Page 1

ISBN 978-9941-481-03-1 978-9941-441-89-9

9 789941 48103 44189 1 9

ana kldiaSvili nino RaRaniZe

xelovneba

dafinansebulia `moswavleebis saxelmZRvaneloebiT uzrunvelyofis programis~ farglebSi

6 moswavlis wigni

meore nawili


ana kldiaSvili nino RaRaniZe

xelovneba VI klasi moswavlis wigni (meore nawili)

grifminiWebulia saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros mier 2018 wels

gam o mce m l o ba `k l i o~


ana kldiaSvili, nino RaRaniZe

xelovneba VI klasi, moswavlis wigni (meore nawili)

redaqtori nana kupraSvili Tbilisis saxelmwifo samxatvro akademiis profesori, xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori mxatvari

Tamar jayeli

kompiuteruli dizaini irma liparteliani

Š gamomcemloba `klio~, 2018 Š ana kldiaSvili, nino RaRaniZe, 2018 yvela ufleba daculia ISBN 978-9941-481-01-7 (orive nawilis) ISBN 978-9941-481-03-1 (meore nawili)

Sps `gamomcemloba klio~ aRmaSeneblis gamz. #181-2, Tbilisi, 0112 tel.: (+995 32) 234 04 30 E-mail: book@klio.ge www.klio.ge


sarCevi III Tavi 35. parizi............................................................................................... 4 36. wertilebiT xatva........................................................................... 6 37. geometriuli naturmorti............................................................. 8 38. sivrce sibrtyeze............................................................................ 10 39. maRali modis dedaqalaqi............................................................... 12 40. axali xelovnebis dedaqalaqi........................................................ 14 41. qairo................................................................................................. 16 42. egvipturi suveniri......................................................................... 18 43. jadosnuri xaliCa........................................................................... 19 44. Zveli egviptis xelovneba............................................................... 20 45. portreti......................................................................................... 22 46. Cemi axloblis portreti............................................................... 23 47. romi.................................................................................................. 24 48. naturmorti .................................................................................... 26 49. renesansis mxatvroba...................................................................... 28 50. originaluri saCuqari.................................................................... 30 51. mogzauroba xelovnebis samyaroSi III............................................. 32 IV Tavi 52. caTambjenebis qalaqi...................................................................... 34 53. Tanamedrove xelovneba................................................................... 36 54. abstraqcionistebi.......................................................................... 38 55. zamTari niu iorkSi......................................................................... 40 56. berlini............................................................................................. 42 57. berlinis kedeli............................................................................. 44 58. eqspresionistebi............................................................................. 46 59. zooparki.......................................................................................... 48 60. CrdiloeTis dedaqalaqi................................................................. 50 61. Savi tuSi.......................................................................................... 52 62. feradi tuSi..................................................................................... 53 63. qaRaldi............................................................................................ 54 64. zemodan danaxuli samyaro............................................................. 56 65. mogzauroba xelovnebis samyaroSi IV............................................ 58 proeqti I. erTi Sedevris istoria...................................................... 60 proeqti II. Teatris jadosnuri samyaro............................................. 62 Semajamebeli Semajamebeli Semajamebeli Semajamebeli

gakveTili gakveTili gakveTili gakveTili

1.................................................................... 64 2.................................................................... 65 3.................................................................... 66 4.................................................................... 67

leqsikoni............................................................................................... 68


III

35. parizi 1. Tu iciT, ra aris lutecia? es im Zveli dasaxlebis saxelia, romelmac SemdgomSi evropis erT-erT ulamazes qalaqs misca dasabami. am ukanasknels zogjer xelovnebis dedaqalaqsac uwodeben, radgan misken miiswrafvodnen da axlac iswrafvian poe足tebi, mxatvrebi, musikosebi anu isini, vinc xelovnebis muzas emsaxureba. Tqven albaT mixvdiT, rom es mdinare senas napirebze mdebare qalaqi parizia. parizis istoria romael legionerTa laSqrobebs ukavSirdeba, Tumca misi ganviTarebisa da aRzevebis xana Sua saukuneebze modis.

parizis RvTismSoblis taZari. vitraJi

parizis RvTismSoblis taZris fasadi

2. parizis erT-erTi umTavresi istoriuli Zeglia notr-dami _ RvTismSoblis cnobili taZari. is adreqristianuli xanis eklesiis adgilze aages. misi mSenebloba 1163 wels daiwyo da mxolod 1345 wels dasrulda. didi zomis taZari TiTqos cisken miiswrafvis. mnaxvelis yuradRebas taZris fasadze moTavsebuli mrgvali formis sarkmeli _ varduli iqcevs. vardulis diametri 10 metria, Tumca, maqmaniviT aJuruli da msubuqia. taZris Sida sivrce grandiozulia da bevr mlocvels itevs. misi kedlebi mravalricxovani sarkmlebiT aris dacxriluli, romlebSic feradi vitraJebia Casmuli.

?

1. daakvirdiT da aRwereT parizis RvTis足mSoblis taZris fa足sadi. 2. Tqveni azriT, rogor efeqts axdens fera足di vitraJi taZris interierSi dRisiT da RamiT?

luvris istoria luvri Tavdapirvelad safrangeTis mefeebis rezidencia iyo. versalis sasaxlis aSenebis Semdeg 1725 wlidan safrangeTis xelovnebis akademia aq samxatvro gamofenebs awyobda. 1791 wels luvri muzeumad iqca da amJamad is msoflios erTerTi yvelaze didi muzeumia.

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3.parizis swraf zrdas misi moednebisa da quCebis mTeli sistemis ganviTareba mohyva. XVII s-Si hercog vandomis mflobelobaSi myof miweb­ze frangma arqiteqtorma, arduen-mansarma axali moedani daaproeqta.

?

3. daakvirdiT vandomis moednis fotos. Tqveni azriT, ra Tavisebureba axasiaTebs mas?

arqiteqtorma moednis garSemo daaaxloebiT erTi simaRlisa da zomis Senobebi ganalaga. mSeneblobis dros, materialuri saxsrebis ekonomiis mizniT, moedans kuTxeebi moaWres da miiRes originaluri rvakuTxa forma. am dros parizSi ukve arsebobda nagebobebis simaRlis SemzRudveli wesebi. am wesebis gverdis asavlelad arqiteqtorma pirvelad daaproeqta saxuravis qveS `Semaluli~ sarTuli, romelic Semdeg farTod gavrcelda da misive saxeli _ mansarda ewoda. mogvianebiT, moednis centrSi mdgomi ludoviko XIV-is qandakebis nacvlad, napoleonis brZanebiT, misi armiis mravalricxovan gamarjvebaTa aRsaniSnavad, aq 1200 naalafari zarbaznis gadamdnari rkinisgan Camosxmuli sveti aRmarTes. parizi. vandomis moedani

parizi. vandomis moednis sveti

?

4. daakvirdiT svetze spiralurad ganlagebul reli­efebs. Tqveni azriT, ra siuJetebia asaxuli masze?

4. XIX saukunis II naxevridan parizi yvelaze mowinave Tanamedrove xelovnebis centrad iqca. aq warmoiSva axali mimdinareobebi mxatvrobaSi: impresionizmi, puantilizmi, postimpresionizmi da mravali sxva. mowinave xelovnebis siyvaruli parizs arc Semdeg ganelebia. 1977 wels, prezident JorJ pompidus TaosnobiT, gamo­ cxadda konkursi Tanamedrove xelovnebis centris Sesaq­ mnelad. 200-ze meti namuSevridan renco pianosa da riCard rojersis yvelaze originaluri proeqti SeirCa. minis nagebobis sakomunikacio sistemebi: wyal­ gayvaniloba, lifti, eleqtrosadenebi da a.S. gareT, fasadzea gamotanili da sxvadasxvafradaa SeRebili.

?

5. Tqveni azriT, rogor STabeWdilebas ax­­­d­ens pompidus cent­ris arqiteqtura?

moZebne parizis Zveli da axali arqi­ teqturis nimuSebi. Seadare isini erTmaneTs da warudgine klass.

parizi. pompidus centri.

5

III


III

36. wertilebiT xatva Tanamedrove mxatvrobis istoria impresionizmidan iwyeba. xatvis tradiciuli wesebi da manera impresionistebma wamieri STabeWdilebebis suraTze ukeT dasafiqsireblad Secvales da dasabami misces axal xelovnebas. maTi mxatvruli Ziebebi kidev didxans gagrZelda da araerTi axali mimdinareoba warmoSva, romelTagan erT-erTi puantilizmia. es franguli sityva wertilebiT anu mokle wertilovani monasmebiT xatvas aRniSnavs.

pol siniaki. peizaJi. 1887 w.

?

JorJ siora. xidi kurbevuaSi. 1886-87 ww.

1. daakvirdiT puantilizmis teq­nikiT Sesrulebul nawarmoebebs, rogor STabeWdilebas axdens isini?

Tu puantilistebis namuSevrebs kargad daakvirdebiT, mixvdebiT, ramdeni dro, energia da moTmineba sWirdeba am meTodiT muSaobas. feradi `wertilebiT~ daxatuli zedapiri TiTqos cocxalia, mayureblis Tvalwin moZraobs da icvlis saxes. Tu am meTodiT muSaoba dagainteresebT, moTminebisa da didi Sromis fasad marTlac saintereso namuSevrebs SeqmniT, magram Tu cotaoden fantazias daixmarT, SesaZlebelia, ufro ioladac miaRwioT wertilovan efeqts Tqvens namuSevarze. amisaTvis Sesa­fuTi masalis _ penoplastis Sesa­ ferisi zomis naWeri da wylis saRebavebi dagWirdebaT.

sandro. 11 wlis

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III penoplastis zedapiri forovania, masze Cveulebrivi funjiT Txlad gadasmuli saRebavi swored wertilovan kvals tovebs. namuSevris Sesrulebamde sjobs sacdeli monasmebi saTadarigo (damxmare) naWrebze gaakeToT. ase ukeT mixvdebiT, ramdenad sveli unda iyos funji da saRebavis daaxloebiT ra raodenoba gWirdebaT ama Tu im feris dasadebad. penoplastze muSaoba, rasakvirvelia, ufro advilia, vidre namdvili puantilisturi teqnikiT daxatva. sifrTxile aqac gmarTebT. funjis monasmebi Tanabari unda iyos, saRebavi fenebad unda wausvaT suraTis zedapirs.

prezentaciis dros TiToeulma Tqvenganma dawvrilebiT aRwereT xelovnur masalaze muSaobis procesi, is gamocdileba, romelic SeiZineT namuSevris Seqmnisas, rogori ganwyobilebis Seqmna moaxerxeT puantilisturi teqnikiT.

luka. 12 wlis

wertilovani faqturis mqone masalaze (mag. penop­ lasti) akvarelis saReba­ viT SeasruleT TqvenTvis sasur­ veli namuSevari.

irma. 10 wlis

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III

37. geometriuli naturmorti nebismieri suraTis xatvisas aucileblad unda gaiTvaliswinoT ara mxolod sagnebis zomebi, aramed maTi urTierTSefardeba da proporcia. magaliTad, Semodgomis naturmortSi wiTeli vaSli oqrosfer gograze mcire zomisaa, magram bevrad ufro didia, vidre mis gverdiT gamosaxuli kaklebi. saganTa Soris Tanafardobis dacva naturmortis agebis aucilebeli pirobaa.

yvavilis am oTxkuTxa qoTnis zustad dasaxatad mis proporcias unda davukvirdeT. qoTnis sigane, daaxloebiT Sua welidan qvemoT SeaviwroveT. sartyeli ki yvelaze ganier nawilze _ napirze SemoatareT. geometriuli sagnebisgan Sedgenili naturmortis dasaxatad pirvel rigSi fanqriT maTi konturi moxazeT. miaqcieT yuradReba sagnebis zomas da maT Tanafardobas, rom grafikuli naxati mwyobri gamovides.

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III

mravalwaxnaga formis moculobis gamosaxatad misi erTi yvelaze metad ganaTebuli waxnagi SeiZleba xeluxleblad, TeTrad datovoT, xolo ganaTebis wyarosgan yvelaze metad daSorebuli da CrdilSi moqceuli muqi fanqriT daStrixoT. umjobesi iqneba Tu erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebis Strixebs ramdenime fenad daadebT erTmaneTs. Sua waxnagi ki SedarebiT baci StrixiT dafareT.

aseTive principiT gamosaxeT sfero. mas waxnagebi ar aqvs, magram mis zedapirze Tanabrad gaanawileT CrdilSi moqceuli da ganaTebuli nawilebi; Semdeg muqi da SedarebiT baci StrixebiT dafareT isini. geometriuli formebis qveS muqi StrixebiT dacemuli Crdili gamosaxeT. gaiTvaliswineT, rom dacemuli Crdili ganaTebis sapirispiro mxares unda iyos mimarTuli. amgvarad, Tqveni naturmorti moculobiTi da sivrcobrivi gamova.

?

