaxavdnen. kolxi medea da misi ambavi xSirad gvxvdeba berZnuli larnakebis moxa足tulobebSi.

?

30

3. gaixseneT medeas istoria argonavtebis miTidan. 4. Tqveni azriT, miTis romeli epizodebia asaxuli aq warmodgenil larnakebze?


15. movxatoT WurWeli Zvel saberZneTSi, sanam WurWlis moxatvas figurebis SemkobiT daiwyebd­ nen, manamde mas ornamentebiT amkobdnen. ornamenti, ZiriTadad, geometriuli iyo xolme, amis gamo ornamentiT moxatul berZnul larnakebs geometriul stils miakuTvneben. geometriuli stilis WurWelze xSirad gvxvde­ ba Zveli saberZneTisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli geo­ metriuli ornamenti, romelsac meandrs uwodeben. esaa ori xveuli, romlebsac sapirispiro mimarTu­ leba aqvs da erTmaneTSia Casmuli. meandri berZ­ nuli larnakebis formas zolebad miuyveba, xolo am zolebs Soris xSirad cxovelebis, frinvelebis an adamianis gamosaxulebebia CarTuli.

meandri

?

berZnuli larnaki

1. aRwereT geometriuli stilis berZnuli larnaki. 2. rogor monacvleobs ornamenti da figurebi am larnakze?

modi, axla vcadoT berZnuli ornamentiT Tanamedrove WurWlis Sem­ koba. amisaTvis erTjeradi Wiqebic ki gamogvadgeba.

Tavdapirvelad qaRaldze an naWer­ ze feradi ornamenti SeqmeniT. SegiZliaT nebismieri motivi gamoiyeno, maT Soris berZnuli meandric. Tqven mier qaRaldze an naWerze Sesrulebuli ornamentuli zolebi erTjerad Wiqas SemoaxvieT da daawebeT. Tu zolebs Soris manZili dagrCaT, SegiZliaT, Zveli berZnebis msgavsad, es carieli adgilebi cxovelebis an adamianebis figurebiT SeavsoT.

erTjeradi Wiqa morTeT orna­ mentuli motivebiT.

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16. didi qalaqebis ezoebi Tu sofelSi cxovrobT, cxadia, Tqven sakuTari ezo geqnebaT, magram qa­ laqSi xSirad ramdenime mravalsarTulian saxls saerTo ezo aqvs da masSi uamravi bavSvi iyris Tavs. isini seirnoben, TamaSoben, cxovelebs aseirneben. aseTi ezo yovelTvis xmauriani da xalxmravalia.

daxateT didi qalaqis ezo mravalsarTuliani sax­ lebiTa da misi binadrebiT. namuSevris Seqmnisas gamoi­ yeneT kompoziciuri ganawilebis TqvenTvis sasurveli xerxi (wonasworobis principi, simetriuli an asimet­ riuli kompozicia).

dafiqrdiT, ra xdeba Tqvens ezoSi saintereso. daxa­ teT da uambeT amis Sesa­xeb Tanaklaselebs.

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I

17. ocnebis saxlis fanjara fanjara, erTi SexedviT, saxlis Cveulebrivi atributia, magram Tu misi forma an feri gamorCe­ ulia is saxlis samkaulad SeiZleba iqces. da Tu fanjris rafaze fisosac sZinavs da yvavilebiani qoTanic dgas, maSin Cven mis miRma arsebuli sivr­ cis, binis simyudrovesa da siTbosac vgrZnobT.

evropis sxvadasxva qalaqSi xSirad SexvdebiT fanjris rafaze gaSenebul `baRs~ an xviara mce­ na­reebiT dafarul kedlebs, sxvadasxvafrad SeRe­ bil darabebs, rac moxdenilsa da mSveniers xdis xolme sruliad ubralo saxls. Tqven rogor fan­ jaras isurvebdiT Tqveni saxlis fasadze?

daxateT Tqveni ocnebis saxlis fanjara.

nino. 11 wlis

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I

18. mogzauroba xelovnebis samyaroSi I wignis am nawilSi Tqven msoflios sam qalaqs gaecaniT: amsterdams, mad­ ridsa da aTens.

?

1. CamoTvaleT, romel qveynebSi mdebareobs es qalaqebi.

Tqven am qalaqebze garkveuli warmodgena ukve SegeqmnaT. maTSi dacul mraval RirsSesaniSnaobas gaecaniT. am mcire warmosaxviTma mogzaurobam maT Sesaxeb ufro metis gagebis survili xom ar aRgiZraT, an iqneb mogindaT ufro meti icodeT im qveynebis Sesaxeb, romlebSic es qalaqebi mdebareobs? mag., saberZneTSi, aTenis garda, bevri saintereso Zveli Tu Tanamedrove qa­ laqis naxva SeiZleba. an, egeb, madridis garda, espaneTis kidev romelime qa­ laqis Sesaxeb gsmeniaT rame: barselona, toledo, bilbao... am qveynebis RirsSesaniSnaobaTa, istoriul ZeglTa kvleva yovel Tqven­ gans SeuZlia. Tu Tanaklaselebi jgufebad gaerTiandebiT, romelime qveyanas airCevT da mis RirsSesaniSnaobaTa, Tu iq moRvawe xelovanTa Sesaxeb infor­ macias moiZi­ebT, fotomasalas SeagrovebT, stendebs gaakeTebT, dawerT mox­ senebebs, da­xatavT suraTebs, romlebSic Tqvens STabeWdilebebs gadmoscemT da Semdeg am yovelives farTo auditoriis winaSe waradgenT, marTlac Sed­ geba Tqveni mogzauroba xelovnebis samyaroSi dedamiwis garSemo. warmatebas gisurvebT, mogzauro mkvlevrebo!

saberZneTi

ZvelberZnuli keramika sunionis koncxi. poseidonis taZari

hozios lukasis taZari. mozaika

34

meteoras monasteri


I

holandia

haaga

ian steni. sauzme. 1660 w.

rembrandti. uZRebi Svilis dabruneba

utrexti

holandiuri nacionaluri fexsacmeli

holandiuri maqmani

espaneTi

diego velaskesi. sebastian de mora

talaveras keramika

el greko. portreti

barselona. sagrada familia

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II

19. stamboli 1. stamboli msoflioSi erTa­ derTi qalaqia, romelic erTdroulad or kontinentze mdebareobs.

?

1. romel kontinentebze mdeba­reobs stamboli? 2. romel qveyanaSi mdeba­ reobs stamboli? 3. daasaxeleT am qveynis deda­qalaqi.

stamboli. xedi bosforze

bosforis srutis gaswvriv gadaWimuli es qalaqi ori imperiis _ bizantiisa da osmanTa _ dedaqalaqi iyo. legendis mixedviT, Zv. w. 667 wels vinme bizanti berZ­nul qalaq megaradan aq aarsebs dasaxlebas, romelsac bizantioni ewoda. 324 wels konstantine didi (306-337 ww.) am qalaqSi grandiozul aRmSeneblo­ bas iwyebs. 330 wels mas meore romad acxadebs, konstantinopols arqmevs da imperiis dedaqalaqi oficialurad gadmoaqvs aq. romis imperiis or nawilad gayo­fis Semdeg konstantinopoli bizantiis imperiis dedaqalaqi xdeba. sau­ kuneebis ganmavlobaSi kons­tantinopoli aRmo­savleT saqristianos (samarTl­ madideblos) centria. 1453 wels qalaqi Turqebma aiRes, osmaleTis sulTanma mahmud II-m is osmaleTis imperiis dedaqalaqad gamoacxada.

?

4. romeli religiis mimdevari iyo osmaleTis imperia? 5. romeli aRmsareblobisaa dRevandeli Tur­­qeTi?

stamboli Tu konstantinopoli stambolis saxeli berZnulidan iRebs saTaves. `eis tin polin~ berZulad niSnavs `qalaqSi~. 1930 wlamde qalaqis oficia­luri sa­xelwodeba iyo konstantinopoli; 1930 wlis 28 marts ki TurqeTis respublikis mTavrobam miiRo gadawyvetileba, rom qalaqs oficialurad Turquli saxeli stamboli darqmeoda.

2. stamboli sxvadasxva kulturaTa TavSey­ ris adgilia. romeli epoqis Zeg­ lebs ar Sexvde­ biT aq: ZvelberZnuli da romauli, qristianuli da muslimanuri kulturis Zeglebi. stambolis ar­qe­­o­logiur mu­zeumSi antikuri xanis nimuSebis umdidresi koleqciaa daculi. maT Sorisaa aleq­ sandre makedonelis sarkofagi si­ donidan. am­ gvar sarkofagebSi Zveli berZnebi da romaelebi micva­ lebulebs marxavdnen.

36

aleqsandre makedonelis sarkofagi. Zv. w. IV s.


sarkofagis forma berZnul taZars mogvagonebs. misi kedlebi Semkulia reliefebiT, romlebzec brZolisa da nadirobis scenebia asaxuli. Tavad makedoneli yvelgan cxenze amxed­rebuli, lomis tyaviT mosili da saimpe­ ratoro gvirgviniT TavdamSvenebuli warmogvidgeba. swored am reliefebis gamo miaweren am sarkofags aleqsandre didis saxels. sinamdvileSi ki igi erT-erTi mxedarTmTavris samarxi iyo. antikuri xana periodi, romelic moi­cavs Zvel­ berZnul da romis kulturebs _ Zv. w. XII s-dan ax. w. IV s-mde.

bazilikis cisterna. VI s.

3. stambolSi antikuri xanis mravali nageboba Tu misi fragmentia Se­ morCenili. antikur xanaSi stambolis wyliT momaragebis sakiTxi kar­ gad iyo mogvarebuli. aq aRmoCenilia daaxloebiT 40-mde miwisqveSa wylis rezervuari anu cisterna, romlebSic rogorc wvimis, ise wyaros wyle­ bi grovdeboda da Semdeg wyalgayvanilobis sistemiT mTel qalaqs miewo­ deboda. qalaqis centrSi mdebare erT-erTi aseTi rezervuaris, e.w. `ba­ zilikis cisternis~ mSenebloba konstantine didis dros daiwyo. esaa uzarmazari svetebiani darbazi, romelic 80 000 kubur metr wyals itevda. 4 metri siganis kedlebi da TaRebi cecxlgamZle aguriT iyo naSe­ne­bi. dar­ bazSi 8 metri simaRlis 336 sveti idga. aq sxvadasxva saxeobis marmarilos sxvadasxvagva­­rad da­muSavebuli svetebi gvxvde­ba. erT-erTi svetis qveda na­ wili meduza gorgos Tavis gamosa­xulebiT ki dayiravebulia. es cisterna XVI saukunemde moqmedi iyo, axla ki is muzeumadaa qceuli.

 leqsiko ni aRmsarebloba _ ro­ melime reli­ giis mimdev­ roba. rezervuari _ siTxis didi maragis Sesanaxi nageboba.

moiZieT stambolis muzeumSi daculi Zve­li civilizaciebis (egvipte, Suamdinare­Ti, antiku­ ri xana) nimuSebi, SeqmeniT stendi da waradgineT klasis winaSe. bazilikis cisterna. meduza gorgos Tavi svetis bazaze

37

II


II

20. dasuraTebuli istoriuli faqti 1. istoria metad saintereso sagania. omebi, qveynebis aRmSenebloba, qa­ laqebis daarseba, kanonebis Seqmna da sxva, ras aRar ipoviT istoriaSi. xSirad istoriuli movlena mxatvris STagonebis wya­rod iqceva. swored konkretulma istoriulma faqtma, 1204 wlis 13 ap­rils jvarosanTa mier kon­stantinopolis aRebam ub­iZ­­ga XIX saukunis frang mxa­tvars, eJen delakruas daexata didi is­ toriuli tilo am Temaze.

?

1. aRwereT es suraTi. 2. rogor aris agebuli suraTis kompozicia?

eJen delakrua. konstantinopolis aReba. 1840 w.

konstantinopolis aReba jvarosnebis mier 1196 wels bizantiis imperatori isaak ange­lozi mis­ ma Zmam aleqsi III-m taxtidan Camoagdo. 1201 wels isaa­ kis vaJma daxmareba taxtis dasab­runeblad jvarosnebs sTxova. maT Tanxmoba ganacxades, gailaSqres taxtis uzurpatoris winaaRmdeg da 1204 wels aiRes konstan­ tinopoli. maT gadawves da daangries qalaqi.

?

3. gaixseneT istori­idan vin iyvnen jva­rosnebi da ra mizani hqondaT maT. 4. ratom uwodebdnen maT jvarosnebs?

2. evropel raindebs _ jvarosnebs sagangebo sa­ mosi da aRWurviloba hqondaT. maTi samosis auci­ lebeli atributi iyo jvari. maT saomar aRWur­ vilobaSi liTonis mZime abjari, jaWvis pe­ rangi, Cafxutebi, xelTaTmanebi, farebi, Subebi, xmlebi Sedioda.

38


II ?

5. daaTvaliereT jvaro­sanTa aRWurviloba. aRwereT es nivTebi. 6. rogor fiqrobT, rTuli iqneboda Tu ara amgvari samosiT brZola?

3. mxatvrebi TavianT namuSevrebSi xSirad asaxaven im brZolebs, romlebmac gadamwyveti roli Seasrula ama Tu im qveynis istoriaSi. es, rogorc wesi, mravalfiguriani kompoziciebia. frangma mxatvarma Jan-lui ernest mezoniem brZolis win garinduli napo­ leonis armia gamosaxa. meomarTa figurebi aq statikuria. ian mateikos namu­ SevarSi ki brZolis simZafre figuraTa dinamizmiTaa gadmocemuli.

Jan-lui-ernest mezonie. napoleoni da misi mokavSireebi. 1868 w.

 l eqsi koni uzurpatori _ piri, romelmac uk­a­­nonod Caigdo xelSi Zalauf­ le­ba an miiTvisa sxvisi uflebebi rameze.

ian mateiko. grunevaldis brZola. 1878 w. fragmenti

nebismieri teqnikiT SeqmeniT namuSevari jvarosanTa Te­ maze. gamoiyeneT ilustraci­ebze mocemuli masala.

39


II

21. qristianuli da muslimanuri stamboli 1. Tqven ukve iciT, rom mTeli Sua saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi stamboli (konstantinopoli) bizantiis imperiis dedaqalaqi iyo. Semdeg ki, 1453 wels, is osmalebma daipyres. yovelma epoqam sakuTari daRi daamCnia qalaqs. aq dResac dgas qristianuli eklesiebi da muslimanuri salocavebi _ meCeTebi. qristianul epoqaSi konstantinopolSi mravali taZari aSenda. maT Soris gamorCe­ulia aia sofias cnobili taZari, rome­lic bizantiis imperiis mTavar taZars, mis religiur centrs warmoadgenda. misi mSenebloba 537 wels das­ rulda. gadmocemis mixedviT taZari imdenad STambeWdavi da didebuli iyo, rom Sig Sesul imperator iustinianes aRmoxda: `dideba Senda, ufalo, me Sen gajobe, solomon!~

stamboli. aia sofia. VI s.