1. gaixseneT, ras ewodeba Strixi da dacemuli Crdili. 2. Tqveni sityvebiT aRwereT geometriuli formis grafikulad gamosaxvis etapebi. Savi fanqriT daxateT martivi naturmorti. daicaviT sagnebis Tanafardoba da proporcia. gamoiyeneT Strixebi sagnebisTvis moculobis misacemad.

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III

38. sivrce sibrtyeze rogorc ukve ici, sagnebi, romlebic CvenTan axlo足saa, anu wina planzea gamosaxuli, didi zomisa Cans; xolo rac ufro Sorsaa sagani, miT ufro patara gveCveneba is.

?

1. daakvirdiT aq warmodgenil namu足Sevrebs. detalurad aRwereT, ro足gor gamosaxes mxat足vrebma sivrce. 2. aRwereT gzis moxazuloba. rogor STabeWdilebas qmnis is?

iliko. 11 wlis

moris utrilo. qalaqis peizaJi

Tu dafiqrebulxar, rogor xedavs Cveni Tvali Sors mimavali matareblis relsebs? liandagze Tu dadgebi da gaxedav mas, dainaxav, rom relsebi Sors, siRrmeSi erTmaneTs uaxlovdeba da bolos erT wertilSi iyris Tavs.

?

3. rogor fiqrobT, sinamdvileSi erTdeba Tu ara relsebi siRrmeSi?

TavSeyris wertili

Teodor ruso. quCa.

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winaswar furcelze fanqriT moxazeT siRrmeSi mimavali gza, romelic uxvevs marcxnidan marjvniv an piriqiT. im wertils, romelSic gzis xazebi iyris Tavs TavSeyris wertili ewodeba, masze gavlebul horizontalur xazs ki _ horizontis xazi. gzis gaswvriv moniSneT xeebis rigi, siRrmeSi maTi zomis cvlilebis gaTvaliswinebiT. Tqveni Sexe足 dulebisamebr, SegiZliaT, nebismieri sxva detalic daumatoT, mag., yvavili, saxli da a.S.

?

4. aRwereT moris utrilos da Teodor rusos namuSevrebi. moZebne maTze TavSeyris wertili da horizontis xazi. 5. axseniT, rogor aris gadmocemuli am namuSevrebSi siRrme. 2. aRwereT gzis moxazuloba. rogor STabeWdilebas qmnis is?

TavSeyris wertili horizontis xazi

sivrcis sibrtyeze gadmosacemad mxatvrebi fersac iyeneben. amaSi darwmundebiT Tu aq warmodgenil kamil korosa da gabriel miles namuSevrebs daakvirdebiT, romlebSic sivrce sxvadasxva xerxiT aris gadmocemuli, maT Soris feriTac.

?

6. Tqveni azriT, aris Tu ara kamil koros namuSevarSi TavSeyris wertili? 7. aRwereT planebis monacvleoba am namuSevrebze. 8. aRwereT, rogor ferebs iye足 neben mxatvrebi suraTis wina da ukana planze? 9. rogor STabeWdilebas qmnis ferebis amgvari monacvleoba?

kamil koro. menave.

SeqmeniT namuSevari, ro足 melSic horizontis xazsa da TavSeyris wertils gamoiye足nebT. am xerxiTa da aseve feris gradaciiT gadmoeciT Tqvens namuSevarSi siRrme da sivrce. gabriel mile. mosavlis aReba

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III

39. maRali modis dedaqalaqi 1. rogor fiqrobT, adamians samosi mxolod sicivisgan Tavis dasacavad sWirdeba? uZvelesi xanidan moyolebuli adamianebi zrunaven samosis ierze, SeZlebisdagvarad amkoben, rTaven da alamazeben mas. qsovili samosisTvis, misi Targi, masala da dekori epoqebisa da qveynebis mixedviT icvleba. am mudmiv cvlas yvelasTvis kargad cnobili saxeli _ moda ewodeba. didi xania samosis Seqmna xelovnebis erT-erT dargad _ samosis anu modis dizainad iqca. Tanamedrove samyaroSi am xelovnebis anu rogorc mas uwodeben, maRali modis dedaqalaqad parizi iqca. saxelganTqmulma frangma modeliorebma: koko Sanelma, kristian diorma, iv sen loranma, iuber JivanSim da mravalma sxvam TavianTi stili modebis sakuTar saxlebSi Seqmnes. aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi es saxlebi originalur stils inarCunebs, Tumca, isini yoveli CvenebisTvis cdiloben, axali detalebiTa da uCveulo ideebiT gaamraval­ ferovnon sakuTari koleqciebi. xolo msoflios nebismieri qveynis ukve saxelmoxveWili Tu damwyebi dizainerebi miiswrafvian parizis podiumebisaken, radgan swored aq Catarebuli Cvenebebi karnaxobs msoflios modis siaxleebs.

kristian dioris koleqciis Cveneba

2. samosis dizaini Canafiqridan mza produqciis miRebamde xangrZliv gzas gadis. SemoqmedebiTi ideis safuZvelze gakeTebuli eskizi, Semdeg zust konstruqciad _ Targad unda iqces, rom samosi sxeuls idealurad moergos. unda SeirCes Sesaferisi faqturisa da feris qsovili. Targi gamoiWras da aikinZos. rogorc wesi, maRali modis CvenebisTvis samosis dekoratiuli elementebi mTlianad xeliT sruldeba: maqmanebi, feradi TvlebiT gawyoba, bewviT an bumbulebiT morTva Zalze Sromatevadi procesia, magram am Sromis Sedegad Seqmnili uzado tansacmeli xelovnebis namdvili nimuSebia. maRali modis podiumze naCvenebi koleqciebis mixedviT yalibdeba modis ZiriTadi tendenciebi, romlebic Semdeg swrafad vrceldeba mTel msoflioSi da yoveldRiur samosSic imkvidrebs adgils.

pier kardenis eskizebi iuber JivanSis eskizebi

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3. modis dizaineris profesia, garda SemoqmedebiTi unarebisa, mravali sxva sferos codnas, gemovnebasa da saerTod, ganaTlebas moiTxovs. am profesiis arCe­vamde, albaT, sasargeblo iqneba sakuTari Zalebis mosinjva samosis dizainis asparezze. amisTvis SesaZlebelia tradiciuli eskizebis Seqmna da Semdeg maT safuZvelze, magaliTad speqtaklis personaJebis kostiumebis damzadeba.

qeTi. 11wlis

Tamuna. 11 wlis ana. 11 wlis

SesaZlebelia ufro swrafi meTodis gamoyenebac. Zveli Jurnalebidan an bukletebidan amoWril figu­ rebs feradi qaRaldebis an qsovilis narCenebisgan Se­ iZ­leba axali samosi SeuqmnaT feradi TasmebiT, maqmanebiT, Ri­lebiT an mZivis bur­ Tule­biT mza samo­si dekoratiulad gaaformeT, xo­lo STabeWdilebis gasaZliereblad Tqven mier Seqmnil modelebs Sesaba­misi garemo mouwyveT. SeiZleba, miznad daisaxoT garkveuli epoqis kostiu­mis Seqmna, an misTvis damaxasiaTebeli elementebis gamoyeneba Tanamedrove samosSi. SesaZlebelia, agreTve, Tematuri, ma­galiTad, saRamos kabebis koleqciis Seqmna. am meTodiT sargeb­ loba saSualebas mogcemT swrafad imuSaoT da, amave dros, gamoavlinoT sakuTari fantazia da gemovneba. vin icis, iqneb romelime Tqvenga­nisaTvis es saqmianoba momavalSi profesiad iqces.

 l eqsi koni tendencia (laT. tendo miviswrafi) _ ri­same ganviTarebis mi­marTuleba

TqvenTvis sasurveli nebismieri xerxiT SeqmeniT samosis dizaini.

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III

40. axali xelovnebis dedaqalaqi XIX saukunis dasasrulidan parizi Tanamedrove xelovnebis namdvil dedaqalaqad iqca. am periodSi aq erTmaneTis gverdiT kontrastuli ferebis da uCveulo Sexamebebis moyvaruli anri matisi, andre dereni, moris vlaminki, lirikuli da sevdiani portretebis axalgazrda mxatvari amadeo modiliani, ucnauri skulpturuli formebis avtori konstantin brankuzi muSaobdnen. erTi SexedviT maT araferi hqondaT saerTo, magram Tu maT namuSevrebs yuradRebiT daukvirdebiT, dainaxavT, rom isini Segnebulad arRvevdnen saxviTi xelovnebis Zvel tradiciebs. maT nawarmoebebSi formebi pirobiTi da sibrtyovania, garemo ki perspeqtivis kanonebis gareSea agebuli. erTi sityviT, am dros parizSi axali xelovneba daibada, romlis mTavari azri kargad Camoayaliba anri matisma: `imisaTvis, rom davxato Semodgoma, me mWirdeba ara im ferebis damaxsovreba, romlebic SemodgomasTan asocirdeba, aramed im grZnobis, romelsac CemSi Semodgoma aRZravs~.

am suraTze mxatvris saxelosnoa warmodgenili. rogor fiqrobT, romeli ferebi an ferTa Sexamebebi uyvarda mxatvars? daaxasiaTeT rogori atmosfero sufevs saxelosnoSi da ra elementebi gamoiyena mis Sesaqmnelad mxatvarma.

anri matisi. mxatvris saxelosno. 1911 w.

vlaminkis peizaJs TiTqos cecxli ukidia. wiTeli, yviTeli, vardisferi, mwvane, cisferi _ mis palitraze gamouyenebeli feri ar darCenila. aRwereT es peizaJi. rogor STabeWdilebas aRZravs is?

moris vlaminki. restorani buJivalSi. 1905 w.

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III

es suraTi frangma mxatvarma andre derenma inglisSi daxata. rogor fiqrobT, iisferi xidi da wiTeli sanapiro mxatvris fantaziis nayofia Tu realoba? daaxasiaTeT am suraTze gamoyenebuli ferebi. Tqveni azriT, rogor aris gadmocemuli aq sivrce? andre dereni. xidi. 1906 w.

aRwereT es qandakeba da daaxasiaTeT aq gamoyenebuli skulpturuli formebi. rogor fiqrobT, ratom warmoidgina moqandakem muza am formiT? Tqveni azriT, ra ganasxvavebs mas klasikuri, realisturi qandakebisgan?

konstantin brankuzi. muza. 1912 w.

axalgazrda qalis sevdiani gamo­ metyveleba, sxeulis wagrZelebuli da pirobiTi formebi da pirobiTi garemo modi­lianis Semoqmedebis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebia. portretis mixedviT, rogor daaxasiaTebdiT modilianis mier daxatul gogonas? modiliani Tavis portretebze asaxul adamianebs Tvalis gugas ar uxatavda da Tvalis Wrils mxolod erTi feriT avsebda.

amadeo modiliani. wiTelTmiani qali. 1917 w.

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41. qairo 1. egviptis dedaqalaqi qairo anu rogorc mas Zvelad arabebi eZaxdnen al-qaxira, mdinare nilosis orive sanapiroze mdebareobs. mas Semdeg, rac napoleonis jarma egviptis miwaze fexi dadga da evropaSi egvipturi kulturis aTasobiT nimuSi Caitana, ar qreba interesi am uZvelesi qveynis mimarT. msoflios yoveli kuTxidan moemarTebian turistebi egvipteSi, magram qairos quCebSi isini amaod dauwyeben Zebnas am uZvelesi xalxis STamomavlebs. dRes aq arabebi cxovroben. VII saukuneSi arabTa jarma egvipte daipyro da mas Semdeg am ori _ egvipturi da arabuli kulturis Serwyma qmnis dRevandeli egviptis saxes. misi dedaqalaqi udidesi da ulamazesia afrikis kontinentze.

Tanamedrove qairo

Zveli qairos ubani qalaqis samxreT nawilSia SemorCenili. aq vxvdebiT qairosaTvis tipur saxlebs aivnebiTa da yru galavniT. axali qairo TiTqmis arafriT gansxvavdeba Tanamedrove qalaqebisgan. egvipturi kultura da xelovneba ki qairos saxelmwifo muzeumSia warmodgenili. 2. XX s-is dasawyisSi egviptis teritoriaze stiqiurad mimdinare gaTxrebisa da SemTxveviTi aRmoCenebis Sedegad napovni siZveleebi mTel msoflioSi ifanteboda. egviptis mTavrobam akrZala unebarTvo arqeologiuri gaTxrebi da Seqmna egviptur siZveleTa dacvis komisia, riTic dasabami daedo muzeumis daarsebas. dRes misi koleqcia Zvelegviptur samarxebSi aRmoCenili daaxloebiT 120 aTasi eqsponatisagan Sedgeba, romelTa didi umravlesoba xelovnebis iSviaTi nimuSia. rogor aSenda qairo legendis Tanaxmad, qairos mSenebloba winaswar dasaxuli gegmis mixedviT daiwyes _ gadazomes sworkuTxa nakveTi, oTx kuTxeSi boZebi aRmarTes, maT Soris mTel perimetrze Tokebi gaWimes da erTmaneTisgan Soriaxlos niCbebiT SeiaraRebuli muSebi daayenes, romlebic mSeneblobis dawyebisTvis iyvnen mzad. imisTvis, rom qalaqi bednieri da mudam gamarjvebuli yofiliyo, astrologebi moiwvies, romlebic cis mnaTobebs akvirdebodnen da yvelaze xelsayrel momentSi niSans miscemdnen mSeneblobis dasawyebad _ Tokebze zarebi iyo Camokidebuli, rom niSani yvelas erTdroulad gaegona. uecrad Tokze yvavi Semojda da zarebic awkrialda. imave wams muSebma miwis Txra daiwyes. SeSinebuli astrologebi gaiZaxodnen al-qaxira anu marsi amodis, jer dro ar ariso, magram dawyebuli mSeneblobis SeCereba ver SeZles. amgvarad daerqva qalaqs am mnaTobis saxeli _ al-qaxira.