?

1. xom ar iciT, vis gulisxmobda, romel mefes da mis romel aRmSeneblo­ bas edreboda iustiniane?

aia sofia msoflioSi erT-erTi yvelaze didi taZaria. misi 32 metri dia­ metrisa da 55 metri simaRlis mqone naxevarsferuli grandiozuli gumba­ Ti oTx mZlavr burjs eyrdnoba. gumbaTis ZirSi axlo-axlo gaWrili farTo sarkmlebidan ise uxvad Semodis sinaTle, rom sarkmlebs Soris darCenili kedlebi aRar Cans da Cven mxolod sinaTlis `rgols~ vxedavT; iseTi STa­ beWdileba iqmneba, TiTqos gumbaTi arafers eyrdnoba da haerSi livlivebs. taZari mopirkeTebulia ramdenime saxeobis feradi marmariloTi, Semkulia mozaikebiTa da qvaSi nakveTi ulamazesi ornamentebiT. aia sofias istoria `sofia~ RvTaebriv sibrZnes niSnavs. am adgilas ta­Zari pirvelad konstantine didma aago, Tumca is daiwva. amJa­ mindeli taZari agebulia imperator iustinianes dros (483-565 ww), xuroTmoZRvrebis isidore miletelisa da anTimoz tralelis mier. 1453 wels sulTanma mahmud II-m, romelmac konstantinopoli aiRo, taZris meCeTad gada­ keTeba brZana. taZars oTxi minareTi miaSenes, mozaikebi ki, romlebic mas amkobda Seleses. mxo­ lod 1935 wels TurqeTis respublikis meTauris aTa-Turqis brZanebiT aia sofia muzeumad gadakeTda, gaiwminda misi kedlebi, gamoCnda freskebi da mozaikebi.

40

aia sofia. interieri


II

aia sofias RirsSesaniSnaobebi aia sofias erT-erTi RirsSesaniSnaobaa `mti­ rala sveti~, romelSic xvrelia gakeTebuli. ar­ sebobs aseTi warmodgena, Tu adamiani am xvrelSi xelis Seyofisas sisveles igrZobs, raime survili unda CauTqvas da is aucileblad auxdeba. aqvea e.w. `civi sarkmeli~, romlidanac yovelTvis, zafxulis yvelaze cxel dReebSic ki, grili niavi uberavs. aia sofia. marmarilos filebi

moiZieT info­rmacia stambolis sxva qristi­ anuli taZrebis Se­saxeb.

 l eqsi koni minareTi _ koSki, romlidanac mus­lima­nebs sa­ locavad uxmoben.

aia sofias mozaika. XII s.

2. cxadia, stambolSi muslimanuri arqiteqturis Zeglebic mravladaa. me­ CeTebis minareTebi stambolis panoramis ganu­yofeli nawilia. meCeTebs Soris yvelaze didi da lamazi islamuri arqiteqturis Sedevri e.w. cisfe­ri me­CeTia. cisfers mas imis gamo uwodeben, rom misi interieri ulamazesi mce­na­reuli ornamentebiT Semkuli cisferi keramikuli filebiTaa mopirkeTebuli. meCeTis centraluri nawili uzarmazari gumbaTiTaa gadaxuruli. misi in­ terieri kargadaa ganaTebuli, radgan meCeTis kedlebsa da gumbaTSi gaWrili 260 sarkmlidan Suqi uxvad iRvreba masSi.

cisferi meCeTis interieri

cisferi meCeTi cisferi meCeTi agebulia 1606-1616 ww-Si sulTan axmed I-is dakveTiT xuroTmoZR­ var sedevkar mehmed aRas mier. am mSeneblobis istoriis yoveli detali guldasmi­ Taa aRwerili 6 xelnawer tomSi, romlebic axla stambolis erT-erTi sasaxlis bib­ lioTekaSi inaxeba. am meCeTis agebas mravali Zveli nageboba Seewira: daangries am adgilas mdga­ri bizantiis imperatorTa sasaxle, antikuri xanis ipodromis nawili, bizantiel aristokratTa sacxovrebeli saxlebi da sxv.

41


II

22. ornamenti 1. Tqven ukve iciT, rom ornamenti nivTis samkauls warmoadgens. ornamen­ tiT amkoben arqiteqturul Zeglebs, samoss, iaraRs, WurWels da sxv. am sam­ kaulSic ki SesaZlebelia amovicnoT esa Tu is kultura an epoqa.

?

1. daakvirdiT aq mocemul ornamen­tebs da aRwereT isini. 2. gansazRvreT, ra msgavseba da gans­xvavebaa maT Soris. 3. Tqveni azriT, romelia am ornamen­tebs Soris aRmosavluri?

grafikuli arabeska

2. aRmosavluri ornamenti Tavisuf­lad, yo­velgvari CarCoebis gareSe fa­ ravs sibrtyes, is xaliCasaviT edeba zedapirs. aRmosavleTSi Seiqmna ornamentis saxeoba _ arabeska (arabeska italiuri sityvaa da arabuls niSnavs). is evropaSi arabeTidan gavrcelda. arabeskaSi erTmaneTs erwymis geometriuli da mcenareuli motivebi. xSi­ rad Sig arabuli warwerebic kia Cawnuli. arabeska ramdenime motivis gameo­ rebiT iqmneba. maTi yvela mxares mimarTuli usasrulo dineba mTlianad fa­ ravs zedapirs. es ornamenti nebismier adgi­ las SeiZleba Sewydes ise, rom misi mTlianoba ar dairRves. aseTi ornamenti gamoricxavs fons, radgan or­ namentuli motivebi mTlianad avsebs mas. evropelebi amas `sicarielis SiSs~ uwodebdnen. amgvar ornaments aRmosavlur kulturaSi aTav­ sebdnen yvelgan: nagebobis interierSi, fasadebze Tu gumbaTze, WurWelze, wignis ydebze, qso­vilze da sxv.

reliefuri arabeska

42


3. Tqven, albaT, yofilxarT qarTul qristianul taZarSi. Cveni taZrebis fa­sa­debi uxvadaa Semkuli qvaze kveTili ornamentiT. ornamenti aseve xSi­ rad gvxvdeba qarTuli taZrebis moxatulobebzec.

?

4. Tqveni azriT, hgavs Tu ara Sua saukuneebis qarTuli ornamenti aRmosavlurs? 5. ra arsebiTi sxvaobaa maT Soris?

 l eqsikoni motivi _ gamosaxu­lebis saxasiaTo ganmeore­badi elementi.

nikorwmindis reliefuri ornamentebi

nebismieri xerxiT, qarTuli da tipuri aRmo­ sav­ luri ornamentebis ga­ moyenebiT SeqmeniT de­ koratiuli namuSevari. gamoiyene mocemuli ni­mu­ Sebi. SegiZliaT gamoiyeno feris gradacia.

gelaTis freskis ornamenti

43

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II

23. nisliani albionis dedaqalaqi 1. evropis ukidures dasavleT nawilSi mdebare saxelmwifos, didi bri­ taneTis gavrcelebuli sa­xelwodebaa nisliani albioni. Tu gaixsenebT, rom es qveyana yoveli mxridan wyliT garSemortymul kunZulebze mdebareobs, advilad mixvdebiT, ratom daerqva mas es saxeli. arc misi dedaqalaqi, lon­ donia gamonaklisi. aqac xSirad wvims da nislia. es qalaqi mdinare temza­ ze mdebareobs da am mdinareze agebuli aTeulobiT Zveli Tu axali xidi qalaqis namdvili mSvenebaa. iq, sadac Zvelad romael jariskacTa patara savaWro da­saxleba, londiniumi iyo ganlagebuli, Sua saukuneebSi masiuri galavniTa da wyliT savse TxriliT garSemortymuli taueris Seuvali cixe­ simagre aSenda, xolo 1894 wels agebuli taue­ ris xidi inglisis dedaqa­ laqis simbolod­ac iqca.

taueris xidi

?

taueris cixesimagre

1. rogor daaxasia­Teb­diT londonis tauersa da mis cnobil xids da ra asociaciebs aRZravs maTi arqi­teqturuli ieri. 2. londonis romeli cnobili nageboba iT­vleba kidev mis simbolod?

taueri taueris cixesimagre erTdroulad samefo rezidenciac iyo da ganZeulis sacavic, arsenalic, observatoriac da sapyrobilec, romlis kedlebsac warCi­ nebulTa da TviT samefo gvaris warmomadgenelTa wameba da patimrobac axsovs. sapyrobilesTan dakavSirebiT erTi cnobili legenda mogviTxrobs, rom Tu pa­ timars sarkmelze yvavi miukakunebda, igi ganwiruli iyo da mas male sikvdiliT dasjidnen. Zveli tradiciis SesanarCuneblad XVII s-dan moyolebuli dRemde tauerSi mefis brZanebiT mudmivad cxovrobs 6 yvavi, romlebsac sagangebod uvlian da meTvalyureoben. arsebobs gadmocema, rom taueris sapyrobilisa da Tavad sasaxlis derefnebSi xSirad xedavdnen yofili patimrebis aCrdilebs. es gadmocema erTgvar xibls matebs tauers da turistebsac izidavs.

44


2. londonis kidev erTi Rirs­SesaniSnaobaa vestminsteris saabato da sa­ saxle. vestminsterSi samefo rezidenciis gadmotanis Semdeg londonSi ori centri Camoyalibda: ekonomikuri centri _ siTi da politikuri da kultu­ ruli _ vestminsteri. axla aq samefo rezidencia aRar aris. vestminsteris kedlebSi axla inglisis parlamentma daido bina. vestminsteris saabato inglisis istoriis cocxali matianea, mis erT kuTxeSi Tavmoyrilia yvela cnobili ingliseli poetis memorialuri dafa.

parlamentis Senoba bukingemis sasaxle

3. ingliselebi cnobili arian tradiciebis mi­ marT gansakuTrebuli pativiscemiT. es ara marto xelovnebis ZeglebSi, aramed TviT saxelmwifoeb­ riv wyobasa da yoveldRiuri cxovrebis wesSic naTlad mJRavndeba _ inglisSi xom dResac mo­ narqiaa. bukingemis sasaxlis win tradiciul for­ mebSi gamowyobili yaraulis cvlis ceremonia da cxenosani gvardiis aRlumi londonis kidev erTi RirsSesaniSnaobaa. tradiciebis siyvaruli londonSi fexis yovel nabijze Cans. miuxedavad imisa, rom aq Tanamedro­ ve avtomanqa­nebis nakleboba ar SeimCneva, londo­ nis quCebSi isev orsarTuliani wiTe­li avtobusebi dasrialebs da Zvel­ moduri taqsis manqanebi moZ­ raobs. quCis satelefono jixurebsa da sareklamo svetebsac tradiciulad ucvleli forma aqvs. londonis quCa

moiZieT londonis sxva RirsSesaniSnaobebi da waradgineT klasis winaSe.

 l eqsikoni monarqia _ mmarT­velobis forma, rodesac saxelmwifos saTa­veSi udgas erTi piri _ mefe anu monarqi.

45

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II

24. rogor ixateba wvima zogierT Cvengans mcxunvare mze da kaSkaSa ferebiT Sesrulebuli peizaJi moswons, romelic ufro samxreTiT mdebare qveynebSi gvxvdeba; zogs ki mqrqa­ li da dabinduli ferebis harmonia izidavs. londonis nislian sanapiroebs Tu wvimian quCebs bevri mxatvrisTvis auSlia saRerReli, rom suraTze gamo­ esaxa msubuq nislSi gaxveuli xedis silamaze. am efeqtis gadmosacemad mxatv­ rebi yvelaze xSirad akvarelis saRebavebs iyeneben. akvareliT muSaobisas SesaZlebelia saRebavis Txeli fenebi ise daado erTmaneTs, rom isini erTi­ meoris qveSidan gamosWviodes, rac idealurad gadmoscems nislSi gaxveuli peizaJis Taviseburebebs.

uiliam terneri. nisliani peizaJi. 1819 w.

?

jon butoni. londoni, parlamenti. 1966 w.

1. daakvirdiT aq warmodgenil namuSevrebs, aRwereT, rogor aris gadmo­ cemuli nislSi gaxveuli Senobebi, anarekli wyalze da a.S.

akvareliT muSaobis dawyebamde furceli msubuqad daasveleT funjiT an gawu­ ruli RrubeliT da odnav SeSroba acadeT. aseT zedapirze dadebuli monasmebi odnav gadRabnili gamodis, xolo formebis Semomweri konturi TiTqmis SeumCneve­ lia, TiTqos marTlac nislSia CaZiruli.

46


II wvimiT dasvelebuli Senobis an quCebis dasa­ xatad svel zedapirze xatvis teqnika gamogadgebaT. sxvadasxva feris saRebavSi msubuqad dasvelebuli funjiT laqebi gverdigverd ise dadeT, rom maTi sazRvrebi erTmaneTs Seerios. aseTi kvali rCeba wvi­mis Semdeg trotuarze, svel fanjrebze Tu vit­ rinebze. funjis wveriT erT­ maneTis miyolebiT iribad dadebuli monasmebiT wvimis STabeWdilebas iolad SeqmniT.

Tako. 11 wlis

andro. 11 wlis

akvarelis saRebaviT SeqmeniT wvi­­­miani an nisliani pe­i­zaJi.

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II

25. inglisuri wignis grafika XIX saukunis bolos da XX saukunis dasawyisSi metad popularuli iyo saxviTi xelovnebis erT-erTi dargi _ grafika, gansakuTrebiT ki wignis ilustracia. es bunebrivicaa, radgan im epoqaSi, romelSic ar arsebobda te­ levizia da kompiuteri, wignSi CarTuli naxatebi mkiTxvelis Tvalwin moTx­ robil ambavs acocxlebda. inglisSi wignis ilustrirebis mdidari tradicia arsebobda. naxatebiT iyo Semkuli nebismieri wigni. zogi avtori sakuTari wignisaTvis TviTonve asru­ lebda naxatebs. magaliTad, TqvenTvis cnobili `mauglis” avtori, ingliseli mwerali, rediard kiplingi Tavad asuraTebda sakuTar nawarmoebebs.

obri berdsli XIX saukunis erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili ingliseli grafi­ kosia. aq warmodgenilia erT-erTi popula­ ruli istoriuli romanis ilustra­ cia, romelzec romanis gmiri, izolda werils wers. aRwereT suraTze gamosaxuli figura da foni, romelzec is aris warmodge­ nili.

obri berdsli. wignis ilustracia. 1893 w.

es is namuSevaria, romelmac obri ber­ d­­slis msoflio aRiareba moutana. daakvirdiT, rogor ostaturad iye­ nebs igi xazs am namuSevarSi. xazi aq Zalze denadi, moqnili da daxvewilia. albaT, SeamCnieT, rom namuSevris zeda nawilSi xazebi TeTrze SaviTaa data­ nili, xolo qveda nawilSi qalis kabis grZeli kalTa Sav fonze TeTri maqma­ niseburi ornamentiTaa Semkuli. obri berdsli. wignis ilustracia. 1894 w.