16

egvipturi muzeumi. qairo


3. egviptur samarxebSi arsebuli simdidre, rogorc Cans, uZveles droSic ar aZlevda mosvenebas adamianebs da XX saukuneSi aRmoCenili samarxebis umravlesoba gaZarcvuli iyo. sabednierod, aRmoCnda axalgazrda faraonis _ tutanxamonis TiTqmis xeluxlebeli samarxi. misi ganZeuloba, iseve, rogorc Tavad faraonis mumia da gansasvenebeli sarkofagi, dRes qairos muzeumis koleqcias amSvenebs. es eqsponatebi uZvirfases informacias gvawvdis samefo karis cxov­rebis wesze. miuxedavad imisa, rom maT sanaxavad qairoSi uamravi turisti Cadis, interesi maT mimarT imdenad didia, rom xSirad Tavad koleqcia mogzaurobs, raTa saSualeba misces msoflios sakuTari TvaliT ixilos Zvelegviptel ostatTa xelovneba.

egvipturi muzeumis eqsponatebi

?

1. ratom atandnen faraonebs samarxebSi bevr nivTs da Zvirfaseulobas? 2. gaixseneT, ra iciT gardacvlilTa kultTan da­ kavSirebul egviptur tra­diciebze.

4. uZvelesi egvipturi kulturis garda, qairo arabuli xuroTmoZRvrebis da xelovnebis ZeglebiTac aris RirsSesaniSnavi. qalaqSi mravali meCeTia. maT Sorisaa mTeli mahmadianuri samyaros erT-erTi uZvelesi da umniSvnelovanesi salocavi al-azharis meCeTi. is agebulia 970-972 ww-Si. meCeTis Sida ezo salocavad misul adamianTa did raodenobas itevs. ezos oTxive mxridan didi svetebiani samlocvelo darbazebi ekvris. maTi interieri mdidrulad aris morTuli reliefuri dekoriT. al-azhari, amave dros, msoflios erT-erTi uZvelesi universiteticaa, sadac sasuliero ganaTlebas msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxidan Camosuli mahmadianebi iReben.

moiZieT qairos muzeumis eqsponatebi, informacia maT Sesaxeb da gaakeTeT stendebi.

al-azharis meCeTi. qairo

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III

42. egvipturi suveniri egvipteSi Casuli turistis bunebrivi survilia, samaxsovrod wamoiRos aTas足wlovani kulturis patara nawili mainc, magram Zeglebze mkacrad adevneben Tvals imas, rom ar daziandes maTi sul mcire fragmentic ki. qairos cnobil bazarze ki aTasgvari suveniri iyideba: nebismieri zomis piramidebi, faraonTa sarkofagebis Tu samefo samkaulebisa da kverTxebis aslebi. Tanamedrove ostatTa fantazias aq sazRvari ara aqvs. magali足Tad, egviptis romelime RvTaebis gamosaxuleba axla SeiZleba xelSic ki daiWiroT Cveulebrivi saweri kalmis saxiT, xolo Tqveni oTaxis kedelze papirusze dawerili egvipturi teqsti daikidoT. egvipteSi akrZalulia 100 da meti wlis win damzadebuli nivTis unebarTvod gayidva. amitom Zveleburi nivTebi aq ar iyideba, magram mraval足ferovani suvenirebi mudmivad gagaxsenebT am saocar qveyanasa da mis kulturas.

Tu Tqven jer ar yofilxarT egvipteSi, nu daRondebiT. vidre waxvalT da sakuTari TvaliT ixilavT msoflios saocrebad Seracxul piramidebs, gaixseneT yvelaferi, rac iciT egviptis Sesaxeb da Tqveni fantaziiT sakuTari xeliT SeqmeniT egvipturi suveniri. Tixisgan an plastilinisgan SeiZleba piramidis dam足 zadeba, Semdeg zed qvis lodebis wyoba SegiZliaT amokawroT an piramida egvipturi ieroglifebiT morToT. egviptel faraonTa aucilebeli atributi, ukvdavebis simbolo _ `anxi~, aseve Tixisgan SeiZleba gamoZerwoT da gaSrobis Semdeg SeReboT. arc egvipturi xoWos gamoZerwva gagiZneldebaT, oRond gaiTvaliswineT, rom is umjobesia, lurji iyos. nebismier sawer kalams SeiZleba Tixis garsi gaukeToT da zed namdvili an Tqven mier mogonili ieroglifebi amokawroT.

nebismieri masalisagan SeqmeniT sxvadasxvagvari egvipturi suveniri. moawyveT maTi gamofena da mowveul stumrebs mouTxreT, ra iciT egviptisa da misi xelovnebis Sesaxeb.

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43. jadosnuri xaliCa qairos centrSi mdebare xan-al xalilis bazari aRmosavluri qalaqisTvis damaxasia­ Tebeli feradovnebiTa da gasayidad gamo­tanili nawarmis mravalferovnebiT aocebs mnaxvels. ras aRar naxavT aq: oqrosa da vercxlis nakeTobebiT daxunZlul daxlebs, arab beduinTa tradiciul samoss, keramikul WurWels, xis, tyavis, Zvlis nakeTobebsa da mraval sxvas. gansakuTrebiT Tvalis­momWrelia noxebisa Tu fardagebis ferad-feradi rigebi. gamoyenebuli kontrastuli ferebis siuxve, sikaSkaSe da maTi Tamami Sexameba saocar STabeWdi­lebas axdens, Tqven Tvalwin TiTqos aRmosavlur zRaprebSi aRwerili jadosnuri xaliCebia gamofenili.

daTuna. 11 wlis

nana. 11 wlis

xaliCisa da fardagis qsova aRmosavleTis qveynebis xalxuri xelovnebis erTerTi ZiriTadi dargia. gamocdili mqso­velebi, rogorc wesi, winaswar eskizsac ar akeTeben da uSualod qsovis procesSi axa­meben saWiro ferebs erTmaneTTan. Tqven mier gakeTebuli eskizi ki saSualebas mogcemT Tavdapirvelad qaRaldze Sea­ sxaT xorci Tqvens fantazias. eskizis Sesrulebisas warmoidgineT, rogor gamoiyureba arabuli xaliCa. mTlianad dafareT formati feradi saRebaviT. scadeT, gasaqani misceT sakuTar fantazias da mizanmimarTulad gamoiyeneT kontrastuli ferebi, ornamentuli motivebi. imisaTvis, rom Tqvens namuSevars dasrulebuli saxe misceT, gaukeTeT mas kontrastuli an harmoniulad Sexamebuli feradi CarCo. samuSaos damTavrebis Semdeg klasSi moawyveT jadosnuri xaliCebis gamofena.

nebismieri saxatavi saSualebebis ga­moyenebiT SeqmeniT dekoratiuli namuSevari aRmosavluri xaliCis Temaze.

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44. Zveli egviptis xelovneba Zveli egvipte ganTqmulia xelovnebis unikaluri nimuSebiT. arqiteqtura, qandakeba, mxatvroba _ xelovnebis romeli dargis nimuSebs ar SexvdebiT aq. egviptur taZrebsa da samarxebs reliefebi da kedlis mxat­vroba amkobs; grandiozuli, monumenturi qandakebebi ki egvipturi arqiteqturuli ansamb­lebis organuli nawilia.

es qandakeba faraonsa da mis meuRles warmogvidgens. dedofals marcxena xeli meuRlis mklavze aqvs dadebuli, meore ki welze Semouxvevia. Tqveni azriT, ras gamoxatavs misi es Jesti? Tqveni azriT, ramdenad bunebrivia figurebis moZraoba? gamarTulad mdgar figurebs cali fexi win aqvT gadmodgmuli... daasrule am figurebis aRwera

faraoni menkaura (mikerini) da misi meuRle. 2525-2470 ww.

sfinqsi gizas arqiteqturuli ansamblis erT-erTi RirsSesaniSnaobaa. sfinqsi faraon xefrenis gamosaxulebas warmoadgens da misi piramidis win dgas. sfinqss lomis sxeuli da adamianis Tavi aqvs. qandakebas Tavs umSvenebs egvipteli faraonebis Tavsaburavi _ klafti. rogor STabeWdilebas axdens Tqvenze sfinqsi? sfinqsi. giza. Cv.w-amde 2575—2465 ww.

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III

egvipturi samarxebis kedlebi, rogorc wesi, moxatulobiT iyo da­fa­ruli. gamosaxulebebi horizontalur rigebad nawildeboda kedelze. aq gamoisaxeboda micvalebulis amqveyniuri cxovrebis amsaxveli scenebi; aseve misi imqveyniuri cxovrebac. rogor STabeWdilebas axdens am samarxis moxatuloba, misi fera­ dovneba?

samarxis moxatuloba. Zv.w. XIII s.

freskis am fragmentze evipturi RvTaebebi arian warmodgenili. Seecade, gansazRvro, romel RvTaebebs vxedavT aq. egvipturi moxatulobebis fonze xSirad ierog­li­furi warwerebi gvxvdeba. ra rols asrulebs isini saerTo STabeWdilebis SeqmnaSi? samarxis moxatuloba. Zv.w. XII s.

aRwereT aq warmodgenili figurebi, maTi pozebi, Cacmuloba...

aRwereT am ilustraciis qveda nawili. Tqveni azriT, rogor ukavSirdeba am ilustraciis zeda da qveda nawilebi erTmaneTs? Tqveni azriT, ras saqmianoben moxatulobis am fragmentze?

samarxis moxatuloba. Zv.w. XIII s.

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45. portreti aq warmodgenil portretebs faiumis portretebs uwodeben, radgan maTi umetesoba 1880 wels egvipteSi, el-faiumis oazisis samarxebSi aRmoaCines. isini, ZiriTadad, ax. w-is I-IV saukuneebs ganekuTvneba. es portretebi cvilis saRebavebiT ixateboda xis dafebze. portreti adamianis sicocxleSive iqmneboda, gardacvalebis Semdeg ki mas sarkofagze micvalebulis saxis adgilas aTavsebdnen.

?

1. aRwereT, rogor aris Casmuli portreti sarkofagSi.

qalis portreti. romauli sarkofagi. II s.

faiumis portreti micvalebulis kultTan iyo dakavSirebuli, Tumca maTze gamosaxuli adamianebi TiTqos sicocxliT aRsavseni arian da metyveli saxeebiT gamoirCevian.

?

2. Tqveni azriT, ramdenad SesaZlebelia am portretebSi adamianis xasiaTis da maTi ganwyobilebis amokiTxva? 3. aRwereT qvemoT mocemuli portretebi. daaxasi­ aTeT TiToeul portretze warmodgenili adamiani.

mamakacis portreti. I s.

axalgazrda qalis portreti. III s.

22

axalgazrda qalis portreti. I s.

faiumis portreti 1887 wels ingliselma arqeologma u. pitri flin­ dersma faiumTan axlos mdebare Zvel romaul qalaq xavaraSi aRmoaCina sasaflao, sadac 90-mde mumia e.w. faiumis portretebiT iyo dakrZaluli. mogvianebiT amgvari portretebi mTeli egviptis teritoriaze aRmoCnda. mTlianobaSi msoflios muzeumebSi daaxloebiT 700-mde faiumis portreti inaxeba.


46. Cemi axloblis portreti yovel adamians misTvis damaxasiaTebeli saxis moyvaniloba, Tvalebis, tuCebis, cxviris forma aqvs; zogs sqeli warbebi aqvs, zogs wvrili, erTi sityviT, yoveli maTgani misTvis saxasiaTo garegnobiT gamoirCeva. adamianis portretis Seqmnisas mxatvrebi swored am saxasiaTo niSnebs akvirdebian da Semdeg cdiloben namuSevarSi asaxon isini.

?