48

rogor STabeWdilebas qmnis es xerxi?


II

es sabavSvo wignis ilustraciaa. Tqveni azriT, romeli zRaparia aq dasuraTebuli? daasabuTeT Tqveni mosazreba. zRapris romel epizods gvixatavs mxatvari am ilustraciaze? romeli mxatvruli xerxiT gadmoscems mxatvari dinamikas am namuSevarSi?

eleonor vere boili. ilustracia. 1902 w.

wignis es ilustracia feradi grafikis nimuSia. vin arian aq warmodgenili personaJebi? ras saq足 mianoben isini? ras daarqmevdiT am namuSevars? aRwereT garemo. Tqveni azriT, weliwadis ro足meli droa asaxuli am ilustraciaze? rogor ganwyobilebas qmnis es namuSevari? sesili meri beikeri. ilustracia. 1918 w.

es ori namuSevari rediard kiplings ekuTvnis. albaT wakiTxuli gaqvT am avtoris cnobili moTxrobebi `rogor gaezarda spilos xorTu足mi~ da `kata, romelic TavisTvis seirnobda~.

rediard kiplingi. ilustracia

es ilustraciebi Sav-TeTri grafikis nimuSebia. daakvirdiT da aRwereT rogor aris daxatuli spilo. Tqveni azriT, ra xerxiT aris gadmocemuli siRr足 mis da sivrcis STabeWdileba meore ilustraciaze. rediard kiplingi. ilustracia

49


II

26. naxatebiani wigni 1. sayvareli wignis gaxsenebisas Tvalwin, pir­ vel yovlisa, is naxatebi warmogvidgeba, romli­ Tac is aris dasuraTebuli. Sav-TeTri an feradi ilustraciebi nawarmoebis personaJebs da im ga­ remos warmogvidgens, romelSic moqmedeba mimdi­ nareobs. ilustraciebis mixedviT imis mixvedrac SeiZleba, romeli qveynis kuTvnilebaa esa Tu is nawarmoebi an romel epoqaze mogviTxrobs is.

?

1. daakvirdiT aq warmodgenil il­us­ traciebs. SeecadeT gansazRvroT, rome­ li qveynis nawarmoebia dasuraTebuli. 2. scadeT, ilustraciebis mixedviT am­o­icnoT romelime zRapari.

2. wignis ilustracia ara mxolod asuraTebs ama Tu im epizods, aramed garkveul ganwyobilebas uqmnis mkiTxvels. amisaTvis mxatvari Sesabamis fe­ rebs, kompozicias da formats irCevs. bavSvebs wignis wakiTxvamde uyvarT xolme ilustraciebis daTvaliereba, radgan naxatebis saSualebiT isini wi­ naswar `Sedian~ zRapris jadosnur samyaroSi.

50


?

II

3. rogor daasaTaurebdiT am naxats? 4. daakvirdiT aq warmodgenil ilustracias. rogor ganwyobilebas aRZ­ ravs is? 5. gaecaniT revaz inaniSvilis am moTxrobas da gamoTqviT Tqveni mosaz­ reba, Seesabameba Tu ara ilustraciis ganwyobileba nawarmoebisgan miRebul Tqvens STabeWdilebas?

jemal lolua. revaz inaniSvilis moTxrobis ilustraciebi

3. Tu romelime literaturuli nawarmoebi _ moTxroba, leqsi, zRapari Zalian mogwonT, SegiZliaT Tavad daasuraToT is. Tavdapirvelad yuradRe­ biT waikiTxeT teqsti; nawarmoebis is epizodebi SearCieT, romlebic, Tqveni azriT, Sinaarsobrivad yvelaze mniSvnelovania. personaJebi da garemo ise gamosaxeT, rogorc Tqven warmogidgeniaT. SesaZlebelia, ilustraciebs Sesa­ bamisi epizodis teqstic daurToT Tan. Tqveni namuSevari gnebavT did for­ matze moaTavseT, gnebavT xelnakeTi wignis forma mieciT.

nika. 11 wlis. `iavnanam ra hqmna?~. ilustraciebi

airCieT litera­tu­ru­li na­ warmoebi. yuradRebiT gaecaniT teqsts. daiyaviT jgufebad da daasuraTeT calkeuli epizode­ bi. moa­wyveT klas­Si erToblivi pre­zentacia.

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II

27. saaxalwlo naZvis xe axali weli is dResaswaulia, romelsac msoflios yvela qveyanaSi erTnai­ ri sixaruliT aRniSnavs didi Tu patara. am dResaswaulTan dakavSirebuli tradiciebi Zveli droidan iRebs saTaves. yvela qveyanas axal welTan dakav­ SirebiT sakuTari tradiciebi aqvs, magram maT erTi ram akavSirebT _ TiTqmis yvelgan idgmeba saaxalwlo naZvis xe.

?

1. Tu ici, ras eZaxian saqarTveloSi saaxalwlo xes da rogoria is?

saqarTveloSi axal wels yvela ojaxSi CiCilaki id­ gmeboda. mas Txilis xisagan amzadebdnen. CiCilaki mzes ganasaxierebda, misi talRovani burbuSelebi ki _ mzis sxivebs. CiCilaks aTasgvari xiliTa da tkbileuliT rTavdnen. wverze jvari iyo moTavsebuli, romelzec broweulsa da kenkrovan xils amagrebdnen. qarTvelTa rwmeniT, amgvarad Semkuli CiCilaki uxvi da mosavliani wlis mauwyebeli iyo.

?

2. CiCilakis morTvis rogori tradiciaa Tqvens ojaxSi?

evropis bevr qveyanaSi saSobao da saaxalwlo ritu­ alis aucilebeli elementi sadResaswaulod morTuli naZvis xea. maradmwvane naZvi maradiuli sicocxlis sim­ boloa. naZvis xis dakavSireba Sobasa da axal welTan da misi morTvis tradicia germaniidan iRebs saTaves. Tav­ dapirvelad naZvis xes tkbileuliT, Saqrisagan damza­ debuli figurebiT, xiliT, qaRaldebisagan gamoWrili yvavilebiT, naWrebiT rTavdnen. mogvianebiT germanel­ ma minis specialistebma minisagan daamzades naZvis xis saTamaSoebi. Sobasa da axal wels yvela ojaxi naZvis xis garSemo iyris Tavs. swored naZvis xis garSemo awyoben saCuq­ rebs, romlebsac ojaxis wevrebi erTmaneTs Cuqnian. sa­ Cuqrebis gaxsna metad sasiamovno ritualia. rogor ganaTda naZvis xe 1895 wels erT inglisel telegrafists ralf moriss TavSi azrad genialuri idea mouvida _ samsa­xuris dros, rodesac igi satelefono mowyobilobaSi naTurebis rigs uyurebda, warmoidgina, rogor daamSvenebda naTurebis es rigi naZvis xes. misi idea imave wels amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi ganxorcielda _ TeTri saxlis win eleqtronuli girliandiT morTuli pirveli naZvis xe daidga.

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II

naZvis xis saTamaSoTagan gansakuTrebulia misi wveris mosarTavi varskvlavi. es varskvlavi Sobas ukavSirdeba. ro­ gorc cnobilia, Sobis Rames beTlemis Tavze varskvlavi ga­ moCnda, romelic mogvebisa da mwyemsebisaTvis gzis maniSneb­ lad iqca. swored am varskvlavis saSualebiT mividnen isini im adgilamde, sadac ieso iSva.

rogor gaCnda naZvis xeze brWyviala mosarTavebi legenda gviambobs, rom erTi keTili Raribi qali, romelsac bevri Svili hyavda, sagonebelSi iyo, riT moerTo saaxalwlo naZvis xe _ mas xom araferi gaaCnda. ra eqna, mourTavi naZvis xe dadga oTaxSi. Rame naZvis xes obobebi Seesivnen da totebze qseli gaabes. diliT qalTan yrma ieso stumrad misula. naZvis xis Semxedvares xe daulocavs da obobas qseli imwams mokaS­ kaSe vercxlad gadaqceula.

tradiciulad, saaxalwlod bunebriv naZvis xes dgamen xolme. aba warmoidgineT, yvelam rom bunebrivi naZvis xe dadgas rogori saziano iqneba es bunebisaTvis. amitom mraval ojaxSi dRes xelovnur naZvis xeebs dgamen. Tqven aq sxvadasxva masalisagan damzadebul naZvis xeebs xedavT. Tqvenc SegiZliaT Tqveni fantaziiT nebismieri masalisagan SeqmnaT originaluri naZvis xe. nebismieri masa­l­iT da­amzadeT saaxalwlo naZvisxe. Tavad gadawyviteT, ra zomis iqneba is da riT morTavT mas.

53


II

28. mcxeTa 1. saqarTvelos uZvelesi dedaqalaqi mcxeTa mdinareebis mtkvrisa da arag­ vis SesayarTan mdebareobs. misi istoria Zv. w. III aTaswleulidan iRebs saTaves. qalaqze gamavali savaWro gzebisa da xelsayreli geografiuli mdebareobis gamo mcxeTa yovelTvis mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobda qveynis cxovrebaSi. is Cveni mravalsaukunovani istoriis erTgvari mu­ zeumia, romelic TiToeuli istoriuli epoqis mdidar kvals inaxavs. XX saukunis ganmavlobaSi mcxeTaSi da mis SemogarenSi mimdinare arqeologiuri gaTxrebis dros araerTi aRmo­ Cena gakeTda. mtkvris marjvena sanapiroze bagineTis mTaze iberiis mefeTa rezidencia yofila ganlagebuli. bagineTis sasaxleebis, sayofa­cxovrebo da sa­Tavdacvo nagebobebis SemorCenili fragmentebi ganviTarebis maRal safexu­ rze mdgari sazogadoebis arsebobaze miuTiTebs. xolo samarxebSi aRmoCenili oqros da vercxlis nivTebi _ WurWeli, iaraRi, samkauli, monetebi adastu­ rebs, rom isini maRali fenis warmomadgenlebs ekuTvnoda.

mcxeTa. armazisxevi

mcxeTa. armazisxevi

?

1. daakvirdiT samarxebSi aRmoCenil niv­Tebs, aRwereT da daaxasiaTeT isini. 2. Tqveni azriT, ra gansazRvravs am nivTebis maRal Rirebulebas: siZvele, Zvirfasi masala, nakeTobis xarisxi Tu sxv. daasabuTeT Tqveni mosazreba.

oqros samkaulis mravalferovneba, siuxve da Ses­ rulebis maRali ostatoba imaze miuTiTebs, rom oq­ romWedloba xelovnebis erT-erTi yvelaze ganviTare­ buli dargi iyo iberiis samefoSi. mcxeTaSi aRmoCenili oqromWedlobis nimuSebi amJamad saqarTve­ los erov­ nuli muzeumis oqros fondSi inaxeba. mcxeTa. armazisxevi

2. mcxeTaSi umniSvnelovanesi qristianuli siwmindeebia davanebuli da maT Soris umTavresi macxovris kvarTia, romelic am miwaSi dafles, xolo im ad­ gilas uZvelesi qarTuli eklesia aages.

? 54

3. gaixseneT uflis kvarTis saqarTveloSi Camotanis istoria.


II mcxeTis jvari. VI-VIII ss.

sveticxoveli. 1010-1029 ww.

qristianobis saxelmwifo religiad ga­mocxadebis Semdeg mcxeTaSi mravali didi Tu patara eklesia Sendeba. TiToeuli maTgani qristianobis mqadage­ belTa Tu siwmindeTa adgilsamyofelTan aris dakavSirebuli. V saukunis II naxevarSi vaxtang gorgaslis mefobis dros mcxeTaSi kaTali­ kosis rezidenciam daido bina. VI saukuneSi saqarTvelos dedaqalaqi Tbilisi gaxda, Tumca mcxeTas ar daukargavs Tavisi mniSvneloba, is qveynis mTavari sasuliero centri gaxda. kldovani mTis wveridan mcxeTas gadmohyurebs wm. jvris monasteri. gaq­ ristianebis Semdeg am mTaze xis saswaulmoqmedi jvari aRumarTavT, romelic uamrav mlocvels izidavda. Tavdapirvelad jvris gverdiT patara eklesiac augiaT, xolo VI-VII saukuneebis mijnaze erismTavar stefanoz I-is TaosnobiT didi taZari aages, romlis centrSic saswaulmoqmedi xis jvari moeqca. amJa­ mad taZris interierSi jvris kvarcxlbekia SemorCenili. mecnierebi fiqro­ ben, rom kedlebi SigniT mozaikiT iyo Semkuli, xolo fasadebs axlac amkobs reliefebi.

?

4. gaixseneT uflis kvarTis daflvis adgilze mdgari xis da misgan gamoTlili svetis istoria.

3. XI saukunis dasawyisSi im adgilas, sadac uf­ lis kvarTi iyo daf­luli, Zveli eklesiis nacvlad axali taZari aages, romelsac saswaulmoqmedi sve­ tis pativsacemad `sveticxoveli~ uwodes. taZris fasadze gakeTebuli warwera gvamcnobs, rom is xuroTmoZRvar arsukiZes augia. sveticxov­ lis interierSi kvarTis daflvisa da cxoveli sve­ tis aRmarTvis adgilas dgas marTkuTxa koSki, ro­ melzec wminda ninos cxovrebis amsaxveli scenebia gamosaxuli. SeadgineT mcxeTis istoriul ZeglTa ruka. ga­ moiyeneT internet­misamarTi www.istoria.ge.

sveticxoveli. saswaulmoqmedi svetis adgilas aRmarTuli koSki

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29. saqarTvelos cixesimagreebi saqarTvelos nebismier qalaqsa Tu sofelSi dakvirvebuli Tvali advi­ lad SeamCnevs Cveni istoriisa da kulturis uZveles Zeglebs _ eklesiamonastrebs, cixesimagreebs, koSkebs, Zvelebur sacxovreblebs da a.S. zogi maTgani axlac mxned gamoiyureba, zogi naxevrad dangreulia, Svelasa da ga­ magrebas iTxovs. asea Tu ise, Cveni Zeglebis xandazmuloba da mSveniereba aocebs mnaxvels da Cvenc siamayiT gvavsebs. gana zedmiwevniT kargad viciT araTu mTeli saqarTvelos, aramed Cveni kuTxis Zeglebi? modiT, SevamowmoT Cveni codna, gavixsenoT saqarTvelos uZvelesi cixesimagreebi: Tbilisi _ nariyala, mcxeTa _ bebriscixe, gori _ goriscixe.

nariyala

?

goriscixe

1. gaagrZeleT saqarTvelos cixesimagreebis CamonaTvali.

xerTvisi

?

bebriscixe

2. xom ar iciT raime legenda fotoebze mocemuli cixesimagree­ bis Sesaxeb?

suramis cixe

56


rodesac Tqveni kuTxis romelime istoriuli Zeglis mosanaxuleblad wa­ xvalT, Tan aucileblad waiReT nebismieri saxa­tavi masala da fotoaparati. Zeglze yofnisas SeasruleT misi Canaxati. SeecadeT, rac SeiZleba meti sa­ xasiaTo detali dai­ maxsovroT da Semdeg Sin daamTavreT naxatze muSaoba. SeiZleba Zeglze gadaRebuli fotoebi gamoiyenoT. dasaxati ZeglisTvis sa­ guldagulod SearCieT qaRaldis formati da See­cadeT mTlianad SeavsoT is.