1. aRwereT aq warmodgenili portretebi. xazi gausvi TiToeul portretSi adamianis saxasiaTo niSnebs.

portretSi garda msgavsebisa, mxatvrebi xSirad adamianis ganwyobilebasac gadmoscemen. es ganwyobileba ukeT SeiZleba gamoikveTos Tu adamians, misi garegnobis Sesabamisad, romelime erovnebis damaxasiaTebeli atributebiT gamosaxav. magaliTad, meoTxe portretze Tqvenma Tanatolma deda espaneli qalis saxiT warmoadgina.

?

2. romeli atributebiT vxvdebiT, rom mexuTe suraTze konkretuli adamiani espaneli qalis saxiTaa gamosaxuli? 3. romeli kulturis warmomadgenlebi arian asaxuli meore da mesame portretze?

1

lika. 12 wlis

3 zuka. 12 wlis

2

nuca. 11 wlis

Tako. 10 wlis

4

gadawyviteT vis daxatavT, am adamianis garegnobis ro­mel saxasiaTo niSnebs gausvamT xazs da rogor ganwyobilebas gadmoscemT; romeli kulturis warmomadgenels asaxavT Tqvens namuSevarze da romel atributebs gamoiyenebT.

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III

47. romi 1. italiis dedaqali romi msoflios erT-erTi uZvelesi da ulamazesi qala­qia. ras aRar uwodeben mas: `maradiuli qalaqi~, `civilizaciis Suqura~, `qa­laqi Svid borcvze~, `wminda qalaqi~, `kacobriobis istoriis simbolo~...

?

1. ganixileT es gamonaTqvamebi romis Sesaxeb da imsjeleT TiToeul maTganze. 2. gaixseneT gamonaTqvami `yvela gza romSi midis~ da gamoTqviT Tqveni mosazreba, ra udevs safuZvlad am gamonaTqvams.

qalaqi Svid borcvze romi mdinare tibrosis sanapiroze Svid borcvzea ganlagebuli. es borcvebia: palatini, kapitoliumi, kvirinali, ave­ ntini, eskvilini, viminali da celiusi. romis xedi wminda petres taZridan

2. ar arsebobs epoqa kacobriobis istoriaSi, romlis kvali romSi ar moipo­vebodes, magram romi ZiriTadad mainc antikuri samyarosa da qristianuli epoqis pirmSoa. romulis daarsebuli qalaqi palatinis borcvze mdebareobda. gadmocemis mixedviT, romulma palatinis borcvi akropolisisaTvis SearCia da swored aq aigo qalaqis mfarveli RvTaeba _ iupiteris taZari. romi nel-nela izrdeboda. borcvebs Soris mosworebul adgilze gaCnda romis forumi. forumi italiu­rad SemosazRvruls niSnavs. es iyo qalaqis mTavari moedani, misi centri, sadac mravali nageboba idga. dRes forumi nangrevebqdaaa qce­uli, magram italielebi mas am sa­ romis forumi xiT inaxaven Zveli ro­mis didebis niSnad. romis daarsebis istoria romuli da remi _ tyupi Zmebi sakuTarma biZam mdinare tibross gaatana da ase Caigdo xelSi Zalauf­ leba. Zmebi mdinarem napir­ze gamoriya. aq isini Zu mgelma ipova da ZuZu awova. gadar­Cenili tyupe­bi mwyemsma wamoiyvana da gazarda. wamozrdilma romulma mdinare tibrosis napi­rebze qalaqis mSenebloba gadawyvita. erT-erT borcvze man xnuli gaavlo da momavali qalaqis sazRva­ri moniSna. misi Zma remi ki am dros xnulze xtoda da Zmis Canafiqrs dascinoda. ganrisxebulma romulma Zma mokla da Tqva: `ase daemar­Teba yvelas, vinc am qalaqis sazRvars gadakveTs~. romis daarsebis TariRad Zv. w. 753 wlis 21 aprili iTvleba. Zu lomis qandakeba dResac dgas palatinis borcvze.

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3. romis mTavari mSvenebaa wminda pet­res taZari, romelic mTeli kaTolikuri samyaros mTavar taZrad iTvleba da sadac romis papi wiravs. 1506 wels papma iulius II-m arqiteqtor bramantes am adgilas mdebare taZris da mis garSemo arsebuli nagebobebis dangreva da axali grandiozuli taZris ageba daavala. bramantem mxolod taZris gegmis Sedgena moaswro.

wm. petres taZris gumbaTi

wm. petres taZris dasavleT fasadi

1546 wels es samuSao papma gamoCenil italiel moqandakes miqelanjelos daavala. miqelanjelos proeqtis mTavari siaxle taZris gumbaTi iyo. man taZari maRali da ganieri gumbaTiT daagvirgvina. gumbaTis yelSi 16 mZla­v­­ ri sayrdeni gaakeTa da isini Sewyvilebuli svetebis ukan `damala~; svetebs Soris farTo sarkmlebi gaWra, ris Sedegadac gumbaTqveSa sivrce uxvad ganaTda. gumbaTis zeda sferul nawilSi kidev samrigad ganlagebuli patara sarkmlebia datanebuli.

?

3. Cans Tu ara es patara sarkmlebi interierSi? 4. rogor fiqrobT, ra daniSnuleba unda hqonoda maT?

mogvianebiT taZars kidev ori, mcire zomis gumbaTi daadges, xolo winidan mdidruli fasadi miaSenes. swored aq aris e.w. kurTxevis lojia. sabolood taZari 1626 wlis 18 noembers akurTxes.

?

5. aRwereT wm. petres taZris interieri. 6. rogor STabeWdilebas axdens is? 7. ra gansazRvravs am STabeWdilebas?

sad awames wm. petre? im adgilas, sadac axla wm. petres taZari dgas antikur xanaSi cirkis Senoba iyo. swored aq, cirkis arenaze, imperator neronis dros awames wminda petre da aqve axlos dakrZales. misi wamebis adgilas mogvianebiT imperatorma konstantinem taZris ageba brZana. droTa ganmavlobaSi mis garSemo mTeli qalaqi ga­Senda _ samlocveloebi, sanaT-darbazebi da sxvadasxva daniSnulebis nagebobebi. wm. petres taZris interieri

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III

48. naturmorti pompei romis imperiis erT-erTi qalaqi iyo, romelic ax. w-is I saukuneSi vulkanis amofrqvevis Sedegad ferflisa da lavis sqeli fenis qveS daimarxa. XIX saukunis II naxevarSi es qalaqi mecnierebma gaTxares. aq aRmoCnda mSvenieri sasaxleebi da vilebi, romelTa kedlebic mxatvrobiT iyo Semkuli. am moxatulobebSi gansakuTrebuli adgili naturmorts eWira.

?

1. gaixsene, ra aris naturmorti. 2. aRwereT pirveli da meore naturmorti. romeli xilia asaxuli am na­turmortebze? 3. rogor aris gadmocemuli am na­ tur­ mortze minis WurWlis faqtura?

pompei. naturmorti. ax. w-is I s.

1

pompeis moxatulobebis naturmortebi metad mravalferovania: WurWeli, xili, warmodgenili nivTebis sxvadasxva forma, faqtura; aq gvxvdeba rogorc minis, aseve Tixisa da liTonisagan damzadebuli WurWeli. gvaocebs is, Tu rogori sizustiTa da ostatobiT gadmoscemen imdroindeli mxatvrebi TiToeuli nivTis saxasiaTo formas, maT faqturas, masalis efeqts. am naturmortebis saSulebiT Cven SegviZlia warmovidginoT rogor WurWels xmarobdnen Zveli romaelebi, rogori ieri hqonda maT gaSlil sufras.

2 pompei. naturmorti. ax. w-is I s.

?

4. warmodgenil naturmortTagan, Tqveni azriT, romelia yvelaze mravalfiguriani? 5. aRwereT mesame naturmorti. ra masalisagan aris damzadebuli aq warmodgenili nivTebi? ra migvaniSnebs am masalaze? 6. daakvirdiT da aRwereT, rogor aris aq gamosaxuli magida.

26

pompei. naturmorti. ax. w-is I s.

3


aranaklebi sizustiTa da ostatobiT gadmoscemen romaeli mxatvrebi xilis formas, maT fers, atmisa Tu leRvis xaoian zedapirs, mownuli Wilis kalaTis faqturas. leRviT savse kalaTa iseTi ostatobiTa da gulmodginebiTaa daxatuli, rom adamians namdvili SeiZleba egonos.

?

7. daakvirdiT meoTxe naturmortze ga­ mosaxul leRvebs. Tqveni azriT, ra xerxiT amrgvalebs mxatvari leRvis formas? 8. rogor fiqrobT, ratom aris leRvebi sxvadasxva feris? 9. Tqveni azriT, ras migvaniSnebs leRvebze wiTeli aqcentebi?

4

pompei. naturmorti. ax. w-is I s.

5

6

7 mariami. 11 wlis

8

Tamuna. 11 wlis

daxateT naturmorti da Seeca­de, gadmosce sagnebis saxasi­aTo forma, feri da faqtura. SegiZliaT naturmorti aplikaciis xerxiTac gaakeToT.

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III

49. renesansis mxatvroba am gakveTilze Tqven italiuri renesansis mxatvrobis nimuSebs gaecnobiT. termini `renesansi~ italiuri sityvidan (rinashimento) warmoiSva da aRorZinebas niSnavs. renesansi italiaSi Caisaxa da daaxloebiT ori saukunis, XIV-XV ss-is ganmavlobaSi viTardeboda. renesansis periodis sami didi mxatvari iyo leonardo da vinCi, miqelanjelo da rafaeli, Tumca am periodSi italiaSi sxva mravali mxatvaric moRvaweobda: joto, mazaCo, mantenia, botiCeli, perujino, ticiani da sxv.

maRal taxtze mjdom RvTismSobels Tayvans scemen wmindanebi da istoriuli piri, am suraTis damkveTi, franCesko gonzaga. kompoziciis centrs warmoadgens RvTis­ mSobeli yrmiT. ra migvaniSnebs amaze? daakvirdiT da gansazRvrT am suraTze xedvis wertili.

andrea mantenia. gamarjvebis madona. 1495 w.

sandro botiCeli. gazafxuli. 1477-78 ww.

suraTi gazafxulis mosvlas asaxavs. moqmedeba veneras baRSi mimdinareobs. mTavari personaJi suraTis centrSi gamosaxuli siyvarulis qalRmerTi veneraa. ratom? Tqveni azriT, vin arian aq warmodgenili danarCeni personaJebi? aRwereT veneras baRi. rogor aris Sevsebuli sasuraTe sibrtye figurebiT?

28


III perujino. gasaRebis gadacema. 1482 w.

perujino rafaelis maswavlebeli iyo. es scena siqstes kapelis erT-erT kedels amSvenebs. did moedanze mravali adamianis TandaswrebiT qriste wm. petres samoTxis gasaRebs gadascems. aRwereT garemo, romelSic moqmedeba mimdinareobs. rogor fiqrobT, aqvs Tu ara am kompozicias simetriis RerZi?

rafaeli. mesa bolseneSi. 1512 w.

es kompozicia vatikanSi, papis rezidenciis erT-erTi oTaxis (stancas) kedels amSvenebs. saswauli sarkmlis garSemoa ganTavsebuli. mis centrs trapezi warmoadgens. aRwereT aq gamosaxuli adamianebi. rogor xvdebian isini saswauls? aRwereT garemo, romelSic moqmedeba mimdinareobs. rogor fiqrobT, aqvs Tu ara am kompozicias simetriis RerZi?

29


III

50. originaluri saCuqari gazafxulis dadgomisTanave unda daiwyoT fiqri imis Sesaxeb, rogor miulocavT gazafxulis mobrZanebas da ra saCuqars gaukeTebT sayvarel da axlobel adamianebs _ dedas, bebias, maswavlebels... rasakvirvelia, pirveli, rac gaxsendebaT, albaT, tradiciuli Taigulia. gazafxulze saCuqrad miZRvnili yvavilebi marTlac gansakuTrebul siamovnebas aniWebs adamians. iqneb, amjerad, misaloci baraTis da Taigulis nacvlad iseTi saCuqris gakeTeba scadoT, romelic dedas didxans darCeba samaxsovrod. mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi Tqven uamravi saintereso informacia SeityveT. mravali qveynis xelovnebas gaecaniT da Tavadac mosinjeT Tqveni Zalebi xelovnebis ama Tu im dargSi. dedas, albaT, Zalian gauxardeba, Tu Tqven mas iseT namuSevars uZRvniT, romelSic es codna da gamocdileba aisaxeba. izruneT imazec, rom namuSevars Sesaferisi CarCo da sakidi an sadgami gaukeToT.

CarCos damzadebis ramdenime martivi xerxi arsebobs. yvelaze advili muyaosagan misi gamoWraa. gamoWrili CarCos morTva ki Tqvens fantaziazea damokidebuli. muyaos CarCo SeiZleba originalur nivTad aqcioT Tu zed, erTi SexedviT, uCveulo ele­mentebs daamagrebT. mag., sxvadasxva formis Rilebs, Zafebs, Tasmebs da a.S. aseT CarCos SeiZleba misaloci baraTic ki daaweboT kuTxeSi.

gi

c lo

am CarCoze ki veravin ityvis, rom misi sa­fuZ­ veli muyaos ubralo oTxkuTxedia. mis mosar­Ta­ vad Tqven feradi gofrirebuli qaRal­ debisgan gamoWrili zolebi dagWirdebaT, romlebsac ise daawebebT erTmaneTze, rom CarCom moculobiTi forma miiRos.