Tqven da Tqvenma Tanaklase­ lebma moilaparakeT da gaina­ wileT is Zeglebi, romelTa daxatvac gaqvT gan­ sazRvruli. namuSevris dasru­lebis Semdeg erT stend­ ze mouya­ reT maT Tavi, gverdiT mo­ aTavseT maT Sesa­ xeb moZiebuli informacia da SeqmeniT Tqveni kuTxis RirsSesa­niSnav adgilTa ruka.

laSa. 12 wlis

feradi fanqrebiT Se­ asruleT Tqveni kuTxis istoriuli Zeglebis Canaxati. SeqmeniT RirsSe­ saniSnav adgilTa ruka.

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II

30. qarTuli xelovneba saqarTvelo uZvelesi kulturis mqone qveyanaa. warmarTul epoqasa da qristianul Sua saukuneebSi aq arqiteqturis, saxviTi da gamoyenebiTi xelov­ nebis SesaniSnavi Zeglebi iqmneboda. is, rac siZvelesa da gamudmebul omebs gadaurCa, dRes saqarTvelos erovnul saganZurs warmoadgens. mxat­vrobiTa da reliefebiT Semkuli eklesia-monastrebi saqarTvelosa da mis farglebs gareT aris mimofantuli. Weduri da ferweruli xatebi, xelnaweri wignebi, minanqari, samkauli da naqargoba ki erovnuli muzeumis sacavebSi inaxeba.

oSkis taZari saqarTvelos istoriul provinciaSi, tao-klarjeTSia agebu­ li. dRes es taZari TurqeTis terito­ riaze mdebareobs. aRwereT taZris saerTo xedi. rogor aris Semkuli misi fasadi? es taZari, iseve, rogorc sxva mravali qarTuli Zegli, Zalze dazianebulia. misi restavracia ukve dawyebulia da masSi qarTveli restavratorebi iRe­ ben monawileobas. oSki. X s.

qristianuli taZrebis freskebze, rogorc wesi, bibliisa da saxarebis siuJetebi, wmindanTa gamosaxulebebi, mefeTa da didgvarovanTa portrete­ bia asaxuli. gelaTis RvTismSoblis taZris inter­ ieri mozaikiTa da kedlis mxatvrobiT aris Semkuli. vin aris gamosaxuli taZris sakurTxe­ velSi? rogor STabeWdilebas axdens mnaxvel­ ze qristianuli taZris interieri?

taZris interieri. gelaTi. X s.

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II

qarTul eklesia-monastrebSi sasuliero xasiaTis xelnaweri wignebi iqmneboda. xelnawerebi, rogorc wesi, ilustra­ ciebiT anu miniaturebiT aris Semkuli. daukvirdiT, rogor aris Semkuli moqvis saxarebis es furceli. rogor fiqrobT, ramden drosa da Sro­ mas iTxovs erTi aseTi xelnaweri wignis Seqmna?

moqvis saxareba. XIV s.

Wedur xelovnebas saqarTveloSi mdidari tradicia aqvs. Weduri xate­ bi saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi iqmneboda. aRwereT aq warmodgenili xati da misi centraluri gamosaxuleba. xSirad xatis centrSi moTavsebul gamo­saxulebas garSemo mcire zomis scenebisagan Semdgari Weduri CarCo akravs.

RvTismSoblis xati. zarzma. XI s.

SemoqmedSi napovni es firfita tixruli minanqris teqnikiT aris Sesrulebuli. rogor fiqrobT, saxarebis romeli epi­ zodia aq gamosaxuli? aRwereT am kompoziciaSi gamoyenebuli minanqris ferebi da misi koloriti. minanqris teqnika urTulesia. Tavdapir­ velad oqros firfitaze oqrosave tix­ rebiT keTdeba naxati, Semdeg ki am tix­ rebs Soris feradi minis masa isxmeba. gulsakidi. Semoqmedi. X s.

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II

31. qarTuli CuqurTma saqarTvelo mdidaria arqiteqturuli ZeglebiT; ar aris dasaxleba Cvens qveyanaSi, sadac erTi an ramdenime eklesia ar idges. sxvadasxva drois yvela qarTuli qristianuli taZari Taviseburi mxatvruli saxis mqonea, magram aris erTi gansakuTrebuli niSani, romelic TiTqmis yvela maTgans axasiaTebs. esaa fasadebis sagangebo morTuloba CuqurTmiT.

?

1. aRwereT samTavisis taZris fasadi. 2. fasadis romeli elementebia Semkuli CuqurTmiT?

CuqurTma CuqurTma arqiteqturul nagebobaTa fasadebsa da interie­rebze ganTavsebu­ li qvaSi nakveTi mxatvruli samkaulia. rogorc wesi, is Sedgeba ritmulad gan­ meorebuli elementebisagan — cxovel­ Ta, mce­nareTa da geometriul figuraTa sti­lizebuli gamosaxulebebisagan.

samTavisi. XI s-is dasawyisi

zogi qarTuli taZari uxvad aris Semkuli Cu­ qurTmiT, zogze _ TiTo-orola nimuSi Tu Se­ gxvdeba, magram yvela maTgani didi ostatobiTaa Sesru­lebuli da qvaze kveTis mdidar tradiciaze metyvelebs. Cveni winaprebi CuqurTmebiT amkobdnen da amiT gamoyofdnen taZris fasadebis mniSvnelovan nawi­ lebs: sarkmlebis sapireebs, taZarSi Sesasvlelebs, gumbaTs da sxv.

?

3. aRwereT safarisa da rkonis taZrebis kare­ bis Semkuloba.

safara. XIII s.

60

rkoni. XIII s.


Tqven winaSea ori qarTuli taZris sarkmlebis Semkuloba. erTi Sexedvi­ Tac ki cxadia, raoden gansxvavdeba zeda varZiisa da ananuris taZrebis CuqurTmebi.

zeda varZia. XI s.

?

ananuri. XVI s.

4. riT gansxvavdeba CuqurTmis es ori nimuSi erTmaneTisagan?

qarTuli taZrebis CuqurTmaze xSirad SexvdebiT mcenareul motivebs. ma­ galiTad, kaspis metexis CuqurTmaze vazis mtevani da foTlebia gamosaxuli. zogjer CuqurTma erTmaneTze gadaxlarTuli geometruli figurebiT iqmne­ ba. amgvar CuqurTmas wnuls uwodeben. axla, rodesac amdeni ram SeityveT CuqurTmis Sesaxeb, eqskursiaze wasu­ li, albaT, sagangebod daakvirdebiT taZris Semkulobas; egeb ecadoT ki­ dec, CaixatoT CuqurTmis is nimuSebi, romlebic gansakuT­rebiT mogewonebaT. CuqurTmis Sesrulebisas SeecadeT, kargad daak­ virdeT mis saerTo formas, Semadgenel elemen­ tebs da maT monacvleobas. aseve, yuradReba unda miaqcioT CuqurTmis romel nawilebSi wveba Rrma Crdili da romeli adgilebia metad ganaTebuli.

erTawminda. XIII s.