30

av

!


III

zRvis napirze Segrovebuli feradi niJarebi an kenWebi muyaosgan gamoWril CarCoze daalageT da guldasmiT daawebeT. Tu zRvis peizaJi an zRvis samyaros Temaze Sesrulebuli namuSevari xelT gaqvT, ukeTes CarCos verc inatrebT.

Tu xis naWrebisgan gadawyvetT CarCos damzadebas, meti sifrTxile gmarTebT. kargi iqneba Tu am saqmeSi biWebi gogonebs daexmarebiT. umjobesia, lursmnebis nacvlad weboTi SeakavSiroT xis nawilebi da aucileblad acadoT maT gaSroba. imave weboTi zed nebismieri dekoratiuli ele­menti SeiZleba daaweboT. Tavad xis morCenili naWrebic ki daamSvenebs amgvar CarCos, radgan xes sasiamovno faqtura aqvs. dekoratiul elementebad saxeldaxe­ lod Segrovebuli bunebrivi masala _ balaxi, xis qerqi, xavsi an girCebi SeiZleba gamoiyenoT.

erTi feris atlasis lentisgan or­ i­­ ginaluri CarCo damzaddeba, Tu mas alag-alag gadagrixavT, xolo mis bo­ lo­­ebs romelime kuTxeSi yvavilis fo­ r­mis me­dalioniT daamSvenebT. am­gvar CarCos Tqven mier daxatuli feradi Taiguli Zalian moixdens.

SearCieT Tqveni saukeTeso namuSevari. nebismieri bunebrivi an xelovnuri masalisagan gaukeTeT Sesaferisi dekoratiuli CarCo.

nino. 11 wlis.

31


III

51. mogzauroba xelovnebis samyaroSi III wignis am nawilSi Tqven msoflios kidev sam metad saintereso qalaqs gaecaniT: roms, parizsa da qairos. modiT, axla im qveynebSi imogzaureT, sadac es qalaqebi mdebareobs. alberto jakometi. figurebi.

italia

italiuri minis nawarmi murano

filipo lipi. mogvTa Tayvaniscema.

lorenco giberti. baptisteriumis karis reliefi. florencia.

doJebis sasaxle. venecia.

32


III

safrangeTi

versalis sasaxle

Jak lui daviTi. madam rekamies portreti

faberJes nakeTobani

eJen delakrua. marokoeli kazmavs cxens

egvipte

gulsakidebi

piramidebi

Tebe. samarxis moxatuloba

abu simbelis kompleqsi

33


IV

52. caTambjenebis qalaqi 1. niu iorks msoflios dedaqalaqs uwodeben, Tumca is amerikis dedaqalaqic ki ar aris. sainteresoa, riT daimsaxura man es aRiareba. niu iorki mdinare huZonisa da atlantikis okeanes Soris mdebare kuZulebzea gaSenebuli. misi uZvelesi nawili niu iorkis erT-erTi centraluri ubnis _ manhetenis samxreTiT mdebareobs. evropidan gadasaxlebulma holandielebma aq axali amsterdami daaarses. Semdeg es miwebi emigranti ingliselebis mflobe­ lobaSi gadavida da saxelic iorkis hercogis pativsacemad gadaerqva. am ori saxelis SerwymiT warmoiSva qalaqis dRevandeli saxeli _ niu iorki.

?

1. vin aRmoaCina amerikis kontinenti? 2. romeli qalaqia amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis dedaqalaqi?

2. daaxloebiT iq, sadac evropeli emigrantebi pirvelad adgamdnen fexs amerikis miwaze dRes niu iorkis da amerikis simbolo _ Tavisuflebis qandakeba dgas. 1886 wels safrangeTma es qandakeba saCuqrad uZRvna amerikas. misi avtori frangi moqandake frederik ogiust bartoldia. didi zomis da wonis gamo qandakebas sagangebo konstruqcia dasWirda, romelic ogiust eifelis naxazebiT aages. yovelwliurad aTiaTasobiT turisti aTvalierebs okeanis sanapiroze gaSlili qalaqis xeds qandakebis gvirgvinSi mowyobili dasaTvalierebeli baqnidan.

?

niu iorkis xedi

3. rogor fiqrobT, ra aqvs saerTo parizis da niu iorkis simboloebs?

niu iorkis kidev erTi simbolo vaSlia. gadmocemis mixedviT, pirveli emigrantebis mier darguli xeebidan pirvelma swored vaSlis xem gamoiRo nayofi, amito­mac vaSli yvelaze warmatebuli amerikuli qalaqis simbolo gaxda. Tavisuflebis qandakeba uol sTriTi holandiel da inglisel emigrantebs Soris mZafri kon­ kurencia arsebobda. holandielebma qalaqis centrSi didi kedeli aages ingliseli konkurentebisagan Tavis dasacavad. kedlis adgilas axla msoflios erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili quCa uol sTriTi mdebareobs (wall ingl. kedeli).

34


3. xelsayreli mdebareobis gamo niu iorki maleve gaizarda, gaSenda. miwa aq Zvirad fasobda, amitomac XX s-is dasawyisidan niu iorkSi mravalsarTuli­ ani Senobebis ageba daiwyo, romelTa msgavsi im dros arsad iyo. aq muSaobdnen msoflios yvelaze cnobili arqiteqtorebi. liTonisa da minis uzarmazarma konstruqciebma mTlianad Seucvala qalaqs ieri. TandaTan niu iorki caTambjenebis qalaqad iqca. miuxedavad imisa, rom niu iorkis centralur raionebSi maRali nagebobebia Camwkrivebuli, mis quCebs ar daukargavs simyudrove. caTambjenebis individualo­ bas gansxvavebuli masalis, feris, faqturis gamoyeneba ganapirobebs. RamiT gaCiraRdnebuli qalaqis quCebi iseTive xalxmravali da mimzidvelia, rogorc dRisiT.

IV

kraisleris centri. 1930 w.

Tanamedrove xelovnebis muzeumis eqspozicia

niu iorki RamiT

?

4. rogor daaxasiaTebdiT niu iorks warmodgenili fotoebis mixedviT? 5. Tqveni azriT, ra dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebi aqvs amgvar nagebobebs?

4. niu iorkSi Tanamedrove xelovnebis muzeumi, cnobili MoMA mdebareobs. am muzeumis mesveurebma miznad daisaxes, SeeqmnaT Tanamedrove xelovnebis yvelaze sruli koleqcia da 1928 wels daaarses muzeumi. mis koleqciaSi Tanamedrove xelovnebis aTasobiT cnobili nawarmoebia Tavmoyrili. TandaTan niu iorki Tanamedrove xelovnebis centrad iqca, raSic am muzeums didi wvlili miuZRvis.

?

6. Tqveni azriT, ra Tvisebebi axasiaTebs Tanamedrove xelovnebas? 7. vin aris Tqveni sayvareli Tanamedrove mxatvari an moqandake?

35


IV

53. Tanamedrove xelovneba 1. MoMA-s koleqcia msoflioSi erT-erTi udi足 desi da umniSvnelovanesia. koleqcionerebisa Tu Tavad mxatvrebisgan SeZenili nawarmoebebis didi umravlesoba absoluturad gansxvavdeba imisgan, rasac tradiciuli xelovneba ewodeba. Tanamedrove xelovnebis zogierTi nimuSi, erTi SexedviT, ucnauri formebisa da uCveulo ferebis SemTxveviT Tavmoyrad SeiZleba mogveCvenos, magram es ase ar aris. marTalia, XX s-Si bevrma xelovanma uari Tqva tradiciul ferwerasa Tu qandakebaze, magram xelovnebis mTavar miznad maTTvisac mainc sakuTari ideebis, grZnobebis gamoxatva rCeba. Tanamedrove xelovnebis nawarmoebis Sesaqmnelad xSirad sruliad aratradiciuli masala gamoiye足 neba, iseTi, romelic Cveulebrivi adamia足 nebisTvis sruliad usargebloa. am nawarmoebebs zogjer konkretuli saxelis magivrad ubralod kompozicia an obieqti ewodeba.

?

kompozicia

1. rogor fiqrobT, ratom ar arqmeven Tanamedrove xelovanebi xSirad TavianT nawarmoebebs konkretul saxels?

`Tavisufali xelovnebis klasis~ gamofena Tbilisis saxelmwifo samxatvro akademiaSi. 2009 w. obieqti

2. Tanamedrove xelovanebi sulac ar isaxaven miznad realuri gamosa足 xulebebis Seqmnas. aratradiciuli masaliT, originaluri formebiTa da feriT isini axal, warmosaxviT samyaros qmnian. maTi namuSevrebis mTavari Tavisebureba pirobiT enaze metyvelebaa.

36


tradiciuli masalis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSic ki Tanamedrove mxatvrebi ar cdiloben realobis asaxvas. maT namuSevrebSi Znelad Tu amoicnobT ama Tu im nivTs, gamosaxulebas.

?

2. rogor fiqrobT, ratom ar asaxaven Tanamedrove mxatvrebi realobas?

xSirad Tanamedrove mxatvrebis namuSevrebi imdenad pirobiTia, rom maT bavSvis naxatebsac ki adareben. Sveicarieli mxatvris paul klees namu­ Sevrebze swored amgvar gamartivebul, gulub­ ryvilo gamosaxulebebs vxvdebiT.

?

3. rogor fiqrobT, ician Tu ara Tanamedrove mxatv­rebma xatva da SeuZliaT Tu ara realurad asaxon sagani? 4. daaxasiaTeT paul klees angelozebis seria. rogor ganwyobilebas qmnis TiToeuli maTgani?

paul klee. kompozicia. 1924 w.

paul klee. angelozebis seria. 1939 w.

3. Tanamedrove mxatvrebis msgavsad, nebismier adamians SeuZlia, scados sakuTari emociis gadmocema axali, pirobiTi formebis SeqmniT, ferebis harmoniuli an kontrastuli SexamebiT. am procesSi mTavaria zustad SearCioT sasurveli ganwyobilebis gadmosacemad saWiro mxatvruli elementebi, mayurebeli ki Tavad Seafasebs, ramdenad miaRwieT mizans. nebismieri ma­sa­­­liT SeqmeniT namuSevari, romelSic uCveulo formebsa da ferebs gamoiyenebT sakuTa­ri ganwyobilebis ga­d­mosa­cemad.

37

IV


IV

54. abstraqcionistebi Tanamedrove xelovnebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mimdinareoba abstraqcionizmia. abstraqcia (abstractio) laTinuri sityvaa da ganyenebuls niSnavs. abstraqcionizmis mimdevrebi uars acxadebdnen adamianebis, garemos da saerTod nebismieri sagnis gamosaxvaze. maT namuSevrebSi gamoyenebuli formebi, xazebi da ferebi mxatvruli fantaziis nayofia da ara realuri garemos asaxvis Sedegi. XX saukuneSi abstraqcionizmi didi popularobiT sargeblobda amerikasa da evropaSi da sruliad axali tradiciebi daamkvidra Tanamedrove xelovnebaSi.

xuan miros es suraTi abstraqciis nimuSia. romeli mxatvruli saSualebebi aqvs gamoyenebuli mxatvars? rogor fiqrobT, ratom hqvia am suraTs `sevdiani momRerali~? rogor STabeWdilebas giqmnis es suraTi?

xuan miro. sevdiani momRerali. 1922 w.

pit mondrianis abstraqciebze Savi konturiT Semovlebul sxvadasxva feris marTkuTxedebs vxvdebiT. rogor fiqrobT, xeliTaa Sesrule­buli es suraTi Tu saxazaviT?

pit mondriani. kompozicia.1921 w.

38


daaxasiaTeT rodkos suraTis koloriti. ras SeadarebdiT am ferebs? mxatvars aseTi feradovani kompoziciebis ramdenime seria aqvs Seqmnili. maT ganwyo­ bilebas gamoyenebuli ferebis Sexameba an maTi kontrasti ganapirobebs.

mark rotko. nomeri 12. 1951 w.

feradi xazebi da saRebavis laqebi qaosurad faraven suraTis zedapirs. rogor ggoniaT, Tqvenc SegiZliaT aseTi namuSevris Seqmna? abstraqtuli xelovnebis erTerTi mTavari niSani SemoqmedebiTi Tavisuflebaa.

jekson poloki. nomeri 5. 1949 w.

Savi kvadrati, wiTeli wre, oqrosferi marTkuTxedebi _ es yvelaferi uwesrigod dayril saTamaSoebs hgavs. rogor STabeWdilebebs aRZravs es abst­ raqtuli namuSevari? rogor fiqrobT, marTla erToboda Tu ara mxatvari namuSevris Seqmnisas?

kazimir maleviCi. kompozicia. 1915 w.