Tamuna. 12 wlis

xofas taZari. qsnis xeoba. XIII s.

qsnis metexi. XIII s.

fanqriT SeasruleT Tqvens mier SerCeuli ro­ me­lime qarTuli taZris CuqurTmis Canaxati.

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II

32. qarTuli mxatvroba suraTi, romelsac mxatvari sagangebo samxatvro dazgaze, molbert­ze debs da tiloze zeTis saRebavebiT xatavs, dazguri mxatvrobis nimuSia. dazguri mxatvroba saqarTveloSi XVIII s-is bolos Caisaxa. momdevno sauku­neebSi misi yvela Janri: portreti, peizaJi da naturmorti swrafad ganviTarda, xolo qarTveli mxatvrebis Semoqmedeba mTelma msofliom gaicno. amgvari portretebi erT dros TbilisSi didi popularobiT sar­ geblobda. aTeuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi maT Tbiliseli mxatvrebis araerTi Taoba qmnida da saxeladac Tbi­ lisuri portretebi ewodeba. aRwereT suraTze warmodgenili axalgazrda qali, daaxasiaTeT misi Cacmuloba. Tqveni azriT, romel epoqaSi cxov­ robda es adamiani? sazogadoebis romel fenas ekuTvnoda igi? ra gaZlevT am daskvnis gakeTebis saSualebas? a. ovnaTaniani. meliqiSvilis portreti. XIX s.

am suraTis avtors arasdros uswavlia xatva. firosmani xSirad xatavda Tbiliseli moqalaqeebis qeifis scenebs. moqeifeni TiTqos sagangebod war­dgebian mayureblis winaSe, radgan isini magi­ das sami mxridan usxedan. daakvirdiT moqeifeTa saxeebs da maT moqmede­ bas. ra aqvT maT saerTo da saxasiaTo? yuradRebiT daaTvalie­ reT gaSlili sufra da aRwereT masze warmodge­ nili nivTebi, saWmeli. niko firosmani. xuTi Tavadis qeifi. 1906 w.

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II gigo gabaSvili. alaverdoba. 1899 w.

tra­diciuli saxalxo dResaswaulis gamo­sax­visas mxatva­ri guldasmiT xa­tavs Ti­Toeul de­tals: figurebs, maT samoss, Cardaxs da urems, garemos... amis mixed­ viT srulad SegviZlia warmovidginoT imdroindeli yofa. Tqveni azriT, romeli detali amarTlebs suraTis saxelwodebas?

aRwereT suraTi. Tqveni sityvebiT gadmoeciT misi Sinaarsi. sazogadoebis romeli fenis yofaa aq asaxuli? aleqsandre mrevliSvili erT-erTi pirveli iyo qarTvel mxatvrebs So­ ris, romelmac ubralo adamianebis yofa, gaWirveba asaxa.

aleqsandre mrevliSvili. dabali Robe. 1893 w.

am suraTze figura mnaxvelTan axlos aris motanili, amis gamo Tqven yvelafris detalurad daTvaliereba SegiZliaT. Tqveni azriT, romeli epoqis adamiania aq warmodgenili? ras saqmianobs da romel socialur fenas ekuTvnis igi? rogor fiqrobT, romel Janrs ganekuTvneba es suraTi?

mose ToiZe. ???. 1903 w.

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33. mosawvevi saxelmZRvanelos yoveli Tavis bolos Tqven SegxvdebaT gakveTili `mog­ zauroba xelovnebis samyaroSi~, romlisTvisac Tqven sxvadasxva qveynis Se­ saxeb moagrovebT informacias, gaakeTebT stendebs, daxatavT suraTebs, da­ werT moxsenebebs da mTel am masalas farTo auditoriis winaSe waradgenT. xom ar gifiqriaT, vis dapatiJebT Tqveni klasis naSromebis wardgenaze, ro­ gor da ra formiT moiwvevT sapatio stumrebs. cxadia, amisaTvis mosawvevi baraTis damzadeba dagWirdebaT. wignis am nawilSi Tqven TurqeTis, didi britaneTisa da saqarTvelos ward­ gena mogiwevT. Sesabamisad, mosawvevmac erTi SexedvisTanave warmodgena unda Seuqmnas adamians, Tu ra RonisZiebaze epatiJebian mas. SearCieT mosawvevisaTvis nebismi­e­ri forma da daamzade is muyaosagan. SegiZ­ liaT is feradi lentiTac daamSvenoT.

SearCieT TiToeuli am qveynis xe­ lovnebis iseTi nimuSi, romelic, Tqveni azriT, yvelaze tipuria am qveynisaTvis da yvelaze ukeT gamoxatavs am kulturis Taviseburebebs. SegiZliaT, daxatoT es Zeglebi an maTi Sav-TeTri ilustraciebi amoWraT da gaaferadoT.

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amoWrili, gamzadebuli gamosaxulebebi daakariT mu­ yaos mosawvevze ise, rom naxatis nawili gadascdes mosawvevis kides. SeecadeT warwerisTvisac darCes ad­ gili.

mosawvevi warwera SegiZliaT xeliT gaakeToT an Sesaferisi Srifti kompiuterSi Tqveni gemovnebiT SearCioT.

m o s aw v e v i

m

a s o

i v e wv

mosawvevis Sida areze dawereT teqs­ ti, romelic dawvrilebiT informacias miawvdis adamians Tqveni RonisZiebis Sesaxeb _ ras eZRvneba, rodis da sad tardeba is. mosawvevTan erTad SegiZli­ aT gaagzavnoT RonisZiebis programac. amgvari mopatiJebis Semdeg, albaT, yve­ la stumari gewvevaT.

SeqmeniT mosaw­vevi prezentaciisaTvis `mogzauroba xelovnebis samyaroSi~. gamoiyeneT kompoziciuri agebis Sesabamisi xerxi.

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34. mogzauroba xelovnebis samyaroSi II wignis am nawilSi Tqven msoflios kidev sam metad saintereso qalaqs ga­ ecaniT: stambols, londonsa da mcxeTas.

?

daasaxeleT, romel qveynebSi mdebareobs es qalaqebi.

modiT, isev mogzaurebad iqeciT da axla am qveynebSi moiZieT saintereso adgilebi, sxva qalaqebi, xelovnebis nimuSebi, gamoCenil xelovanTa namuSev­ rebi da gaacaniT isini farTo sazogadoebas. kvlav moawyveT namuSevrebisa da fotostendebis gamofena da konferencia.

didi britaneTi

stounhenji

elisabed I-is portreti

kenterberis kaTedrali da vitraJebi

londoni

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II

TurqeTi

kapadokia oTxTa eklesia

tetrapiloni.

trabzonis aia sofias mxatvroba

Turquli xaliCa

saqarTvelo

varZia

largvisis oTxTavi

alaverdi

bolnisis sionis reliefi

daviT gareji. berTubani. satrapezos mxatvroba

67


ხელოვნება, მე-6 კლასი, მოსწავლის წიგნი, პირველი კლასი  

ხელოვნება, მე-6 კლასი, მოსწავლის წიგნი, პირველი კლასი

ხელოვნება, მე-6 კლასი, მოსწავლის წიგნი, პირველი კლასი  

ხელოვნება, მე-6 კლასი, მოსწავლის წიგნი, პირველი კლასი

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