39

IV


IV

55. zamTari niu iorkSi nebismieri qalaqi sxvadasxvag­ varad gamoiyureba weliwadis sxva­ dasxva dros. arc niu iorkia gamonaklisi. miuxedavad imisa,rom es uzarmazari qalaqi Zalian mWidrod aris dasaxlebuli da mis quCebSi transportis didi nakadi mudmivad moedineba, niu iorki mwvane qalaqia. mis centrSi didi parki xeluxleblad aris datovebuli da zamTar-zafxul savsea xalxiT. TviT yvelaze gadatvirTul quCebze ki skverebi da mwvane kuTxeebia gaSenebuli, rac simyudroves hmatebs qalaqs. yoveli didi organizacia an dawesebuleba sakuTar movaleobad miiCnevs qalaqis gamwvanebaze zrunvas. magaliTad, niu iorkSi mdebare kolumbiis universiteti didi mzrun­velobiT uvlis mis teritoriaze arsebul ulamazes baRebs, romlebic universitetis studentTa TavSeyris, garTobisa da mecadineobis sayvareli adgilia.

niu iorkis centraluri parki

?

kolumbiis universitetis ezo

1. rogor fiqrobT, ratom zrunavs Tanamedrove qalaqi quCebis Tu ezoebis gamwvanebaze?

aTasfrad ayvavebuli xeebiTa da yvavilebiT da­ mSvenebuli qalaqi, rasakvirvelia, lamazad gamo­ iyureba, magram mcenareebi gacilebiT mniSvnelovan rols asruleben Cvens cxov­ rebaSi. swored is­ini warmoqmnian Cveni arsebobisTvis aucilebel Ja­ ngbads. es gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania didi qalaqebisTvis, sadac sxvadasxva tipis transportis didi raodenobaa Tavmoyrili da haeri maTi gamonabolqvisganaa dabinZurebuli. mcena­re­ebi qa­ laqis filtvebia, romlebic jansaRi cxovrebis sa­ Sualebas aZlevs mosaxleobas.

40


sadac unda iyos adamiani, bunebaze Tvalis erTi Sevleba sWirdeba, rom zustad amoicnos weliwadis dro.

?

2. weliwadis rome­ li droa asaxuli Tqveni Tanatolis am suraTze? Tornike. 11 wlis. zafxuli niu iorkSi

TiToeul sezons Taviseburi xibli aqvs. gazafxulze Ria mwvaned abibinebuli balaxi da axladgamotanili kvirtebis nazi ferebi axarebs Tvals. zafxuli palitris yvela feris sikaSkaSiT da JReradobiT ipyrobs yuradRebas. Semodgoma oqrosfersa da Sindisfers `aniWebs~ upiratesobas. ra feria zamTari? albaT, yvela Tqvengani gaifiqrebs, rom zamTars yvelaze metad TeTri feri Svenis. es marTlac asea, magram, Tu zamTris peizaJs gaixsenebT, mixvdebiT, rom zamTarSi, rodesac yinavs da susxia, haeri gansakuTrebiT gamWvirvalea da ferebi mkafiod moCans. xis gaSiSvlebuli totebi ki Tovlis fonze fanqriT Sesrulebul naxats hgavs.

zaza. 11 wlis. zamTari niu iorkSi

daTuna. 9 wlis. niu iorki

daxateT an nebismieri sxva xerxiT SeqmeniT Tqveni qalaqis peizaJi. SearCieT TqvenTvis sasurveli weliwadis dro.

41

IV


IV

56. berlini 1. germaniis dedaqalaqi berlini mdi­nare Spreeze mdebareobs da masSi oTx milionamde adamiani cxovrobs. Zveli germanuli tomebi am adgilas Zv.w. VIIIVII ss-Si dasaxldnen; am qalaqis Sesaxeb pirveli werilobiTi cnobebi ki XIII s-Si gvxvdeba. `bear~ (bär) germanulad daTvs niSnavs da varaudoben, rom am sityvidan warmodgeba berlinis saxelwodeba. swored amitom berlinis simbolos daTvi warmoadgens. berlinma mravali aRmavloba Tu gan­sacdeli gamoiara; is iyo prusiis, Semdeg ki germaniis imperiis dedaqalaqi. 1920 wels gamovida kanoni, romlis ZaliTac Seiqmna e.w. `didi berlini~ da mis SemadgenlobaSi irgvliv arsebuli mravali dasaxleba Sevida. ase iqca berlini did megapolisad.

berlini. raixstagi

2. berlinis centrSi dgas raixstagis Senoba, romelic 1884-1894 ww-Si aigo germaneli arqeteqtoris paul valos proeqtiT. es iyo im droisTvis tradiciuli, mkacri evropuli arqiteqturis nimuSi. am SenobaSi germaniis parlamenti iyo ganlagebuli.

?

1. Tu iciT, ras niSnavs `raixstagi~? 2. ra hqvia dRes germaniis parlaments, romelic raixstagSia ganlagebuli?

meore msoflio omis dasrulebis Semdgom raixstagi dangreuli da gadamwvari iyo. mis rekonstruqciaze muSaobda cnobili ingliseli arqiteqtori lordi norman fosteri. man Senobis ZiriTadi korpusi pirvandeli saxiT aRadgina, gumbaTi ki sruliad Tanamedrove formiT gadawyvita.

?

raixstagis gumbaTis interieri

42

3. aRwereT raixstagis gumbaTis gare xedi da interieri. 4. ra gansxvavebaa raixstagis Zvelsa da axal nawilebs Soris. 5. gamoTqviT Tqveni mosazreba, rogor eTanxmeba erTmaneTs Zveli da Tanamedrove formebi da masala am SenobaSi. 6. xom ar iciT, Tbilisis romel Tanamedrove Senobazea gamoyenebuli msgavsi minis gumbaTi?


IV brandenburgis karibWis kvadriga brandenburgis karibWe

3. berlinis simbolod iTvleba brandenburgis karibWe, romelic 1789-1791 ww-Si karl gotard langansomma daaproeqta. nimuSad arqiteqtorma aTenis akropolisis propileebi aiRo.

?

7. SeadareT brandenburgis karibWe aTenis akropolisis propileebs.

brandenburgis karibWes Tavze edga qandakeba _ oTxcxeniani etli anu kvadriga, romelsac gamarjvebis romauli qalRmerTi viqtoria marTavda. 1806 wels napoleonma daipyro berlini da kvadriga parizSi gadaitana, mag­ram misi damarcxebis Semdgom gamarjvebis qalRmerTi Tavisi etliT 1814 wels kvlav daubrunda berlins. siaxle ki am qandakebaSi is iyo, rom qandakebas daemata rkinis jvari, romelic qalRmerTs xelSi uWiravs. 4. berlini muzeumebis qalaqia. aq erT adgilas ramdenime didi muzeumia Tavmoyrili. am adgils berlinelebi muzeumebis kunZuls eZaxian. am muzeumebSi daculia sxvadasxva droisa da qveynis xelovnebis umniSvnelovanesi nimuSebi.

pergamonis sakurTxeveli. pergamonis muzeumi

berlinis muzeumebi berlinis saxelmwifo muzeumebis gaerTianebaSi xuTi muzeumi Sedis: bodes mu­ zeumi, pergamonis muzeumi, axali muzeumi, nacionaluri ga­lerea da Zveli muzeumi.

 leqsiko ni moiZieT informacia pergamonis muzeumis da masSi daculi sakurTxevlis Sesaxeb. gaakeTeT stendi.

megapolisi (laT. mega didi, polis qalaqi) _ didi, mravali dasaxlebisgan warmoqmnili qalaqi.

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IV

57. berlinis kedeli 1. 1961 wlis 13 agvistos Ramis pirvel sa­ aTze dasavleT da aRmosavleT berlinis sazRvarTan daiwyo mavTulxlarTebis gavleba da gamyofi kedlis mSenebloba. usw­rafesad aigo 106 km-is sigrZisa da 4 m-mde simaRlis kedeli, romelmac qalaqis quCebsa da saxlebze gaiara da didi xniT gayo qalaqi orad, daaSora erTmaneTs axlobeli adamianebi, naTesavebi, megobrebi... berli­ nis kedeli dapirispirebis, gaucxoebis, mtrobis simbolod iqca.

?

1. xom ar iciT, ratom aSenda berlinis kedeli? romeli istoriuli faqtebi uZRoda win mis agebas?

28 wlis ganmavlobaSi es kedeli yofda germanel ers, yofda adamianebs. Tu vinme ecdeboda mis gadalaxvas, is an cixeSi xvdeboda, an adgilzeve klavdnen. cnobilia, rom am xnis ganmavlobaSi dasavleT berlinSi kedlis ukano­nod gadamlaxavi 1245 adamiani iqna mokluli. 2. 1989 wlis 9 noembers saRamos 19 saaTsa da 34 wuTze germaniis demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobam ganacxada, rom meore dRidan SesaZlebeli iqneboda vizebis miReba da Tavisufali mimosvla, magram aseul aTasobiT berlineli ar daeloda am `meore dRes~ da imave saRamos xalxi kedlisaken daiZra.

?

2. arsebobs Tu ara dRes germaniis demokratiuli respublika?

mesazRvreebi Tavidan cdilobdnen adamianebis Sekavebas, magram xalxi imdeni iyo, rom es SeuZlebeli Seiqna. adamianTa nakadi ar wydeboda, quCaSi gamosuli dasavleT da aRmosavleT berlinis Tvalcremliani ma­ cxovreblebi, ucxo adamianebi erTmaneTs exveodnen, kocnidnen... bednierebisa da erTobis gancdam yvela barieri daangria da yvela winaaRmdegoba gadalaxa. es iyo germaneli xalxis didi zeimi. sami dRis ganmavlobaSi sam milionze metma adamianma gadalaxa es sazRvari. berlinis kedelTan gavlisas isini cdilobdnen, samax­sovrod waeRoT misi patara natexi mainc.

44


momdevno ramdenime Tvis ganmavlobaSi berlinis kedeli daangries. Tumca misi erTi nawili mainc datoves, rogorc Zegli, romelmac unda Seaxsenos kacobriobas dapirispirebisa da mtrobis samarcxvino istoria. 3. aRmosavleT berlinis mxridan berlinis kedeli yovelTvis saimedod iyo daculi, mas veravin miekareboda, xolo dasavleT berlinis mxridan masze adamianebi saprotesto warwerebsa da naxatebs akeTebdnen. isini xelovnebis saSualebiT gamoxatavdnen sakuTar protests. kedelze moTavsebul amgvar naxatebs grafiti qvia.

?

3. aRwereT berlinis kedlis aq mocemuli grafitis nimuSebi. 4. SeecadeT, axsnaT, ras da rogor aprotesteb足 dnen maTi Semqmnelebi. daasabuTeT Tqveni mosazreba. grafiti grafiti italiuri sityvaa da amokaw足 vras niSnavs. dRes grafiti quCis xelovnebis erT-erT saxeobas warmoadgens. esaa did sibrtyeebze _ nagebobaTa kedlebze, Riobebze datanili warwerebi da naxatebi. grafiti Tanamedrove kulturis, didi qalaqebis Semadgenel nawilad iqca.

4. xom araferi gagaxsenaT berlinis kedelma Cveni dRevandeli yofidan? diax, dRes Cven samSobloSi afxazeTisa da samaCablos sazRvarze betoniT nagebi kedlebi ar dgas, magram uxilavi kedlebi gvyofs afxazebs, osebsa da Cven, qarTvelebs. am ZirZveli qarTuli miwebidan asiaTasobiT qarTvelia ltolvili da dRes isini _ ltolvili bavSvebi, Tqveni Tanatolebi kvlav xelovnebis saSualebiT, grafitis xerxiT mogviTxroben TavianT satkivarze, Tu rogor enatrebaT sa足kuTari miwa-wyali, saxlebi, axloblebi, afxa足zi da osi megobrebi.

grafitis xerxiT SeqmeniT namuSevari Temaze `davangrioT Cvens samSobloSi aRmarTuli kedlebi~.

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IV

58. eqspresionistebi XX saukunis dasawyisSi germaniaSi axalgazrda mxatvrebis ori jgufi: `xidi~ da `lurji mxedari~ Seiqmna. maT SemadgenlobaSi Sediodnen ernst ludvig kirxneri, karl Smidt rotlufi, avgust make, vasili kandinski, franc marki da sxv. maTi mizani xelovnebaSi mZafri emociebis gadmocema iyo da amitom am mxatvrul mimdinareobas eqspresionizmi ewoda. eqspresia (expressio) laTinuri sityvaa da gamoxatvas niSnavs. eqspresionistebi sakuTar suraTebSi mRelvare grZnobebis gadmosacemad sxvadasxva mxatvrul xerxs, arabunebriv da mkveTr ferebs, texil xazebs, deformirebul gamosaxulebebs, mZafr moZraobebs iyenebdnen.

aRwereT axalgazrda qalis portreti. ra iqcevs yuradRebas suraTze? didi, Jolosferi yvavili Sav qudze, iasamnis­feri Crdilebi qalis saxeze, ucnauri garemo... Tqveni azriT, ra grZnobebis gadmocema undoda mxatvars? rogor daaxasiaTebdiT portretis mixedviT axalgazrda qals?

ludvig kirxneri. gerda. 1914 w.

Tqvens winaSe germanuli qalaqis _ potsdamis quCaa. aRwereT quCa, Senobebi, gamvlelebis gamosaxulebebi... rogor STabeWdilebas qmnis es su­ raTi? rogor fiqrobT, romeli mxatvruli xerxebi gamoiyena mxatvarma ganwyobilebis Sesaqmnelad?

ludvig kirxneri. quCa. 1913 w.

46


zurmuxtisferi zRva, wiTeli mze Savi Rrublebis rkalSi _ albaT cxadia, rom es mxatvaric eqspresionistia. aRwereT kompozicia da moifiqre feris garda, kidev romeli mxatvruli xerxebi qmnis suraTis mRelvare ganwyobilebas.

emil nolde. mze. 1914 w.

Tqveni azriT, ram aayirava miwa am bedaurebis fexqveS? rogor fiqrobT, mxatvarma Cveu­leb­rivi cxenebi gamosaxa am suraTze? daasabuTeT Tqveni mosazreba. gadmocemis mixedviT, cxenebis da lurji feris siyvarulis gamo daerqva eqspresionistebis erT-erT jgufs `lurji mxedari~.

franc marki. wiTeli da lurji cxeni. 1911 w.

es erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili eqsp­­re­ sionistuli nawarmoebia. aRwereT da daaxasiaTeT aq gamosa­ xuli figurebi da maTi garemo. romeli mxatvruli xerxebiT iqmneba ganwyobileba am suraTze? ras daarqmevdi am namuSevars?

edvard munki. ???. 1893 w.

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IV

59. zooparki berlinis erT-erTi RirsSesaniSnaobaa misi zooparki, romelic 35 heqtarzea gadaWimuli. berlinis zooparki erT-erTi uZvelesia msoflioSi. is 1844 wels daarsda. es msoflioSi udidesi zooparkicaa, sadac daaxloebiT 14 000 sxvadasxva jiSis cxoveli binadrobs.

zooparkSi mowyobilia volierebi cxovelebisaTvis, sagangebo SenobaSi ganTavsebulia zooparkis akvariumi, sadac zRvis binadarni saxloben. aqvea mwvaneSi Cafluli mSvenieri dasasvenebeli adgilebi, restornebi, kafeebi, ise, rom aq mosuli adamiani mTel dRes sasiamovnod gaatarebs. yovel wels berlinis zooparks ornaxevari milioni adamiani stumrobs. berlinis zooparkSi cxo­velebs bunebriv pirobebs uqmnian, sagangebod kvebaven, maT sakuTari eqimebic hyavT, romlebic gansakuTrebulad zrunaven zooparkSi dabadebul axalSobilebze.

 leqsiko ni volieri _ SemoRobili adgili, saTavsi cxovelebisa da frinvelebisaTvis.

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?

1. saqarTvelos romel qalaqSia zooparki?

warmoidgineT, rom Tqvens qalaqSi zooparks aSeneben da Tqven unda SearCioT, romel cxovelebs daasaxleben iq.

?

2. CamoTvaleT, romeli cxovelebis naxvas isurvebdiT axal zooparkSi. daxateT Tqv­en­­Tvis sa­surv­eli cxo­ve­lebi zooparkSi.

cxovelebis forma jer fanqriT moxazeT, Semdeg ki saRebaviT an feradi fanqrebiT SeudeqiT muSaobas. SeecadeT, zustad gadmosceT ama Tu im cxovelisaTvis dama­ xasiaTebeli niSnebi.

volieris galia Zalian martivad, urTierTgadamkveTi xazebiT SegiZliaT daxatoT.

levani. 11 wlis

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IV

60. CrdiloeTis dedaqalaqi 1. pekini msoflios erT-erTi uZvelesi qalaqia. is CineTis did dablobzea gaSe­nebuli. misi istoria Zv. w-is I aTaswleulidan iwyeba. pekini sityvasityviT Crdi­ lo­ eTis dedaqalaqs niSnavs. am uZ­ velesi qalaqis dRevandel saxes Zveli Cinuri arqi­ teqturis da xelovnebis Zeglebi ayalibebs. maT Sorisaa pekinis centrSi XV s-Si agebuli e.w. akrZaluli qalaqi, romelSic CineTis ukanaskneli 24 imperatoris rezidencia mdebareobda. 2. akrZaluli qalaqi msoflios udidesi samefo kompleqsia. mas uzarmazari teritoria ukavia da galav­ niT aris garSemortymuli. galavans garSemo wyliT savse Txrili _ `oqros wyali~ gasdevs. samefo sasaxleTa kompleqsSi arsebuli 9 999 oTaxi isea daproeqtebuli, rom TiToeuli maTganis fasadi samxreTiT gadis, rac uZveles Cinur tradicias Seesabameba. es sasaxleebi da pagodebi Cinuri arqiteqturis tipuri nimuSebia, romelTa mTavari damaxasiaTebeli niSania kideebaprexili, mravalsarTuliani saxuravebi. xis feradi svetebi da fantastikur cxo­ velTa Tu frinvelTa gamosaxulebebi am arqiteqturis tradiciuli dekoratiuli elementebia. akrZalul qalaqSi Sesasvleli e.w. `zeciuri simSvidis karibWe~, galavani da mravali sxva arqiteqturuli elementi dResac mewamuli (wiTeli) ferisaa, radgan Zvelad samefo rezidencias `mewamuli akrZaluli qalaqi~ erqva.

akrZaluli qalaqi

3. karibWis win msoflios udidesi tian an menis moedania gaSlili. misi farTobi 440 aTasi kvadratuli metria. am karibWidan dRes yvela msurvels SeuZlia akrZalul qalaqSi moxvedra. Zvelad ki iq Sesvlis ufleba mxolod didgvarovnebs an maRalCinosan Cinelebs hqondaT.

qandakeba akrZaluli qalaqSi

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IV

4. saimperatoro sasaxleSi amJamad CineTis istoriis da xelovnebis muzeumi _ guguni mdebareobs. mis umdidres koleqciaSi milionze meti unikaluri eqsponatia. muzeumSi moxvedrili mayurebeli sasaxleTa cxovrebis wessac ecnoba da Cinuri xelovnebis tradiciuli dargebis: mxat­vrobis, faifuris, brinjaos, kaligrafiis nimuSebsac. gugunis muzeumSi abreSumze Sesrulebuli tradiciuli Cinuri mxatvrobis koleqciac aris daculi.

sefeqali. abreSumi, wylis saRebavebi. XVIII s-is dasawyisi

buda ukvdavebis WurWliT xelSi. 1644 ww.

abreSumi da qaRaldi Cinuri kulturis um­ni­S­vnelova­nesi elemente­bia. maTi damzadebis sa­idumlos sa­xel­mwifo mkacrad icav­da. qaRal­disa da abreSumis gra­g­nileb­ze tuSiTa da kalmiT Sesrulebuli suraTebi di­di ostatobiTa da sina­tifiT gamoirCeva.

?

1. daakvirdiT Cinuri xelovnebis aq warmodgenil nimuSebs. daaxasiaTeT TiTo­euli maTgani.

faifuris WurWeli. XVII-XVIII ss.

mi iuJeni. siaosianis xedi. abreSumi. XIV s-is dasawyisi

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IV

61. Savi tuSi tuSiT da kalmiT msoflios mraval qveyanaSi xatavdnen, magram am xelovnebis samSoblod CineTi da iaponia iTvleba. CinelTa rwmeniT, kaligrafia ubralod wera ki ara, xelovnebaa. Cinuri ieroglifebi patara naxatebs hgavs, romlebSic udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba TiToeuli xazis sisqes, moxdenilobas, laqis simkveTres. es naxatebi sxvadasxva formis, sisqis da faqturis kalmebiT da funjebiT iqmneboda. tuSisa da qaRaldis xarisxi natifi gamosaxulebis Seqmnis winapiroba iyo. kaligrafiis daxvewilma xelovnebam zegavlena mxatvrobazec moaxdina. Sua saukuneebis Cineli da iaponeli mxatvrebi brwyin­valed flobdnen tuSiT xatvis teqnikis mraval saidumlos.

su Si. gamxmari xe da ucnauri qva. qaRaldi, tuSi.

yovelgvari ostatobis saTave swavla, cda da varjiSia. nebismier adamians SeuZlia scados kalmiT da tuSiT martivi gamosaxulebis Seqmna. kalmis an funjis formasa da sisqeze iqneba damokidebuli rogori xazi gamova, sqeli Tu wvrili, natifi Tu gadRabnili. tuSis wyliT gazaveba ki laqis xasiaTs da fers ganapirobebs. is SeiZleba muqic iyos da bacic. gamoiyeneT tu­Si da sxva­dasxva formis kalmiT, Cxi­riT an nebismieri sxva wvetiani sagniT SeqmeniT namuSevari Tqve­nTvis sasurvel Te­maze.

52


62. feradi tuSi Tu gicdiaT Tqveni axloblis, megobris an ojaxis wevris portretis daxatva? sainteresoa, romel saxatav masalas aniWebT upiratesobas portretis xatvisas, TiToeul maTgans xom sakuTari Tvisebebi gaaCnia. rogorc ukve iciT, Zvel CineTsa da iaponiaSi yvelaze popularuli saRebavi tuSi iyo. daaxloebiT VIII s-Si tradiciul SavTan erTad feradi tuSis saRebavebic Seqmnes. feradi tuSiT sruldeboda peizaJebi, mcenareebis, cxovelebisa da frinvelebis gamosaxulebebi, naturmortebi da portretebi. Tqven ukve iciT, rom tuSiT xatvisas sxvadasxva sisqis funji gamoiyeneba da ZiriTadi yuradReba xazzea gamaxvilebuli. swored mravalferovani xazis meSveobiT gadmoscemdnen Zveli ostatebi adamianis saxis ama Tu im saxasiaTo nakvTs, samosis dekoratiul elementebs da a.S. amasTan, naxatSi SeiZleba erTi an ramdenime feris tuSis saRebavi erTdroulad yofiliyo gamoyenebuli. scadeT feradi tuSiT sakuTari Tavi daxatoT. Tu tuSis saRebavsa da funjebs faqizad gamoiyenebT, muSaobis procesi siamovnebas moganiWebT, xolo namuSevari saintereso da saxaliso gamova.

tuSiT xatvis dawyebamde scadeT, fanqriT SeasruloT portretis mkrTali monaxazi. qaRaldze tuSis dadebis Semdeg naxatis gadakeTeba gagiWirdebaT. aucileblad mosin­ jeT monasmebis siZliere da feri saTadarigo furcelze da mxo­lod Semdeg SeudeqiT muSaobas. tuSi da kalami SesaniSnavi ma­ salaa imisaTvis, rom portretze guldasmiT gamosaxoT sxvadasxva wvrili detali. magaliTad, sa­ xis nakvTebi, bafTa, samosis deko­ra­ti­ uli elementebi da a.S. feradi tuSis saReba­viT gamosa­ xeT sakuTari Tavi.

CineTi. qalis portreti. XVII s.

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IV

63. qaRaldi qaRaldi, abreSumTan erTad, Cinuri kulturis udidesi monapovaria. rogorc ici, qaRaldis damzadebis saidumlos CineTis saxelmwifo gulmodgined inaxavda. Cinuri qaRaldis yvelaze adreuli nimuSi Zveli welTaRricxvis II saukuniT TariRdeba. gadmocemis Tanaxmad Cinelebi qaRaldis gamogonebas miaweren vinme Cai-lunus.

1. Tavdapirvelad Tu足 Tis an bambukis xis qerqs anawevrebdnen. 2. miRebul masas xarSav足 d足 nen. urevdnen wyalsa da webos. 3. moxarSul masas wvril sacerze wuravdnen da Semdeg abrtyelebdnen. 4. bolos ki qaRaldis furclebs aSrobdnen.

raze werdnen Cinelebi? Tavdapirvelad Zveli Cinelebi bambukis dafebze amowvavdnen ieroglifebs. aseTi `teqstebi~ Zalian mZime iyo. cnobilia, rom imperator cin SisaTvis wasakiTxad yoveldRe 50 kg-mde saxel足mwifo dokumentebi mihqondaT. garda bambukis dafebisa Cinelebis sawer masalad lakiT dafarul abreSumsac iyenebdnen, magram es Zalian Zviri jdeboda. am mxriv qaRaldi yvelaze mosaxerxebeli, msubuqi da iafi masala iyo.

54


qaRaldisagan Cinelebi mraval nivTs amzadebdnen: qolgebs, cxvirsaxocebs, maraos, franebs, cxovelebisa da frinvelebis figurebs da sxv. qaRaldis damzadebis saidumlo VII saukuneSi koreasa da iaponiaSi gaxda cnobili, IX s-Si ki ukve arabeTSic gavrcelda.

Tavdapirvelad formatze ne­ bis­ mieri xerxiT Seq­ me­ niT faqturuli feradi laqebi. amisaTvis SegiZliaT ga­moiyenoT Rrubeli an kbilis jagrisi. formatis gaSrobis Semdeg masze daxazeT mocemuli sqema da gamoWeriT; gadakeceT wyvetili xazebis ad­ gilas da Sesabamisi mo­nakveTebi daawebeT. kudi da farflebi calke unda gamoWraT da mi­ a­ magroT Tevzis tans.

 leqsiko ni origami _ qaRaldisagan figurebis Seqmnis xelovneba, romelic CineTSi warmoiSva.

feradi faqturuli laqebiT dafareT qaRaldi da misgan SeqmeniT Tevzis gamosaxuleba.

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IV

64. zemodan danaxuli samyaro warmoidgineT, rom sahaero burTze mobmul kalaTaSi sxedxarT da Tvalwin ucxo sanaxaoba geSlebaT. xan maRal mTebsa da borcvebs gadaufrenT, xan mdinareebsa da ayvavebul mindvrebs gadaevlebiT Tavs, xan soflebi da qalaqebi gadaiSleba Tqven Tvalwin. sahaero burTiT SeiZleba mTel msoflioSi imogzauroT.

?

1. rogor fiqrobT, rogor Cans sahaero burTidan dedamiwa? rogori zomis iqneba saxlebi, xeebi, mdinareebi da a.S.? 2. Tqveni azriT, romel qveyanaSi mogzaurobisas aris gadaRebuli pirveli foto?

Tqven ukve bevr istoriul Tu arqiteqturul Zegls icnobT da Tu romelime maTgans zemodan amoicnobT, mixvdebiT romeli qveynis Tavze imyofebiT. erTi sityviT, sahaero burTiT mgzavroba Zalian saintereso da saxalisoa.

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IV

?

3. moifiqreT patara moTxroba, romel qveynebs gadaufrens Tqveni sahaero burTi. 4. warmoidgineT, ras dainaxav am qveynebis Tavze gadafrenisas da mouyeviT Tanaklaselebs. warmoidgineT, rom sahaero burTis mgza­v­ rebi xarT da daxateT Tqvens qvemoT gadaSlili xe­di.

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IV

65. mogzauroba xelovnebis samyaroSi IV wignis am nawilSi Tqven msoflios kidev sam metad saintereso qalaqs gaecaniT: niu iorks, berlins da pekins. modiT, axla im qveynebSi imogzaureT, sadac es qalaqebi mdebareobs.

abreSumis qsovilebis nimuSebi

pagoda Cinuri larnaki

CineTi

erovnuli stadioni. pekini

nacionaluri samosi

CineTis didi kedeli

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IV

aSS

jekson poloki. abstraqcia rok-en-rolis darbazi. klivlendi

TaRi. sent luisi endi uorholi. kempbelis tomatis supis qila

kazimir maleviCi. abstraqcia

germania

ernst barlaxi. angelozi

rotenbergis quCa alians arena. miunheni kaspar daviT fridrixi.

alberxt diureri. oTxi maxarebeli

59


proeqti I. erTi Sedevris istoria iciT Tu ara, rom Sua saukuneebis evropaSi Sedevri romelime xelobis Semswavleli Segirdis mier damoukideblad gakeTebul nivTs ewodeboda. am nakeTobis xarisxze iyo damokidebuli mianiWebdnen Tu ara Segirds ostatis wodebas. cxadia, rom am mizniT gakeTebuli nivTi ubadlo unda yofiliyo. droTa ganmavlobaSi es termini xelovnebis sferoSi damkvidrda da adamianis xeliT Seqmnil uzado qmnilebas aRniSnavs. kacobriobis istoriaSi xelovnebis mravali saxelganTqmuli nawarmo­ ebi arsebobda da arsebobs dResac. maT sxvadasxvagvari `bedi~ aqvT. zogierT maTgans Ta­namedroveTa aRiareba SeqmnisTanave ergo wilad, zogi ki mxolod STamomavlebma daafases jerovnad. asea Tu ise, mxolod zogierTi maTgani iqca xelovnebis namdvil Sedevrad. mainc ra aris Sedevri? gaaana­ lizeT aq mocemuli namuSevrebi da SeecadeT damoukideblad gasceT pasuxi am kiTxvas.

• SearCieT TqvenTvis sasurveli Sedevri; • romel muzeumSia daculi is; • moiZieT misi Seqmnis istoria; • moiZieT avtoris biografia; • aRwereT Sedevri; • aRwereT Tqveni STabeWdileba; • gaaanalizeT namuSevris mxatvruli mxare; • SeecadeT CamoayaliboT, ra aris masSi gansakuTrebuli; riT aris gamorCeuli es namuSevari; • ra niSniT gansazRvravT aris Tu ara is Sedevri;

leonardo da vinCi. jokonda

parizi. luvri

dabolos, Tqvenive msje­­lobidan gamomdinare, gansazRvreT, ra aris Sedevri. Tqveni mosazrebebi warmo­adgineT werilobiT.

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xaxulis karedi xati

saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumi

berlini. axali muzeumi miqelanjelo. pieta nefertitis portreti

romi. wm. petres taZari

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proeqti II. Teatris jadosnuri samyaro naTqvamia, vinc erTxel SeisunTqavs Teatris mtvers, mas samudamod Seuyvarde­ba Teatri. Teatri marTlac jadosnuri samyaroa. xom ar isurvebdiT am samyaroSi cota xniT yofnas? ra aris aucilebeli speqtaklis dasadgmelad? rasakvirvelia, pirvel rigSi, piesa. Semdeg is adamianebi, romlebic am piesas scenaze dadgamen: reJisori, mxatvari, msaxiobebi.

dekoracia piesis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, Tqven scenis mowyoba dagWirdebaT. gadawyviteT, vin iTavebs Teatris mxatvris sapatio movaleobas.

mxatvarma winaswar unda moi­fiqros, rogori iqneba scenaze is garemo, sadac moqmedeba unda ganviTardes, rogori iqneba dekoracia, ra ferebSi iqneba gadawyvetili is, ra nivTebi iqneba scenaze da a.S.

personaJi da misi kostiumi piesidan gamomdinare, Tqvens warmosaxvaSi unda gaCndes TiToeuli personaJis saxe. Semdeg SeecadeT gaakeToT eskizi, romelzec warmoadgenT, Tu rogori samosi ecmeba ama Tu im personaJs, rogori varcxniloba eqneba mas, ra detalebi dasWirdeba damatebiT _ saTvale, qudi, gvirgvini, xmali da a.S.

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rogor davamzadoT kostiumi imis mixedviT, Tu sad viTardeba moqmedeba piesaSi _ aRmosavleTSi, dasavleTSi Tu jadosnur samyaroSi _ kostiumic Sesabamisi unda Seikeros. SegiZliaT, msaxiobs Cveulebrivi samosi CaacvaT da mxolod erTi an ori saxasiaTo detaliT gaacocxloT misi saxe.

grimi damaxasiaTebeli saxis Seqmna yvelaze efeqturad grimis saSualebiTaa SesaZlebeli. Tu saWiroa, msaxiobs saxeze ulvaSebic SegiZliaT miaxatoT, feradi ferumarilic wausvaT, cxvi­ ri gauzardoT da saerTod, Tqvens fantazias farTo gasaqani misceT. SegiZliaT amisTvis ubralo naxSiris, Warxlis da sxva bunebrivi masalis gamoyenebac.

Tqvens speqtakls musikac dasWirdeba. egeb fardac da­amzadoT, ganaTebazec if­iq­reT. Tu mosawvevsa da afi­Sa­sac daamzadebT, srulyofili speq­takli gamogivaT. erTi sityviT, mosinjeT Zalebi am asparezze. warmatebebs gisurvebT!

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I

Semajamebeli gakveTili _ 1 1. aq mocemuli sityvebi simboluri mniSvnelobis mixedviT daukavSireT Sesabamis sagnebs:

1

a) erToba b) samarTlianoba g) imedi

3

2

2. ras niSnavs arabulad madridis saxelwodeba `maxer-it~? 1) wyaluxv mdinares; 2) wyaluxv wyaros; 3) mRelvare wyals.

3. mocemulTagan romelia amsterdamis gerbi:

1 2

3

64


Semajamebeli gakveTili 2 1. romeli kulturis kuTvnilebaa aq mocemuli Zeglebi da ornamentuli motivebi. daasabuTeT Tqveni mosazreba.

5 a) qristianuli b) muslimanuri

1 2

4

3

2. mocemuli Zeglebi daukavSireT im qalaqebs, romlebSic isini mdebareobs:

2. reina sofias muzeumi

1. cisferi meCeTi

3. erexTeioni

b) madridi 10. bazilikis cisterna

a) londoni

4. taueris xidi d) stamboli

g) aTeni

9. plaza maiori

8. prados muzeumi

7. nike apTerosis taZari

5. qarebis koSki

6. aia sofia

65

II


III

Semajamebeli gakveTili 3 1. mocemuli Zeglebi daukavSireT im qveynebs, romlebSic isini mdebareobs:

2. wm. petres taZari

1. jvris taZari

3. bagineTi b) qairo

a) parizi

10. luvri

4. forumi d) mcxeTa g) romi

9. al azharis meCeTi

7. al xalilis bazari

8. vandomis moedani

5. pompidus centri 6. notr-dami

2. aq CamoTvlili personaJebi daukavSireT Sesabamis figurebs sandro botiCelis namuSevarze `gazafxuli~. a) merkuri

b) venera

(vaWrobis RvTaeba)

(siyvarulis RvTaeba)

e) nimfa qtorisi

1

66

2

g) sami gracia v) flora

3

4

d) zefirosi

z) kupidoni

5

6

7


Semajamebeli gakveTili 4 1. gaakeTeT cxrili da erTmaneTTan daakavSireT: qveynebi, qalaqebi, Zeglebi, avtorebi. 2. aSS

4. TurqeTi

3. espaneTi

1. safrangeTi 6. saqarTvelo

8. italia

5. saberZneTi

7. germania

norman fosteri

Tavisuflebis qandakeba kalikratesi

aTeni

raixstagi

frederik ogiust bartoldi

sveticxoveli wm. petres taZris gegma

renco piano da riCard rojersi

aia sofia xuan gomes de mora niu iorki miqelanjelo vandomis moedani

paulo valo

raixstagis gumbaTi

plaza maiori stamboli

propileebi

mnesiklesi

nike afTerosis taZari

gotard langansomi

parTenoni

wm. petres taZris gumbaTi

isidore mileteli da anTimoz traleli

romi

mcxeTa sedevkar mehmed aRa

parizi

arduenmansari

cisferi meCeTi

madridi

brandenburgis karibWe pompidus centri

bramante

berlini

iqtinosi da kalikratesi

67

IV


leqsikoni aRmsarebloba _ ro­melime reli­giis mimdevroba. autodafe _ religiuri cere­ moniebi, procesiebi, RvTismsa­ xurTa qa­ da­ gebebi, damnaSaveTa ganaCenis sajaro wakiTxva da misi aRsruleba. damba _ sagangebo nageboba, jebiri, romelic wyals akavebs. volieri _ SemoRobili adgili, saTavsi cxovelebisa da frinvelebisaTvis. megapolisi (laT. mega didi, polis qalaqi) _ didi, mravali dasaxlebisgan warmoqmnili qalaqi. meteorologia _ mecniereba dedamiwis at­­ mos­ fe­ ros Sesaxeb; me­ teoro­ logiuri na­geboba _ nageboba, saidanac bunebriv movlenebs akvirdebian. minareTi _ koSki, romlidanac mus­lima­nebs salocavad uxmoben. monarqia _ mmarT­ velobis forma, rodesac saxelmwifos saTa­ veSi udgas erTi piri _ mefe anu monarqi. motivi _ gamosaxu­lebis saxasiaTo ganmeore­badi elementi. originali (laT. origina­lis Tavdapirveli) _ deda­ni. rezervuari _ siTxis didi maragis Sesanaxi nageboba. tendencia (laT. tendo miviswrafi) _ ri­same ganviTarebis mi­marTuleba uzurpatori _ piri, romelmac uk­ a­ nonod Caigdo xelSi Zalauf­ leba an miiTvisa sxvisi uflebebi rameze.

68

ხელოვნება, მე-6 კლასი, მოსწავლის წიგნი, მეორე ნაწილი  

ხელოვნება, მე-6 კლასი, მოსწავლის წიგნი, მეორე ნაწილი

ხელოვნება, მე-6 კლასი, მოსწავლის წიგნი, მეორე ნაწილი  

ხელოვნება, მე-6 კლასი, მოსწავლის წიგნი, მეორე ნაწილი

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